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Ethnobotanical Survey of antimalarial plants used in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria

  • Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta

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An ethnobotanical survey of herbal medicine used for treatment of malaria fever in 17 communities in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria was carried out. According to the results, 38 plant species belonging to 24 families were used in herbal antimalarial recipes. Among the plants mentioned, the most frequently used were Morinda lucida (7.87%), Lawsonia inermis (7.41%), Citrus medica (6.94%), Sarcocephalus latifolius (6.48%) and Morinda morindiodes (6.48%). Investigations were carried out on the plant part (leaf, stem or root) used, method of preparing herbal antimalarial remedies and how it is administered. Result showed that irrespective of plant and part (leave, fruit, stem bark or root bark) or combinations of the plant parts, water and aqueous extract from fermented maize were the main medium of herbal antimalarial preparations. Treatment regimens of malaria generally included drinking, bathing and steam inhalation of the aqueous herbal preparations for 4 -10 days or until symptoms of malaria disappear. About 65% of all the plants mentioned in the survey have been documented to have toxic effect on the liver and kidney of experimental mice. Continuous consumption of these plants could therefore have pathological effects on the consumers. Hence, this show the need for more research in order to identify lead compounds in indigenous antimalarial plants with less or no toxicity.
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African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 4(2) pp. 055-060, February 2010
Available online
ISSN 1996-0816 © 2010 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Ethnobotanical survey of antimalarial plants used in
Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria
O. A. Idowu, O. T. Soniran, O. Ajana and D. O. Aworinde
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Accepted 18 December, 2009
An ethnobotanical survey of herbal medicine used for treatment of malaria fever in 17 communities in
Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria was carried out. According to the results, 38 plant species belonging to
24 families were used in herbal antimalarial recipes. Among the plants mentioned, the most frequently
used were Morinda lucida (7.87%), Lawsonia inermis (7.41%), Citrus medica (6.94%), Sarcocephalus
latifolius (6.48%) and Morinda morindiodes (6.48%). Investigations were carried out on the plant part
(leaf, stem or root) used, method of preparing herbal antimalarial remedies and how it is administered.
Result showed that irrespective of plant and part (leave, fruit, stem bark or root bark) or combinations
of the plant parts, water and aqueous extract from fermented maize were the main medium of herbal
antimalarial preparations. Treatment regimens of malaria generally included drinking, bathing and
steam inhalation of the aqueous herbal preparations for 4 - 10 days or until symptoms of malaria
disappear. About 65% of all the plants mentioned in the survey have been documented to have toxic
effect on the liver and kidney of experimental mice. Continuous consumption of these plants could
therefore have pathological effects on the consumers. Hence, this show the need for more research in
order to identify lead compounds in indigenous antimalarial plants with less or no toxicity.
Key words: Survey, ethnobotanical, antimalarial, herb.
Malaria is one of the major tropical parasitic diseases
responsible for significant morbidity and mortality
especially among children and pregnant women. It is
estimated that 1 - 2 million people die yearly as a result of
malaria (Sudhanshu et al., 2003). Africa faces the
greatest impact of this disease (Parija, 2008). Malaria is
becoming more resistant to a number of current drugs
and is on the increase because of the global warming
process (Martin and Lefebvre, 1995). Thus, many com-
munities who live in endemic areas, have started to look
for malaria remedies in plants in their local environments
(Miliken, 1997). It is believed strongly that if the herbs
used to treat malaria by our ancestors in Africa hundred
of years ago were not effective, malaria would have
destroyed Africa. More so, Missionaries that came to
Africa would not have met a single person on the
continent of Africa (Elujoba, 2005). The two main groups
of modern antimalarial drugs – artemisinin and quinine
derivatives are known to have their source from herbs.
*Correspondence author. E-mail:
Studies have documented over 1,200 plant species from
160 families used in the treatment of malarial or fever
(Willcox and Bodeker, 2004). Ethnobotanical survey is an
important step in the identification, selection and
development of the therapeutic agents from medicinal
plants. In ethnobotany and natural products chemistry,
the mode of preparation and administration of herbal
preparations are often crucial variables in determining
efficacy in pharmacological evaluation (Levine, 1981;
Lewis et al., 1998; Albers–Schonberg et al., 1997). In
Southwestern Nigeria, studies have been carried out to
document utilization of phytomedicines for treatment of
fevers (Ajaiyeoba et al., 2003). Etkin (1997) also docu-
mented antimalarial plant used by the Hausa in Northern
Nigeria. But these plants are taken orally by indigenes
without any consideration of possible toxic effect of
components in such plants. There is no record of the indi-
genous antimalarial herbs commonly used in Ogun State,
their modes of preparation and consumption pattern.
The objective of the present study was to obtain
information on the use of herbs in the treatment of
malarial fever, the plant part(s) used, method of preparing
herbal antimalarial remedies and how it is administered.
056 Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
The overall contribution is to document potential
antimalarial herbs from the Nigerian flora.
Study areas
The study was conducted in the Southwest of Nigeria. A total of 17
communities were visited consisting of 6 urban and 11 rural com-
munities from 3 local government areas (Odeda, Abeokuta South
and Sagamu Local Government Areas (LGAs).
Odeda local government is a rural community. The residents are
mostly farmers. Majority of the town lacks the usual social amenities
and has a low – density population. The community links Ogun
State to Oyo state. Abeokuta South and Sagamu Local Govern-
ment Areas on the other hand, are communities of civil servants
and traders, and densely populated. The community has social
amenities such as electricity supply and pipe borne water. The
residents of these areas belong majorly to the Yoruba ethnic group.
Informed consent
The purpose of the study was explained to the local traditional herb
sellers, farmers, mothers and community and opinion leaders in the
local government areas. Consent to conduct the study was given by
the traditional herbs sellers and community leaders. Informed con-
sent was obtained from each of the participants. An approval for the
study was obtained from the traditional heads of the communities.
General questionnaire
A semi – structured questionnaire was administered randomly to
farmers, mothers, herb sellers, community leaders and elders in the
community to obtain information on commonly used herbs and
parts frequently used for antimalarial remedies. Questions on
methods of herbal preparation, method of administration and
duration of use were also asked.
Sampling method
The study covered a period of three months from March 2008 to
June 2008. Systematic random sampling method was employed in
which only odd numbered respondents were chosen.
Data analysis
Data obtained from the questionnaires were entered into the
computer and analysed using Epi6-info version 6.04 (CDC, Atlanta
GA, USA) (Dean et al., 1994).
A total of 104 randomly selected respondents were
interviewed which include farmers, mothers, herb sellers,
community leaders and elders. The ages of respondents
ranged between 40 – 90 years. Majority of the respon-
dents were females (64.42%) including mothers, herb
sellers and farmers, while the males (35 – 58%) were
community leaders, elders and farmers (Table 1).
Table 1. Demography structure of survey
respondents showing age and sex.
Age (Years) N (%)
40-50 21 (20.2)
51-60 26 (25.0)
61-70 33 (31.7)
71-80 18 (17.3)
81-90 6 (5.8)
Total 104
Sex N (%)
Male 37 (35.58)
Female 67 (64.42)
Total 104
The plant parts frequently used and mentioned in this
study are stated in Table 3. The frequency of occurrence
of various herbs mentioned during the botanical survey is
presented in Table 2. The most commonly mentioned
plants were Morinda lucida (7.87%), Lawsonia inermis
(7.41%), Citrus medica (6.94%), Sarcocephalus latifolius
(6.48%) and Celastrus indica (6.43 %). Among the top
frequently mentioned plants, three plants belong to the
family RUBIACEAE (Morinda lucida, Rytigynia nigerica
and S. latifolius). Other families in this category are
Anarcardiaceae, Zingibercenae, Compositae, Apocyn-
aceae, Fabaceae and Meliaceae. Level of toxicity was
based on reports of documented studies.
Herbal preparation
Herbal remedies can either be prepared from dry plant
“ingredients” or freshly collected samples from the field.
Respondents however affirmed that either plant material
is efficient depending on accessibility to plant species as
some plants are not easily seen within the locality.
Hence, they are collected fresh or bought and preserved
dry. In rural communities, it is common practice for
dwellers to prepare herbal remedies in local clay pots.
This is strongly preferred to aluminum pots.
Arrangement of plant part(s) ingredient
When remedies consisted of more than 2 plant parts and
recipes, seeds, fruits and stem barks were placed at the
bottom of the cooking pots followed by the fragile part like
leaves on the top.
Traditional solvent of choice
The various solvents for herbal preparations mentioned
are water, aqueous extract from fermented maize and
Idowu et al. 057
Table 2. Responses on common antimalarial plants and parts used in Ogun State.
S/N Vernacular name Botanical name Plant pt(s) Frequency (%) Antim. activity Toxicity
1 Oruwo Morinda lucida L. S.B., L. 7.87 Significant Toxic
2 Laali Lawsonia inermis L. L 7.41 Minimal Toxic
3 Osan were Citrus medica L., F. 6.94 Slightly sign. Not toxic
4 Egbesi Sarcocephalus latifolius (Smith) Bruce S.B., L. 6.48 Significant Toxic
5 Ponju owiwi Morinda morindiodes Bark. A.P.,R.B. 6.48 Significant No info.
6 Ewe tea Cymbopogon citrates (DC) Stapf L 6.48 Slightly sign. Not toxic
7 Ahun Alstonia boonei De Wild. S.B., L 5.56 Significant Minimal
8 Awopa Petivera alliacea L. S.B. 4.17 Significant Toxic
9 Mangoro Mangifera indica L. S.B., L 4.17 Significant Minimal
10 Ata ile pupa Zingiber officinale Roscoe. U. S. 3.44 Slightly sign. Negligible
11 Oganwo Khaya grandifolia S.B. 3.32 Significant Minimal
12 Koko Theobroma cacao L. S.B. 3.32 Slightly sign. Minimal
13 Owu Gossypium arboretum L. L 3.32 Slightly sign. Minimal
14 Dangoyaro Azadirachta indica A. Juss L 3.32 Significant Negligible
15 Oparun Bambosa vulgaris L 3.32 No activity Negligible
16 Akintola Chromolaena odorata L. A.P. 2.85 Slightly sign. Not toxic
17 Orinbo arinka Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Planch. L., S.B. 2.85 Slightly sign. Toxic
18 Orogbo Garcinia kola (Heckel) S.B. 1.39 Slightly sign. Toxic
19 Goba Psidium guajava L. L 1.39 Minimal Minimal
20 Aridan tooro Cassia fistulosa Lam. S.B 1.39 Slightly sign. Minimal
21 Efinrin Ocimum gratissium L 1.39 Minimal Negligible
22 Furuntu Terminalia catappa L. L 1.39 No info. No info.
23 Otili Cajanus cajan Millsp. L 1.39 Significant Not toxic
24 Alubosa Allium cepa L. L., S. 1.39 Minimal Not toxic
25 Elegun oko Rytigynia nigerica (S.Moore) R.B. 1.39 Minimal Minimal
26 Ehin olobe Phyllantus amarus L 0.93 Slightly sign. Not toxic
27 Afon Treculia Africana De Wild. S.B. 0.93 Minimal Minimal
28 Ewuro Vernonia anygdalina Del. L 0.93 Significant Negligible
29 Asofeyeje Rauvolfia vomitoria Afzel. L 0.93 Slightly sign. Negligible
30 Ibepe Carica papaya L. L 0.93 Minimal Minimal
31 Mafowokon Argermone mexicana Linn. L 0.46 Significant Toxic
32 Irosu Baphia nitida Lodd. S.B., L 0.46 No info. Not toxic
33 Atare Aframonium melegueta S.B 0.46 No info. Not toxic
34 Piya Persea americana S.B., L 0.46 No info. Toxic
35 Olorin Xylopia aethiopica Dunal. Seed 0.46 Minimal Toxic
36 Ponhan Lophira alata S.B. 0.46 Minimal Toxic
37 Oju ologbo Abrus precatorius L. L 0.46 Minimal Toxic
38 Iyeye Spondias mombin L., S.B. 0.46 Minimal Not toxic
L- leaf, S.B- stem bark, R.B- root bark, A.P- aerial parts, U.S- underground stem, No info.- no information, Freq.- frequency. Toxicity of plants as reported by
Ajaiyeoba et al. (2006); Davis (1978); Bird (1991); Robert (2009); Uko et al. (2001); Yemitan and Adeyemi (2005); Aguwa (1987); Oze et al. (2007); Adedapo
et al. (2005); Bakhiet and Adam (2004); U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2006); Raintree Nutrition (2008).
A higher percentage of those interviewed especially in
rural communities showed preference to aqueous extract
from fermented maize (98%) followed by water (90%)
and alcohol (20%) (Figure 1). This notion was further
confirmed in the interview with herbs sellers in urban
communities. All the respondents generally believe that
alcohol is only used for the preparation of remedies
consisting mainly hardy plant parts like stem bark, root
and seeds.
Traditional extraction methods
The two main preparation methods are boiling in water or
aqueous extract from fermented maize and steeping/
soaking in the solvents mentioned or alcohol. More
058 Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
Table 3. Frequency of Plant Parts commonly used for
antimalarial remedy.
Plant part Frequency N (%)
Leaf 120 (71.0)
Stem 81 (48.0)
Root bark 13 (7.6)
Fruits 4 (2.5)
Seed 4 (2.5)
Underground stem 4 (2.5)
Total 226 (134.1)
Fermented Maize
Water Alcohol
Solvent of extraction
Perce nta g e of r e spo nde nts
Figure 1. Medium of herbal extraction as commonly used by respondents.
preference was shown to boiling than soaking. Boiling is
usually done using either water or aqueous extract from
fermented maize starch but more preference was given
to aqueous extract from fermented maize as this is
believed to be more efficient. Alcohol was never used as
solvent when boiling herbal “ingredients”. Duration of
boiling ranged from 1 - 2 h on burning fire wood or
cooking stove till a change in color of the solvent is
observed indicating “full dissolution of active ingredients
into the solvents” as some stated.
Soaking, a second choice of preparation was given less
preference unlike boiling.
Solvents used can either be water, aqueous extract from
fermented maize or alcohol. This method is preferred by
its users as they believe that the ingredients will be
extracted without the “ingredients” from the plant been
exposed to heat which they believe could somehow have
effect on the efficacy of the herbal recipes. Plant part are
cut into small piece and soaked in corked bottles or
containers for 2 to 3 days.
Soaked herbal remedies are always available in house-
holds irrespective of obvious symptoms of malaria and
most times are used for prophylactics than treatments.
Method of administration
All the respondents preferred drinking a cup-full (about 5
cl) of aqueous alcoholic preparations 2 to 3 times daily or
as much as possible till symptoms of malaria disappear.
About 40% of respondents suggested bathing and steam
inhalation of the aqueous preparations for 4 – 10 days
especially when high fever is observed in patients. It was
also observed that majority of those interviewed use
antimalarial herbal remedies as prophylactics and the
frequency of consumption depends on the severity of
From the list of herbs frequently used and the plant parts
in Table 1, M. lucida is a widely known plant possessing
antimalarial properties attributed to anthraquinones and
anthranquinols isolated from the plant. (Koumaglo et al.,
1992; Sittie et al., 1999; Adewunmi and Adesogan,
1984). L. inermis is also used by some respondents as
‘blood tonic’, thus believing that it has a dual effect.
Studies also confirmed that S. latifolius, Alstonia boonei,
Petivera alliacea, Mangifera indica and Khaya grandifolia
have significant antimalarial properties (Guede et al.,
2005; Awe et al., 1998; Pedro and Antonio, 2001;
Agbedahunsi et al., 1998), but little is known about
Morinda morindiodes which was also frequently
mentioned and has a frequency of 6.48% as shown in
Table 1. The combination of different plants and parts in
the preparation of antimalarial herbal remedy is not
uncommon among respondents and it is believed that
some plants enhance the action of other herbs. This can
indicate an increase on permeability of the Plasmodium
membrane to antiparasitic substances or an inhibition of
pump mechanism of eliminating the drugs (Alexandros,
The use of either freshly collected herbal recipes or
preserved (dry) plant parts seems not to make any
difference in its perceived efficacy to the respondents.
This was confirmed in the study as respondents showed
no peculiar preference to one. However, studies had
shown that there were quantitative and qualitative
differences in the essential oil components of fresh and
dry plant materials (Okoh et al., 2008; Fatemeh et al.,
2006) Thus, dry plant materials might not be as potent as
freshly collected herbs. Pharmacological laboratory
studies have also employed the drying of plant parts
during the preparation of plant extracts.
There is no scientific reason backing the preference to
the use of clay pots for herbal preparations, but some of
the respondents said that preference is given to the use
of clay pots because clays pots have been in use before
the advent of aluminum pots and even cheaper than
aluminum pots.
Respondents also showed preference for the arrange-
ment of plants parts in cooking pots although this has not
been studied in relation to plant / herb efficacy. However,
respondents believe that plant ‘ingredients’ are soaked
better in that arrangement especially when boiling is to be
Preference for solvent of herbal remedy is because of
the belief that some solvents are efficient than others and
depending on the plant parts. However, aqueous extract
form fermented maize was shown more preference than
water and alcohol. Laboratory studies had also confirmed
the efficacy of one solvent over another as solvent of
extraction in relation to the antimalarial property of the
plant. For example, the methanolic extracts of Flueggea
virosa, Maytenus undata and Maytenus putter lickioides
had higher percentage of chemosuppression of parasi-
taemia in vivo than the water extract of the plants. While
the water extracts of Harungana madagascariensis and
Warburgia stuhlmannii had higher chemosuppression of
parasitaemia than the methanolic extracts in vivo (Muthaura
et al., 2007).
Boiling as a method of preparation was frequently men-
Idowu et al. 059
tioned than soaking (Figure 1). This is partly because of
the choice of solvent and the type of plant parts to be
used in preparing the herbal remedy. From this study, it
was also observed that the dose of the herbal remedy
used is dependent on disappearance of symptoms of
malarial fever. Most of the respondents believe that
herbal remedies can be consumed as much as possible,
even as prophylactics but they are ignorant of the toxic
affects of most of these herbs. Studies had however
proved that some antimalarial herbs have dose
dependent effect, for example high levels of chemosup-
pression were produced at high doses of the leaf and
root-bark extracts of Vernonia amygdalina (Abosi and
Raseroka, 2003). Studies had also shown that some
plants are highly toxic despite their high chemosup-
pression of parasitaemia. Morinda lucida for example,
which is top on the list of frequently used plants was
observed for its in vitro cytotoxicity and the stem bark
was found to be extremely toxic (Ajaiyeoba et al., 2006).
The seeds of Lawsonia inermis have also been found to
be toxic in molluscs (Singh and Singh, 2001). However,
our search on published studies on the level of antima-
larial activity and toxicity of the 38 plants in this study
showed that 80% have been documented to have
antimalarial property but suppressive and none
clearance, while about 65% have toxic effects. Extract of
the stem bark of Alstonia boonei could be potentially
nephrotoxic especially when dose is high and duration of
use extended (Panda, 1999). The toxicity of S. latifolius is
moderately high while Cymbopogon citratus is
insignificant respectively (Iwu, 1993).
This study and similar studies shows the need for the
enlightenment of traditional medicine practitioners and
the public in general on selective use of herbs for the
treatment of malaria.
However, study on the effectiveness of aqueous extract
from fermented maize (as observed in practice) as
solvent of extraction in laboratory test extracts had not
been documented.
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... Further research is needed to maximize the therapeutic importance of plants and the health implications mostly in Nigeria. 2 The plant parts of Morinda lucida, "Oruwo," have been used in the traditional treatment of malaria among the Yorubas in Nigeria. Trypanocidal, 3 antimalarial activities, 4 and aortic vasorelaxant effect 5 have been documented for M. lucida leaf extract. ...
... 9 Alstonia boonei, popularly known among the Yoruba tribe as "Ahun," has been used singly and in combination with other plants in malaria treatment. 2 The stem bark of the plant is efficacious in the treatment of diseases like insomnia, painful micturition, fever, chronic diarrhea, and rheumatic pains. 10,11 Significant antimalarial properties of A. boonei have also been established by earlier studies. ...
... 10,11 Significant antimalarial properties of A. boonei have also been established by earlier studies. 2,12 Drinking aqueous leaf extracts of M. lucida and A. boonei for malaria treatment without considering its safety has been a popular practice by most people in southern Nigeria. However, how various human organs, such as kidney and liver, respond to these aqueous extracts still remains a puzzle. ...
... Henna from Lawsonia inermis is widely used in the cosmetic industry as dyeing agent also in many parts of the world (Nawagish et al., 2007). Reports show that methanolic root extracts of Lawsonia inermis is used in Nigeria for cosmetic purposes and antimalarial (Idowu et al., 2011) as well as for abortifacient purposes (Aguwa, 1997). The powdered of the roasted seed when mixed with ginger oil to form a paste is used in the treatment of ring worm. ...
... Decoction of the leaves is also used for aseptic cleaning of wounds and healing (Kumari et al., 2013). Lawsonia inermis is also been used by some individuals as 'blood tonic', thus implying its multifaceted usage (Idowu et al., 2011). Judging by all these potential benefits, this plant is not widely utilized. ...
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The leaves of Lawsonia inermis Linn are used in the treatment of many diseases such as diabetes, poliomyelitis, measles and gynecological disorders such as menorrhagia, vaginal discharge and leucorrhoea. This study was designed to investigate the safety evaluation of Lawsonia inermis Linn leaves (acutely and sub-chronically) on physiological, biochemical and histopathological changes seen in Wistar rat. Acutely, female rats were divided into four groups (n=3) and treated as thus A (untreated control); B (1000 mg/kg); C (2000 mg/kg) and D (5000 mg/kg). Sub-chronically, 25 male Wistar rats were grouped into five (n=5). Groups: A (control), B (100 mg/kg); C (200 mg/kg); D (400 mg/kg) and E (800 mg/kg). Lawsonia inermis Linn leaves have a wide safety margin (>5000mg/kg) and no mortality or visible toxic reaction was observed in acute phase. Lawsonia inermis extract did not inhibit physiological weight gain, except the highest dose that caused some weight loss. Haematological result showed that PVC, RBC, haemoglobin and platelets had no significant (P>0.05) effect unlike white blood cell and differentials (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) which decrease significantly (P <0.05) across all the treated groups compared to untreated control. Serum chemistry showed a significant (P <0.05) decrease AST. ALT, ALP, creatinine, urea, Total protein and Total bilirubin had no significant (P <0.05) effects. Serum electrolytes; calcium ion, potassium ion, sodium ion and chloride ion had no significant (P <0.05) changes. Lawsonia inermis is safe at acute administered dosages while nephrotoxicity and spermiotoxicity may occur following subchronic administration.
... E. A. Bruce. 5,[9][10][11][12][13][14] Indeed, of the 627,000 deaths due to malaria in the world in 2020, 96% happened in Africa, with 14,195 deaths in West Africa. 15 Particularly in Togo, malaria is the first cause of consultation in public hospitals and is among the top 10 diseases in the country. ...
... It is a frequently used plant and is also called Nauclea latifolia. 10,19 The leaves are useful in the treatment of fever and pain, while the roots and bark are claimed to be useful in the treatment of venereal disease and wounds and as an odontalgic remedy. [19][20][21][22][23][24] These ethnobotanical activities were validated by in vitro and in vivo investigations which led to the identification of the two main bioactive chemical compounds from different parts of S. latifolius: strictosamide and angustoline. ...
Introduction: Sarcocephalus latifolius is one of the most used plants in West African traditional medicine to treat malaria. Objective: The aim is to establish a strategy to control the quality of herbal preparations made from S. latifolius. Method: A UHPLC-PDA method was developed for the determination and quantification of the two main bioactive compounds (angustoline and strictosamide) in various parts of the plant. Additionally, an LC-QToF with electrospray ionization method is described for the identification and confirmation of compounds in samples of different parts of the plant. Results: With the UHPLC-PDA method, separation was achieved within 5 min using a C18 column stationary phase at a temperature of 45°C and a gradient system with a mobile phase of water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.1% formic acid. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The LOD and LOQ of angustoline were found to be 0.3 and 0.8 μg/ml, respectively, and those of strictosamide were found to be 0.1 and 0.3 μg/ml, respectively. Using the LC-QToF method, 90 secondary metabolites, including four isolated compounds from the plant's roots, were identified from leaf, bark, and root samples of S. latifolius. Conclusion: This work is the first to propose a strategy to control the quality of herbal preparations made from S. latifolius. The developed method allows the quantification of the main bioactive compounds and the established chemical profile allows to distinguish the plant from any other species.
... Other studies reported 107 species used as antimalarial in Uganda (Okello and Kang 2019), 35 in Rwanda (Muganga et al. 2010) and 139 in Kenya (Omara 2020). Most species were also mentioned by participants in other studies in 12 other tropical African countries, namely: Tanzania in the Kagera and Lindi regions (Nondo et al. 2015), Uganda around the Mabira Forest Reserve (Tugume et al. 2016), Benin in the Allada Plateau (Yetein et al. 2013), Nigeria in the States of Ondo, Ogbomoso and Ogun (Idowu et al. 2010;Olorunnisola et al. 2013;Oyeyemi et al. 2019), Namibia in the Oshikoto region (Cheikhyoussef et al. 2011), the Democratic Republic of Congo in the Mbanza-Ngungu region (Nzuki 2016), Ethiopia in the districts of Hawassa Zuria and Shinile (Mesfin et al. 2012;Tefera and Kim 2019), Mali in the district of Bamako (Dénou et al. 2017), Burkina Faso in the Sahel region (Bonkian et al. 2017), Togo in the maritime region (Koudouvo et al. 2011), Morocco in the Talassemtane National Park (Rhattas et al. 2016) and Ivory Coast in the Zanzan District (Kouadio et al. 2016 Male respondents identified 44 species, while women identified 40. Urban respondents identified 39 species, while rural respondents identified 42. ...
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Background: The present ethnobotanical study was conducted to identify plant species used by Burundians to treat malaria and to repel mosquitoes, to compare this with existing literature, identify species which could be further investigated and discuss potential future promotion or cultivation. Methods: Surveys were conducted between April and October 2018 in seven provinces representing the five ecological zones of Burundi. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 341 randomly selected respondents (between 25 and 50 household heads in each province). Results: A total of 44 plant species were reported in this study: 32 as antimalarial, two as mosquito repellents and 10 for both purposes. For antimalarial plants (84%) and mosquito repellent plants (88%), leaves were the most commonly used plant part. According to the respondents, 28 plant species were being cultivated and 16 were mostly collected from the wild. An examination of the literature on some of the plant species mentioned in this study revealed that eight of them had never been studied before. Conclusions: The use of antimalarial and mosquito repellent plants in Burundi was highlighted in this study. Its goal is to create a database of antimalarial and mosquito repellent plants. This will aid decision-making in the development of traditional medicine and the conservation of medicinal plants. Keywords: Ethnobotany; antimalarial activity; mosquito repellents; plants cultivation; Eco-climatic zones.
... The approach provides a more direct measure of livelihood diversification due to its clear interpretation as a welfare outcome. The income approach has therefore been used in many studies on livelihood diversification (Idowu, Soniran, Ajana, & Aworinde, 2010;Lerman, Serova, & Zvyagintsev, 2008). One reason why the income approach is widely used is that, for any activity or venture that both productive and non-productive assets are allocated, income is the outcome (Ellis, 2000). ...
The study assesses the effect of livelihood diversification on rural farm household food security in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Livelihood diversification as used in the study is the attempts by rural farm households to find new ways of raising incomes and reducing environmental risk, which differ sharply by the degree of freedom of choice. Data were obtained from 405 farm households across three districts and a municipality in the region using a semi-structured questionnaire. Depending on the livelihood portfolios, households were classified based on their engagement in agricultural, non-agricultural as well as their engagement in integrated agricultural and non-agricultural livelihood activities. The study uses the double hurdle model to show that the discrete decision to diversify and the continuous decision to intensify in any of the three classifications of livelihood diversification are distinct decisions and are as well influenced by distinct set of factors differently. Food security status of farm households was measured using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). The Household Hunger Scale (HHS) was further used to measure the severity of food insecurity within households that were categorised as severely food insecure by the HFIAS. The study employed an ordered probit regression model to estimate the effect of livelihood diversification on households’ food security status, measured by the HFIAS. The age of household head, household size, farm size, access to good road network, distance to market and access to extension services were among factors that significantly influenced the diversification choice and intensity of farm households. Regarding the food security status of farm households, the majority of households were severely food insecure as per the HFIAS with an average score of 10.25. Both non-agricultural livelihood activities as well as integrated agricultural and non-agricultural livelihood activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security. Agricultural livelihood activities, however, were not significant determinants of household food security. The study concludes that livelihood diversification is indeed a positive determinant of household food security, hence the attainment of higher food security was linked with diversification in non-agricultural and integrated agricultural and non-agricultural livelihood earning activities. The study recommends that farm households be equipped with knowledge of the optimum crop, livestock and crop-livestock combinations through organised workshops and training programs. Also, farm households’ awareness on the importance of non-agricultural as well as integrated agricultural and non-agricultural livelihood activities should be created through intensified incorporation of diversification related extension service systems.
... A. boonei is found in Asia and Africa, for instance, e.g Senegal (Ti Keung), Guinea (Ekouk, Kanja), and Nigeria (ÉgbúỌ̀rà, Awun). It is used as an antimalaria in south-western Nigeria (Olajide et al 2000;Odugbemi et al., 2007;Idowu et al 2010). A. boonei has aphrodisiac, antihelminthic, hypotensive and antidiabetic (Wesche et al., 1990;Adotey et al 2012) properties. ...
Introduction Medicinal plants are used individually or synergistically in Nigerian Traditional Medicine for treating a myriad of ailments. This review focus on flavonoids isolated from Nigerian indigenous medicinal plants and their pharmacological activities. Methods Scientific databases such as SciFinder, Medline, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were accessed for literature on flavonoids isolated from Nigerian medicinal plants. The Names and authors of plant species were authenticated using the International Plant Name Index. Results Sixty-nine (69) medicinal plants have been currently reviewed, from which two hundred and fifty-eight (258) bioactive flavonoids have been reportedly isolated which fall within the flavones, flavanones, flavanols, flavanonols, anthocyanidins, chalcones and bioflavonoids. In vivo and in vitro experiments validating the bioactivities of the isolated flavonoids were also reviewed viz: Osteogenic potential, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, trypanocidal, antimalarial, cytotoxicity, antiproliferative, nephrotoxicity, potent immunostimulatory, xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and immunomodulatory effects. Conclusions From this review, it can be inferred that Nigerian plants are a great source of novel flavonoid compounds and thus, flavonols being the major constituents of the medicinal plants in Nigeria, can be studied further for possible development into nutraceuticals against diabetes, malaria and other several metabolic diseases. This study provides literature on phytochemistry, and biological evaluations and creates a scientific justification for the use of these plants in Nigerian Herbal Medicine.
... Methanol was used as an organic solvent while sterile distilled water served as an aqueous extractant. The extracts were chosen based on the ethnomedicinal preference as reported by Idowu 25 . All bottles were properly covered and left for three days with frequent agitation. ...
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Objective: Majority of the current antibiotics have become less effective due to widespread of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Medicinal plants are promising candidates that could be used to manage this menace. Therefore, phytochemical, toxicological and antimicrobial potentiality of Lawsonia inermis extracts against MDR clinical bacteria were carried out. Material-Method: Henna leaf and seed were extracted by cold maceration technique using methanol and water and screened phytochemically. Eight MDR isolates, four of which are ESβL-producers were used for this study. In vitro antimicrobial efficacy and quantitative antimicrobial potency of extracts were estimated. MIC and MBC were determined using broth macrodilution technique. Cytotoxicity test was conducted using brine shrimp lethality assay and LC50 was determined. Results: The findings of this study revealed that aqueous leaf extract possesses maximum percentage yield of 25.58%. Tannins and phenolic compounds were detected in all extracts, while steroid was absent. Methanol seed extract showed the highest antimicrobial efficacy against all bacteria with 100 percent activity. The highest and lowest zones of inhibition were recorded at 30.0±0.00 and 10.0±0.00 mm, respectively. The zones of inhibition of extracts differed significantly. All extracts displayed highest activity index against the ESβL-producing Enterobacter aerogenes 196 that was isolated from wound with highest value at 4.28. Pseudomonas aeruginosa U109 showed maximum susceptibility index (93.75%); majority of MIC values recorded were within the range of 1.95-62.5 mg/mL. Cytotoxicity test of methanol and aqueous extracts displayed 10001000, respectively. Conclusion: Findings from this study elucidate the efficacy of Lawsonia inermis as a potential remedy to manage MDR-related infectious bacteria.
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Background and Aim: An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the inhabitants of the Aflou region of Laghouat (Southern Algeria). This study was considered as a first step toward the identification of new bioactive antiparasitic molecules. The preservation and documentation of this traditional knowledge will ensure its continuity and transmission from one generation to another, especially because of the emergence of resistant parasites and the lack of references caused by the lack of work in this area; therefore, we intended to inventory and collect the maximum amount of information on medicinal plants that are traditionally used by the local population as antiparasitic in humans and animals (small ruminants, cattle, and livestock). Materials and Methods: The information was collected using open interviews; the ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the area mentioned above from April to July 2021 using a semi-structured questionnaire and a global sample of 200 respondents. The data were analyzed using the System Package for the Social Sciences software and Microsoft Excel 2010 using the following quantitative indices: Relative frequency of citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV), fidelity level, and informant consensus factor (ICF). Results: The investigation uncovered the antiparasitic use of 58 plant species belonging to 30 families. The family Asteraceae had the highest FIV (FIV = 0.23). The pathology with the highest degree of agreement among the informants was genitourinary parasitosis (ICF = 0.930). The species that was most commonly cited by the local population was Artemisia herba-alba Asso (RFC = 1), and the foliage was the most commonly used part (46.4%). Infusion (38.8%) was the most-used preparation for remedies. Conclusion: This investigation revealed a rich ethnopharmacological knowledge in southern Algeria; therefore, the data gathered in this survey may be utilized to create novel antiparasitic compounds with activity in humans and animals.
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The population of Gboto and Esse-Godjin townships, bordering the Togodo-Sud National Park (PNTS) (Yoto 3 commune), uses a diversity of plant species with therapeutic potential for which little scientific work has been done. This study is devoted to the inventory of plants and recipes of medicinal plants in this area, with the aim of their valorisation. From March to May 2020, an ethnobotanical survey, based on a semi-structured questionnaire, was carried out among 16 traditional medicine practitioners (PMTs). 99 species belonging to 47 families were identified. The most represented families were Fabaceae (9.09%), Lamiaceae (6.06%) and Poaceae (6.06%). The most cited species were: Newbouldia laevis Seem (4.13%), Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (3.72%), Bligia sapinda Koenig Kingdom (3.31%). 110 recipes have been inventoried and are used in the treatment of 61 diseases. Powder (31.36%) followed by decoction (28.81%) are the main methods of preparation of the recipes, which are administered mainly orally (67.80%) and by skin (26.27%). Leaves (53.00%) and roots (12.00%) are mainly the organs used. Most of the organs are collected in the bush (23.48%) and in the PNTS (23.20%). This study provides a database of medicinal plants from Gboto and Esse-Godjin for future pharmacological studies. Keywords: medicinal plants, ethnobotanical, herbal medicine, Gboto & Esse-Godjin, Togo.
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Abstract Background: The inadequate programs established to eradicate numerous health problems in Nigeria have led to little improvement in the health status, especially in southern Nigeria. Southern Nigeria has a high prevalence rate of malaria, typhoid, fevers, colds and chills, catarrh, flu, river blindness, respiratory disorders, eye problems and skin infections. The strain caused by the dire need to provide a financial health coverage for the family, a poorly developed health care systems and functional surveillance has led to the exploration of alternative medicine by the indigenes of southern Nigeria.This study aims at documenting information on the common plant resources employed in the ethnomedicinal practices of the indigenous people of the Southern Nigeria, and to explore ways of sensitizing genuine conservation efforts in the face of threat of genetic erosion posed to these resources due to anthropogenic activities. Materials and methods: Onsite ethnomedicinal survey in the study area was carried out between September 2019 and November 2020 to document an indigenous medicinal plant traditional knowledge. Interviews were conducted with the aid of a local language interpreter. Data were obtained using 300 semi-structured questionnaires. Consultations were made on all available information about traditional medicinal plants and ethnomedicinal surveys in Southern Nigeria. Online electronic databases including Google scholar, Research Gate, SciFinder, ScienceDirect and Open Thesis were used to search for relevant literature. Ethnomedicinal data were analyzed using the Relative frequency of citation (RFC), Fidelity level (FL), Relative popularity level (RPL), Use value (UV) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF). Results: A total of 236 species belonging to 80 families were reported by this study. Fabaceae was the most represented family having thirty (30) plant species. The three (3) regions had varying frequencies of occurring plants species. South-Western Nigeria represented the region with the highest plant occurrence (47%) followed by South–South (31%). Leaves (42.32%) were the most common parts used in the preparation of herbal remedies. Decoctions (48.89%) were the most common method of plant preparation used in herbal remedies. Regional distribution and occurrence of ethnomedicinal plant resources of Southern Nigeria is reported here for the first time. Conclusion: Medicinal plants play crucial role in the treatment of various ailments by the indigenous people in Southern Nigeria. This study highlights the level of species richness as well as biodiversity in the study area. Bioactivity and toxicity by in vitro and in vivo standard tests should be made on herbal drug extracts of the presented species for isolation and possible identification of potentially active compounds
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Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and the flowers in the same order. Sesquiterpenoids dominated the fresh leaves (59.5%) and flowers (26%), while the monoterpenes dominated the oil in the dry leaves (70.3%). T-muurolol (40.9%) predominated in the fresh leaf oil; α α α α-thujene (19.2%) and δ δ δ δ- cadinene (11.8%) were also present in high quantities. Whereas, 1,8-cineole (29.4%), γ- γ- γ- γ-terpenene (11.6%), δ δ δ δ-cadinene (9.0%), β- β- β- β-pinene (6.9%) and α α α α-thujene (6.3%) were the major components in the dry leaf oil. In the fresh flower oil, α α α α-thujene (15.9%), δ δ δ δ-cadinene (13.1%) and δ δ δ δ-cadinene (10.9%) were the major components. The significance of the effect of drying on essential oil composition of this plant is discussed.
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The biological activities of water extract from Garcinia kola (G. kola) were investigated in growing Wistar rats. Three doses of G kola extract (0, 10, 20 mg G. kola/100g body mass of rat) were administered daily by gavage to the respective groups of 15 rats for a period of 70 days. The animals were offered standard rat diet and water ad libitum. The plant extract had a depressive effect (P<0.01) on appetite and water intake with resultant poor (P<0.05) feed utilization efficiency and mass gain of rats in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were elevated (P<0.05) but histological examinations of liver, heart and lungs of experimental rats revealed no alterations. Nevertheless, a significant (P<0.05) increase in leucocyte counts was adduced for possible mild degenerative changes in these organs. The extract enhanced sexual interest (libido) of the male rats but did not necessarily improve their fertility rate.
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Malaria, according to the World Health Organization, is one of the most serious and complex health problems facing humanity in the 20th century. In the past, climatic changes have greatly affected its geography. Its seriousness and complexity are therefore likely to be compounded by an anthropogenic greenhouse effect. The Malaria Potential Occurrence Zone (MOZ) model was designed to calculate first-order estimates of climate change impacts on malaria. MOZ focuses on the climatic determinants of the life cycles of malaria parasites and vectors. It does not take epidemiology into account. MOZ predicts receptivity, or potential transmission, rather than actual occurrence. MOZ indicates that the intensity and the extent of malaria potential transmission significantly change under the climate change scenarios generated by five atmospheric general circulation models. All five simulations reveal an increase in seasonal malaria at the expense of perennial malaria. This is cause for great concern. Indeed, seasonal malaria is most likely to lead to epidemics among unprepared or nonimmune populations. Moreover, climate change may trigger massive migrations of environmental refugees. Such population movements would likely put national and international health infrastructures under severe stress. Today, malaria is a developing country issue but could spread to higher latitudes. The results obtained with MOZ suggest that malaria could become a public-health problem for developed countries within decades.
Willcox, M. L., Bodeker, G. and Rasoanaivo, P. (Eds.), (2004). Traditional Medicinal Plants and Malaria, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, p. 431. Epilogue by M. L. Wilcox. Forward by D. A. Warrell. Numerous illustrations, Traditional Herbal Medicines for Modern Times, Vol. 4, USS 99.95$/66.99£UK, ISBN 0-415-30112-2 (hardcover) Elujoba, A. A. (2005) Afr. J. Trad. Comp. Alt. Med. , 2005, 2 (2): 206 – 207, (May, 2005).
The stem bark extract of Mangifera indica was evaluated for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. The extract was also screened for antipyretic activity in mice. The extract exhibited a schizontocidal effect during early infection, and also demonstrated repository activity. A reduction in yeast-induced hyperpyrexia was also produced by the extract. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The success of the antimalarial drug quinine and the discovery of artemisinin, the most potent antimalarial drug, both from plant sources, has led to the study of plants as antimalarial agents. The ethnopharmacological approach for the search of new antimalarial agents from plant sources has proved to be more predictive. This article gives a critical account of crude extracts, essential oils and secondary plant metabolites with diverse chemical structure possessing antimalarial activity against different malarial parasites. The major leads have been highlighted and some reported structure-activity relationships and their possible modes of action discussed.
Abstract Extracts of Lawsonia inermis were studied for abortifacient activity. The methanolic extract was most effective in inducing abortion in mice, rats and guinea pig. The effect apparently is dosage dependent. This confirms its use in ethnomedicine for procurement of abortion in humans in some parts of Nigeria. No mechanism of action was detected in isolated tissue experiments. The results of the whole animal experiments support the methanolic extract's effectiveness as an abortant due to its maternal and fetal toxic effects.
Khaya grandifoliola (Welw) CDC (Meliaceae) is widely used in West Africa for the treatment of fever. The dried powdered stem-bark of the plant was extracted with various solvents. The resulting extracts and column purified fractions therefrom were tested for their antimalarial properties using Plasmodium berghei berghei for in vivo antimalarial determinations and Plasmodium falciparum for in vitro antiplasmodial activities. The n -hexane extract, the crude and purified fractions gave the most active antimalarial activities with about 91% chemosuppression in vivo and IC 50 values of 1.4 µg/ml (for multi-drug resistant clone) or 0.84 µg/ml (for Nigerian P. falciparum isolates). These values were comparable to those observed with the reference drug chloroquine diphosphate.