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Acute toxicity of nickel to fresh water prawns Acute toxicity of nickel to fresh water prawns

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Abstract

In the present study, the LC 50 of nickel and its impact on the behaviour of 2 species of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium lamarrei (H. Milne Edwards) and Macrobrachium dayanum (Henderson) was evaluated. An inverse relationship between LC 50 values and exposure duration was obtained. Nickel was found to be 6.33 times more toxic to M. lamarrei than to M. dayanum. Nickel exposure increased aggression and loss of balance in both species of prawns in a concentration-dependent manner with both parameters being higher in M. dayanum (416.47 mg/L) than in M. lamarrei (65.77 mg/L). All behavioural parameters decreased with increase in exposure duration in both prawn species, with the exception of grasping behaviour and the number of individuals showing loss of balance.

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... Although it is essential within the synthesis of red blood cells; however, higher doses cause toxicity. Trace amounts of Ni have no ill effect in biological cells; however, prolonged exposure to higher doses may damage cells, causing decreased bodyweight due to a reduction in cell growth, impairment of liver and heart, damage to the nervous system, and also leads to cancer (Verma 2012). In the fish, Hemichromis fasciatus from the Ogba river, Ni bioaccumulation was significantly variable p < 0.05 and is season-specific (Madoni 2000). ...
... Cd-exposed Gammarus pulex also demonstrated significantly reduced behavioral activities including feeding rate, locomotor activities, and ventilation (Felten et al. 2008). In a study with two freshwater prawn species, Macrobrachium lamarrei and Macrobrachium dayanum, it was observed that increased concentration of Nickel in the medium elevated aggression and affected balance in both prawn species (Verma 2012). Another study with sub-lethal doses of Cd and Zinc (Zn) showed that with increasing concentrations the feeding rate of two freshwater crustaceans, Atyaephyra desmarestii (Decapoda) and Echinogammarus meridionalis (Amphipoda), significantly reduced (Pestana et al. 2007). ...
Chapter
“Pollution” is probably the deadliest “word” of the current generation which is steadily evidencing its identity in the lithosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. The concurrent progress of human civilization and various industries continuously added stimulation in polluting the environment. In this context, water pollution especially riverine pollution has exerted enormous noxious influence over the biosphere due to its connection with the diverse ecologically related living organism comprising microbes, plants, and animals. Toxicants belonging to phenolics, organometallic compounds, and heavy metals originating from industrial effluents and wastes are the prime contributors to pollution. Increasing the abundance of nano-toxicants is slowly emerging as an added complication. Although all living organisms are equipped with a distinct detoxification system, but pollution beyond the tolerance level results in damage and death. Depletion of beneficial microbes, induction of microbial resistance contrary to heavy metals, and organic compounds leading to the emergence of altered pathogenicity are the key phenomena associated with the microbial communities of the river. Similarly, loss of growth and productivity leading to death are the major concerns for the river-associated flora. Animals are one of the major members of the riverine ecosystem and several physiological damages, namely, loss of growth, reproductive defects, poor immunity, and death are documented in several studies. Animals and humans are also affected by the pollutants through the dietary consumption of the aquatic animals contaminated with the pollutants. Intriguingly, pollution-induced damages in the riverine ecosystem are also concerns for the other ecological niches, especially those that are connected to the riverine ecosystem either directly or across the food chain. Riverine pollutants have been shown to induce oxidative damages, membrane damage, chromosomal aberrations, and induction of apoptosis. Alarmingly, increasing occurrences of different forms of cancers are also found to be connected with water pollution. Several remediation strategies have been adopted to counteract the noxious pollutants; however, limited efficacy of the approaches, continuous addition of the pollutants, and lack of public awareness have posed obstacles in restoring the health of the river. In this chapter, the toxicology of riverine pollution caused by organic and inorganic contaminants and pollutants-induced perturbations of the riverine ecosystem at a cellular and molecular level, as well as their management, have been discussed based on existing and upcoming approaches.
... Whitening of the abdominal tissue along with heavy mucous secretion in the gill region, followed by decrease in locomotion and aggression and black marks on the margins of uropod. Loss of balance during walking [14]. Depending on the intricate observation study of the grooming pattern, we have categorised the phenomenon as anterior grooming and posterior grooming, depending on the body regions. ...
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Auto-grooming is the act of cleaning body parts which is a robust behaviour in Macrobrachium lamarrei (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Decapoda), a highly abundant native freshwater prawn species in India. The first and fifth pairs of thoracic appendages are the major grooming appendages, which show prominent signs of adaptive modifications. Grooming activity in M. lamarrei is a complex pattern, which is streamlined into two major groups, Anterior Grooming (AG) and Posterior Grooming (PG), depending on the body area. Anterior grooming is broadly divided into Carapace Grooming (CG) and Ventral Cephalothorax Grooming (VCG) and Posterior Grooming is further divided into Ventral Abdomen Grooming (VAG) and Dorsal Abdomen Grooming (DAG). Prawns were exposed to 1.72 ppm of arsenic trioxide for 15 days and the dose was found to be non lethal. Therefore, we selected this non-lethal concentration for a 24 h exposure schedule to study different grooming patterns. We report for the first time that 1.72 ppm of arsenic trioxide induced notable auto-grooming alteration in this species and the prawns were found to spend considerably more time to groom each body part compared to the control. It is concluded that grooming patterns are reliable indices of stress or sensitivity towards heavy metals in aquatic invertebrates.
... Similar reactions have been previously reported for the freshwater invertebrate Daphnia magna following exposure to copper (Untersteiner et al. 2003). Exposure to metals can also affect prawn behaviour (Verma 2012), which in turn could affect survival and growth under natural conditions. Animals exposed to Al in acidic conditions showed greater haemocytic infiltration in the interstitial sinuses of the hepatopancreas, which is a distinct immune response (Hauton 2012) and aligns with similar reactions observed in crustaceans exposed to heavy metals (Tsing et al. 1989;Battistella et al. 1996;Soegianto et al. 1999;Bhavan and Geraldine 2009). ...
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Catchment degradation and exposure of acid sulphate soils can affect estuarine water quality, and this can have impacts on the health of estuarine species and adversely affect fishery productivity. In degraded catchments, aluminium (Al) is mobilised from clay minerals following oxidation of acid sulphate soils, and may be harmful to estuarine crustaceans. We tested the acute toxicity and sub-lethal effects of Al for School Prawn (Metapenaeus macleayi), through a series of experiments conducted under normal (pH 8) and acidic (pH 5) conditions. Experimental data were used to examine mortality. Also, histological examination of the gills and hepatopancreas was conducted to determine pathological consequences of exposure to these stressors. School Prawn did not experience mortality in response to acute exposure to Al under normal pH conditions, but mortality and tissue bioaccumulation of Al was greater under acidic conditions, suggesting an interactive effect of both stressors. Histology revealed sub-lethal effects of Al including structural abnormalities in the gills and hepatopancreas, and evidence of viral infection and immune response, particularly at lower pH and higher Al concentrations. These impacts may impede major vital functions such as respiration, osmotic regulation, metabolism and growth of juvenile School Prawn, which could contribute to productivity bottlenecks in degraded estuaries.
... In high concentrations, these metals are potential pollutants that can have unfavourable * Corresponding author effects on aquatic systems, and in addition to aquatic organisms, such as fish, shrimps, mollusks and crayfish [2,3]. Crustaceans are accepted as bioindicators of environmental pollution and generally observed to evaluate the aquatic environment quality [4][5][6]. Crayfish live in junction with the alluvium where metals amass, and are recognized to collect trace metals in their body tissues [7][8][9]. Crayfish easily accumulate heavy metals in tissues and also meet other criteria, which make them suitable as bioindicators of heavy metals in the environment. ...
Preprint
The freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Esch-scholtz, 1823) is a valuable and protected invertebrate species and the only native and dominant species in the big lakes of Turkey, such as Iznik Lake (Bursa, Turkey). In this study, bioaccumulation of some heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) in abdominal muscle tissue of Astacus leptodactylus samples collected between November 2008 and December 2009 was examined. Heavy metal contents in muscle tissues were measured by AAS analysis. According to the obtained data, the levels of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb for the studied samples were within normal ranges, and lower than all the recommended legal limits. The descending order of heavy metal concentrations found in crayfish is Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb. Heavy metal concentrations in freshwater crayfish samples were compared with the maximum permitted levels of heavy metals in seafood regulated by the EU, FAO and Turkish Food Codex limits. The results showed that there was no serious hazard in the samples in terms of the Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb values analyzed from Iznik Lake, Bursa, Turkey.
... Similar to the blackening in gills, abdomen, carapace and appendages observed in M. dayanum have also been recorded in Penaeus duroranum, Palaemonetes pugio and Palaemonetes vulgaris after CdCl 2 , Caradina rajadhari after CuSO 4 , Palaemonetes pugio after chromium VI, Caradina rajadhari and M. kistenensis after Hg and M. dayanum as well as M. lamarrei after Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cu exposures (Sharma and Shukla, 2006;Verma et al, 2005;Lodhi et al, 2006;Tiwari, 2009;Verma, 2012). Gill blackening might be due to death of cells in gill tissue and melanin deposition. ...
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... In high concentrations, these metals are potential pollutants that can have unfavourable * Corresponding author effects on aquatic systems, and in addition to aquatic organisms, such as fish, shrimps, mollusks and crayfish [2,3]. Crustaceans are accepted as bioindicators of environmental pollution and generally observed to evaluate the aquatic environment quality [4][5][6]. Crayfish live in junction with the alluvium where metals amass, and are recognized to collect trace metals in their body tissues [7][8][9]. Crayfish easily accumulate heavy metals in tissues and also meet other criteria, which make them suitable as bioindicators of heavy metals in the environment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823) is a valuable and protected invertebrate species and the only native and dominant species in the big lakes of Turkey, such as Iznik Lake (Bursa, Turkey). In this study, bioaccumulation of some heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) in abdominal muscle tissue of Astacus leptodactylus samples collected between November 2008 and December 2009 was examined. Heavy metal contents in muscle tissues were measured by AAS analysis. According to the obtained data, the levels of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb for the studied samples were within normal ranges, and lower than all the recommended legal limits. The descending order of heavy metal concentrations found in crayfish is Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb. Heavy metal concentrations in freshwater crayfish samples were compared with the maximum permitted levels of heavy metals in seafood regulated by the EU, FAO and Turkish Food Codex limits. The results showed that there was no serious hazard in the samples in terms of the Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb values analyzed from Iznik Lake, Bursa, Turkey.
... Similar to the blackening in gills, abdomen, carapace and appendages observed in M. dayanum have also been recorded in Penaeus duroranum, Palaemonetes pugio and Palaemonetes vulgaris after CdCl 2 , Caradina rajadhari after CuSO 4 , Palaemonetes pugio after chromium VI, Caradina rajadhari and M. kistenensis after Hg and M. dayanum as well as M. lamarrei after Hg, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cu exposures (Sharma and Shukla, 2006;Verma et al, 2005;Lodhi et al, 2006;Tiwari, 2009;Verma, 2012). Gill blackening might be due to death of cells in gill tissue and melanin deposition. ...
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The object of our study was the investigation of the effects of aggressiveness on brain 5-HT concentration in ants genus Formica. The brain concentrations of 5-HT in ants is relatively high. The results indicate that both isolation, interspecies aggressiveness and intraspecies aggressiveness were accompanied by the increased brain serotonin.
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The authors report four instances of significant, essentially unprovoked aggressive behavior, including two homicides, following exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors. No subject had a history of violent behavior, antisocial personality, or major psychiatric or neurologic disorder. After anticholinesterase exposure ceased, all showed sincere remorse for their actions, and none has since engaged in aggressive or psychopathologic behavior. Well-controlled experimentation in animals suggests that enhanced activation of hypothalamic cholinergic receptors may underlie aggressive behavior in humans exposed to cholinesterase inhibitors. A relationship between cholinesterase inhibitors and aggression has important implications for public health, raising the possibility of unappreciated neurotoxic influences on behavior.
Article
Cd2+ and other divalent metals mobilized cell Ca2+ in human skin fibroblasts. The divalent metals produced a large spike in cytosolic free Ca2+ and strikingly increased net Ca2+ efflux similarly to bradykinin. One-tenth microM Cd2+ half-maximally increased 45Ca2+ efflux. The potency order of the Ca2+ mobilizing metals was: Cd2+ greater than Co2+ greater than Ni2+ greater than Fe2+ greater than Mn2+. Cd2+ probably acts at an extracellular site because loading the cells with a heavy metal chelator only slightly inhibited Cd2+-evoked 45Ca2+ efflux. Cd2+ increased [3H]inositol polyphosphates; [3H]inositol trisphosphate increased 4-fold in 15 s. Zn2+ reversibly blocked 45Ca2+ efflux evoked by Cd2+ but not that produced by bradykinin. Zn2+ competitively (Ki = approximately 0.4 microM) inhibited net Ca2+ efflux produced by Cd2+. Cd2+ also evoked Ca2+ mobilization in umbilical artery muscle, endothelial, and neuroblastoma cells, and the divalent cation agonist and antagonist specificities were similar to those in the fibroblasts. The divalent metals appear to trigger Ca2+ mobilization via a reversible interaction with an external site on the cell surface, which may be considered a "Cd2+ receptor."
Article
In this review some of the evidence relating behavioral alterations induced by 2 neurotoxic chemicals, lead acetate and methyl mercury is presented with an attempt to relate these changes to the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In the case of neonatal lead poisoning, the results of the early behavioral studies were confounded by excessive lead concentrations resulting in undernutrition of the pups. Subsequent studies in both rodents and monkeys have shown that blood-lead concentrations comparable to those seen in children can induce behavioral alterations that may be related to hippocampal damage. In the case of methyl mercury which is a potent cytotoxic agent, prenatal exposure results in widespread cortical, and cerebellar alterations characterized by reduced myelination, delayed migration and loss of neurons. These morphological alterations are accompanied by permanent alterations in learning and memory as well as altered pharmacological sensitivity in catecholaminergic systems. Recommendations are made for better formulated behavioral and neurobiological assays in neurotoxicology in order to lead to a better understanding of the toxicity of chemicals.
Article
The occurrence of shell disease in three species of penaeid shrimp is reported. Chitinoclastic bacteria isolated from lesions on these shrimp and from lesions on the blue crab were classified as members of the genera Benec-kea, Vibrio, and Pseudonionas. One type of Bemtekea was present in all cases of shell disease encountered, making this organism suspect of being the causative agent.
Article
Experiments were carried out to determine the short-term toxicity of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) to Macrobrachium lamarrei (M. Edwards) and the effect of acute and sub-acute concentrations on haemolymph glucose level of the animal. The LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 5.44, 3.69, 2.47 and 1.84 mg/l, respectively. Exposure of K2Cr2O7 decreased the haemolymph glucose level up to 24 h but thereafter an increase in haemolymph glucose level was observed that continued up to 72 h. The haemolymph glucose level decreased after 96 h. The effects of K2Cr2O7 in relation to these changes and mortality of organisms were also discussed.
Article
The toxicological, physiological and biochemical responses of aquatic crustaceans to heavy metals have been reported by several investigators. Levels of glucose, lactic acid, sodium, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the blood of the crab Scylla serrata increased, while glycogen levels in hepatopancreas and muscle decreased after a four-week exposure to mercuric chloride. In fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, enzyme activity was observed to decrease in the hepatopancreas but increased in abdominal muscle after 48 hr cadmium exposure. In the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, exposed for 96 hr to cadmium, glutahione (GSH) level and GSH S-transferase activity deceased in the midgut. In crayfish Astacus astacus exposed to sublethal concentrations of lead and cadmium, oxidative enzyme (succine dehydrogenase and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase) activities in gills and hepatopancrease decreased. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by organophosphates and organocarbamates in various crustaceans has bee reported. In vivo cadmium exposure caused increases in esterase activities, but mercury exposure decreases these activities in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp Callianassa tyrrhena. The freshwater crab, Barytelphusa guerini, exposed to 0.6 ppm cadmium showed reduced oxygen consumption throughout the experiment whereas AChE activity increased after 4 days but decreased after 15 days. The authors wanted to determine the effects of cadmium, lead and mercury on AChE activity in central nervous tissue of Procambarus clarkii. This enzyme has the potential for serving both as a biochemical indicator of toxic stress and a sensitive parameter for testing water for the presence of toxicants. These three biologically silent metals have, according to Schweinsberg and Karsa great toxicological significance to humans because their use is widespread. 14 refs., 4 figs.
Article
The discharge of nickel into aquatic environments from numerous industries poses a threat to fish populations because of its toxicity. Although little is known, however, about the precise mechanism of its toxicity in freshwater fish (Chaudry and Nath 1985), it produces some of the symptoms associated with heavy-metal poisoning in general; it accumulates in fish tissues (Kulikova et al. 1985) and results in alterations in gill structure, including hypertrophy of respiratory and mucous cells, separation of the epithelial layer from the pillar cell system, cauterization and sloughing, and necrosis of the epithelium (Nath and Kumar 1989). The destruction of the gill lamellae decreases the ventilation rate and if severe, as after acute exposure, may cause blood hypoxia and death (Heath 1987). The effects of short-term exposure of fish to sublethal concentrations of nickel are not as well defined. The kinetic method of Ellgaard et al. (1975, 1977), which uses locomotor activity to assess the general health of fish, is ideally suited to examine whether sublethal concentrations of nickel adversely affect fish. In previous studies, the measured changes in locomotor activity observed when fish are exposed to pollutants correlate with more specific changes, e.g., physiological, biochemical, histological or neurosensory changes, which occur under the same conditions. Thus, the kinetic method also meets the criteria for pollution early warning systems as discussed by Cairns and van der Schale (1980). This method has previously been used to demonstrate that short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium, chromium, and zinc (Ellgaard et al. 1978) and copper (Ellgaard and Guillot 1988) are detrimental to the health of bluegills. The present study examines the effects of short-term exposures of sublethal concentrations of nickel on the locomotor activity of the goldfish, Carassius auratus.
Article
Despite the low concentrations of heavy metals in the surrounding medium, aquatic organisms take them up and accumulate them in their soft tissues to concentrations several fold higher than those of ambient levels (Bryan 1979; Rainbow et al. 1990). Knowledge of accumulation patterns of a particular trace metal is a prerequisite for understanding the significance of an observed metal concentration in a particular animal, especially from the aspect of biomonitoring. Many marine invertebrates accumulate heavy metals without any regulation and the accumulation necessarily being associated with mechanisms to store the metals in a detoxified form. Two detoxification mechanisms have been described, both of which may occur in one specimen. Heavy metals can either be bound up in insoluble metalliferous 'granules' (Mason and Nott 1981), or are bound to soluble metal-binding ligands, such as metallothioneins (Roesijadi 1992). Some marine decapod crustaceans have an innate ability to regulate the internal concentrations of essential but potentially toxic metals within a constant level, presumably to meet their metabolic demands (Rainbow 1985, 1992). However, at present, there is no such information relating to freshwater decapod crustaceans, especially shrimps which occupy a totally different environment. Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (Milne Edwards), a potential aquaculture species for freshwater is found in abundance in one of the major Indian rivers, the Cauvery. In the present study, an attempt was made to determine whether the freshwater prawn, M. malcolmsonii, is able to regulate the three essential elements, copper, chromium and zinc, over a wide range of dissolved concentrations. These three metals were chosen because the Cauvery River receives pollutants containing these metals (Vijayram et al. 1990).
Article
Cadmium, lead, mercury, and aluminum are toxic metals that may interact metabolically with nutritionally essential metals. Iron deficiency increases absorption of cadmium, lead, and aluminum. Lead interacts with calcium in the nervous system to impair cognitive development. Cadmium and aluminum interact with calcium in the skeletal system to produce osteodystrophies. Lead replaces zinc on heme enzymes and cadmium replaces zinc on metallothionein. Selenium protects from mercury and methylmercury toxicity. Aluminum interacts with calcium in bone and kidneys, resulting in aluminum osteodystrophy. Calcium deficiency along with low dietary magnesium may contribute to aluminum-induced degenerative nervous disease.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the potential use of the freshwater river crab, Potamonautes warreni, as a bioaccumulative indicator of iron and manganese pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Water and sediment analysis of the two study sites (Germiston Lake and Potchefstroom Dam) revealed that while levels of manganese were higher in Germiston Lake, iron concentrations were higher in Potchefstroom Dam. Metal analysis of P. warreni revealed that while the crabs from Potchefstroom Dam contained slightly higher iron levels than those from Germiston Lake, manganese concentrations in P. warreni from the latter site were significantly higher than those in the crabs from the former site. Iron and manganese levels in these organisms were influenced by the size, mass, and sex of the crabs on occasion, but these relationships were not always consistent at both of the sites. The results of this study clearly indicate that the ultimate levels of iron and manganese attained in P. warreni do vary depending on the site from which animals are collected. From this, it is suggested that these crustaceans be incorporated into biomonitoring protocols, particularly in areas that are subjected to elevated metal levels in the environment
Article
Toxicity and uptake data for Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri generated by nickel in systems using three natural sediments (trout farms: El Oyamel, El Truchón, and El Potrero), are presented. Nickel uptake and hemoglobin concentration were studied in L. hoffmeisteri exposed to spiked sediments. Nickel concentration and its toxic effect on hemoglobin were used as indicators of exposure. Sediment texture was also considered. Hemoglobin concentration decreased after treatment with nickel. The hemoglobin concentration test indicated a response to the bioavailability of nickel. This investigation clearly documents that sediments of El Truchón, El Oyamel, and El Potrero exhibit a toxicity potential. These results suggest the usefulness of diversity of bioassays for evaluating the toxicity of sediments polluted with heavy metals.
Article
The expression of aggressiveness, which constitutes many facets of behavior, is influenced by a complex interaction of biologic, psychologic, and social variables. Even though individual differences in impulsivity and the behavioral consequences, such as aggression, addiction, and suicidality, are substantially heritable, they ultimately result from an interplay between genetic variations and environmental factors. While formation and integration of multiple neural networks is dependent on the actions of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin (5HT), converging lines of evidence indicate that genetically determined variability in serotonergic gene expression influences complex traits including that of inappropriately aggressive behavior. This contribution reviews studies of major gene effects in inbred and knockout strains of mice with increased aggression-related behavior and discusses the relevance of several serotonergic gene variations in humans which include high aggressiveness as part of the phenotype. Although special emphasis is given to the molecular psychobiology of 5HT in aggression-related behavior in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans, relevant conceptual and methodological issues in the search for candidate genes for impulsivity and aggressiveness and for the development of mouse models of aggressive and antisocial behavior in humans are also considered.
Article
Acute and chronic toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effects of nickel on three U.S. west coast marine species: a fish (the topsmelt, Atherinops affinis), a mollusk (the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens), and a crustacean (the mysid, Mysidopsis intii). The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for topsmelt was 26,560 microg/L, and the chronic value for the most sensitive endpoint in a 40-d exposure was 4,270 microg/L. The median effective concentration (EC50) for 48-h abalone larval development was 145.5 microg/L, and the chronic value for juvenile growth in a 22-d exposure through larval metamorphosis was 26.43 microgAL. The mysid 96-h LC50 was 148.6 microg/L, and the chronic value for the most sensitive endpoint in a 28-d, whole life-cycle exposure was 22.09 microg/L. The abalone and mysid acute values were lower than other values available in the literature. Acute-to-chronic ratios for nickel toxicity to the three species were 6.220, 5.505, and 6.727, respectively, which were similar to the only other available saltwater value of 5.478 (for Americamysis [Mysidopsis] bahia) and significantly lower than the existing values of 35.58 and 29.86 for freshwater organisms. Incorporation of data from the present study into calculations for water quality criteria would lower the criterion maximum concentration and raise the criterion continuous concentration for nickel.
Article
Catla catla, under the sublethal stress of cadmium exhibited depletion in food utilization parameters and it was concentration dependent. Heavy metal intoxication was found to exhibit reduction in biomass.