Conference PaperPDF Available

Virtuous cycles of learning: Redesigning testing during the digital revolution

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This paper explores positive new directions for the future of educational testing by examining trends at the interface of the learning sciences and advances in educational technologies. A brief history of the relation between testing and technology sets the stage for a look at emerging “edu-tech” trends and what these might mean for the future of testing. This historical-critical look at past and present testing practices reveals that the learning sciences have been less influential in shaping the growth of testing infrastructures than cumulative advances in technology that have enabled large-scale standardization and automation. We argue that during the current “digital revolution” the learning sciences ought to assume more responsibility for shaping the adoption of new testing technologies. We propose a set of principles that, if followed, would move tomorrow’s testing infrastructures toward learning-centric design. Combining the affordances of new digital technologies with advances in our understanding of learning make it possible to build tests that promote multi-level learning in educational systems, catalyzing virtuous cycles of learning for everyone they affect—students, teachers, school leaders, policy makers, and researchers. The DiscoTest™ Initiative is presented as a reform effort that is guided by these design principles, serving as an example of positive new possibilities for testing at the interface of the learning sciences and new educational technologies.
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L0W%1#7#L(!'*K!/3K#3#K!'$$/3K&*I!%/!%1#!K#M#H/87#*%'H!81'L#L!&*!O1&$1!8'3%&$0H'3!$/*$#8%&/*L!O#3#!
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%1'%!#V#78H'3L!3#83#L#*%!%1#!$/*$#8%L!O&%1!O1&$1!%1#Q!'3#!'LL/$&'%#K(!'*K!W#I&**&*I!%1#!83/$#LL!/T!
&K#*%&TQ&*I!K#T#*L&WH#!H#'3*&*I!L#g0#*$#L+!
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/T!$/*$#8%0'H!H#'3*&*I!L#g0#*$#L(!'*K!K#L$3&W&*I!1/O!L8#$&T&$!$/*$#8%L!K#M#H/8!/M#3!%&7#+!!
J#HQ&*I!08/*!%1#!#78&3&$'H!L#g0#*$#L(!K#M#H/87#*%'H!%1#/3Q(!'*K!4*/OH#KI#!'W/0%!3#H'%#K!H#'3*&*I!L#g0#*$#L(!
'*'HQL%L!'%%#78%!%/!#V8H'&*!O1Q!/*#!T/37!/T!'!$/*$#8%!7&I1%!T/HH/O!'*/%1#3!&*!'*!#78&3&$'H!L#g0#*$#+!5'WH#!<!
&HH0L%3'%#L!%1#!TH/O!/T!%1&L!O/34+!U#I&**&*I!O&%1!#V#78H'3L!%1'%!'3#!'LL/$&'%#K!O&%1!8'3%&$0H'3!L0W!%1#7#L!'*K!
81'L#L(!'*'HQL%L!I3'K0'HHQ!%#'L#!/0%!$1'&*L!/T!%1#7'%&$'HHQ!3#H'%#K!$/*$#8%&/*L!%1'%!L8'*!%1#!%'3I#%#K!
K#M#H/87#*%'H!3'*I#+!_&3L%(!'*'HQL%L!K#L$3&W#!%1#!$/*$#8%L!3#83#L#*%#K!WQ!I3/08L!/T!L&7&H'3!#V#78H'3L!R'L!
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%1#Q!'3#!3#H'%#K!%/!/*#!'*/%1#3!'$3/LL!H#M#HL!R'L!L1/O*!&*!%1#!%1&3K!$/H07*!/T!5'WH#!<S+![1#*!%1&L!83/$#LL!&L!
L0$$#LLT0H(!#'$1!*#O!/T!H#M#H!/T!0*K#3L%'*K&*I!$'*!W#!L##*!%/!W0&HK!08/*!%1#!$/*$#8%&/*L!/T!%1#!83#$#K&*I!H#M#H+!
51#!T0HH!83/$#LL!/T!3'%&/*'H!3#$/*L%30$%&/*!&L!K#L$3&W#K!7/3#!%1/3/0I1HQ!#HL#O1#3#!RN'OL/*C50*&4(!D;;Bc!
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Table 1: The physics of energy“What is happening to the energy of the ball as it hits the
floor?”
Exemplar
Sequence description
@"&E(5&,(11/*2&7#E*&$%(116&,(5"B&"=%*&/"&
=/"&"=%&,1##$&(*7&A#0*.%7&A(.G&0FB&A0"&
*#"&(5&,(5"H&I=%*&@&=(4%&1#"5&#,&%*%$26B&
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0L#!/T!%1#!%#37!#*#3IQ!%/!K#L$3&W#!&**#3!L%'%#L!
$/**#$%#K!O&%1!'!K#L&3#!T/3!7/%&/*(!83/M&K#!'!
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7/M#7#*%+!!
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51#!$/**#$%&/*!/T!#*#3IQ!O&%1!7/M#7#*%!'%!%1#!
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*#/5%H&&&
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0*K#3L%//K!'L!'*!'LL/$&'%&/*(!&%!&L!8/LL&WH#!%/!
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$/**#$%#K!%/!1#'%!/3!L/0*K!R'L!'!$'0L#S(!'*K!#'3HQ!
$/*$#8%&/*L!/T!4&*#%&$!#*#3IQ!R%1#!#*#3IQ!/T!
7/%&/*S!'*K!8/%#*%&'H!#*#3IQ!R%1#!8/%#*%&'H!T/3!
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%3'*LT#3(!&*!O1&$1!#*#3IQ!&L!M&#O#K!'L!'!4&*K!/T!
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#*#3IQ!%3'*LT#3G%3'*LT/37'%&/*+!!
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'H/*I!%1#!L'7#!L$'H#!'L!%1#!H#'3*&*I!L#g0#*$#L(!H/O!&*T#3#*$#!30W3&$!$1/&$#L!K/!*/%!H//4!70$1!H&4#!H#'3*&*I!
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%3'*LT/37'%&/*(!'*K!#*#3IQ!$/*L#3M'%&/*S!0L#K!%/!L$/3#!L%0K#*%!3#L8/*L#L!%/!'*!&%#7!%1'%!'L4L!L%0K#*%L!%/!
!
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#78&3&$'H!&*M#*%/3Q!/T!$/*$#8%&/*L!'*K!#V#78H'3L(!O&%1!%1#!8'3%&$0H'3!K#M#H/87#*%'H!81'L#!K03&*I!O1&$1!&%!
W#$'7#!$/77/*!&*!L%0K#*%!8#3T/37'*$#L+!
Table 2: Rubric choices for kinetic energyfalling ball scenario
Codes
Score
(
J(
K(
L(
M(
N(
9#*%&/*L!#*#3IQ!W0%!T'&HL!%/!#V8H'&*!1/O!&%!3#H'%#L!%/!%1#!83/WH#7!
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51#!K#M#H/87#*%'H!K&TT#3#*$#L!3#M#'H#K!WQ!%1#!H#'3*&*I!L#g0#*$#L!'HL/!&*T/37!%1#!$/78&H'%&/*!/T!3#H'%#K!
H#'3*&*I!3#L/03$#L+!A033&$0H07!L8#$&'H&L%L!O/34!%/!$3#'%#(!$/78&H#(!'*K!$03'%#!L0W`#$%CL8#$&T&$!H#'3*&*I!
3#L/03$#L+!51#!7'%#3&'HL!'3#!%1#*!/3I'*&Z#K!&*!%#37L!/T!%1#!$/78H#V&%Q!/T!%1#&3!%'L4!K#7'*KL!'*K!%1#&3!
$/*$#8%0'H!T/$0L(!'HH/O&*I!%1#7!%/!W#!H&*4#K!%/!30W3&$CK#3&M#K!L$/3#L!'*K!K#H&M#3#K!&*!3#'H!%&7#!%/!%#'$1#3L!'*K!
L%0K#*%L+!51#L#!H#'3*&*I!3#L/03$#L!'3#!&*%#*K#K!%/!L088/3%!W/%1!%#'$1#3!'*K!L%0K#*%!H#'3*&*I(!'*K!T/L%#3!
&*$3#'L&*IHQ!#TT#$%&M#!%#'$1&*I!'*K!H#'3*&*I+!!!!
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51#!#V%#*L&M#*#LL!/T!%1#!3#L#'3$1!'*K!K#M#H/87#*%!83/$#LL(!'*K!%1#!$/78H#V&%Q!/T!%1#!T&*'H!3#L0H%!7'4#!
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'$3/LL!'*Q!3'*I#!/T!L0W`#$%L!/3!$/*%#V%L+!51&L!&*$3#'L#L!%1#!8/O#3!/T!N&L$/5#L%L!'L!3#L#'3$1!&*L%307#*%L+!
@M#*%0'HHQ!%1#Q!O&HH!Q&#HK!H'3I#!H/*I&%0K&*'H!K'%'W'L#L!%1'%!O&HH!'HH/O!3#L#'3$1#3L!'*K!'K7&*&L%3'%/3L!%/!$/*L%30$%!
&*$3#'L&*IHQ!3#T&*#K!'$$/0*%L!/T!1/O!L%0K#*%L!H#'3*!&78/3%'*%!L4&HHL!'*K!$/*$#8%L!'*K!O1'%!4&*K!/T!%#'$1&*I!
83'$%&$#L!'3#!7/L%!H&4#HQ!%/!L088/3%!/8%&7'H!H#'3*&*I+!!
[#!1'M#!K&L$0LL#K!1/O!*#O!%#$1*/H/I&$'H!8/LL&W&H&%&#L!'3#!$1'*I&*I!%1#!L1'8#!/T!#K0$'%&/*(!'*K!%#L%&*I!&*!
8'3%&$0H'3+!:L!%1#!%#$1*/H/I&$'H!W'L#!/T!/03!#K0$'%&/*'H!83'$%&$#L!1'M#!%3'*LT/37#K(!L/!1'L!%1#!W3/'K!T0*$%&/*!/T!
%#L%&*I+!UQ!$/7W&*&*I!'KM'*$#L!&*!%#$1*/H/IQ!O&%1!%1#!*#O!L$&#*$#!/T!H#'3*&*I(!N&L$/5#L%L!'3#!'WH#!%/!T'$&H&%'%#!
M&3%0/0L!$Q$H#L!/T!H#'3*&*I!'%!70H%&8H#!H#M#HL!&*!%1#!#K0$'%&/*'H!LQL%#7+!:L!*/%#K!'W/M#(!%1&L!&L!'!8/O#3T0H!O'Q!%/!
T&%!%1#!W#L%!/T!O1'%!O#!4*/O!'W/0%!%#'$1&*I!'*K!H#'3*&*I!&*%/!%/7/33/O\L!#K0$'%&/*'H!%#$1*/H/I&#L+!)*!%1#!*#V%!
L#$%&/*!O#!83/M&K#!'*!/M#3M&#O!/T!%1#!$#*%3'H!#K0$'%&M#!'*K!7#'L03#7#*%!T0*$%&/*!/T!N&L$/5#L%L(!H//4&*I!'%!
O1'%!%1#Q!K/!T/3!L%0K#*%L(!%#'$1#3L(!#K0$'%&/*'H!H#'K#3L(!'*K!3#L#'3$1#3L+!!!
Tests that help students learn
N&L$/5#L%L!L088/3%!L%0K#*%!H#'3*&*I!WQ!I'%1#3&*I!#M&K#*$#!'W/0%!%1#!H#M#H!/T!'!L%0K#*%\L!8#3T/37'*$#(!%1#*!
83/M&K&*I!%1'%!L%0K#*%!R'*K!1&L!/3!1#3!%#'$1#3S!O&%1!3&$1!T##KW'$4!%1'%!8/&*%L!%/!%1#!L8#$&T&$!$/*$#8%L!'*K!L4&HHL!
%1'%!L%0K#*%!&L!7/L%!H&4#HQ!%/!W#*#T&%!T3/7!H#'3*&*I!*#V%+!!N&L$/5#L%L!#*I'I#!L%0K#*%L!&*!'!M&3%0/0L!$Q$H#!O1#3#&*!
%1#&3!3#L8/*L#L!83/78%!&77#K&'%#!'*K!0L#T0H!T##KW'$4!'W/0%!O1#3#!%1#Q!'3#!&*!%1#&3!H#'3*&*I!83/$#LL!'*K!O1'%!
%1#Q!'3#!7/L%!H&4#HQ!%/!W#*#T&%!T3/7!H#'3*&*I!*#V%+!!
N&L$/5#L%!3#L0H%L!'3#!3#$/3K#K!&*!'!K&I&%'H!H#'3*&*I!3#$/3K!%1'%!&L!L077'3&Z#K!&*!%1#!N&L$/5#L%!J#8/3%!A'3K!RL##!
_&I03#!<S+!51&L!3#8/3%!$'3K!L1/OL!%1#!L$/3#!3#$#&M#K!T/3!#'$1!%#L%!#M#*%!R3#83#L#*%#K!/*!%1#!3#8/3%!$'3K!WQ!'!
!
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$&3$H#S!&*!#'$1!L0W`#$%!%#L%#K+!:HH!L$/3#L!'3#!$'H&W3'%#K!%/!%1#!"#$%&$'H!L$'H#(!7'4&*I!&%!8/LL&WH#!%/!83#L#*%!I3/O%1!
&*!'HH!%#L%#K!L0W`#$%L!/*!%1#!L'7#!L$'H#+!23/I3#LL!$'*!W#!%3'$#K!&*!&*K&M&K0'H!L0W`#$%L!'*K!$/78'3&L/*L!$'*!W#!
7'K#!'$3/LL!L0W`#$%L+!51#!3#L0H%!&L!'!$070H'%&M#!8&$%03#!/T!'!L%0K#*%L\!I3/O%1!&*!L#M#3'H!L0W`#$%L!/M#3!%&7#+!)*!
'$%0'H!/*H&*#!N&L$/5#L%!3#8/3%!$'3KL(!#'$1!%#L%!#M#*%!&L!'HL/!H&*4#K!%/!'!K#%'&H#K!3#8/3%!'W/0%!%1#!L%0K#*%\L!
8#3T/37'*$#!/*!%1'%!8'3%&$0H'3!N&L$/5#L%+!
Tests that help teachers teach
N&L$/5#L%L!'HL/!#*I'I#!#K0$'%/3L!&*!'!M&3%0/0L!$Q$H#!/T!H#'3*&*I+!5#'$1#3L!'3#!&*M&%#K!%/!H#'3*!T3/7!N&L$/5#L%L!&*!
'!M'3&#%Q!/T!O'QL+!_&3L%(!O1#*!%1#Q!0L#!30W3&$L!%/!L$/3#!8#3T/37'*$#L(!%#'$1#3L!1'M#!'*!/88/3%0*&%Q!%/!3#TH#$%!
08/*!8'%%#3*L!&*!L%0K#*%!8#3T/37'*$#+!:T%#3!%#L%L!'3#!L$/3#K(!%#'$1#3L!'3#!83/M&K#K!O&%1!&*K&M&K0'H!'*K!
L077'3Q!3#8/3%L!%1'%!#V8H'&*!O1#3#!L%0K#*%L!'3#!H/$'%#K!/*!%1#!8'%1!%/!'$1&#M&*I!H#'3*&*I!I/'HL+!51#L#!3#8/3%L!
'3#!H&*4#K!%/!M#%%#K!H#'3*&*I!3#L/03$#L!'*K!H#LL/*!8H'*L!%1'%!'3#!4#Q#K!%/!L%0K#*%L\!H#M#HL!/T!8#3T/37'*$#+!
J#8/3%L!'*K!%#'$1&*I!3#L/03$#L!'3#!K#L&I*#K!%/!83/M&K#!'!O&*K/O!&*%/!%1#!H#'3*&*I!83/$#LL!&%L#HT(!'HH/O&*I!
#K0$'%/3L!$/*%&*0'HHQ!%/!&783/M#!%1#&3!I3'L8!/T!1/O!H#'3*&*I!0*T/HKL!&*!%1#&3!K/7'&*]'*K!1/O!%1#Q!$'*!
L088/3%!L%0K#*%L!'H/*I!%1#!O'Q+!!
Tests that help leaders understand and develop schools
51#!N&L$/5#L%!&*T3'L%30$%03#!1'L!W##*!K#L&I*#K!%/!L088/3%!M&3%0/0L!$Q$H#L!&*!O1&$1!#K0$'%&/*'H!H#'K#3L!$'*!
7/*&%/3!1/O!8/H&$&#L!'*K!#K0$'%&/*'H!83'$%&$#L!'TT#$%!L%0K#*%!H#'3*&*I+!_/3!*#'3HQ!'!$#*%03Q(!#K0$'%&/*'H!H#'K#3L!
1'M#!0L#K!$/*M#*%&/*'H!L%'*K'3K&Z#K!%#L%L!%/!H#'3*!1/O!%1#&3!&*L%&%0%&/*L!'3#!8#3T/37&*I+!A/*%#78/3'3Q!
#K0$'%&/*'H!3#T/37!#TT/3%L!'3#!W0&H%!/*!%1#!&K#'!%1'%!L%'*K'3K&Z#K!%#L%L!$'*!W#!0L#K!%/!7#'L03#!%1#!
#TT#$%&M#*#LL!/T!*#O!8/H&$&#L!'*K!83'$%&$#L+!:L!*/%#K!&*!/03!'$$/0*%!/T!%1#!1&L%/3Q!/T!%#L%&*I(!3#$#*%!%3#*KL(!&*!
8'3%&$0H'3(!1'M#!#781'L&Z#K!%1#!0L#!/T!%#L%L!T/3!'$$/0*%'W&H&%Q!8038/L#L+!.%'*K'3K&Z#K!%#L%!1'M#!W#$/7#(!T/3!
W#%%#3!'*K!O/3L#(!'*!&*L%307#*%'H!8'3%!/T!7'*'I&*I!/03!L$1//H!LQL%#7L+!!!!!!!
51#L#!LQL%#7C7/*&%/3&*I!L%'*K'3K&Z#K!%#L%L!7'Q!W#!'WH#!%/!83/M&K#!'*!/M#3M&#O!/T!O1/!&L!K/&*I!O#HH!'*K!O1/!&L!
*/%(!W0%!%1&L!4*/OH#KI#!&L!K&M/3$#K!T3/7!'*Q!&*L&I1%!&*%/!%1#!H#'3*&*I!83/$#LL#L!&*!g0#L%&/*+!9/L%!%3'K&%&/*'H!
%#L%L!L'Q!*/%1&*I!'W/0%!%1#!4&*KL!/T!$/*T0L&/*L!%1'%!'3#!$/77/*!/3!'W/0%!%1#!3'*I#!/T!$/*$#8%&/*L!'*K!&K#'L!
1#HK!WQ!K&TT#3#*%!&*K&M&K0'HL!/3!I3/08L!'*K!1/O!%1#L#!'3#!3#H'%#K!%/!T0%03#!83/L8#$%L!T/3!H#'3*&*I+!:L!'H3#'KQ!
*/%#K(!N&L$/5#L%L!1'M#!'!H#'3*&*IC$#*%3&$!T/$0L!%1'%!L#%L!%1#7!'8'3%!T3/7!$/*M#*%&/*'H!L%'*K'3K&Z#K!%#L%L+!51#Q!
'3#!K#L&I*#K!*/%!/*HQ!%/!83/M&K#!L%'*K'3K&Z#K!L$/3#L(!W0%!'HL/!%/!83/M&K#!L$/3#L!%1'%!'3#!7#'*&*IT0H!'L!&*K&$#L!
/T!4#Q!H#'3*&*I!#M#*%L!'*K!%1#!#78&3&$'HHQ!K#%#37&*#K!L#g0#*$#L!&*!O1&$1!%1#Q!'3#!#7W#KK#K+!:*K!W#$'0L#!
%1#L#!L$/3#L!'3#!*/%!/*HQ!L%'*K'3K&Z#K(!W0%!$'H&W3'%#K!%/!'!L&*IH#!%1#/3#%&$'HHQ!&*T/37#K!7#%3&$(!%1#Q!$'*!W#!0L#K!
%/!7/*&%/3!H#'3*&*I!/M#3!%&7#!&*!'!O&K#!3'*I#!/T!L$1//H!L0W`#$%L(!'HH/O&*I!T/3!7#'*&*IT0H!'*K!83#$&L#!$3/LLC
L0W`#$%!$/78'3&L/*L+!!
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Tests that help researchers build usable knowledge
51#!N&L$/5#L%!&*&%&'%&M#!'&7L!%/!T'$&H&%'%#!M&3%0/0L!$Q$H#L!&*!3#L#'3$1!'W/0%!%#'$1&*I!'*K!H#'3*&*I!RN'OL/*!d!
.%#&*(!D;;bS+!U#$'0L#!N&L$/5#L%L!'3#!'K7&*&L%#3#K!/*H&*#(!L%0K#*%!8#3T/37'*$#L!$/*%3&W0%#!%/!'!I3/O&*I!
K'%'W'L#!$/*%'&*&*I!3&$1!&*T/37'%&/*!'W/0%!L%0K#*%!H#'3*&*I+!9/3#/M#3(!W#$'0L#!'HH!N&L$/5#L%L!'3#!$'H&W3'%#K!%/!
'!$/77/*!L$'H#(!3#L#'3$1#3L!$'*!'L4!&78/3%'*%!g0#L%&/*L!$/*$#3*&*I(!T/3!#V'78H#(!%1#!K&TT#3#*%&'H!K&L%3&W0%&/*!
/T!L%0K#*%!$'8'W&H&%&#L!'$3/LL!L0W`#$%!'3#'L(!%1#!T'$%/3L!%1'%!L1'8#!%1#!#K0$'%&/*'H!%3'`#$%/3&#L!/T!&*K&M&K0'H!
L%0K#*%L(!'*K!%1#!M'H0#!/T!&**/M'%&/*L!&*!8#K'I/IQ!/3!$033&$0H'+!51#!$'8'$&%Q!%/!#*I'I#!3#L#'3$1!g0#L%&/*L!/T!
%1&L!4&*K(!#78H/Q&*I!K'%'!T3/7!%1/0L'*KL!/T!L%0K#*%L!%#L%#K!H/*I&%0K&*'HHQ!&*!'!O&K#!3'*I#!L0W`#$%L!&L!H&4#HQ!%/!
1'M#!'!L&I*&T&$'*%!&78'$%!08/*!/03!0*K#3L%'*K&*I!/T!H#'3*&*I!'*K!%#'$1&*I+!
Discussion: toward learning-centric testing technologies
51#!N&L$/5#L%!&*&%&'%&M#!1'L!L#3M#K!'L!'*!#V'78H#!/T!O1'%!*#O!$/780%#3!%#$1*/H/I&#L!$/0HK!K/!T/3!%#L%&*I!'*K!
H#'3*&*I+!)78/3%'*%HQ(!%1&L!'883/'$1!%/!W0&HK&*I!'!L%'*K'3K&Z#K!%#L%&*I!&*T3'L%30$%03#!$/*T/37L!%/!K#L&I*!
8'3'7#%#3L!%1'%!$/K&TQ!4#Q!H#LL/*L!T3/7!%1#!H#'3*&*I!L$&#*$#L]H#LL/*L!%1'%!O#!W#H&#M#!/0I1%!%/!L1'8#!%1#!
K#M#H/87#*%!/T!*#O!%#L%&*I!%#$1*/H/I&#L+!)%!&L!O/3%1!L077'3&Z&*I!1/O!%1#!N&L$/5#L%!&*&%&'%&M#(!'L!'*!#V'78H#!/T!
H#'3*&*IC$#*%3&$!%#L%&*I!%#$1*/H/IQ(!T&%L!%1#L#!K#L&I*!8'3'7#%#3L+!N&L$/5#L%L!'3#!W0&H%!83&7'3&HQ!%/!50FF#$"!
"%(.=/*2&(*7&1%($*/*2+!51#Q!'3#!'K7&*&L%#3#K!/*CH&*#!'*K!O&%1!7&*&7'H!L/T%O'3#!'*K!1'3KO'3#!3#g0&3#7#*%L(!
7'4&*I!%1#7!A$#(716&(4(/1(A1%+!51#!&K#'HL!/T!0*&M#3L'H!'$$#LL!'*K!0*&M#3L'H!K#L&I*!%1'%!&*T0L#!'!I3#'%!K#'H!/T!
#K0$'%&/*'H!%#$1*/H/IQ!'3#!H#M#3'I#K!%/!W3&*I!1&I1Cg0'H&%Q!%#L%L!%/!#M#3Q/*#+!N&L$/5#L%L!'3#!W0&H%!%/!W#!
%9A%77%7!&*!%1#!$033&$0H07!'*K!$%1%4(*"&%/!%1#!83#L#*%!'*K!T0%03#!H&M#L!/T!L%0K#*%L(!7'4&*I!%1#7!1#E35"(G%5!
'*K!$'8'WH#!/T!7#3I&*I!&*%/!%1#!TH/O!/T!$H'LL3//7!83'$%&$#+!51#Q!'&K!8#K'I/IQ!%13/0I1!%1#&3!,#$9("/4%!'*K!
7/(2*#5"/.!T0*$%&/*L+!!
51#!W3/'K!I/'H!/T!W0&HK&*I!0*/W%30L&M#!%#'$1#3C#*'WH&*I!%#$1*/H/IQ!1'L!&78/3%'*%!$/*L#g0#*$#L!T/3!%#L%&*I+!
)*T/37#K!WQ!%1#!H#'3*&*I!L$&#*$#L(!*#O!T/37L!/T!%#L%&*I(!H&4#!N&L$/5#L%(!L1/0HK!7/M#!0L!%/O'3K!%#L%L!%1'%!K/!*/%!
&78/L#!08/*!%1#!%#'$1#3!'*K!L%0K#*%(!W0%!3'%1#3!$'%'HQZ#!W#%%#3!%#'$1&*I!'*K!H#'3*&*I+!U#$'0L#!N&L$/5#L%L!'3#!
5"(*7($7/C%7!'*K!Q&#HK!H'3I#!K'%'W'L#L!/T!K#%'&H#K!L%0K#*%!H#'3*&*I!3#$/3KL(!%1#Q!'3#!0L#T0H!T/3!&*T/37&*I!
LQL%#7CH#M#H!K#$&L&/*!7'4&*I!'*K!A0/17/*2&G*#E1%72%!'W/0%!H#'3*&*I!'*K!#K0$'%&/*'H!3#T/37!&*!I#*#3'H+!!
51&L!#V'78H#!L1/OL!1/O!%1#!&*%#3T'$#!/T!%1#!H#'3*&*I!L$&#*$#L!'*K!*#O!%#$1*/H/IQ!$'*!83/K0$#!%#L%L!$'8'WH#!/T!
T'$&H&%'%&*I!70H%&CH#M#H!H#'3*&*I!&*!#K0$'%&/*'H!LQL%#7L+!@7#3I&*I!%#$1*/H/I&#L!$/0HK!83/M&K#!'!0*&g0#!8/&*%!/T!
H#M#3'I#!T/3!8/L&%&M#!$1'*I#L!%/!L$1//H&*I!83'$%&$#!R.%#&*(!#%!'H+(!D;<;S+!?T!$/03L#(!*/%!'HH!%#L%&*I!7'K#!8/LL&WH#!
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&*T3'L%30$%03#L!$/0HK!K#H&M#3!*/%1&*I!7/3#!%1'*!$/78H#V!T/37L!/T!%1#!1&I1CL%'4#L(!'$$/0*%'W&H&%QC/3&#*%#K!%#L%L!
%1'%!K/7&*'%#!#K0$'%&/*!%/K'Q+!)%!&L!&78/3%'*%!%1'%!#K0$'%/3L!L#&Z#!%1#!/88/3%0*&%Q!%/!L1'8#!%1#!0L#!/T!
#7#3I&*I!#K0$'%&/*'H!%#$1*/H/I&#L!&*!O'QL!%1'%!'3#!W#*#T&$&'H!%/!L%0K#*%L+!!
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51&L!K&L$0LL&/*!1'L!W##*!I0&K#K!WQ!g0#L%&/*L!'W/0%!1/O!%/!7#3I#!%1#!W#L%!/T!O1'%!O#!4*/O!'W/0%!%#'$1&*I!'*K!
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L/!K/!7'*Q!/T!&%L!$/3#!83'$%&$#L(!&*$H0K&*I!%#L%&*I+!.&*$#!%1#!#*K!/T![[))!L%'*K'3K&Z#K!%#L%&*I!&*T3'L%30$%03#L!
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Theo
Dawson
Digitally signed by
Theo Dawson
DN: cn=Theo Dawson,
o=Lectica®, Inc., ou,
email=THEO@DEVTEST
SERVICE.ORG, c=US
Date: 2012.09.30
10:18:07 -05'00'
... • The coherence of arguments/explanations is generally taken as an indication of quality of understanding. [7,14] • The practice of argumentation has been shown to support learning and development. [7,13,14] • Consequently, the quality of students' argumentation skills is likely to predict the slope of their developmental trajectories. ...
... [7,14] • The practice of argumentation has been shown to support learning and development. [7,13,14] • Consequently, the quality of students' argumentation skills is likely to predict the slope of their developmental trajectories. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to sustain cognitive developmental growth over time, it is necessary to ensure that students build robustly connected knowledge networks.The quality of our knowledge networks is reflected in explanation, application, and transfer.In explanations, high quality argumentation can be taken as evidence of robustly connected knowledge networks. If this is true, the rate of cognitive developmental growth should be predicted by the overall quality of students’ argumentation. In this paper, we show that there are important (even staggering) differences in the average developmental trajectories of students in different kinds of schools, and show that depth of understanding, as captured in a set of argumentation scales, explains about 35% of the variance in developmental trajectories.
... There are several electronic performance support systems (EPSS) that combine assessment and development, sometimes with AI anchored in neo-Kolbergian models of developmental psychology that show distinct linear and nonlinear developmental levels of a latent construct (e.g. Barney & Riley, 2018;Dawson & Stein, 2011). This trend is likely to continue to impact I-O psychology, just as it is affecting every profession with knowledge workers. ...
Article
Cambridge Core - Organisation Studies - The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior - edited by Richard N. Landers
... There are several electronic performance support systems (EPSS) that combine assessment and development, sometimes with AI anchored in neo-Kolbergian models of developmental psychology that show distinct linear and nonlinear developmental levels of a latent construct (e.g. Barney & Riley, 2018;Dawson & Stein, 2011). This trend is likely to continue to impact I-O psychology, just as it is affecting every profession with knowledge workers. ...
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Technology and Employee Behavior - edited by Richard N. Landers February 2019
... That is what we will be doing if we move to a lottery format to select medical students. Although there is evidence that some selection methods (academic records, multiple mini-interviews, and situational judgment tests) perform better than others (traditional interviews, personal statements, and references), 1 it is also true that, in a robust learning model, 8 failure is information, and the goal-experience-feedback cycle can improve future performance. In fact, just as we should be selecting for students with the capacity and courage to learn from their mistakes, students with resilience, 9 curiosity, 10 and an ability to adapt to uncertainty and complexity, we must rise to the challenge of continuing to learn, research, and evolve with the patients and populations whom we serve, in selecting for and supporting the development of good doctors. ...
Article
CJEM Debate Series: #BetterSelection – Medical school acceptance tests select the wrong doctors: We need fewer memorizers and more thinkers and communicators in modern medicine - Volume 20 Issue 4 - John M. Steeves, David A. Petrie, Paul R. Atkinson
Article
Drawing on insights from adult developmental psychology, Matthew Rich-Tolsma and John Oliver, certified consultants with Lectica, Inc., highlight the explicit thinking skills that are unique to the challenges at the board level, in the context of increasing volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA) in the world. The invitation is for boards to think about their thinking skills, with the help of the latest research in frameworks of integrated thinking skills.
Article
Full-text available
The evaluation of developmental interventions has been hampered by a lack of practical, reliable, and objective developmental assessment systems. This article describes the construction of a domain-general computerized developmental assessment system for texts: the Lexical Abstraction Assessment System (LAAS). The LAAS provides assessments of the order of hierarchical complexity of oral and written texts, employing scoring rules developed with predictive discriminant analysis. The LAAS is made possible by a feature of conceptual structure we call hierarchical order of abstraction, which produces systematic quantifiable changes in lexical composition with development. The LAAS produces scores that agree with human ratings of hierarchical complexity more than 80% of the time within one-third of a complexity order across 6 complexity orders (18 levels), spanning the portion of the lifespan from about 4 years of age through adulthood. This corresponds to a Kendall’s tau of.93.
Chapter
Full-text available
Human activity is both organized and highly variable. Analysis of the variation illuminates the dynamic order in development, learning, and emotional change. Action is nowhere near as stable as the static conceptions of psychology predict. Dynamic structural analysis provides a framework and tools for analyzing the variation and detecting the order in it – the dynamic organization of self-constructed, socially embedded skills and activities (actions, thoughts, and emotions). Key discoveries and tools include: (1) the emergence of a series of cognitive abilities that form a universal scale for development and learning, (2) methods for analyzing microdevelopment and learning pathways, (3) tools for depicting emotional development, including affective splitting and cultural shaping, and (4) a model connecting cognitive growth with brain development. Keywords: brain development; cognition; dynamic structuralism; emotion; microdevelopment; skill theory; variation
Article
Skill theory provides tools for predicting developmental sequences and synchronies in any domain at any point in development by integrating behavioral and cognitive-developmental concepts. Cognitive development is explained by skill structures called "levels," together with transformation rules relating these levels to each other. The transformation rules specify the developmental steps by which a skill moves gradually from one level of complexity to the next. At every step in these developmental sequences, the individual controls a particular skill. Skills are gradually transformed from sensory-motor actions to representations and then to abstractions. The transformations produce continuous behavioral changes; but across the entire profile of a person's skills and within highly practiced task domains, a stagelike shift in skills occurs as the person develops to an optimal level. The theory suggests a common framework for integrating developmental analyses of cognitive, social, language, and perceptual-motor skills and certain behavioral changes in learning and problem solving. (6 p ref)
Article
The primary goal of the emerging field of Mind, Brain, and Education is to join biology, cognitive science, development, and education in order to create a sound grounding of education in research. The growing, worldwide movement needs to avoid the myths and distortions of popular conceptions of brain and genetics and build on the best integration of research with practice, creating a strong infrastructure that joins scientists with educators to study effective learning and teaching in educational settings. Science and practice together provide many potentially powerful tools to improve education. Neuroscience and genetics make possible analysis of the "black box" of biological processes that underpin learning. Understanding the biology of abilities and disabilities helps educators and parents to facilitate individual students' learning and development. Cognitive science provides analyses of the mental models/metaphors that pervade meaning making in human cultures, creating tools for avoiding unconscious distortions and crafting effective educational tools. Developmental and learning science produce tools to analyze learning pathways, including both shared patterns and learning differences. To reach the potential of grounding education effectively in research requires improving the infrastructure by creating (a) research schools where practice and science jointly shape educational research, (b) shared databases on learning and development, and (c) a new profession of educational engineers or translators to facilitate connecting research with practice and policy.
Article
ABSTRACT— We begin this article by situating a methodology called developmental maieutics in the emerging field of mind, brain, and education. Then, we describe aspects of a project in which we collaborated with a group of physical science teachers to design developmentally informed activities and assessments for a unit on energy. Pen-and-paper assessments, called teasers, were employed, along with interviews, to study how students learned about the physics of energy. Results were used to describe students’ learning pathways and to design a scoring rubric for teacher use. We hypothesized that (a) teasers, by themselves, could be used effectively to evaluate the developmental level of students’ reasoning about energy and (b) teachers could employ the scoring rubric with minimal instruction. Encouraged by our findings, we went on to create a freely available online version of the energy teaser, including a new rubric designed to improve the accuracy with which teachers can assess the developmental level of students’ energy conceptions.
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