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Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of Holarctic species of Pluteus section Pluteus (Agaricales: Pluteaceae), with description of twelve new species

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Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of Holarctic species of Pluteus section Pluteus (Agaricales: Pluteaceae), with description of twelve new species

Abstract and Figures

The taxonomy and phylogeography of Pluteus section Pluteus in the Holarctic region was investigated using morphological and molecular data. Over 300 specimens spanning the major areas of boreal and temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere were studied and nrITS and tef1 were obtained for phylogenetic analyses. In order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group all available type collections were studied and, if possible, sequenced. A total of 26 species occurring in Eurasia and North America were recovered in the phylogenetic analyses. Twelve species are described as new (Pluteus rangifer, P. elaphinus, P. hibbettii, P. eos, P. orestes, P. methvenii, P. shikae, P. kovalenkoi, P. leucoborealis, P. sepiicolor, P. oreibatus, P. atrofibrillosus), one is provisionally named (P. parilis) and one variety is raised to species rank (P. americanus). In many cases separation of the species based on morphology alone is challenging. In general, tef1 distinguishes the species better than nrITS. Structured infraspecific genetic variation was detected in the nrITS phylogenies for five species (P. atromarginatus, P. hibbettii, P. orestes, P. primus and P. shikae) and in the tef1 phylogenies for P. cervinus. Phylogeographic patterns are strikingly different among the species in this group and include widespread Holarctic species, exclusively Palearctic, putative disjuncts and endemics in each Holarctic subregion (Eastern/Western Palearctic and Nearctic). Identification keys are provided for each subregion.
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Accepted by Genevieve Gates: 21 Aug. 2013; published: 24 Sept. 2014
1
PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN
1179-3163
(online edition)
Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press
Phytotaxa 180 (1): 001–085
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Monograph
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.180.1.1
PHYTOTAXA
Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of Holarctic
species of Pluteus section Pluteus (Agaricales: Pluteaceae),
with description of twelve new species
ALFREDO JUSTO
1
, EKATERINA MALYSHEVA
2
, TATIANA BULYONKOVA
3
, ELSE C. VELLINGA
4
,
GERRY COBIAN
5
, NHU NGUYEN
6
, ANDREW M. MINNIS
7
& DAVID S. HIBBETT
8
1
Clark University, Biology Department, 950 Main St., Worcester, Massachusetts 01610, U.S.A; ajusto@clarku.edu
2
Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prof. Popova Str. 2, St Petersburg, RUS-197376, Russia;
ef.malysheva@gmail.com
3
A. P. Ershov Institute of Informatics Systems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Lavrentjev pr., 6, Novosibirsk, RUS-630090,
Russia; ressaure@gmail.com
4
Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-3102, U.S.A; ecvellinga@comcast.net
5
Botany Department, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822, USA; gmcobian@hawaii.edu
6
Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, St. Paul, MN, USA; nhnguyen@umn.edu
7
USDA-U.S. Forest Service, Center for Forest Mycology Research, One Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison, Wisconsin 53726, USA;
minnis@wisc.edu
8
Clark University, Biology Department, 950 Main St., Worcester, Massachusetts 01610, U.S.A; dhibbett@clarku.edu
Magnolia Press
Auckland, New Zealand
180
JUSTO ET AL.
2
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
ALFREDO JUSTO, EKATERINA MALYSHEVA, TATIANA BULYONKOVA, ELSE C. VELLINGA,
GERRY COBIAN, NHU NGUYEN, ANDREW M. MINNIS & DAVID S. HIBBETT
Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of Holarctic species of Pluteus section Pluteus (Agaricales:
Pluteaceae), with description of twelve new species
(Phytotaxa 180)
85 pp.; 30 cm.
24 Sept 2014
ISBN 978-1-77557-495-8 (paperback)
ISBN 978-1-77557-496-5 (Online edition)
F
IRST
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UBLISHED I
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2014 B
Y
Magnolia Press
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other than private research use.
ISSN 1179-3155 (Print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (Online edition)
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
3
HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Table of contents
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Material and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Taxonomic Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
I. cervinus clade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
II. pouzarianus clade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
III. brunneidiscus clade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
IV. petasatus clade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
V. salicinus clade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
VI. atromarginatus clade. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Identification keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Abstract
The taxonomy and phylogeography of Pluteus section Pluteus in the Holarctic region was investigated using morphological
and molecular data. Over 300 specimens spanning the major areas of boreal and temperate forests of the Northern Hemisphere
were studied and nrITS and tef1 were obtained for phylogenetic analyses. In order to stabilize the taxonomy of the group all
available type collections were studied and, if possible, sequenced. A total of 26 species occurring in Eurasia and North
America were recovered in the phylogenetic analyses. Twelve species are described as new (Pluteus rangifer, P. elaphinus, P.
hibbettii, P. eos, P. orestes, P. methvenii, P. shikae, P. kovalenkoi, P. leucoborealis, P. sepiicolor, P. oreibatus, P. atrofibrillosus),
one is provisionally named (P. parilis) and one variety is raised to species rank (P. americanus). In many cases separation of the
species based on morphology alone is challenging. In general, tef1 distinguishes the species better than nrITS. Structured
infraspecific genetic variation was detected in the nrITS phylogenies for five species (P. atromarginatus, P. hibbettii, P. orestes,
P. primus and P. shikae) and in the tef1 phylogenies for P. cervinus. Phylogeographic patterns are strikingly different among the
species in this group and include widespread Holarctic species, exclusively Palearctic, putative disjuncts and endemics in each
Holarctic subregion (Eastern/Western Palearctic and Nearctic). Identification keys are provided for each subregion.
Introduction
The taxonomy of the genus Pluteus Fr. has recently been revised using molecular phylogenies, which essentially
upheld the morphologically recognized sections (Pluteus, Celluloderma Fayod and Hispidoderma Fayod) with
minor rearrangements (Justo et al. 2011a, 2011b). Section Pluteus Fr. accommodates the species with metuloid
hymenial cystidia and a pileipellis organized as a cutis, and includes the type species of the genus, Pluteus cervinus
(Schaeffer) Kummer (1874: 138) or “deer mushroom”. Pluteus cervinus is commonly depicted in popular field
guides (e.g. Bessette et al. 1997; Phillips 2010) and websites (e.g. http://mushroomobserver.org/; http://
www.mushroomexpert.com/pluteus_cervinus.html) although it has been suspected for a long time to be a complex
of several species (Singer 1956).
The questions about the actual number of species in section Pluteus that occur in the Northern Hemisphere, the
morphological characters that might be used to separate them and the correct names that should be applied to these
taxa have baffled mycologists for decades. Studies on section Pluteus in Europe (Kühner & Romagnesi 1953;
Singer 1956; Orton 1986; Bonnard 1986, 1987, 2001;Vellinga 1990) have recognized around thirteen species, with
numbers varying depending on taxonomic opinion, and with as many as seven described in the last three decades
(Singer 1984; Bonnard 1986, 1987, 1991, 2001; Deparis 2003; Justo & Castro 2007a,b). In North America, section
Pluteus has received considerable attention (Murill 1917; Singer 1956; Smith & Stuntz 1958; Banerjee & Sundberg
1993, 1995). A total of 18 species have been reported, again with discrepancies depending on the taxonomic
concepts of the different authors. Furthermore, many species names based on European material (P.
atromarginatus, P. cervinus, P. pellitus, P. patricius, P. petasatus, P. pouzarianus, P. salicinus) have been applied to
North American collections (Banerjee & Sundberg 1995; Rodríguez 2013).
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In the first comprehensive phylogenies of section Pluteus (Justo et al. 2011a, 2011b) 98 nrITS sequences, the
fungal barcode (Schoch et al. 2012), were analyzed, with a focus on collections from western Europe and eastern
North America with a few Asian, (sub-) tropical or Southern Hemisphere samples. Sixteen species or monophyletic
species-complexes were recognized, but in many cases nrITS alone proved insufficient to reach a conclusion about
the species diversity in section Pluteus. In addition, the difficulty in interpreting old names in the absence of
molecular data became evident.
In the present article we focus on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pluteus section Pluteus in the forested
areas (temperate and boreal) of the northern Hemisphere, which roughly corresponds to the Holarctic region as
commonly defined (Kreft & Jetz 2010) with the exception of northern Africa. To overcome the limitations of prior
studies we have: (i) expanded the sampling with more collections, especially from eastern Eurasia and western
North America; (ii) obtained molecular data from the protein-coding gene tef1 (translation-elongation factor 1-
alpha), which has proved to be a valuable alternative to nrITS for species delimitation in other groups of
mushroom-forming fungi (e.g. Buyck & Hofstetter 2011); and (iii) studied available type collections of previously
described holarctic taxa, and generated molecular data from them when possible.
Material and Methods
Fungal collections:—Three hundred and forty five fresh or dried collections of Pluteus section Pluteus were used
for both the morphological and molecular studies. These include (i) 70 collections, mostly from western Europe
and eastern North America, studied by Alfredo Justo and Drew Minnis, previously sampled for nrITS in the study
of Justo et al. (2011a) (ii) 104 collections from all over the Russian territory studied by Ekaterina Malysheva and
Tatiana Bulyonkova (iii) 46 collections from California (USA) studied by Else C. Vellinga, Gerry Cobian and Nhu
Nguyen (mostly from Point Reyes National Seashore and Yosemite National Park) and (iv) 125 collections, mostly
from eastern North America, with a few from Europe or western North America, including new collections
sampled for this project and 14 type specimens, studied by Justo and Minnis. In addition, twelve type collections
were examined morphologically but no molecular data could be obtained from them. Some of the Iberian
collections of section Pluteus listed in Justo & Castro (2007c) were used for the elaboration of some descriptions
and they are listed in the respective “collections examined” sections.
Collections were studied using standard procedures for morphological examination of section Pluteus (Justo &
Castro 2007a). The term “intermediate cystidia” refers to the pleurocystidia situated near the lamella edges, which
are described separately from the rest (Bonnard 1988). Descriptive terms for morphological features follow
Vellinga (1988). The notation [60, 3, 2] indicates that measurements were made of 60 basidiospores, from 3
samples in 2 collections. Color codes are from Munsell Soil Color Charts (Munsell Color 2009). The following
abbreviations are used in the descriptions: avl for average length, avw for average width, Q for quotient of length
and width and avQ for average quotient. Herbarium acronyms follow Thiers (2014).
Molecular data:—Protocols for DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing were the same as those outlined in
Justo & Hibbett (2011). PCR amplification and sequencing of the ITS region was performed using primers ITS1F
and ITS4 (White et al. 1990; Gardes & Bruns 1993). Primers EF1-983F and EF1-1567R were used to amplify
approximately 500bp of tef1 (Rehner & Buckley 2005), using the touchdown PCR protocol described in Justo &
Hibbett (2011). Raw sequence data were edited and assembled in Sequencher 4.7 (Gene Codes Corporation) and
MEGA 5 (Tamura et al. 2011).
Phylogenetic analyses:—In addition to the sequences generated here, 29 nrITS sequences were retrieved from
GenBank (Benson et al. 2011) and their accession numbers are given in the corresponding figures. The taxonomic
identities of these sequences are given as they appear on GenBank. Both the nrITS and tef1 sequences were aligned
using MAFFT version 7.110 (Katoh & Toh 2008) and the strategy FFT-NS-i was selected. The alignments were
manually corrected using MacClade 4.08 (Maddison & Maddison 2002). For the combined datasets the individual
alignment files were concatenated in MacClade. Three different datasets were assembled for the phylogenetic
analyses: nrITS, tef1 and combined (nrITS + tef1). In all datasets two representatives of Pluteus section
Celluloderma, Pluteus aff. romellii (nrITS AY854065, tef1 AY883433) and Pluteus aureovenatus Menolli &
Capelari (Menolli et al. 2010: 139; nrITS FJ816663, tef1 KJ010056), were used as outgroup taxa.
Three different phylogenetic analyses were performed for all the datasets: (i) Maximum likelihood (ML)
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
analyses were run in the RAxML servers, version 7.2.8 (Stamatakis & et al. 2008), under a GTR model with one
hundred rapid bootstrap (BS) replicates (ii) equally weighted parsimony analyses were performed using PAUP
*4.0.b10 (Swofford 2002). One thousand heuristic search replicates were performed with starting trees generated
by stepwise addition with random addition sequences followed by tree bisection reconnection branch swapping. Up
to two trees were kept in each replicate. Parsimony BS analysis was performed with 1000 replicates, each with 10
random taxon addition sequences and branch swapping set to subtree pruning and regrafting; (iii) Bayesian (BY)
analyses were run using MrBayes (Ronquist & Huelsenbeck 2003) at the Cipres Science Gateway (Miller & et al.
2010; MrBayes version 3.2.2) for 10 million generations, under a GTR model, with four chains, and trees sampled
every 1000 generations. The initial burn-in phase was set to 2.5 million generations after examining the graphic
representation of the likelihood scores of the sampled trees which confirmed that this is an adequate value for all
datasets. A fifty percent majority rule consensus tree was computed using the remaining trees. A node is considered
to be strongly supported if it receives support in at least two of the three analyses by a BS value equal or greater
than 70% and/or a posterior probability (PP) equal or greater than 0.95. A search for potential conflicts between the
nrITS and tef1 datasets was performed by comparing the resulting trees for each dataset and looking for strongly
supported positive conflict.
Characterization of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPS):—We visually inspected the nrITS and tef1
alignments to search for SNPS that characterized putative infraspecific lineages in each of the 26 species studied
here. Apparently heterozygous positions (Y, R, W, etc.) were verified by visual inspection of the electropherograms
using Sequencher 4.7 (Gene Codes Corporation) and MEGA 5 (Tamura et al. 2011). All nucleotide position
numbers used in the results section refer to the individual nrITS and tef1 alignments deposited in TreeBASE
(S15767).
Results
New Sequences and alignments:Five hundred and twenty seven new sequences were generated for this study:
275 nrITS and 252 tef1. GenBank accession numbers are given for each studied collection after the herbarium
number. Alignments have been deposited in TreeBASE (S15767).
Combined dataset:—The dataset includes 376 isolates of Pluteus section Pluteus: 248 are represented by both
nrITS and tef1 sequence data, 126 only by nrITS data and two have only tef1 data. The final dataset consists of
1279 characters (gaps included): 762 constant, 69 parsimony uninformative and 448 parsimony informative. In the
MP analyses 422 most parsimonious trees were recovered (Length = 1263; CI = 0.60, RI = 0.97).
The overall topologies of the MP, ML and BY trees are very similar, with six major clades recovered (Fig. 1a):
cervinus, pouzarianus, brunneidiscus, petasatus, salicinus and atromarginatus. All these clades and their backbone
relationships are supported, with the exception of the pouzarianus clade (only supported in the ML analysis) and
the grouping of the cervinus, pouzarianus and brunneidiscus clades (only supported in the MP analysis).
The cervinus clade (Fig. 2a) includes six species (P. cervinus, P. exilis, P. rangifer, P. hongoi, P. elaphinus and
P. alniphilus), all supported as monophyletic except P. rangifer. The isolates of P. rangifer appear as a non-
monophyletic assemblage in a supported clade that also includes P. exilis. All sister-clade relationships are
supported.
The pouzarianus clade (Fig. 3a) includes seven species (P. pouzarianus, P. hibbettii, P. eos, P. parilis, P.
orestes, P. primus and P. m et hv en i i ), all supported as monophyletic. The isolates of P. hibbettii appear as two
distinct subclades according to their geographic origin (Eurasian vs. North American). The sister taxon relationship
of P. primus and P. methvenii and the grouping of P. pouzarianus, P. hibbettii and P. eo s in one clade are supported
but other sister-clade relationships receive no statistical support.
The brunneidiscus clade (Fig. 4a) includes three species (P. brunneidiscus, P. shikae and P. kovalenkoi), all
supported as monophyletic. The isolates of P. brunneidiscus and P. s h ik ae appear as two distinct subclades. All
sister-clade relationships are supported.
The petasatus clade (Fig. 5a) includes three species (P. petasatus, P. pellitus and P. leucoborealis), all
supported as monophyletic. Some internal subclades in P. petasatus and P. pellitus receive good statistical support.
The sister-taxa relationships between these three species are not supported.
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Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 1. Best tree from the ML analyses of the combined dataset. Support Values (ML/MP/BY) are given on or below the
branches.
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FIGURE 2. Detail of the best trees from the ML analyses of the combined (a), nrITS (b) and tef1 datasets (c) focusing on the
cervinus clade. Support Values (ML/MP/BY) are given on or below the branches. For each collection the collection number and
country information are given. In the case of Canada (CAN), Russia (RU) and the United States of America (USA), the name of
the province/federal district/state is also included.
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FIGURE 3. Detail of the best trees from the ML analyses of the combined (a), nrITS (b) and tef1 datasets (c) focusing on the
pouzarianus clade. Support Values (ML/MP/BY) are given on or below the branches. For each collection the collection number
and country information are given. In the case of Canada (CAN), Russia (RU) and the United States of America (USA), the
name of the province/federal district/state is also included.
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
FIGURE 4. Detail of the best trees from the ML analyses of the combined (a), nrITS (b) and tef1 datasets (c) focusing on the
brunneidiscus clade. Support Values (ML/MP/BY) are given on or below the branches. For each collection the collection
number and country information are given. In the case of Canada (CAN), Russia (RU) and the United States of America
(USA), the name of the province/federal district/state is also included.
The salicinus clade (Fig. 6a) includes five species (P. salicinus, P. americanus, P. sepiicolor, P. oreibatus and P.
saupei), all supported as monophyletic except P. salicinus. The isolates of P. s al i ci nus do appear as a monophyletic
group but that grouping only receives support in the ML analysis. The P. americanus isolate from the Russian Far
East (LE 289369) appears as sister to all the American isolates. All sister-clade relationships are well supported
except the grouping of P. sepiicolor, P. americanus and P. salicinus.
The atromarginatus clade (Fig. 7a) includes two species (P. atromarginatus and P. atrofibrillosus), both
supported as monophyletic. The isolates of P. atromarginatus appear as two subclades according to their
geographic origin (Eurasian vs. North American) but these clades receive no support.
nrITS dataset:—The dataset includes 374 isolates of Pluteus section Pluteus. The final dataset consists of 701
characters (gaps included): 410 constant, 55 parsimony uninformative and 236 parsimony informative. In the MP
analyses 1308 most parsimonious trees were recovered (Length = 625; CI = 0.66, RI = 0.98). The overall topology
of the MP, ML and BY trees is essentially the same.
The most notable differences with respect to the combined analyses regarding topology and statistical support
include: (i) none of the backbone nodes of the phylogeny receives support (ii) the cervinus clade does not receive
statistical support, although the cervinus clade minus P. alniphilus does (Fig. 2b) (iii) the species of the pouzarianus
clade do not form a clade, instead they appear as a non-monophyletic assemblage between the brunneidiscus and
cervinus clades (Fig. 3b) (iv) the isolates of the following species are not recovered as monophyletic: P. rangifer
(Fig. 2b), P. hibbettii & P. o r es t e s (Fig. 3b), P. pellitus (Fig. 5b), P. salicinus & P. americanus (Fig. 6b) and P.
atromarginatus (Fig. 7b).
tef1 dataset:—The dataset includes 250 isolates of section Pluteus, and consists of 578 characters (gaps
included): 352 constant, 14 parsimony uninformative and 212 parsimony informative. In the MP analyses 1198
most parsimonious trees were recovered (Length = 608; CI = 0.57, RI = 0.97). The overall topology of the MP, ML
and BY trees is very similar, although they differ in the position of Pluteus eos. In the ML tree the isolates of P. eo s
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FIGURE 5. Detail of the best trees from the ML analyses of the combined (a), nrITS (b) and tef1 datasets (c) focusing on the
petasatus clade. Support Values (ML/MP/BY) are given on or below the branches. For each collection the collection number
and country information are given. In the case of Canada (CAN), Russia (RU) and the United States of America (USA), the
name of the province/federal district/state is also included.
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
FIGURE 6. Detail of the best trees from the ML analyses of the combined (a), nrITS (b) and tef1 datasets (c) focusing on the
salicinus clade. Support Values (ML/MP/BY) are given on or below the branches. For each collection the collection number
and country information are given. In the case of Canada (CAN), Russia (RU) and the United States of America (USA), the
name of the province/federal district/state is also included.
appear as a non-monophyletic assemblage in the same clade as P. hibbettii (Fig. 3c); in the BY analysis they are
recovered as a non-monophyletic assemblage in a more inclusive clade with P. pouzarianus (and separate from P.
hibbettii); and in the MP analysis they appear alternatively as a non-monophyletic group together with P. hibbettii
or as the monophyletic sister-species of P. hibbettii.
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FIGURE 7. Detail of the best trees from the ML analyses of the combined (a), nrITS (b) and tef1 datasets (c) focusing on the
atromarginatus clade. Support Values (ML/MP/BY) are given on or below the branches. For each collection the collection
number and country information are given. In the case of Canada (CAN), Russia (RU) and the United States of America
(USA), the name of the province/federal district/state is also included.
The most notable differences with respect to the combined and nrITS analyses regarding topology and
statistical support include: (i) all taxa recovered as non-monophyletic in the nrITS analyses (see above) are
recovered as monophyletic in the tef1 analyses. Pluteus rangifer, the only species recovered as non-monophyletic
in the combined analyses, does appear as monophyletic in the tef1 analyses (Fig. 2c) (ii) Pluteus elaphinus appears
as sister to the clade including P. cervinus, P. exilis and P. rangifer (Fig. 2c), while in the nrITS and combined
analyses P. hongoi appears in that position (iii) Pluteus brunneidiscus is not recovered as monophyletic (Fig. 4c)
(iv) Pluteus oreibatus and P. sepiicolor appear as sister-taxa (Fig. 6c).
Conflicts between nrITS and tef1 datasets:—The following differences between these datasets are
statistically supported as conflicts: (i) the alternative placement of P. elaphinus (tef1) and P. hongoi (nrITS) as sister
to the clade including P. cervinus, P. exilis and P. rangifer (Fig. 2). In the combined dataset these taxa appear in the
same positions as in the nrITS dataset (ii) the monophyly (tef1) vs. non-monophyly (nrITS) of P. hibbettii (Fig. 3).
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
In the combined dataset P. hibbettii appears as monophyletic (iii) the sister-taxa (tef1) vs. non sister-taxa (nrITS)
relationship of P. oreibatus and P. sepiicolor (Fig. 6). In the combined dataset they do not appear as sister-taxa; (iv.)
the monophyly (tef1) vs. non-monophyly (nrITS) of P. atromarginatus (Fig. 7). In the combined dataset P.
atromarginatus appears as monophyletic.
Species with structured nrITS variation:—In five of the 26 species studied here we observed the presence of
different nrITS groups that were associated with a certain geographic origin and/or appear as well-supported clades
in the nrITS phylogenies. (i) P. hibbettii (Fig. 3b). Eurasian and North American collections differ in seven SNPS
(Table 1) (ii) P. primus (Fig. 3b). The collections from Germany have 2 SNP unique to them and the North
American collections have one unique SNP (Table 2) (iii) P. orestes (Fig. 3b). The collections labelled as orestes I
differ from the collections UC1998591 and UC1998602 in five SNPS , while the collections MO80923 and
MO93766 are heterozygous at those positions (Table 3) (iv) P. s hi k a e (Fig. 4b). Collections TNS-F 12360, TNS-F
12356 and LE89383 differ from the collections TNS-F 12349 and TNS-F 12348 in two SNPS (Table 4) (v) P.
atromarginatus (Fig. 7b). Eurasian and North American collections differ in 4 SNPS and a five nucleotide indel
(Table 5).
TABLE 1. SNPS that characterize the different nrITS types of Pluteus hibbettii. Nucleotide positions are given according to the
alignment deposited in TreeBASE (S15767).
TABLE 2. SNPS that characterize the different nrITS types of Pluteus primus. Nucleotide positions are given according to the
alignment deposited in TreeBASE (S15767).
TABLE 3. SNPS that characterize the different nrITS types of Pluteus orestes. Nucleotide positions are given according to the
alignment deposited in TreeBASE (S15767).
TABLE 4. SNPS that characterize the different nrITS types of Pluteus shikae. Nucleotide positions are given according to the
alignment deposited in TreeBASE (S15767).
TABLE 5. SNPS and indels that characterize the different nrITS types of Pluteus atromarginatus. Nucleotide positions are
given according to the alingment deposited in TreeBASE (S15767).
6 27 29 120 164 477 579
Eurasian collections A A T A G - T
North American collections G T C G A A G
178 460 552
German Collections C A A
Other Eurasian collections T A T
North American collections T G T
29 81 224 476 561
orestes I collections (Fig. 3) T T T C G
UC1998591 and UC1998602 C C A T T
MO80923 and MO93766 Y Y W Y K
4132
TNS-F 12360. TNS-F 12356 and LE 89383 A C
TNS-F 12349 and TNS-F 12348 G T
39 98 219 222-225 517 537
Eurasian collections C G C AAAT T T
North American collections T A – – – – C C
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FIGURE 8. Detail of the Best tree from the ML analyses of the tef1 dataset highlighting the distribution of tef1 alelles in P.
cervinus.
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15
HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Species with structured tef1 variation:—In P. cervinus we observed the presence of two different tef1
variants. Given the single-copy nature of tef1 these variants were inferred to represent two allelic variants, and
collections with no double peaks in the tef1 electropherograms were inferred to be homozygous for this locus. The
distribution of these alleles, named for convenience cervinus-tef1A and cervinus-tef1B, is correlated with the
geographic origin of the collections (Fig. 8). Nineteen collections were inferred to be homozygous cervinus-tef1A,
26 are homozygous cervinus-tef1B and 7 are heterozygous AB. Both alleles differ in 8 SNPS (Table 6). Four of
these 8 polymorphic sites are situated on intron regions of tef1 and the other four are situated on coding regions.
The SNP at position 250 causes an amino acid change between aspartic acid (GAC) in cervinus-tef1A and glutamic
acid (GAA) in cervinus-tef1B. The SNP at position 371 causes an amino acid change between proline (CCC) in
cervinus-tef1A and alanine (GCC) in cervinus-tef1B.
TABLE 6. SNPS that characterize the different tef1 alleles types of Pluteus cervinus. Nucleotide positions are given according
to the alignment deposited in TreeBASE (S15767).
Taxonomic Part
Here we present the descriptions of the 26 species currently known to occur in the Holarctic region. Generally
speaking, morphological variation tends to be gradual and with some level of overlap between closely related
species. There are very few clear-cut morphological or ecological differences, and in many cases identification of
individual collections without molecular data will not be possible. Even with these caveats, we firmly believe that
describing and naming these taxa is critical for a correct understanding of the natural history of section Pluteus.
Regional endemics in this group are in need of further study to establish their conservation status.
We have kept the individual observations under each species as concise as possible, and avoided repetition
whenever possible, e.g. if a pair of species is compared under the observations for one of them they will not be
compared again in the observations for the other one. The reader is referred to the discussion section and to the
synoptic key (Table 7) for further insights into the morphological variation in section Pluteus and an overview of
the morphological differences between the species described here.
TABLE 7. Synoptic key based on the macromorphology, habitat, distribution across the Holarctic region and microscopic
characters for the species described in this article. + = present; - = absent; (+) = rarely present
244 250 371 382 385 409 426
473
homozygous cervinus-tef1A collections T C C C T G T
C
homozygous cervinus-tef1B collections C T G T C A C
T
heterozygous AB collections Y Y S Y Y R Y
Y
Brown
lamellar
edge
Blue-green
tinges
on pileus or
stipe
On
angiosperm
wood
On
conifer
wood
On wood
chips,
sawdust, or
terrestrial
In
temperate
forests
In
boreal
forests
In
transitional
or montane
forests
P. cervinus -- +(+)(+)+-+
P. exilis -- ++- +- -
P. rangifer -- +-- -++
P. hongoi -- +-+ +-(+)
P. elaphinus -- +-- --+
...... continued on the next page
JUSTO ET AL.
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TABLE 7 (continued)
TABLE 7 (continued)
Brown
lamellar
edge
Blue-green
tinges
on pileus or
stipe
On
angiosperm
wood
On
conifer
wood
On wood
chips,
sawdust, or
terrestrial
In
temperate
forests
In
boreal
forests
In
transitional
or montane
forests
P. alniphilus -- +-- --+
P. pouzarianus -- -+(+)+++
P. hibbettii -- -+- -++
P. eos + / - - - + - - + +
P. orestes + / - - - + (+) - - +
P. primus -- -++ +++
P. methvenii -- -+- +++
P. brunneidiscus -- +-+ +-+
P. shikae -- +-- +-+
P. kovalenkoi -- -+- --+
P. petasatus -- +-+ +- -
P. pellitus -- +-(+)+- -
P. leucoborealis -- +-- -++
P. salicinus -+ +-- +- +
P. americanus -+ +-- +- +
P. sepiicolor -- -+- --+
P. oreibatus -- -+- --+
P. saupei -+ ??? +- -
P. atromarginatus +- -+(+)+- +
P. atrofibrillosus +- -+- +- +
Western Palearctic Eastern Palearctic Western Nearctic Eastern Nearctic
P. cervinus ++(+)+
P. exilis --+-
P. rangifer ++ - +
P. hongoi ++ - +
P. elaphinus ---+
P. alniphilus ++ - -
P. pouzarianus +---
...... continued on the next page
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
TABLE 7 (continued)
TABLE 7 (continued)
Western Palearctic Eastern Palearctic Western Nearctic Eastern Nearctic
P. hibbettii -+-+
P. eos -+-+
P. orestes --+-
P. primus +-++
P. methvenii ---+
P. brunneidiscus ++++
P. shikae -+- -
P. kovalenkoi +---
P. petasatus ++++
P. pellitus +---
P. leucoborealis ++++
P. salicinus ++ - -
P. americanus -+-+
P. sepiicolor -+- -
P. oreibatus ---+
P. saupei ---+
P. atromarginatus ++++
P. atrofibrillosus ---+
Basidiospores Hooks on
pleurocystidia
(predominant
type)
Intermediate
Cystidia
(predominant
type)
Cheilocystidia
(predominant
type)
Clamp-
connections
on pileipellis
avl avw avQ
P. cervinus 7.0–8.1 5.0–5.7 1.35–1.50 entire no predominant
type
clavate
no
P. exilis 7.0–7.5 5.1–5.3 1.38–1.47 entire no predominant
type
clavate
no
P. rangifer 7.2–-7.6 5.0–5.8 1.31–-1.43 entire fusiform and
without hooks
clavate
no
P. hongoi 6.7–7.6 5.0–5.7 1.26–1.45 bifid no predominant
type
clavate
no
P. elaphinus 7.0–-7.8 5.0–5.8 1.34–1.42 bifid no predominant
type
clavate
no
P. alniphilus 7.3–-7.4 4.8–-5.1 1.44–-1.51 entire no predominant
type
clavate to
narrowly
clavate
yes
...... continued on the next page
JUSTO ET AL.
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TABLE 7 (continued)
Basidiospores Hooks on
pleurocystidia
(predominant
type)
Intermediate
Cystidia
(predominant
type)
Cheilocystidia
(predominant
type)
Clamp-
connections
on pileipellis
avl avw avQ
P. pouzarianus 6.8–7.5 4.8–5.2 1.35–1.52 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
P. hibbettii 7.3–7.6 4.5–4.7 1.50–1.65 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
P. eos 7.7–8.2 5.4–5.7 1.41–1.45 bifid no predominant
type
narrowly
clavate to
cylindrical
yes
P. orestes 9.0–9.9 6.0–7.3 1.35–1.51 indistinct no predominant
type
narrowly
clavate to
cylindrical
yes
P. primus 7.8–8.4 5.6–6.3 1.33–1.43 entire no predominant
type
narrowly
clavate to
cylindrical
yes
P. methvenii 7.1–8.9 5.3–5.9 1.33–-1.50 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
P. brunneidiscus 7.1–8.1 5.1–-6.2 1.30–1.45 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
P. shikae 6.5–7.1 4.4–5.0 1.42–1.56 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
P. kovalenkoi 7.8–8.2 5.2–5.5 1.49–1.60 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
P. petasatus 6.1–7.0 4.2–4.8 1.35–1.55 entire fusiform and
without hooks
clavate
no
P. pellitus 5.8–6.5 4.3–4.6 1.34–1.46 entire fusiform and
without hooks
clavate or
narrowly
clavate
yes
P. leucoborealis 6.8–7.4 5.3–5.5 1.26–1.36 entire fusiform and
without hooks
clavate
no
P. salicinus 8.3–9.5 6.2–6.8 1.32–1.48 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
P. americanus 7.9–8.5 5.6–6.1 1.35–1.44 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
P. sepiicolor 8.0–8.3 5.4–5.8 1.38–1.47 bifid no predominant
type
clavate to
narrowly
clavate
yes
P. oreibatus 7.9–8.3 5.5–5.9 1.42–1.45 indistinct no predominant
type
narrowly
clavate to
cylindrical
yes
P. saupei 7.7 5.8 1.33 indistinct no predominant
type
lageniform
yes
P. atromarginatus 6.8–7.5 4.8–5.2 1.32–1.52 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
P. atrofibrillosus 6.5–6.8 4.5–5.1 1.30–1.46 entire no predominant
type
clavate
yes
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
I. cervinus clade. Fig. 2
Species mostly growing on angiosperm wood or on the humus layer without apparent connection to wood; more
rarely on conifer wood. Clamp-connections absent on pileipellis hyphae except in P. alniphilus.
Pluteus cervinus (Schaeffer) Kummer (1871: 138). Fig. 9
Basionym: Agaricus cervinus Schaeffer (1774: 6). Lectotypus (designated by Justo et al. 2011a):—icon. in Schaeffer,
Fungorum qui in Bavaria et Palatinatu circa Ratisbonam nascuntur Icones 1: Tab. X. 1774. Epitype (designated by Justo
et al. 2011a):—1762.GERMANY. Bavaria: near Bodenwöhr, railroad embankment in direction Schwandorf, on wood
chips, under Frangula alnus, 7 September 1995, A. Bresinsky s.n. REG 13641, nrITS HM562152, tef1 KJ009860 (REG!).
Synonym: Agaricus atricapillus Batsch (1786: 77); Pluteus atricapillus (Batsch) Fayod (1849: 364). Lectotype of Agaricus
atricapillus Batsch (designated here):—icon. in Batsch, Elenchus fungorum. Continuatio prima. Tab. XVI, illustration
76a. 1786. Epitype of Agaricus atricapillus Batsch (designated here):—GERMANY. Bavaria: Mittelsteighütte,
Ludwigshain, on rotten wood, 15 October 1999, B. Mende s.n. REG 13662, nrITS HM562166, tef1 KJ009858 (REG!).
Synonym: Pluteus brunneoradiatus Bonnard (1987: 141). Holotype:—SWITZERLAND. Jura, J. Bonnard 86/128 (LAU!).
Synonym: Pluteus exilis var. austriacus Singer (1989: 94). Holotype:—AUSTRIA. Burgenland: Siegendorf, 19 September
1979, R. Singer C9457, nrITS KJ009643 (WU!).
Pileus 25–150 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface smooth, innately
radially fibrillose or with very conspicuous radial fibrils, with or without well defined squamules at center; usually
some shade of brown (7.5YR 3/3–3/4, 4/6, 5/6–5/8), more rarely with predominant gray-brown (7.5YR 5/1–5/2) or
brown-orange (5YR 6/8, 7/8) hues, pure white variants also occur; dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin
smooth or slightly translucently striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 10 mm broad, white when young,
later pink, with even, or white, flocculose edge. Stipe 40–100(–140) × 5–20 mm, cylindrical, with slightly
broadened base (up to 20–25 mm); surface white, usually with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils,
sometimes grouped to form distinct squamules, very rarely completely glabrous. Context in stipe and pileus white.
Smell raphanoid (radish-like), or reminiscent of raw potatoes, rarely indistinct. Taste similar to smell or earth-like.
Spore print pinkish brown (2.5YR 7/6–7/8).
Basidiospores [390, 39, 34] 6.5–8.5(–9.0) × (4.5–)5.0–7.0 μm, avl × avw = 7.0–8.1 × 5.0–5.7 μm, Q =
(1.10–)1.15–1.70, avQ = 1.35–1.50, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, more rarely oblong, very rarely subglobose,
sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle. Basidia 15–35 × 5–10 μm, tetrasterigmate, rarely
bisterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid, (45–)55–110(–130) × 10–25 μm,
fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform with 2–4(–6) apical hooks (usually entire), hyaline, thick-walled
(–4 μm), frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with
thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical hooks and/or with rounded apices; without a
predominant morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia (10–)20–70 × 10–30 μm, (narrowly)
clavate, spheropedunculate or narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-walled, crowded, forming a well-developed strip.
Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 50–150(–250) × (5–)9–25 μm; individual elements cylindrical, some
strongly tapering towards apex, some (sub-) capitate, mostly filled with brown intracellular pigment, with thin,
smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–20 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment,
with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections absent on pileipellis hyphae; in some collections present (but scarce)
on the thin hyphae of the hymenophoral trama and at the base of some basidia and cheilocystidia.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or gregarious, usually growing on well-decayed wood of
angiosperms (e.g. Acer, Betula, Eucalyptus, Fagus, Quercus). More rarely on conifer wood (Pinus, Picea) or
growing on the humus layer without apparent connection to wood. In temperate or transitional boreal/steppe
forests, very rare in truly boreal forests (see Pluteus rangifer). Also in Eucalyptus plantations in California and
Spain. Mostly June–November, but it can be found year round.
Distribution:Eurasia. Widespread in Europe, but its distribution in northern areas (Fennoscandia) needs further
study; eastwards into Siberia (Novosibirsk Region). North America. Widespread in eastern NA, from North Carolina
to Massachusetts and westwards into Wisconsin. Also recorded in western NA (San Francisco Bay Area) but rare.
Observations:Pluteus cervinus is a very variable species in terms of colors (brown, gray-brown, orange-
brown, white), aspect of the pileus (with or without conspicuous squamules and radial fibrils), and size of the
basidiocarps (pileus from 25 up to 150 mm in diameter) but molecular data support the recognition of all these
morphological variants as one species.
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FIGURE 9. Pluteus cervinus. A. Collection GM 2044 (photo by G. Muñoz). B. Collection DBB 50105 (photo by D.
Bojantchev). C. Collection DBB 50123 (photo by D. Bojantchev). D. Collection AJ 762 (white variant, photo by A. Justo). E.
Collection AJ 351 (brunneoradiatus-like morphology; photo by L. A. Parra). F. Basidiospores. G. Pileipellis. H. Pleurocystidia.
I. Cheilocystidia. F–I from collection REG 13641. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Pluteus atricapillus (Batsch.) Fayod is probably the most commonly encountered synonym of P. cervinus. The
name is based on Agaricus atricapillus Batsch (1786) that was described from Schöndorf (Germany, Bavaria). The
original description and illustration (Batsch 1786) could be applied to any of the European cervinus-like species
described in the present paper. Singer (Singer & Clémençon1972) tried to typify Pluteus atricapillus but based his
observations on Agaricus atricapillus Secretan, described in Secretan’s Mycographie Suisse (1833), a suppressed
work [Opera Utique Oppressa] according to the ICN (McNeill et al. 2012). He studied two collections from near
Lausanne (Switzerland) and referred to them as “topotypes”, a term not recognized by the ICN. One of these Swiss
collections is preserved at the Field Museum in Chicago (C5421, http://plants.jstor.org/specimen/
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
f0003928c?history=true) and listed as “topotype” though there is no official designation of any particular
collection as a type in the publication. The collection at the Field Museum is not the type of Pluteus atricapillus
and has no relevance in deciding on the application of the epithet atricapillus.
For the most part modern authors have considered the names P. atricapillus and P. cervinus as taxonomic
(heterotypic) synonyms (Singer 1956; Vellinga 1990). One notable exception to this can be found in Banerjee &
Sundberg (1995). These authors described Pluteus atricapillus with diagnostic characters as: “Pileus disc with
brown squamules, pleurocystidia cervinus-type, pileipellis without clamp connections, basidiome with strong
raphanoid odor”. All these characters are also present in their description of Pluteus cervinus making the
morphological separation of both very unclear.
To finally settle the issue between both epithets we have designated here the original plate of Agaricus
atricapillus as the lectotype and a modern collection from Bavaria as the supporting epitype (see nomenclature part
above).
Pluteus brunneoradiatus Bonnard was described as a separate species based on the conspicuous radial fibrils
on the pileus, the morphology of the intermediate cystidia and the presence of scarce clamp-connections on the thin
hyphae of the hymenophoral trama (Bonnard 1987). No molecular data could be obtained from the type collection
but all collections fitting the morphological concept of P. brunneoradiatus fall within the molecular variation of P.
cervinus (Fig. 2a), therefore we consider both taxa synonymous.
Pluteus cervinus occurs mostly in temperate forests in Eurasia and eastern North America. The collections
from Novosibirsk region (Siberia) mark the easternmost confirmed occurrence of P. cervinus in Eurasia. In this
area P. c e r vi n u s occurs in the “sub-taiga belt” forest, a transitional forest between the taiga and the non-forested
steppes. This type of forest is a mixture of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris and Populus tremula (co-dominant
boreal species) yet without any typical temperate broadleaf species (Tilia, Fagus, Quercus) and also without key
taiga species such as Pinus sibirica, Picea obovata and Abies sibirica. The closely related P. rangifer (mostly
confined to the taiga) and P. hongoi (in various forest types) both occur in the Russian Far East and Japan. Pluteus
cervinus is rare in California, where it grows on introduced (Eucalyptus) and possibly also native hardwood.
Interestingly, it also is reported from Eucalyptus in Spain.
Additional collections examined:—GERMANY. Bavaria: Mittelsteighütte, Holle, on rotten wood, 26
October 1999, B. Mende s.n. REG 13661, nrITS HM562171, tef1 KJ009862 (REG). Mittelsteighütte, Ludwigshain,
temperate forest, on rotten wood, 29 June 1999, M. Binder & M. Fischer s.n. REG 13652, nrITS HM562165, tef1
KJ009864 (REG). ibid., 15 October 1999, B. Mende s.n. REG 13662, nrITS HM562166, tef1 KJ009858 (REG).
Mooshof, 06 September 1990, REG 13618, nrITS HM562153, tef1 KJ009855 (REG). ibid., 03 August 2005, B.
Breu & S. Holl s.n. REG 16651, nrITS HM562150, tef1 KJ009865 (REG). Pfatter, on rotten wood, 11 October
1999, B. Mende s.n. REG 13616, nrITS HM562155, tef1 KJ009879 (REG). RUSSIA. Central Federal District:
Moscow Region, Prioksko Terrasny Nature Biosphere Reserve, mixed forest, on decayed wood of Betula, 07
September 1992, G.E. Levitskaya s.n. LE 216608, nrITS KJ009629, tef1 KJ009845 (LE). Tula Region, Efremovsky
District, vicinities of Ishutino, oak forest on limestone slope, on buried wood, 27 August 2003, T.Yu. Svetasheva
s.n. LE 234784, nrITS KJ009632, tef1 KJ009859 (LE). Tula Region, The State Memorial and Natural Preserve
Museum Estate of Leo Tolstoy “Yasnaya Polyana”, broadleaf forest, on Betula trunk, 31 August 2003, T. Yu.
Svetasheva s.n. LE 234774, nrITS KJ009635, tef1 KJ009850 (LE). North Caucasian Federal District:
Teberdinsky Nature Reserve, vicinities of Teberda town, Fagus forest, on decayed wood of Fagus, 06 August
2009, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE289370, nrITS KJ009638, tef1 KJ009861 (LE). Teberdinsky Nature Reserve,
floodplain of Baduk River, conifer forest with isolated Fagus trees, stump of Picea, 08 August 2009, E.F.
Malysheva s.n. LE289371, nrITS KJ009639, tef1 KJ009846 (LE). Northwestern Federal District: Leningrad
Region, Kingiseppsky District, vicinities of Velkota, Quercus forest, on fallen trunk of deciduous tree, 14 June
1996, O.V. Morozova s.n. LE 215177, nrITS KJ009625, tef1 KJ009842 (LE); ibid., Quercus forest, decayed wood
of Corylus, 18 July 1995, O.V. Morozova s.n. LE215353, nrITS KJ009644, tef1 KJ009843 (LE). Pskov Region,
August 2005, E.S. Popov s.n. LE 289368, nrITS KJ009633, tef1 KJ009847 (LE). St Petersburg, on stump of Acer
negundo, 25 September 2009, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE 289382, nrITS KJ009647, tef1 KJ009857 (LE). Vologda
Region, Kirillovsky District, National Park “Russian North”, vicinities of Rusanovo, bank of Itkla River, Alnus
spinney, on decaying wood of Alnus, 27 August 2002, E.S. Popov s.n. LE 235300, nrITS KJ009634, tef1 KJ009844
(LE). Siberian Federal District: Novosibirsk Region, Novosibirsk District, Akademgorodok, planted Betula
pendula grove, on rotting trunk of Betula, 18 August 2011, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289396, nrITS KJ009626, tef1
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KJ009848 (LE); ibid., shady patch of planted maple (Acer negundo) with indigenous trees nearby, on old stump of
Populus, 13 September 2011, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289398, nrITS KJ009630, tef1 KJ009852 (LE). Ulyanovsk
Region, Mainsky District, vicinities of Tagaj, mixed forest (Betula, Pinus), on buried wood, 05 August 2007, E.V.
Ilukhin s.n. LE 257679, nrITS KJ009636, tef1 KJ009856 (LE). Volga Federal District: Samara Region, vicinities
of Pribrezhny, mixed forest, on stump of Tilia cordata, 12 June 2011, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE 289381, nrITS
KJ009631, tef1 KJ009851 (LE). Samara Region, Zhigulevsky Nature Reserve, vicinities of Bakhilova Polyana,
broadleaf forest, on fallen trunk of deciduous tree, 26 August 2000, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE 289367, nrITS
KJ009641, tef1 KJ009849 (LE). Ulyanovsk Region, Zheleznodorozhny District, broadleaf forest, on decaying
wood of deciduous tree, 08 August 2007, E.V. Ilukhin s.n. LE 257680, nrITS KJ009640, tef1 KJ009841 (LE).
SPAIN. A Coruña: Mañon, mixed broadleaf forest, on decayed fallen wood (hardwood), 21 July 2007, J.
Rodriguez & G.M.G s.n. AJ 79, nrITS HM562135, tef1 KJ009871 (LOU). La Rioja: Carbonera, mixed forest,
apparently terrestrial, under Fagus, 30 July 2011, G. Muñoz 2195, nrITS KJ009642, tef1 KJ009854 (CUW).
Villoslada de Cameros, mixed Pinus and Quercus forest, apparently terrestrial, 28 October 2010, G. Muñoz 2044,
nrITS KJ009687, tef1 KJ009853 (CUW). Ourense: Verin, Eucalyptus plantation, on Eucalyptus stump, 28 March
1997, M. Lago & E. Lago s.n. LOU 15229, nrITS KJ009637, tef1 KJ009867 (LOU). Oviedo: Endriga, mixed
broadleaf forest, on Fagus wood, 05 October 2005, L. Llorens s.n. AJ 192, nrITS HM562134, tef1 KJ009881
(LOU). Navia, Eucalyptus plantation, on decayed wood of Eucalyptus, 25 October 1998, M. Lago & E. Luis s.n.
LOU 15223, nrITS HM562133, (LOU). Palencia: Cervera de Pisuerga, Quercus pyrenaica forest, on decayed
wood of Quercus pyrenaica, 24 October 2010, L.A. Parra s.n. AJ 351, nrITS JN603200, tef1 KJ009868 (CUW).
Pontevedra: Mos, mixed forest, on hardwood stump, 25 November 2007, A. Justo 82, nrITS HM562035, (LOU).
Ponteareas, mixed forest, on burnt terrain, 12 August 2006, N. Alonso & GMG s.n. AJ 77, nrITS HM562136, tef1
KJ009863 (LOU). Pontevedra, Eucalyptus plantation, on decayed wood of Eucalyptus, 15 December 1998, M.
Lago s.n. LOU 15226, nrITS KJ009645, tef1 KJ009869 (LOU); ibid., on Eucalyptus stump, 10 February 1998, M.
Lago s.n. LOU 15218, nrITS KJ009646, tef1 KJ009884 (LOU). UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California:
Alameda Co., Berkeley, Scenic Ave. at Cedar Ave, on decayed wood of Acacia sp. or Pittosporum sp., 29 February
2012, E.C. Vellinga s.n. UC 1998737, nrITS JX857458, tef1 KJ460259 (UC). Contra Costa Co., Hercules,
Eucalyptus grove, on wood chips, 26 March 2012, D. B. Bojantchev 50105, nrITS KJ009623, tef1 KJ009883
(CUW); ibid., 26 March 2012, D. B. Bojantchev 50123, nrITS KJ009615, tef1 KJ009882 (CUW). Marin Co., Point
Reyes National Seashore, Bear Valley 3/4 of the way to Arched Rock, 21 April 2012, T.D. Bruns s.n. UC 1998560,
nrITS JX857462, tef1 KJ460258 (UC). Illinois: Locality unknown, September 2009, A.M. Minnis s.n. SF1-BPI
882764, nrITS HM562200, tef1 KJ009887 (BPI). Massachusetts: Berkshire Co., October Mt. State Forest, mixed
forest, on decayed hardwood, 08 November 2011, A. Justo 409, nrITS KJ009621, tef1 KJ009873 (CUW).
Berkshire Co., Savoy Mountain State Forest, mixed forest, on decayed wood, 04 October 2012, C. Webb s.n. AJ
779, nrITS KJ009616, tef1 KJ009872 (CUW); ibid., A. Justo 781, nrITS KJ009619, tef1 KJ009877 (CUW); ibid.,
16 June 2012, A. Justo 835, nrITS KJ009618, tef1 KJ009889 (CUW). Worcester Co., Harvard Forest, on the
ground among leaves, 23 June 2009, A. Justo 106, nrITS HM562043, tef1 KJ009888 (MICH). Worcester Co., Ware
River Watershed Trail, mixed forest, on decayed wood, 13 September 2012, C. Webb s.n. AJ 761, nrITS KJ009624,
tef1 KJ009875 (CUW). Michigan: Emmet Co., Hemlock Bog, on decorticated wood, 14 September 2007, A.M.
Minnis s.n. SF4-BPI 882767, nrITS HM562176, tef1 KJ009886 (BPI). New York: Essex Co., Adirondack
Ecological Center, Huntington Wildlife Forest, mixed forest, on decayed wood, 14 August 2012, A. Justo 590,
nrITS KJ009628, tef1 KJ009878 (CUW); ibid., 17 August 2012, O. Miettinen s.n. AJ 592, nrITS KJ009627, tef1
KJ009874 (CUW). Essex Co., Wold Lake, Huntington Wildlife Forest, old growth mixed forest with Fagus, Acer
and Tsuga, on decayed wood of Acer saccharum, standing dead tree, 21 September 2013, O. Miettinen 17107,
nrITS KJ009788 (H). Essex Co., Newcomb, Harris Lake, mixed, middle-aged forest by the lake, on decayed wood
of Acer saccharum or Populus tremuloides, fallen tree, 23 September 2013, O. Miettinen 17183, nrITS KJ009784,
tef1 KJ009880 (H). North Carolina: Haywood Co., White Oak, 09 October 2010, E.C. Vellinga 4185, nrITS
KJ009617, tef1 KJ009870 (TENN). Rhode Island: Providence Co., Lincoln Woods State Park, mixed forest, on
decayed fallen wood, 28 June 2011, A. Justo 410, nrITS KJ009622, tef1 KJ009885 (CUW). Wisconsin: Iron Co.,
Northern Highland State Forest, “plot 3”, 12 July 1995, D. Lindner DLF 95-59, nrITS KJ009620, tef1 KJ009876
(CFMR).
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Pluteus exilis Singer (1989: 94). Fig. 10
Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California: Marin Co., Muir Woods, on dead wood of Notholithocarpus (as
Lithocarpus” in the original description), 14 January 1983, R. Singer N5105, nrITS KJ009778 (F!).
FIGURE 10. Pluteus exilis. A. Collection UC 1998537. B. Collection UC 1999431. C. Collection UC 1998537. D. Collection UC
1861131. E. Collection UC 1861133. All photographs by N. Nguyen. F. Pleurocystidia from Singer N5105. G. Pileipellis from AJ 822.
H. Basidiospores from Singer N5105. I. Cheilocystidia from Singer N5105. J. Cheilocystidia from AJ 822. All line drawings by A.
Justo. Scale bars = 10 µm.
Pileus 35–70 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
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with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface radially fibrillose, with
or without well defined squamules at center; usually some shade of brown (7.5YR 3/2–3/4, 4/3–4/6); dry or slightly
viscid when moist; margin smooth or slightly translucently striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 7 mm
broad, white when young, later pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 40–100(–140) × 5–20 mm,
cylindrical, with slightly broad base (–25 mm); surface white, usually with longitudinal brown or gray-brown
fibrils, commonly grouped to form distinct squamules, rarely without fibrils. Context in stipe and pileus white.
Smell indistinct or earth-like. Taste similar to smell. Spore print pinkish brown.
Basidiospores [40, 3, 3] 6.5–8.4(–9.0) × (4.5–)5.0–6.0 μm, avl × avw = 7.0–7.5 × 5.1–5.3 μm, Q =
1.30–1.60(–1.70), avQ = 1.38–1.47, ellipsoid, rarely oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle.
Basidia 20–35 × 7–12 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid, (55)
60–100 (115) × 13–30 (35) μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform, thick-walled (–3 μm) with
2–4(–6) apical hooks (usually entire), hyaline, frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia similar to the
pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical hooks and/or
with rounded apices; without a predominant morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia (15–)20–75
× 10–25(–30) μm, (narrowly) clavate, spheropedunculate or narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-walled, crowded,
forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 60–120(–145) × 8–17(–30) μm;
individual elements cylindrical, some strongly tapering towards apex, mostly filled with brown intracellular
pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–20 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown
intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections absent on pileipellis hyphae; not observed in
any other part of the basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or gregarious, growing on well-decayed wood of angiosperms
(Alnus, Notholithocarpus) or conifers (Picea, Pseudotsuga). September–January.
Distribution:North America. Western North America, known with certainty from Santa Cruz Co.
(California, USA) north along the coastal forests up into British Columbia (Canada).
Observations:—Singer (1989) described this species based on a single collection from Muir Woods (Marin
Co., California) and he considered the thin stipe (–5 mm wide; exilis means “the thin one”) and dimorphic
cheilocystidia (short spheropedunculate up to 30 μm long and elongated ones up to 54 μm) to be diagnostic for P.
exilis. However, later studies of both holotype and modern collections revealed that these characters have a wide
and continuous variation similar to what is found in the other taxa of this species complex. The nrITS sequence
obtained from the type collection is a perfect match to sequences obtained from modern collections and therefore
the name exilis should be used for this taxon.
Pluteus exilis var. austriacus, described simultaneously by Singer (1989), represents Pluteus cervinus (Fig 2a).
Rodríguez et al. (1997) reported this species from the city of Guadalajara (Mexico), however the collection
described by those authors was found growing in an urban garden, had narrower basidiospores (“(3.2) 4–5.2 μm”),
and many pleurocystidia lacked apical hooks. All these characters point to Pluteus petasatus rather than P. exilis.
Generally speaking P. exilis has a darker pileus and a more markedly squamose stipe than P. cervinus, but there
is a significant level of overlap in these characters. Geographical distribution would serve as a differential character
but P. c e rv inu s has been recorded in the San Francisco Bay area (California, USA) although it is much rarer than P.
exilis. It seems, however, that there is a pattern in the seasonality of P. exilis and P. cervinus in California. P. exilis
starts fruiting in September–October in the northern part of its known range (British Columbia, Washington) and
later, December–January in the southern part (California). All known collections of P. ce r v i n us from California
have been made outside of the main fruiting season in the San Francisco Bay area, from March (one collection “29
February 2012”) to April. More intense sampling is needed to establish if this seasonal pattern is a constant and
reliable character to separate P. exilis and P. cervinus in this area.
Additional collections examined:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California: Contra Costa Co., Tilden
Regional Park, Nature Center, Eucalyptus grove, on decayed wood of hardwood, 24 December 2012, E.C. Vellinga
s.n. UC 1999294, nrITS KF306008, (UC). Humboldt Co., Trinidad, on decayed wood of Alnus, 04 December 1956,
A.H. Smith 56267, nrITS KJ009659 (MICH). Marin Co., Point Reyes National Seashore, 07 January 2012, UC
1861129, nrITS JX857444 (UC); ibid., on decayed wood of Alnus rubra, 14 December 2011, N.H. Nguyen s.n. UC
1861131, nrITS JX857446, tef1 KJ460252 (UC); ibid., Horse Trail to Mt.Wittenberg, mature Pseudotsuga
menziesii forest with mixed hardwoods, grasslands near the bay and Quercus agrifolia, on soil, 28 January 2006,
E.C. Vellinga s.n. UC 1859495, nrITS KF306020 (UC); ibid., on log of Umbellularia californica, 10 November
2012, D. Klein s.n. UC 1999289, nrITS KF306005 (UC); ibid., Fire Trail area, 10 December 2011, N.H. Nguyen
s.n. UC 1861133, nrITS JX857461 (UC); ibid., Five Brooks area along Olema trail, on decayed wood of
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Notholithocarpus densiflorus, 07 January 2011, E.C. Vellinga s.n. UC 1861125, nrITS JX857459 (UC); ibid.,
Limantour Rd, Horse Trail, on decayed wood, 26 January 2013, N.H. Nguyen s.n. UC 1999431, nrITS KF306018,
(UC); ibid., Limantour Rd, Horse Trail, on decayed wood of Notholithocarpus densiflorus, 26 January 2013, N.H.
Nguyen s.n. UC 1999430, nrITS KF306017 (UC); ibid., forest, on wood near Pseudotsuga menziesii, 10 December
2005, T.D. Bruns s.n. UC 1859650, nrITS KF306022 (UC); ibid., Sky Trail from trailhead to top of Wittenberg,
mature Pseudotsuga menziesii forest with mixed hardwoods, scattered Pinus spp. and scrub, on wood/soil, 28
January 2006, E.C. Vellinga s.n. UC 1859498, nrITS KF306023 (UC); ibid., Stewart Trail, south of Five Brooks
trailhead, mature Pseudotsuga menziesii forest with mixed hardwoods, on wood near Alnus sp., 10 December 2005,
E.C. Vellinga s.n. UC 1859653 nrITS KF306021 (UC). Mendocino Co., Caspar Cemetery, on decayed wood of
Picea sitchensis, 28 January 2012, L. Ovenden s.n. UC 1998536, nrITS JX857449 (UC). Mendocino Co., Jackson
State Forest, Camp One near Noyo River, on decayed wood of Pseudotsuga menziesii, 20 November 2011, N.H.
Nguyen s.n. UC 1998537, nrITS JX857450 (UC); ibid., S. Branco s.n. UC 1998736, nrITS JX857457 (UC). Santa
Cruz Co., Henry Cowell State Park (NAMA Foray 2012), on dead log, with Notholithocarpus densiflorus, 14
December 2012, J. Vinopa s.n. UC 1999300 nrITS KF306013 (UC); ibid., on decayed wood, 14 December 2012,
N. Burghardt s.n. UC 1999299, nrITS KF306012 (UC); ibid., woods with Pinus attenuata, Pseudotsuga menziesii,
Arbutus sp., and Quercus agrifolia, on wood, 14 December 2012, N.H. Nguyen s.n. UC 1999297, nrITS KF306010
(UC); ibid., 14 December 2012, N.H. Nguyen s.n. UC 1999298, nrITS KF306011 (UC). Santa Cruz Co., Scotts
Valley, Mission Springs Center, mixed forest, on decayed wood, 13 December 2012, E.C. Vellinga s.n. AJ 822,
nrITS KJ009658, tef1 KJ009900 (CUW); ibid., 13 December 2012, E.C. Vellinga s.n. AJ 828, nrITS KJ009657,
tef1 KJ009901 (CUW). Was hin gton : King Co., Arboretum, 10 November 1982, K. Cosley s.n. Stuntz 21834,
nrITS KJ009655, tef1 KJ009899 (WTU). Locality unknown, Stuntz 277, nrITS KJ009656 (WTU). Pierce Co.,
Lower Tahoma Creek, Mt. Rainier National Park, on decayed wood of Alnus, 12 September 1952, A.H. Smith
39846, nrITS HM562075 (MICH).
Pluteus rangifer Justo, E.F. Malysheva & Bulyonkova, sp. nov. Fig. 11
MycoBank 808724
Diagnosis:—Differs from Pluteus cervinus in the darker colors and the distribution in boreal areas.
Holotype:—RUSSIA. Republic of Karelia: Valaam, bank of Sisyayarvi Lake, Picea forest, on decayed wood, 29 July 1995, O.
Morozova s.n. LE 203210, nrITS KJ009650, tef1 KJ009898 (LE!).
Etymology:—rangifer comes from the scientific name of the reindeer/caribou (Rangifer tarandus L.), which has a similar
distribution in the northern areas of Eurasia and North America.
Pileus 25–130 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface smooth to radially
fibrillose, usually with a silky sheen, without well-defined squamules at center; brown (5YR 4/6, 5/6–5/8) to dark
brown (5YR 4/2–4/4, 3/3–3/4) or gray-brown (7.5YR 4/1–4/2); dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth
or slightly translucently striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 10 mm broad, white when young, later
pink or pinkish brown, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 30–90(–135) × 5–12 mm, cylindrical with
slightly broad base; surface white, with contrasting dark gray-brown fibrils and squamules all over, more rarely
smooth. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell raphanoid. Taste raphanoid or sweetish raphanoid. Spore print
pinkish brown.
Basidiospores [40, 2, 2] 6.0–8.5(–9.0) × 4.5–6.5(–7.0) μm, avl × avw = 7.2–7.6 × 5.0–5.8 μm, Q = 1.17–1.60,
avQ = 1.31–1.43, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, rarely oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the
middle. Basidia 15–29 × 7–13 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia
metuloid, (65–)70–100 × 14–25 μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform, provided with 2–3(–4)
apical hooks (usually entire, sometimes bifurcated), hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar
faces. Intermediate cystidia predominantly fusiform and without hooks, 43–65 × 12–19 μm, some similar to the
pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia
(25–)35–65 × (10–)15–25 μm, narrowly to broadly clavate, spheropedunculate or narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-
walled, crowded, forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements (65–)80–130(–150) ×
8–15(–27) μm; individual elements cylindrical, cylindrical or fusiform, some strongly tapering towards apex,
mostly filled with brown intracellular pigment, sometimes slightly incrusting, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis
a cutis; hyphae 5–20 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls.
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FIGURE 11. Pluteus rangifer. A–B. Collection LE 89406. C. Collection KH 1197. D. Collection LE 89407. E–F. Collection TB
2642. All photographs by T. Bulyonkova. G. Pleurocystidia. H. Basidiospores. I. Intermediates cystidia. J. Cheilocystidia. K.
Pileipellis. G–K from collection TRTC 156990. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Clamp-connections absent on pileipellis hyphae, in one collection (LE 289407) present but very scarce in the
lower layer and pileitrama; in some collections present (but scarce) on the thin hyphae of the hymenophoral trama
and at the base of some cheilocystidia.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary, growing on well-decayed wood of angiosperms (e.g. Betula,
Quercus). In boreal or transitional boreal/temperate forests but not in truly temperate forests. July–September
(Russia), June (Hokkaido) or October (Ontario).
Distribution:—Eurasia. Recorded from northwestern Russia to Hokkaido Island (Japan). North America.
Only known from Algonquin Provincial Park (Ontario, Canada).
Observations:—Pluteus rangifer is essentially the boreal counterpart of Pluteus cervinus. These two species
have a parapatric distribution in Eurasia, with P. r a n g i f e r being widely distributed in the northern forests, P.
cervinus in the temperate forests and both species co-occurring in the transitional boreal/temperate areas. The
easternmost confirmed occurrence of P. cervinus in Eurasia is in central Siberia (Novosibirsk district,
Akademgorodok) while P. r an g i f e r extends into the Russian Far East and northern Japan (Hokkaido). The
environmental sample AM901879 from Finland (Fig. 2a) marks the westernmost occurrence of P. rangifer,
although it is likely that the species occurs in boreal areas of northern Europe (e.g. Sweden, Norway). A similar
pattern is expected in North America, since P. rangifer has not been recorded in the temperate areas, but more
sampling is needed.
Generally speaking P. rangifer, just like P. exilis, has darker colors on the pileus and a more markedly
squamose stipe than P. cervinus, but both characters are variable. Geographical distribution and ecological
preferences are probably the best characters to separate these three species. In the nrITS phylogenies P. exilis and P.
rangifer appear as separate from P. cervinus, but the separation of P. exilis and P. rangifer is unclear (Fig. 2), with a
monophyletic P. exilis nested within a non-monophyletic P. rangifer. The tef1 phylogenies (Fig. 2) do recover a
neat and supported separation of P. cervinus, P. exilis and P. rangifer.
Pluteus brunneoolivaceus Horak (1964: 165) differs from P. rangifer in the markedly squamulose and smaller
pileus (up to 25 mm), less ornamented stipe, and the cheilocystidia with brown intracellular pigment that are up to
80 μm long. This taxon is only known from the austral forests of the southernmost part of South America (Tierra
del Fuego, Argentina). Pluteus microspermus Horak (2008: 15) and Pluteus concentricus Horak (2008: 18) may
resemble P. rangifer in the coarsely ornamented stipe but both species have smaller basidiospores (less than 6.5 μm
long) and pigmented lamellar edges. Both species are only known from New Zealand, where they grow in
association with Nothofagus wood (Horak 2008).
Additional collections examined:—CANADA. Ontario: Nipissing, Algonquin Provincial Park, 03 October
2007, M. Didukh & B. Dentinger s.n. TRTC 156990, nrITS JN021074, tef1 KJ009894 (TRTC). JAPAN.
Hokkaido: Sapporo, mixed forest, on decayed wood buried in soil, 07 June 2003, S. Takehashi s.n. TNSF 12347,
nrITS HM562104, tef1 KJ009897 (TNS). RUSSIA. Far East Federal District: Primorsky Territory, Sikhote-
Alinsky Nature Biosphere Reserve, vicinities of Kabany Reserve field station, mixed forest (Abies, Pinus, Ulmus),
on decayed wood, 24 August 2011, T.Yu. Svetasheva s.n. LE 289385, nrITS KJ009651, tef1 KJ009896 (LE); ibid.,
vicinities Golubichny Reserve field station, Quercus mongolica forest, on decayed wood, 22 August 2011, E.F.
Malysheva s.n. LE 289384, nrITS KJ009654, tef1 KJ009892 (LE). Northwestern Federal District: Kola
Peninsula, Khibiny Mountains, Picea-Betula forest, 18 August 1946, B.P. Vassilkov s.n. LE 9699, nrITS KJ009652,
tef1 KJ009895 (LE). Murmansk Region, Lapland Biosphere Reserve, Betula forest, on Betula stump, 10 September
1961, N.V. Pushkina s.n. LE 9702, nrITS KJ009648, tef1 KJ009890 (LE). Ural Federal District: Khanty-
Mansiyskiy District, Shapsha village, mixed dark conifer taiga (Picea obovata, Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica, with
scarce Betula pendula, Populus tremula, Pinus sylvestris), on decayed wood, 07 August 2008, N.V. Filippova s.n.
LE 289407, nrITS KJ009649, tef1 KJ009893 (LE). Yugra, Khanty-Mansiyskiy District, Mukhrino Field Station of
the Ugra State University UNESCO chair, mixed dark conifer taiga (Picea obovata, Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica,
with scarce Betula pendula, Populus tremula, Pinus sylvestris), on decayed wood, 18 August 2010, T.M .
Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289406, nrITS KJ009653, tef1 KJ009891 (LE).
Pluteus hongoi Singer (1989: 95). Fig. 12
Holotype:—JAPAN. Honshu: Kyoto, Mt. Daimonji-yama, 14 September 1984, R. Singer A4070, nrITS KJ009564, tef1
KJ009940 (F!).
Synonym: Pluteus major Singer (1989: 96). Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Illinois: Cooke Co., Forest
JUSTO ET AL.
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Preserve east of Wheeling, 23 June 1985, R. Singer N5195, nrITS KJ009586, tef1 KJ009920 (F!).
Synonym: Pluteus albineus Bonnard (2001: 131). Holotype:—SWITZERLAND. Canton Vaud: Apples, Les Bougeries, 19
August 1986, J. Bonnard 86/91, nrITS KJ009601 (LAU!).
Synonym: Pluteus nothopellitus Justo & Castro (2007b: 222). Holotype:—SPAIN. A Coruña: Cambre, Cecebre, on fallen
branch of Quercus robur, 30 September 2004, A. Justo 58, nrITS HM562063, tef1 KJ009912 (MA!).
FIGURE 12. Pluteus hongoi. A. Collection AJ 339 (photo by A. Justo). B. Collection AJ 148 (photo by A. Justo). C. Collection
AJ 836 (photo by A. Justo). D. Collection AJ58 (photo by A. Justo). E. Collection LE 289420 (photo by E. Malysheva). F.
Collection LE 289391 (photo by E. Malysheva). G. Pleurocystidia. H. Basidiospores. I. Pileipellis. J. Cheilocystidia. G–J from
collection Singer N5195. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Pileus 25–90(–100) mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-
convex, with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface smooth to
innately radially fibrillose, with or without well-defined squamules at center; usually some shade of brown (7.5YR
4/6, 5/6–5/8, 6/6–6/8, 7/6–7/8), or gray-brown (7.5YR 5/1–5/4, 6/3/6/4), occasionally pure white; dry or slightly
viscid when moist; margin smooth or slightly translucently striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 10
mm broad, white when young, later pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 35–110 × 3–15 mm,
cylindrical, with slightly broad base; surface white, sometimes with yellowish tints near base, usually smooth or
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
whitely flocculose, rarely with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils all over although these are more common
at the base. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell raphanoid (radish-like), or reminiscent of raw potatoes, rarely
indistinct. Taste similar to smell or earth-like. Spore print pinkish brown (2.5YR 7/6–7/8).
Basidiospores [460, 43, 41] 5.5–9.0 × 4.5–7.0 μm, avl × avw = 6.7–7.6 × 5.0–5.7 μm, Q = 1.15–1.60(–1.70),
avQ = 1.26–1.45, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, rarely oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the
middle. Basidia 12–33 × 5–12 μm, tetrasterigmate, rarely bisterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction.
Pleurocystidia metuloid, 50–110 × 15–30 μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform with 2–5 apical
hooks (predominantly bifid, but entire hooks also present), rarely with some lateral hooks especially near the apex,
hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar faces; sometimes both types on the same cystidium.
Intermediate cystidia similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped,
without distinct apical hooks and/or with rounded apices; without a predominant morphological type. Lamellar
edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 25–110(–115) × (10–)15–30 μm, clavate, narrowly clavate, spheropedunculate or
narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-walled; crowded and forming a well-developed strip or scarce and then present as
scattered clusters on the lamellar edge. Pileipellis a cutis or ixocutis with terminal elements 50–135 × 5–25 μm;
individual elements cylindrical, some strongly tapering towards apex, mostly filled with brown intracellular
pigment, with thin, smooth walls. A gelatinous matrix is sometimes present, with embedded cylindrical hyphae
3–10 μm wide. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–20 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment,
with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections absent on pileipellis hyphae; not observed in any other part of the
basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or gregarious, usually growing on well-decayed wood of
angiosperms (e.g. Acer, Betula, Fagus, Quercus) or growing on the humus layer without apparent connection to
wood. In temperate or transitional boreal/temperate forests. June–November, more rarely February–May.
Distribution:Eurasia. Widespread, from Spain to the Russian Far East and Japan. North America.
Widespread in eastern North America, from Florida to Massachusetts and westwards into Wisconsin. Not recorded
from western North America.
Observations:—In its most typical form Pluteus hongoi can be separated from P. cervinus, with which it
shares much of its distribution, by the following characters: pale pileus, stipe usually without distinct longitudinal
fibrils or squamules, hooks on the pleurocystidia bifid, cheilocystidia not forming a well-developed and continuous
strip along the lamellar edge. However, all these characters have been shown to be quite variable and do not
necessarily occur simultaneously in all the collections, therefore specimens of P. hongoi morphologically
indistinguishable from P. cervinus do occur. Molecular data (Fig. 2) support the separation of both taxa.
Of all the names available for this species P. hongoi and P. major were described by Singer (1989) in the same
publication and therefore have equal nomenclatural priority until one is formally chosen and this choice effectively
published (ICN Art. 11.5). Here we choose to use the epithet hongoi because the original description of this taxon
is more complete than the one given for P. major. Molecular data from the type specimens of P. major, P. albineus
(Bonnard 2001) and P. nothopellitus (Justo & Castro 2007b) indicate that all represent different morphological
variants of P. hongoi.
Additional collections examined:—CHINA. Locality and date unknown, TENN 48297, nrITS KJ009613, tef1
KJ009932 (TENN). GERMANY. Bavaria: On decayed Betula wood, 14 October 1999, F. Bonke s.n. REG 13658,
nrITS HM562151, tef1 KJ009919 (REG). Weltenburger, on Fagus stump, 29 June 1999, B. Mende s.n. REG 13664,
nrITS HM562168, tef1 KJ009911 (REG). JAPAN. No locality, 17 June 2007, TNSF 16091, nrITS HM562126, tef1
KJ009933 (TNS). Hokkaido: Iwamizawa, Tonebetu, deciduous forest, on decayed wood, 25 June 2005, S.
Takehashi s.n. TNSF 12370, nrITS HM562103, tef1 KJ009938 (TNS); ibid., mixed forest, 26 June 2003, S.
Takehashi s.n. TNSF 12352, nrITS HM562102, tef1 KJ009936 (TNS). Kuromatonai, deciduous forest, on decayed
wood, 20 June 2005, S. Takehashi s.n. TNSF 12361, nrITS HM562100, tef1 KJ009934, (TNS). Saporo, Mt. Teine,
mixed forest, on decayed wood, 20 June 2004, S. Takehashi s.n. TNSF 12351, nrITS HM562101, tef1 KJ009941
(TNS). Honshu: Tokyo, Fukiage Garden, 14 October 1998, TNSF 897, nrITS HM562128 (TNS). MONGOLIA.
North Mongolia: Research Station “Khonin Nuga”, Mandal Sum, Selenge Aimak West-Khentee, montane Betula-
Larix forest, on fallen Betula trunk, 10 August 2007, A.V. Aleksandrova s.n. LE 289422, nrITS KJ009567, tef1
KJ009943 (LE). RUSSIA. Central Federal District: Moscow Region, Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Biosphere
Reserve, Picea forest, on decayed wood of Betula, 27 June 1994, G.E. Levitskaya s.n. LE 216821, nrITS KJ009573,
tef1 KJ009944 (LE). Tula Region, Kurkinsky District, valley of Nizhny Dubik River, Betula forest with Quercus
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and Acer, on decayed log, 26 July 2003, T.Yu. Svetasheva s.n. LE 234781, nrITS KJ009569, tef1 KJ009930 (LE).
Far East Federal District: Primorsky Territory, Sikhote-Alinsky Nature Biosphere Reserve, vicinities of
Blagodatnoye Reserve Field Station, Quercus mongolica forest with isolated Betula platyphylla, on stump of
Quercus, 29 August 2011, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE 289392, nrITS KJ009606, tef1 KJ009942 (LE). Primorsky
Territory, Ussuriisky Nature Reserve, vicinities of Peishula Reserve Field Station, near Koryavaya River, mixed
forest (Quercus mongolica, Acer mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis), on decayed wood, 13 August 2011, E.F.
Malysheva s.n. LE 289378, nrITS KJ009570, tef1 KJ009935 (LE); ibid., near Koryavaya River, mixed forest
(Quercus mongolica, Acer mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis), on fallen tree trunk, 13 August 2011, E.F. Malysheva
s.n. LE 289391, nrITS KJ009566, tef1 KJ009937 (LE). Northwestern Federal District: Novgorod Region,
vicinities of Syuiska, mixed forest, on fallen trunk of Betula, 24 June 2011, S. Arslanov s.n. LE 289377, nrITS
KJ009572, tef1 KJ009908 (LE). Siberian Federal District: Baikal region, vicinities of Listvenichnoye, mixed
forest, on fallen Betula trunk, 16 July 1947, LE 9710, nrITS KJ009568, tef1 KJ009931 (LE). Novosibirsk Region,
Novosibirsk District, Akademgorodok, mixed forest (Betula pendula and Pinus sylvestris), on Betula rotten wood,
11 June 2008, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289420, nrITS KJ009571, tef1 KJ009945 (LE); ibid., mixed, poorly lit
eutrophic planted forest (Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula, Prunus padus, Acer negundo) about 40 years old with a
lot of dead trees, on decayed wood, 07 July 2011, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289404, nrITS KJ009610, tef1
KJ009947 (LE); ibid., medium-aged Betula pendula forest with dense bush undergrowth, on decayed wood of
Betula, 07 June 2011, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289413, nrITS KJ009609, tef1 KJ009939 (LE). Southern Federal
District: Krasnodarsky Territory, Stanitsa Kaluzhskaya, Quercus forest, on buried wood, 19 September 1979, A.E.
Kovalenko s.n. LE 9688, nrITS KJ009611, tef1 KJ009928 (LE). Ural Federal District: Khanty-Mansiyskiy
District, Mukhrino Field Station of the Ugra State University UNESCO chair, mixed dark conifer taiga (Picea
obovata, Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica and scarcer Betula pendula, Populus tremula, Pinus sylvestris), on decayed
wood, 15 September 2010, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289403, nrITS KJ009608, tef1 KJ009946 (LE); ibid., 17
September 2010, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289415, nrITS KJ009607, tef1 KJ009910 (LE). Sverdlovsk Region,
Visimsky Nature Reserve, Betula forest, on fallen trunk, 07 July 1993, L.V. Marina s.n. LE 258162, nrITS
KJ009612, tef1 KJ009927 (LE). Yugra, Khanty-Mansiyskiy District, mixed dark conifer taiga, on decayed wood,
16 September 2010, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289418, nrITS KJ009565(LE). Volga Federal District: Samara
Region, Zhigulevsky Nature Reserve, vicinities of Bakhilova Polyana, broadleaf forest (Tilia cordata), on decayed
wood, 27 July 2000, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE 289393, nrITS KJ009614, tef1 KJ009929 (LE). SPAIN. Ourense:
Nogueira de Ramuin, mixed forest, mostly Quercus, on decayed wood (probably Quercus), 15 October 2006, P.
Comesaña & GMG s.n. AJ 78, nrITS HM562034, tef1 KJ009909 (LOU). UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
Connecticut: New Haven Co., West Rock Ridge State Park, mixed forest, 15 July 2012, E.C. Vellinga s.n. AJ 837,
nrITS KJ009585 (CUW). Florida: Leon Co., Tallahassee, Lake Overstreet, mixed forest, on decayed hardwood
log, 24 August 2009, A. Justo 148, nrITS HM562085, tef1 KJ009915 (MICH). Illinois: Johnson Co., near Ozark,
Camp Ondessonk, 25 September 2009, A.M. Minnis PIL1, nrITS KJ009605, tef1 KJ009949 (BPI). Shelby Co., near
Lake Shelbyville, 23 September 2006, J. McFarland SF7-BPI 882769, nrITS HM562178, tef1 KJ009914 (BPI).
Louisiana: Baton Rouge, 23 February 1960, B. Lowy s.n. LE 9746, nrITS KJ009574, tef1 KJ009904 (LE).
Massachusetts: Berkshire Co., Savoy Mountain State Forest, mixed forest, on decayed wood, 04 October 2012, A.
Justo 780, nrITS KJ009591 (CUW); ibid., 16 June 2012, A. Justo 836, nrITS KJ009590 (CUW). Middlesex Co.,
Mt. Misery Conservation Area, mixed forest, on decayed fallen wood, 21 June 2010, A. Justo 324, nrITS
KJ009582, tef1 KJ009924 (CUW). Worcester Co., Harvard Forest, mixed forest, on decayed fallen wood, 04 June
2010, M. Nuhn s.n. AJ 319, nrITS KJ009603, tef1 KJ009926 (CUW); ibid., on decayed hardwood log, 10 October
2009, A. Justo s.n. AJ 181, nrITS HM562098, tef1 KJ009923 (MICH). Worcester Co., Holden Rail Trail, mixed
forest, on decayed log, 02 September 2011, A. Justo 415, nrITS KJ009583, tef1 KJ009921 (CUW). Worcester Co.,
Moore State Park, mixed forest, on decayed hardwood, 02 August 2012, A. Justo 543, nrITS KJ009578 (CUW).
Worcester Co., Uxbridge, Cormier Woods, mixed forest, on decayed fallen wood, 09 October 2010, A. Justo 339,
nrITS KJ009589, tef1 KJ009913 (CUW); ibid., A. Justo 340, nrITS KJ009600, tef1 KJ009918 (CUW); ibid., 28
May 2010, A. Justo 306, nrITS KJ009592, tef1 KJ009922 (CUW); ibid., on decayed hardwood branch, 21 June
2010, A. Justo 323, nrITS KJ009598, tef1 KJ009906 (CUW). Worcester Co., Wachusett Mountain State
Reservation, mixed forest, on decayed hardwood branch, 18 August 2011, A. Justo 412, nrITS KJ009584, tef1
KJ009905 (CUW); ibid., on decayed hardwood log, 29 September 2010, A. Justo 329, nrITS KJ009604 (CUW);
ibid., decayed hardwood, 08 November 2011, D. Floudas s.n. AJ 413, nrITS KJ009599, tef1 KJ009916 (CUW).
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Worcester Co., Ware River Watershed Trail, mixed forest, on wood, 13 September 2012, A. Justo 762, nrITS
KJ009602 (CUW). Michigan: Emmet Co., Tahquamenon Falls State Park, 20 June 1953, R. Singer N81, nrITS
KJ009594 (F). New York: Essex Co., Adirondack Ecological Center, Huntington Wildlife Forest, mixed forest, on
decayed wood, 18 August 2012, A. Justo 593, nrITS KJ009580 (CUW); ibid., A. Justo 605, nrITS KJ009595
(CUW); ibid., 14 August 2012, A. Justo 607, nrITS KJ009593 (CUW); ibid., 16 August 2012, A. Justo 610, nrITS
KJ009575 (CUW); ibid., on decayed wood of Acer, 18 August 2012, A. Justo AJ 599, nrITS KJ009576 (CUW).
Essex Co., Huntington Wildlife Forest, Wold Lake, old-growth mixed forest with Fagus, Acer and Tsu g a, on
decayed wood of Acer saccharum, fallen tree, 21 September 2013, O. Miettinen 17105, nrITS KJ009787, tef1
KJ009925, (H); ibid., on Fagus americanus, fallen tree, 21 September 2013, O. Miettinen 17106, nrITS KJ009789
(H). Essex Co., Newcomb, Harris Lake, middle-aged, mixed forest with a lot of old storm damage, on hardwood,
fallen tree, 23 September 2013, O. Miettinen 17148, tef1 KJ009948 (H). North Carolina: Haywood Co., White
Oak, 09 October 2010, E.C. Vellinga 4184, nrITS KJ009588 (TENN). Tennessee: Blount Co., 17 July 2006, R.H.
Petersen 13290, nrITS KJ009597 (TENN). Cocke Co., Cosby, on decayed wood of deciduous tree, 05 August
2009, E.C. Vellinga 4055, nrITS KJ009579, tef1 KJ009907 (TENN). Knox Co., Corryton House Mt. State Park, on
rotten log, 23 April 2011, B. Looney 41, nrITS KJ009587 (TENN). Sevier Co., Gatlinburg, Cherokee Orchard,
Rainbow Falls Trail, on decayed wood, 06 August 2009, E.C. Vellinga 4072, nrITS KJ009581, tef1 KJ009917
(TENN). Wisconsin: Vilas Co., Northern Highland State Forest, “plot 8”, 20 July 1995, D. Lindner DLF-95-104,
nrITS KJ009577 (CFMR).
Pluteus elaphinus Justo sp. nov. Fig. 13
MycoBank 808725
Diagnosis:—Distinct from Pluteus cervinus in the pleurocystidia with bifid hooks and from other species in this complex by the
nrITS and tef1 sequence data.
Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Massachusetts: Berkshire Co., Savoy Mt. State Forest, on decayed wood, 4
October 2012, A. Justo 783, nrITS KJ009663, tef1 KJ009902 (CUW!).
Etymology:—elaphinus comes from the Greek “έλαφος” meaning “deer” making reference to the relatedness and
morphological similarity to Pluteus cervinus.
Pileus 25–65 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface innately radially
fibrillose or with conspicuous radial fibrils, usually with well-defined squamules at center, sometimes cracking and
showing the white context; brown (7.5YR 4/3–4/6, 5/4–5/8), sometimes very dark brown (7.5YR 3/3–3/4)
especially at center; dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth or slightly translucently striate. Lamellae
crowded, free, ventricose, up to 7 mm broad, white when young, later pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges.
Stipe 35–80 × 4–10 mm, cylindrical, with slightly broad base; surface white, with conspicuous longitudinal brown
or gray-brown fibrils, sometimes grouped to form distinct squamules. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell
reminiscent of raw potatoes, rarely indistinct. Taste similar to smell or earth-like. Spore print pinkish brown
(2.5YR 7/6–7/8).
Basidiospores [140, 7, 7] 6.0–8.0(–9.0) × 4.5–6.5(–7.0) μm, avl × avw = 7.0–7.8 × 5.0–5.8 μm, Q =
1.25–1.55(–1.60), avQ = 1.34–1.42, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the
middle. Basidia 12–30 × 5–10 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia
metuloid, 55–90 × 10–20 μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform, provided with 2–4 apical hooks
(commonly bifid), hyaline, with up to 5 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia
similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical
hooks and/or with rounded apices; without a predominant morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile.
Cheilocystidia 25–65 × 14–25 μm, clavate, narrowly clavate, spheropedunculate or narrowly utriform, hyaline,
thin-walled, crowded, forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 60–120 × 9–20
μm; individual elements cylindrical, some strongly tapering towards apex, mostly filled with brown intracellular
pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–20 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown
intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections absent on pileipellis hyphae; not observed in
any other part of the basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:Solitary or gregarious, on well-decayed wood of angiosperms (e.g. Acer,
Betula). In transitional boreal/temperate forests or temperate forest in mountainous areas.
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FIGURE 13. Pluteus elaphinus. A. Collection 2004-Sept-18 (photo by R. Smith). B. Collection MS9-018 (photo by R. Smith).
C. Pleurocystidia. D. Basidiospores. E. Cheilocystidia. F. Pileipellis. C–F from collection AJ 783. All line drawings by A.
Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Distribution:—North America. Ontario and Newfoundland Island (Canada); Adirondack Mountains (New
York) and Berkshire Mountains (Massachusetts) in the USA.
Observations:—Morphologically, it is hard to tell P. elaphinus apart from other members of the P. c e r v i n u s
clade, although molecularly it is a distinct species based on both nrITS and tef1 data (Fig. 2). The pleurocystidia
commonly provided with bifid hooks set it apart from P. c e r v i n u s ; the strongly fibrillose pileus and stipe set it apart
from P. hongoi but both characters are variable. Geographic distribution separates P. elaphinus and P. exilis. In
morphological characters and ecological preferences P. rangifer comes very close to P. elaphinus, differing only in
the predominantly entire hooks of the pleurocystidia and the fusiform and intermediate cystidia without hooks.
Pluteus elaphinus seems to be confined to the transitional boreal/temperate forests or mountainous forests of
northeastern North America and it has not been recorded in geographically close but ecologically different areas,
e.g., it occurs in the Berkshires of western Massachusetts but it is not present in the heavily sampled central and
eastern parts of the state. This relatively restricted distribution overlaps with the distribution of other, widely
distributed species in this group, and collections of P. cervinus (AJ781) and P. hongoi (AJ780) were made on the
very same day and place (04 October 2012, Savoy Mt. State Forest) as the holotype of P. elaphinus (AJ783).
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Pluteus brunneoolivaceus Horak is similar to P. elaphinus in the markedly squamulose/fibrillose pileus but in
this species the cheilocystidia are filled with brown intracellular pigment and are up to 80 μm long (Horak 1964).
This taxon is only known from the austral forests of the southernmost part of South America (Tierra del Fuego,
Argentina).
Additional collections examined:—CANADA. Newfoundland and Labrador: Newfoundland Island,
Bakers Brook Pond Trail, mixed woods, on decayed wood of Betula, 18 September 2004, G. Rideout s.n. 2004-
September-18, nrITS KJ009779 (CUW). Newfoundland Island, Notre Dame Provincial Park, mixed woods, on
decayed wood, 12 September 2009, K. Liimatainen MS9-018, nrITS KJ009782 (CUW). Ontario: Nipissing,
Algonquin Provincial Park, on decayed log of Acer saccharinum, 02 October 2007, M. Didukh & B. Dentinger s.n.
TRTC 156922, nrITS KJ009660, tef1 KJ009903 (TRTC). West of Kirkland Lake, on well-decayed hardwood log,
03 September 1978, VF Stanis s.n. TRTC 154079, nrITS KJ009662 (TRTC). UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
New York: Essex Co., Adirondack Ecological Center, Huntington Wildlife Forest, mixed forest, on Betula wood,
16 August 2012, A. Justo 612, nrITS KJ009661 (CUW). Essex Co., Newcomb, Harris Lake, middle-aged, mixed
forest with a lot of old storm damage, on decayed snag of Populus tremuloides, 23 September 2013, O. Miettinen
17164, nrITS KJ009786 (H).
Pluteus alniphilus Citérin & Deparis in Deparis (2003: 6). Fig. 14
Holotype:—FRANCE. Savoie, Val d’Isère, Le Fornet (1850 m elevation), on decayed wood of Alnus alnobetula (as “Alnus
viridis” in the original publication), 25 July 2001, L. Deparis s.n. PC 0086107, nrITS KJ009678 (PC!).
FIGURE 14. Pluteus alniphilus. A. Pleurocystidia. B. Basidiospores. C. Cheilocystidia. D. Pileipellis. All from collection PC
0086107. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Pileus 40–60 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with a low, broad umbo; surface strongly radially fibrillose and with well-defined squamules around center; gray-
brown or brown (in the range of 7.5YR 4/3–4/6, 5/2–5/8); dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth or
slightly translucently striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 7 mm broad, white when young, later pink,
with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 45–85 × 5–10 mm, cylindrical, with slightly broad base; surface white,
with conspicuous longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils, sometimes grouped to form distinct squamules.
Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell raphanoid. Taste raphanoid. Spore print pinkish brown.
Basidiospores [40, 2, 2] 6–8.5(–9.2) × 4.5–6.0 μm, avl × avw = 7.3–7.4 × 4.8–5.1 μm, Q = 1.23–1.73, avQ =
1.44–1.51, broadly ellipsoid, ellipsoid or oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle. Basidia
20–35 × 5–10 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid, 50–95 ×
10–30 μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform with 2–4 apical hooks (usually entire and not very
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prominent), hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia similar to
the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical hooks
and/or with rounded apices; without a predominant morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia
30–80 × 8–22 μm, clavate, narrowly clavate, spheropedunculate or narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-walled,
crowded, forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 70–110 × 6–17 μm; individual
elements cylindrical, some proportion inflated, some strongly tapering towards apex, mostly filled with brown
intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–20 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or
with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections common and readily seen on
pileipellis hyphae but not at every septum; also observed in other parts of the basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or gregarious, on decayed wood of Alnus, probably also on Betula.
In alpine forests (France) or northern Betula forests (Russia).
Distribution:Eurasia. Only known from the French Alps (Savoie) and Siberia (near Labytnangi).
Observations:—In the original description Deparis (2003) characterized Pluteus alniphilus by the
combination of gray-brown pileus, presence of clamp-connections in the pileipellis and growth on alder wood in
alpine forests (alniphilus means “alder-loving”). Other taxa in the cervinus clade that sometimes have predominant
gray colors in the pileus include P. cervinus and P. hongoi, but both taxa lack clamp-connections on the pileipellis.
The species in the complex around P. pouzarianus have clamp-connections on the pileipellis and can have
predominantly gray hues in the pileus but these species have a strong preference for conifer wood.
Additional collections examined:—FRANCE. Savoie: Val d’Isère, Le Fornet (1850 m elevation), alpine forest,
on decayed wood of Alnus viridis, 19 August 2002, T. Deparis s.n. PC 0086106, nrITS KJ009677 (PC). RUSSIA.
Siberian Federal District: Tyumen Region, right bank of Ob River, vicinities of Labytnangi, Betula forest, on stump
of deciduous tree, 19 August 1962, B.P. Vassilkov s.n. LE 9713, nrITS KJ009676, tef1 KJ009840 (LE)
II. pouzarianus clade. Fig. 3
Species growing almost exclusively on conifer wood or on the humus layer under conifers; very rarely on
angiosperm wood. Clamp-connections common and easy to spot on pileipellis hyphae.
Pluteus pouzarianus Singer (1984: 283). Fig. 15
Holotype:—CZECH REPUBLIC. Near Diana, on stump of Picea abies, 22 September 1967, Z. Pouzar s.n. PRM 628956
(PRM!).
= Pluteus pouzarianus var. albus Bonnard (1993: 204). Holotype:—SWITZERLAND. Canton Vaud: Jorat, 24 October 1989, J.
Bonnard 89/61, (LAU!).
Pileus 30–100(–150) mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-
convex, with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface smooth or
innately radially fibrillose, with or without well-defined squamules at center; brown (7.5YR 4/3–4/6, 5YR 4/2–4/
6), gray-brown (10YR 4/1–4/4) or gray (10YR 5/1–5/2), pure white variants also occur; dry or slightly viscid when
moist; margin smooth or slightly translucent-striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 12 mm broad, white
when young, later pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 40–130(–160) × 4–20 mm, cylindrical, with
slightly broad base; surface white, usually with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils, sometimes grouped to
form distinct squamules, very rarely completely glabrous. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell raphanoid
(radish-like), reminiscent of raw potatoes, or sweet, rarely indistinct. Taste similar to smell or earth-like. Spore
print pinkish brown (2.5YR 7/6–7/8).
Basidiospores [250, 24, 20] 6.0–8.6(–9.5) × (4.0–)4.5–5.7(–6.2) μm, avl × avw = 6.8–7.5 × 4.8–5.2 μm, Q =
1.25–1.65, avQ = 1.35–1.52, ellipsoid, more rarely broadly ellipsoid or oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly
constricted in the middle. Basidia 17–35 × 5–12 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction.
Pleurocystidia metuloid, (55–)65–100(–115) × 10–25(–30) μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform
with 2–4 apical hooks (usually entire), rarely with small lateral hooks, hyaline, with up to 4 μm thick wall, frequent
all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a
few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical hooks and/or with rounded apices; without a predominant
morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 20–70 × 10–25(–30) μm, clavate, narrowly clavate or
spheropedunculate, more rarely narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-walled, crowded, forming a well-developed strip.
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 60–130(–150) × 7–17(–25) μm; individual elements cylindrical, some
strongly tapering towards apex, mostly filled with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls.
Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–25 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment, with thin,
smooth walls. Clamp-connections common and readily seen on pileipellis hyphae but not at every septum; also
observed in other parts of the basidiocarp.
FIGURE 15. Pluteus pouzarianus. A. Collection LE 289380 (photo by O. Morozova). B. Basidiospores. C. Pleurocystidia. D.
Cheilocystidia. E. Pileipellis. B–E from collection PRM 898519. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or gregarious, growing on well-decayed wood of conifers (e.g.
Abies, Picea, Pinus). More rarely on conifer sawdust or on the humus layer under conifers. One collection recorded
as growing on a Fagus stump (AJ61). In natural conifer or mixed forests, also in conifer plantations. Recorded in
temperate and boreal areas. Mostly recorded in the fall (September–December) but some collections made in
February and June.
Distribution:—Eurasia. Widespread in Europe, including the Southern (Spain, Portugal, Italy), Central
(Germany, Czech Republic, The Netherlands) and Northern areas (Sweden, European Russia).
Observations:—The collection LE289380, made near St. Petersburg (Russia), marks the easternmost
confirmed occurrence of P. pouzarianus in Eurasia. All other collections in this species complex from the eastern
parts of Eurasia and from North America have turned out to be different species.
Two other species with clamp-connections in the pileipellis and habitat on conifer wood occur in the same
area. P. primus differs in the slightly larger basidiospores (on average 7.8–8.4 × 5.6–6.3 μm) and the longer
cheilocystidia, up to 120(–200) μm, with more common narrowly clavate and cylindrical ones. P. atromarginatus
differs in the pigmented cheilocystidia.
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Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
Bonnard (1993) described pure white variants of this taxon as var. albus. White forms of normally pigmented
taxa are common in other species of section Pluteus (e.g. P. cervinus, P. hongoi, P. primus).
Additional collections examined:—CZECH REPUBLIC. South Bohemia: Šumava Mountains, Čeňkova
Pila, mixed forest with Picea, Abies, Fagus, on decayed wood of Picea abies, 11 October 1997, J. Holec s.n. PRM
898519, nrITS KJ009670, tef1 KJ009800 (PRM). Šumava Mountains, Cettlovy Hurky, mixed forest with Alnus
incana, Picea abies, on decayed wood of Picea abies, 16 September 1999, J. Holec s.n. PRM 898043, nrITS
KJ009664, tef1 KJ009805 (PRM). Šumava Mountains, Zblesky, mixed forest with Acer, Fagus, Sorbus, Abies,
Fraxinus, on decayed wood of Abies alba, 13 September 1999, J. Holec s.n. PRM 897993, nrITS KJ009666, tef1
KJ009803 (PRM). Tabor, Svakov, on decayed wood of Picea abies, 01 October 2005, F. Kotlaba s.n. PRM 905414,
nrITS KJ009669, tef1 KJ009799 (PRM). GERMANY. Bavaria: Hohengebrachinger Forst, 30 September 1999, B.
Mende s.n. REG 13626, nrITS HM562154, tef1 KJ009806 (REG). Teublitz, on decayed wood, 04 October 1999, B.
Mende s.n. REG 13619, nrITS HM562170, tef1 KJ009802 (REG). RUSSIA. Northwestern Federal District:
Leningrad Region, vicinity of Komarovo, “Komarovsky bereg”, Picea forest, on decayed wood of Picea, 04
October 2009, O.V. Morozova s.n. LE 289380, nrITS KJ009668, tef1 KJ009797 (LE). SPAIN. A Coruña: Sobrado
dos Monxes, on unidentified conifer wood, 23 October 2004, J.A. Díaz s.n. LOU-Fungi 18717 (LOU). Cantabria:
Lienares, on Pinus wood, 18 November 2004, G. Carrascosa s.n. LOU-Fungi 18715 (LOU). Madrid: Madrid,
Casa de Campo, on unidentified conifer wood, 4 May 1980, J. Laviada s.n. MA-Fungi 4360 (MA). Málaga:
Yunquera, Puerto de Saucillo, in forest of Pinus halepensis, P. pinaster, Abies pinsapo, on wood, 3 December 2003,
A. Gonzalez-Cruz & F. Prieto-García s.n. JA-CUSSTA 2639 (JA). Navarra: Donamaría, on Fagus sylvatica wood,
11 July 1999, J.M. Lekuona s.n. AJ 61, nrITS HM562042 (MA). Pontevedra: Cangas, pine forest on coastal sand
dunes, on decayed wood of Pinus pinaster, 14 February 2006, J.C. Alonso s.n. AJ 210, nrITS KJ009665, tef1
KJ009800 (LOU). Redondela, on decayed wood of Pinus pinaster, 11 November 2001, J. Rodriguez s.n. AJ 208,
nrITS HM562050, tef1 KJ009804 (LOU). Segovia: Puerto de Los Leones, 23 October 1977, F.D. Calonge s.n.
MA-Fungi 1685 (MA). Soria: Tardelcuende, on burned Pinus pinaster wood, 17 October 2002, Ibon s.n. VAL-
Fungi 1997 (VAL). Vizcaya: Laga, on Pinus needles, 16 February 1975, M.T. Tellería s.n. MA-Fungi 5013 (MA).
PORTUGAL. Minho: Mata do Camarido, on Pinus wood, 29 February 2004, N. Alonso-Pereira & G.M.G. s.n.
LOU-Fungi 18842 (LOU). SWEDEN. Bondkyrka Uppland, Flogstad (near Upsala), farmyard, on sawdust heap, 14
October 1935, H.G. Bruun s.n. LE 9741, nrITS KJ009667, tef1 KJ009798 (LE).
Pluteus hibbettii Justo, E.F. Malysheva & Bulyonkova, sp. nov. Fig. 16
MycoBank 808726
Diagnosis:—Distinguished from P. pouzarianus by the narrower basidiospores and geographical distribution, as it is known
only from the eastern parts of Eurasia and North America.
Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Massachusetts: Worcester Co., Harvard Forest, on decayed conifer wood
(probably Ts u g a ), 12 October 2012, M. Nuhn s.n. AJ 794, nrITS KJ009685, tef1 KJ009814 (CUW!).
Etymology:—hibbettii is dedicated to Dr. David Hibbett.
Pileus 20–55 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface smooth or innately
radially fibrillose, with or without well-defined squamules at center; brown (7.5YR 4/3–4/6, 5/2–5/4), dark-brown
(7.5YR 3/2–3/4) or gray-brown (7.5YR 4/3, 5/2); dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth or slightly
translucent-striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 7 mm broad, white when young, later pink, with even,
or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 35–65 × 4–12 mm, cylindrical, with slightly broad base; surface white, smooth or
with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils especially near the base. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell
raphanoid or indistinct. Taste similar to smell. Spore print pinkish brown (2.5YR 7/6–7/8).
Basidiospores [100, 5, 5] (5.5–)6.5–8.5(–9.0) × 4.0–5.5 μm, avl × avw = 7.3–7.6 × 4.5–4.7 μm, Q =
1.40–1.85(–1.95), avQ = 1.50–1.65, ellipsoid to oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle.
Basidia 14–35 × 5–15 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid,
55–80(–85) × (10–)14–24 μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform with 2–4 apical hooks (usually
entire, a few bifid), hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia
similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical
hooks and/or with rounded apices; without a predominant morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile.
Cheilocystidia 35–60(–70) × 12–25 μm, clavate, narrowly clavate or spheropedunculate, very rarely narrowly
utriform or cylindrical, hyaline, thin-walled, crowded, forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
terminal elements 56–170 × 8–17 μm, individual elements cylindrical, usually strongly tapering towards apex,
mostly filled with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–25 μm wide,
cylindrical, hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections common and
readily seen on pileipellis hyphae but not at every septum; also observed in other parts of the basidiocarp.
FIGURE 16. Pluteus hibbettii. A–D. Collection LE 289426 (photos by T. Bulyonkova). E. Collection Miettinen 17187 (photo
by O. Miettinen). F. Pleurocystidia. G. Cheilocystidia. H. Pileipellis. I. Basidiospores. F–I from collection AJ 794. All line
drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
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Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or gregarious, growing on well-decayed wood of conifers (e.g.
Pinus, Tsuga). In natural conifer or mixed forests. Recorded in transitional boreal/temperate areas. Fruiting
July–August (Siberia) or September–October (Japan and North America).
Distribution:—Eurasia. Known from central Siberia (Novosibirsk district) and Japan (Hokkaido). North
America. Known from eastern North America (Ontario, New York, Massachusetts).
Observations:—The morphological differences between Pluteus hibbettii and P. pouzarianus are subtle and
not always clear-cut. The basidiospores of P. hibbettii are slightly more elongated (avQ = 1.50–1.65) than in P.
pouzarianus (avQ = 1.35–1.52); the pleurocystidia in P. hibbettii rarely exceed 80 μm in length while in P.
pouzarianus they commonly reach up to 100 μm. In other morphological characters the two taxa are very similar. P.
hibbettii occurs in the Eastern parts of Eurasia and North America, while P. pouzarianus seems to be confined to
Western Eurasia.
Pluteus eos has a similar distribution and comes very close to P. hibbettii in the molecular analyses. It differs
mainly by the comparatively broader basidiospores (avQ = 1.41–1.45), the pleurocystidia with compound
ornamentation, narrowly clavate or cylindrical cheilocystidia, and in the partially pigmented lamellar edge.
Pluteus spegazzinianus Singer in Singer & Digilio (1952: 221) differs from P. hibbettii in the partially
pigmented cheilocystidia and the habitat of Nothofagus wood. This species is only known from Argentina. Pluteus
similis Horak (2008: 12) has smaller basidiospores, up to 6.5 μm long, that are less elongated than in P. hibbettii.
This species is only known from New Zealand.
Additional collections examined:—CANADA. Ontario: Nipissing, Algonquin Provincial Park, 29
September 2009, M. Didukh & B. Dentinger s.n. TRTC 156866, nrITS KJ009684, tef1 KJ009812 (TRTC). York
Region, King Township, Jokers Hill, old-growth forest, on decayed log, 08 October 2007, M. Didukh s.n. TRTC
167735, nrITS KJ009686, tef1 KJ009813 (TRTC). JAPAN. Hokkaido: Otaru, conifer forest, on decayed stump, 23
September 2005, S. Takehashi s.n. TNSF 12371, nrITS HM562096, tef1 KJ009816 (TNS). RUSSIA. Siberian
Federal District: Novosibirsk Region, Novosibirsk District, Akademgorodok, mixed forest (Pinus sylvestris,
Betula pendula) with a lot of shrubs and fallen trees, on decayed wood of Pinus, rotten roots, 15 July 2011, T.M.
Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289426, nrITS KJ009672, tef1 KJ009811 (LE); ibid., planted mixed forest (Betula, Pinus
sylvestris, Populus alba) with lots of dead wood, on decayed wood of Pinus, rotten trunk, 23 August 2011, T.M.
Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289400, nrITS KJ009671, tef1 KJ009810 (LE). UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. New York:
Warren Co., Warrensburg, Pack Demonstration Forest, old, dense hemlock forest, on Tsuga canadensis, fallen
branch on the ground, 24 September 2013, O. Miettinen 17193, nrITS KJ009791, tef1 KJ009815 (H); ibid., on
Tsuga canadensis, fallen tree crown, 24 September 2013, O. Miettinen 17187, nrITS KJ009790, tef1 KJ009817 (H)
Pluteus eos Justo & E.F. Malysheva, sp. nov. Fig. 17
MycoBank 808727
Diagnosis:—Differs from Pluteus hibbettii in the pleurocystidia with bifid hooks, partially pigmented lamellar edge and
broader basidiospores.
Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. New York: Essex Co., Adirondack Ecological Center, Huntington Wildlife
Forest, well decayed conifer wood, 17 August 2012, A Justo 589, nrITS KJ009683, tef1 KJ009808 (CUW!).
Etymology:—eos is the transliteration of “Ηως” the name of the Greek goddess of dawn. It is given to this taxon for its
distribution in the eastern parts of Eurasia and North America.
Pileus 20–50 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface smooth or innately
radially fibrillose, with or without well defined squamules at center; dark brown (in the range of 5YR 3/2–3/4, 4/
3–4/6) or gray-brown (5YR 4/1–4/2, 3/1); dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth or slightly
translucently striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 8 mm broad, white when young, later pink, with
pigmented edges but not uniformly so: dark brown in the 1/2 or 1/3 near the pileus margin and even, or white,
flocculose in the part near the stipe. Stipe 30–65 × 3–15 mm, cylindrical, with slightly broad base; surface white,
smooth or with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils, sometimes grouped forming small squamules especially
near the base. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell indistinct. Taste indistinct. Spore print not recorded.
Basidiospores [60, 3, 3] 6.5–9.0 × 4.5–6.5 μm, avl × avw = 7.7–8.2 × 5.4–5.7 μm, Q = 1.35–1.60, avQ =
1.41–1.45, ellipsoid, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle. Basidia 15–35 (40) × 5–15 μm,
tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid, 60–80(–100) × 12–22(–30) μm,
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform with 2–4 apical hooks (commonly bifid, but entire hooks also
present), rarely with small lateral hooks, hyaline, with up to 4 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar faces.
Intermediate cystidia similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped,
without distinct apical hooks and/or with rounded apices; without a predominant morphological type. Lamellar
edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 40–70 × 12–25 μm, narrowly clavate or cylindrical, more rarely clavate or narrowly
utriform, hyaline or with evenly dissolved, intracellular, brown pigment, thin-walled, crowded, forming a well-
developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 85–165 × 7–17 μm, individual elements cylindrical,
usually strongly tapering towards apex, mostly filled with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls.
Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–25 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment, with thin,
smooth walls. Clamp-connections common and readily seen on pileipellis hyphae but not at every septum; also
observed in other parts of the basidiocarp.
FIGURE 17. Pluteus eos. A. Collection 050916-AV12 (photo by Andrus Voitk). B. Pleurocystidia from 050916-AV12. C.
Pleurocystidia from AJ 589. D. Basidiospores. E. Cheilocystidia. F. Pileipellis. D–F from collection AJ 589. All line drawings
by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
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Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or gregarious, growing on well-decayed conifer wood (e.g. Tsu g a ).
In conifer or mixed forests. Recorded in transitional boreal/temperate or boreal areas. August–September.
Distribution:—Eurasia. Known from the Russian Far East (Primorsky Territory North America. Known
from eastern North America (Newfoundland Island, New York).
Observations:—The combination of pigmented lamellar edges near pileus margin, pleurocystidia with bifid
hooks and narrowly clavate to cylindrical cheilocystidia sets Pluteus eos apart from the other members of the
pouzarianus clade. Pluteus orestes also has pigmented cheilocystidia but this species has differently shaped
pleurocystidia and it is restricted to mountainous habitats in western North America.
Pluteus spegazzinianus resembles P. e o s in the partially pigmented lamellar edges and the presence of clamp-
connections but it can be separated from P. e o s in the different ornamentation of the pleurocystidia and the
predominantly clavate cheilocystidia (Singer & Digilio 1952). This species is only known from Argentina. Pluteus
microspermus and Pluteus concentricus may resemble P. e os in the pigmented lamellar edges but both species have
smaller basidiospores (less than 6.5 μm long) and lack clamp-connections (Horak 2008). Both species are only
known from New Zealand, where they grow in association with Nothofagus wood (Horak 2008).
Additional collections examined:—CANADA. Newfoundland and Labrador: Newfoundland Island,
Lower Main River, mixed woods, on mossy wood, 06 September 2011, A. Voitk MR2-080, nrITS KJ009796
(CUW). Pasadena Ski Trail, mixed woods, on decayed wood, 16 September 2005, M. Voitk 050916-AV12, nrITS
KJ009795, tef1 KJ009809 (CUW). RUSSIA. Far East Federal District: Primorsky Territory, Kedrovaya Pad
Nature Reserve, Valley of Kedrovaya River, floodplain broadleaf forest, on decayed wood, 05 September 2011,
T.Yu. Svetasheva s.n. LE 289379, nrITS KJ009675, tef1 KJ009807 (LE).
Pluteus parilis nom. prov.
Etymology:—parilis means ‘similar’ because of the close resemblance to other species in this complex.
Description based on the collection UC1998533
Pileus 40–50 mm in diameter, applanate with low umbo, and deflexed margin; surface smooth to innately fibrillose,
distinctly fibrillose at umbo, brown; margin slightly translucently striate, and irregular. Lamellae free, crowded,
ventricose, pink with age, with white lamellar edge. Stipe 80–90 × 7–10 mm, distinctly widening downwards up to
12 mm, solid, white, with a few brown fibrils in lower half, but overall impression white. Smell slightly raphanoid.
Basidiospores [20, 1, 1] 8.0–9.8 × 4.9–6.4 µm, avl × avw = 8.9 × 5.6 µm, Q = 1.4–1.9, avQ = 1.6, ellipsoid to
oblong. Basidia 23–30 × 8.5–10 µm, tetrasterigmate, cylindrical, slightly constricted in the middle. Pleurocystidia
abundant, 60–80 × 15–20 µm, fusiform, with thick walls in upper part, and 3 to 4 prominent to small hooks.
Intermediate cystidia irregularly shaped, with 1, rarely 2 hooks, thinner walled than pleurocystidia. Lamellar edge
sterile; cheilocystidia 36–75 × 13–20 µm, narrowly clavate, clavate, rarely narrowly utriform, thin-walled, hyaline.
Pileipellis a cutis of cylindrical hyphae around 10 µm in diam.; terminal elements with rounded or slightly tapered
at apex, with brown intracellular pigment. Clamp connections present in pileipellis, at most septa, also present in
other parts of the basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—In small groups of 2 or 3 specimens, on wood in various mixed conifer or
conifer-hardwood forests, up to an elevation of 1500 m. January on the coast, and June in the mountains.
Distribution. North America:—Known from two locations in California.
Observations:—The above description is based on one collection (UC1998533) from coastal northern
California. The second collection (UC19987410, from Yosemite National Park) differs in the very pale gray
colours of the basidiocarps, the pleurocystidia with small hooks in one basidiocarp, and well-developed hooks on
the pleurocystidia of the second basidiocarp, and the smaller and broader basidiospores ([20, 1, 1] 7.3–8.8 ×
5.4–6.9 µm, avl × avw = 8.0 × 6.0 µm, Q = 1.25–1.45, avQ = 1.34).
Because of these discrepancies in macroscopic and microscopic characters we refrain from formally describing
P. p a r i l i s as a new taxon. We feel it is important to include this species here, even if only provisionally named, to
facilitate future collections of this possibly endemic and rare taxon. More collections are needed to
comprehensively circumscribe this species, and to distinguish it from other species with clamp-connections
ocurring in western North America.
Collections examined:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California: Mendocino Co., Jackson State
Demonstration Forest, 11 mi. east of Fort Bragg, 28 January 2012, H. Smith s.n. UC 1998533, nrITS JX857448
(UC). Tuolumne Co., Yosemite National Park, West Gate Parking along Hwy 120, 5 June 2010, D. Smith s.n. UC
19987410, nrITS JX857471 tef1 KJ460257 (UC).
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Pluteus orestes Vellinga & Justo, sp. nov. Fig 18
MycoBank 808728
Diagnosis:—A rather pale brown to pale gray or white species, with clamp-connections in the pileipellis, relatively large
basidiospores, and pleurocystidia with short and indistinct hooks. The relatively large basidiospores set it apart from
similar taxa in the pouzarianus clade (P. eos, P. hibbettii).
Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California: Tuolumne Co., Yosemite National Park, Carlon Meadow Road, 3
June 2010, R. Pastorino s.n. UC 1861122, nrITS JX857467 (UC!).
Etymology:—orestes, from the Greek “ορέστης” meaning “mountaineer, mountain hiker”. It is given to this species for its
distribution in the mountain ranges of Western North America.
Pileus 45–90 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex, with
or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface smooth or innately radially
fibrillose, usually with well-defined squamules at least around center; white or very pale grayish or grayish brown
(10YR 7/1–7/3, 8/1–8/3), sometimes darker at center, more rarely brown all over (7.5YR 5/3–5/8, 6/3–6/8); dry or
slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth or slightly translucent-striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 12
mm broad, white when young, later pink; edges white and flocculose all over or pigmented dark brown near pileus
margin. Stipe 60–110 × 8–20 mm, cylindrical, with equal or slightly narrowed base; surface white, sometimes with
longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils, grouped forming small squamules. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell
indistinct or faintly raphanoid. Taste indistinct. Spore print pinkish brown (2.5YR 7/6–7/8).
Basidiospores [100, 5, 5] 8.0–10.5(–11.0) × 5.5–8.0 μm, avl × avw = 9.0–9.9 × 6.0–7.3 μm, Q = 1.23–1.65,
avQ = 1.35–1.51, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, more rarely oblong, some ovoid or slightly constricted in the
middle. Basidia 15–35(–39) × 5–15 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia
metuloid, 73–114(–123) × 17–30 μm, fusiform or narrowly fusiform with 2–3 short apical hooks (entire and not
very prominent), or utriform to narrowly utriform with only one apical hook, hyaline, with up to 2 μm thick wall,
frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia predominantly narrowly utriform and without apical hooks, a
few similar to pleurocystidia. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 45–110(–145) × 14–24 μm, narrowly clavate or
cylindrical, more rarely clavate or narrowly utriform, hyaline or with evenly dissolved, intracellular, brown
pigment, thin-walled, crowded, forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements
93–205(–250) × 9–17 μm; individual elements cylindrical, usually strongly tapering towards apex, hyaline or filled
with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–25 μm wide, cylindrical,
hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections common and readily seen
on pileipellis hyphae but not at every septum; also observed in other parts of the basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or in pairs, growing on decayed conifer wood, more rarely on
conifer litter. In conifer or mixed forests. Recorded only from mountain areas. May–October.
Distribution:North America. Known only from western North America: Yosemite National Park
(California), Mount Shasta area (California), Mount Ashland (Oregon) and Gifford Pinchot National Forest
(Washington), at elevation of 1200–2400 m.
Observations:Pluteus orestes is a white to pale gray or pale brown species growing on conifer wood in the
mountains of western North America. It can be recognized by the presence of clamp-connections, the relatively
large and broad basidiospores and the pleurocystidia with short hooks.
Pluteus velutinornatus Stevenson (1962: 69) may also present pleurocystidia with short and not very distinct
hooks but it differs from P. o r e st e s in the dark brown, fibrillose/squamulose pileus; the smaller basidiospores (up to
8 μm long) and the predominantly clavate and shorter (up to 70 μm long) cheilocystidia. This species is endemic to
New Zealand (Horak 2008).
Additional collections examined:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California: Siskiyou Co., c. 13 miles
east of McCloud, near Algoma Campground, mixed conifer forest, on rotten wood, 26 May 2012, T. Chesney s.n
UC 1998688, nrITS JX857456
(UC); Siskoyou Co., Mount Shasta, Trout Creek Butte, in mixed conifer forest, 28
May 2012, C.F. Schwarz s.n. UC 1998687, nrITS JX857455
(UC); Tuolomne Co., Yosemite National Park, Crane
Flat, mixed conifer forest, on wood, 30 September 2011, D. Rust s.n. UC 1998602, nrITS JX857469
(UC); ibid., on
conifer wood, 16 September 2011, D. Rust s.n. UC 1998591, nrITS JX857470, tef1 KJ460256 (UC); Tuolomne
Co., Yosemite National Park, Glacier Point Road, mixed conifer forest, on conifer wood, 29 October 2011, E.C.
Vellinga s.n. UC 1861044, nrITS JX857466 (UC). Oregon: Jackson Co., Mt. Ashland, on conifer stump, 19
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October 2011, R. Pastorino MO80923, nrITS KJ009673, tef1 KJ009825 (CUW). Washington: Southeastern
Gifford Pinchot National Forest, 19 June 2010, S. Krstic MO93766, nrITS KJ009674 (CUW).
FIGURE 18. Pluteus orestes. A. Collection MO 80923 (photo by R. Pastorino). B. Collection MO 93766 (photo by S. Krstic).
C. Collection UC 1998591 (photo by D. Rust). D. Pleurocystidia from MO 80923. E. Pleurocystidia from MO 93766. F.
Cheilocytidia. G. Intermediate cystidia. H. Basidiospores. I. Pileipellis. F–I from collection MO 80923. All line drawings by A.
Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Phytotaxa 180 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Pluteus primus Bonnard (1991: 169). Fig. 19
Holotype:—SWITZERLAND. Canton Vaud, Jorat, on rotting conifer wood, JB 87/121, nrITS KJ009679 (LAU!).
FIGURE 19. Pluteus primus. A. Collection 060816-AV13 (photo by Andrus Voitk). B. Pleurocystidia. C. Basidiospores. D.
Cheilocystidia. E. Pileipellis. B–E from collection 060816-AV13. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Pileus 35–100(–120) mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-
convex, with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface smooth or
innately radially fibrillose, with or without well-defined squamules at center; brown (7.5YR 4/2–4/6, 5/3–5/8) or
gray-brown (7.5YR 4/1, 5/1/–5/2), occasionally pure white; dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth or
slightly translucent-striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 12(–15) mm broad, white when young, later
pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 35–130(–170) × 4–20 mm, cylindrical, with slightly broad base;
surface white, smooth or with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell
raphanoid or rarely indistinct. Taste similar to smell. Spore print pinkish brown (2.5YR 7/6–7/8).
Basidiospores [100, 5, 5] 7.0–9.5(–10.0) × (4.5–)5.0–7.0 μm, avl × avw = 7.8–8.4 × 5.6–6.3 μm, Q = 1.25–1.60,
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avQ = 1.33–1.43, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle. Basidia 15–35
× 7–12 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. According to Bonnard (1991) bisterigmate
basidia also present. Pleurocystidia metuloid, 70–115(–130) × 15–25 μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly
utriform with 2–4 apical hooks (usually entire, sometimes small and indistinct), hyaline, with up to 4 μm thick wall,
frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner
walls, a few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical hooks and/or with rounded apices, without a predominant
morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 55–120(–200) × 8–25(–30) μm, narrowly clavate or
cylindrical, more rarely clavate or narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-walled, crowded, forming a well-developed strip.
Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 60–125 × 6–20 μm, individual elements cylindrical, some strongly tapering
towards apex, mostly filled with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae
5–25 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections observed at
every septum on pileipellis hyphae and also present in other parts of the basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or gregarious, growing on well-decayed wood of conifers (Abies,
Picea, Pseudotsuga). Also recorded on conifer sawdust, woodchip piles or on the litter layer under conifers. One
collection recorded as growing on a Fagus stump (REG 13620). In natural conifer or mixed forests, also in conifer
plantations. Recorded in temperate and boreal areas. Found year round.
Distribution:—Eurasia. Widespread but rare in Europe (Switzerland, Germany, Caucasus). North America.
Recorded from Newfoundland Island and California.
Observations:—Pluteus primus is mostly characterized by the narrowly clavate or cylindrical cheilocystidia
up to 120 (–200) μm long and the pileipellis hyphae with clamp-connections at all septa.
Additional collections examined:—CANADA. Newfoundland and Labrador: Newfoundland Island, Gros
Morne National Park, Western Brook Pond, mixed woods, on decayed wood, 17 August 2004, A. Voitk 04-08-17-
AV02, nrITS KJ009780, tef1 KJ009824 (CUW). Newfoundland Island, Pasadena Ski Trail, mixed woods, on wood
chips, 16 August 2006, A. Voitk 06-08-16-AV13, nrITS KJ009781, tef1 KJ009823 (CUW). GERMANY. Bavaria:
Pielenhofen, on Fagus stump, 18 October 1999, B. Mende s.n. REG 13620, nrITS HM562167, tef1 KJ009821
(REG). Viergstetten, on bark mulch, REG 13683, nrITS HM562156, tef1 KJ009822 (REG). RUSSIA. North
Caucasian Federal District: Arkhyz Site of Teberdinsky Nature Reserve, near Kizgych river, mixed forest (Abies,
Fagus), on decayed wood, 20 August 2009, O.V. Morozova s.n. LE 289390, nrITS KJ009680, tef1 KJ009818 (LE);
ibid., mixed forest (Picea, Abies, Fagus), on decayed wood of deciduous tree, 18 August 2009, E.F. Malysheva s.n.
LE 289388, nrITS KJ009682, tef1 KJ009820 (LE). Teberdinsky Nature Reserve, Dzhemagat canyon, pine forest,
on decayed wood of conifer tree, 15 August 2009, A.E. Kovalenko s.n. LE 289389, nrITS KJ009681, tef1
KJ009819 (LE). UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California: Alameda Co., Berkeley, Euclid Avenue near Oak
Street, on wood chips, 11 March 2011, E.C. Vellinga s.n. UC 1998686, nrITS JX857454, tef1 KJ460254 (UC).
Marin Co., Point Reyes National Seashore, Estero Trail, Pinus radiata plantation, on soil, 28 January 2006, E.C.
Vellinga s.n. UC 1859500, nrITS KF306026 (UC). Marin Co., Mt. Tamalpais, Bolinas-Fairfax Rd., near Alpine
Lake along Kentlake pump road, mixed forest with Pseudotsuga menziesii, Notholithocarpus densiflorus, Sequoia
sempervirens, Arbutus sp., 30 November 2011, T. D. Bruns s.n. UC 1861233, nrITS JX857447 (UC).
Pluteus methvenii Minnis & Justo, sp. nov. Fig. 20
MycoBank 808729
Diagnosis:—Differs from Pluteus primus in the shorter and predominantly clavate to narrowly clavate cheilocystidia.
Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. North Carolina: Yancey Co., Mount Mitchell (peak), spruce-fir forest, on log
of red spruce (Picea rubens), 23 September 2011, A.S. Methven PNC1, nrITS KJ009689, tef1 KJ009826 (BPI!).
Etymology:—methvenii, is dedicated to Dr. Andrew Scott Methven, collector of the holotype.
Pileus 28–60 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with or without a low, broad umbo, with or without a shallow depression at center; surface smooth, innately
radially fibrillose, or with conspicuous superficial radial fibrils, with or without well-defined squamules at center;
brown (7.5YR 4/2–4/6, 5/3–5/8) or dark-brown (7.5YR 3/3, 3/4); dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth
or slightly translucently striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 8 mm broad, white when young, later
pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 35–130(–170) × 3–20 mm, cylindrical, with slightly broad base;
surface white, smooth or with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell
not recorded. Taste not recorded. Spore print not recorded.
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
FIGURE 20. Pluteus methvenii. A. Collection 090626-AV04 (photo by Andrus Voitk). B. Collection 060916 (photo by R.
Smith). C. Collection TN5-029 (photo by R. Smith). D. Basidiospores. E. Pleurocystidia. F. Cheilocystidia. G. Pileipellis. D–G
from collection 090626-AV04. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Basidiospores [80, 4, 4] 7.0–9.5 × 5.0–7.0 μm, avl × avw = 7.1–8.9 × 5.3–5.9 μm, Q = 1.20–1.60(–1.80), avQ
= 1.33–1.50, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, rarely oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle.
Basidia 12–35 × 7–15 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid,
60–100 × 12–26 μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform, with 2–4 apical hooks (usually entire),
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hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia similar to the
pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical hooks and/or
with rounded apices; without a predominant morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 40–85 ×
10–20 μm, clavate, narrowly clavate or cylindrical, more rarely narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-walled, crowded,
forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 70–195(–270) × 8–17 μm: individual
elements cylindrical, some strongly tapering towards apex, some capitate or subcapitate, mostly filled with brown
intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–25 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or
with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections common and readily seen on
pileipellis hyphae, but not at every septum; also present in other parts of the basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or in pairs, growing on well-decayed wood of conifers (e.g. Abies,
Picea). In conifer or mixed forests. Recorded from subtropical (Lousiana), temperate and boreal areas.
September–November.
Distribution:—North America. Known only from eastern North America (Newfoundland Island, North
Carolina, Louisiana).
Observations:—Pluteus methvenii comes very close to Pluteus primus and mainly differs in the shape of the
cheilocystidia (clavate to narrowly clavate) and their length (up to 85 μm long). Similar species occurring in
Eastern North America include P. hibbettii, with comparatively smaller and narrower basidiospores and P. e o s, with
compound ornamentation on the pleurocystidia and pigmented cheilocystidia close to the pileus edge.
Pluteus squamosopunctus Horak (1964: 169) differs from P. methvenii in the abundant pyramidal squamules
on pileus, the pigmented lamellar edges, the smaller basidiospores (up to 7 μm long), and the smaller cheilocystidia
(up to 52 μm long). Pluteus raphaniodorus Horak (1964: 173) differs in the pigmented lamellar edges, the smaller
basidiospores (up to 5.6 μm long) and the growth on angiosperm (Nothofagus) wood. Both species are only known
from Argentina (Horak 1964).
Additional collections examined:—CANADA. Newfoundland and Labrador: Newfoundland Island,
Castle Hill National Historic Site, conifer forest, on decayed wood of Abies balsamea, 16 September 2006, A. Voitk
s.n. 2006-Sept-16, nrITS KJ009794 (CUW). Newfoundland Island, Pasadena Ski Trails, mixed woods, on decayed
wood, 26 September 2009, A. Voitk 090926-AV04, nrITS KJ009793, tef1 KJ009829 (CUW). Newfoundland Island,
Salmonier Nature Park, conifer forest, on decayed wood, 13 September 2006, S. Knight 06-13-09, nrITS
KJ009783, tef1 KJ009827 (CUW). Newfoundland Island, town of Terra Nova, mixed woods, on conifer wood, 10
September 2011, G. Bishop TN5-029, nrITS KJ009792, tef1 KJ009828 (CUW). UNITED STATES OF
AMERICA. Louisiana: Lafayette area, Moore foray location, Nov-2009, NAMA Foray s.n. PLA1, nrITS
KJ009688 (BPI).
III. brunneidiscus clade. Fig. 4
Species growing mostly on angiosperm wood or on the humus layer without apparent connection to wood; more
rarely on conifer wood. Clamp-connections common and easy to spot on pileipellis hyphae.
Pluteus brunneidiscus Murrill (1917: 131). Fig. 21
Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Connecticut: Fairfield Co., Redding, on mossy log, 20 July 1902, F.S . E a r l e
524 (NY!).
Synonym: Pluteus washingtonensis Murrill (1917: 135). Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Washington: King
Co., Seattle, on decayed wood, 20 October–1 November 1911, W.A. Murrill 348 (NY!).
Pileus 30–60 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with or without a low broad umbo; surface smooth or innately radially fibrillose, with or without well-defined
squamules at center; brown (7.5YR 5/2–5/8, 4/3–4/6) or gray-brown (7.5YR 5/1, 4/1–4/2), or pure white, dry or
slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth or slightly translucent-striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to
7 mm broad, white when young, later pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 30–70 × 3–6 mm,
cylindrical, with slightly broad base; surface white, smooth or with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils,
especially near the base. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell raphanoid. Taste similar to smell or indistinct.
Spore print pink to pinkish brown.
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
FIGURE 21. Pluteus brunneidiscus. A. Collection BPI 884087 (photo by A. Minnis). B. Pleurocystidia. C. Basidiospores. D.
Pileipellis. E. Cheilocystidia. B–E from collection AJ586. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Basidiospores [100, 4, 4] 6.5–9.6(–10.5) × (4.5–)5.0–7.1 μm, avl × avw = 7.1–8.1 × 5.1–6.2 μm, Q =
1.18–1.59, avQ = 1.30–1.45, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle.
Basidia 15–28 × 6–12 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid,
50–100 × 12–24(–30) μm, fusiform or narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform with 2–4 apical hooks (usually
entire, sometimes rounded and poorly developed), rarely with small lateral hooks, hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick
wall, frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with
thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical hooks and/or with rounded apices; without a
predominant morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 30–68 × 12–22 μm, clavate, narrowly
clavate or spheropedunculate, more rarely narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-walled, crowded, forming a well-
developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 80–146 × 8–15 μm; individual elements cylindrical,
some strongly tapering towards apex, a few with small lateral outgrowths, mostly filled with brown intracellular
pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–25 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown
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intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections common and readily seen on pileipellis hyphae
but not at every septum; also observed in other parts of the basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or gregarious, growing on decayed wood of hardwoods (Betula,
Umbellularia, Populus) or on the humus layer under hardwoods or conifers. Mostly in temperate or transitional
mixed forests. June–September, except in California (November–January).
Distribution:—Eurasia. Widespread but rare, known from the Russian Northwest and Siberia. North
America. Widespread but rare, known from both the Western (California, Idaho, Washington, British Columbia)
and Eastern parts (Connecticut, New York).
Observations:—Murrill (1917) described simultaneously Pluteus brunneidiscus from Eastern North America
(Connecticut, USA) and Pluteus washingtonensis from the West Coast (Washington, USA). Examination of the type
collections did not reveal significant differences between these taxa and therefore both were considered synonymous
and the name P. brunneidiscus was chosen (Justo & Castro 2007a). The collections here studied fit the original
descriptions of Murrill and the observations made on the types, and span the geographical range of both taxa,
therefore we choose to use the name Pluteus brunneidiscus for this taxon, instead of describing it as a new species.
The name Pluteus subcervinus (Berkeley & Broome) Saccardo (1887: 666) was originally considered for some
of these collections. This species was described from Sri Lanka (Berkeley & Broome 1871: 531), and the type
collection is preserved at Kew; see Pegler (1986) and Justo & Castro (2007a) for type studies. The Indian collection
of Pluteus subcervinus described in Pradeep et al. (2002) was sampled for molecular data (nrITS KJ009752; tef1
KJ010010) and molecularly is quite different from all Holarctic species of section Pluteus. In a more inclusive
analysis, with (sub)tropical and Southern Hemisphere representatives of section Pluteus, this species usually appears
as sister to all taxa in the salicinus clade but with no strong statistical support (data not shown).
Additional collections examined:—CANADA. British Columbia: Hermit Bay, 26 June 1957, D. Stuntz
9948, nrITS KJ009690 (WTU). RUSSIA. Northwestern Federal District: Vologda Region, Kirillovsky District,
National Park Russian North, vicinities of Sigovo, Populus forest, on buried wood, 21 June 2004, O.S. Kirillova
s.n. LE 235301, nrITS KJ009691, tef1 KJ009831 (LE). Siberian Federal District: Novosibirsk Region,
Novosibirsk District, Akademgorodok, clearing in planted Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula forest overgrown
with weeds, on rotting trunk of Betula, 09 August 2011, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289397, nrITS KJ009693, tef1
KJ009832 (LE). Tomsk Akademgorodok, mixed forest (Pinus, Populus, Betula), on soil, 10 September 2010, N.N.
Agafonova s.n. LE 262801, nrITS KJ009692 (LE). Vicinities of Krasnoyarsk, on decayed wood, 04 August 1961,
Peglyanova s.n. LE 9721, nrITS KJ009695, tef1 KJ009833 (LE). UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California:
Marin Co., Point Reyes National Seashore, 27 December 2011, unknown collector UC 1861130, nrITS JX857445,
tef1 KJ460253 (UC); ibid., along the Old Pine Trail, mature Pseudotsuga menziesii forest with mixed hardwoods,
on soil, 10 December 2005, E.C. Vellinga s.n. UC 1859657, nrITS KF306025 (UC); ibid., Olema Trail, woods, on
leaf litter under Umbellularia californica, 10 December 2005, E.C. Vellinga s.n. UC 1859655, nrITS KF306024
(UC); ibid., on log of Umbellularia californica, 11 November 2012, D. Klein s.n. UC 1999290, nrITS KF306006
(UC); ibid., Bear Valley Trail from the visitor's center to the start of the forest, open grassy meadow with Quercus
sp. and Pseudotsuga menziesii, 07 January 2012, D.B. Viess s.n. UC 1861127, nrITS KF306002 (UC). San Mateo
Co., San Francisco Watershed, on log, 21 January 1979, San Francisco Mycological Society, H.D. Thiers 39341,
nrITS HM562068 (ILLS). Idaho: near McCall, on needle duff, 04 September 2008, S. Campbell & A. Parker s.n.
BPI 884087, nrITS HM562217 (BPI). New York: Essex Co., Adirondack Ecological Center, Huntington Wildlife
Forest, mixed forest, on decayed wood, 18 August 2012, A. Justo 586, nrITS KJ009694, tef1 KJ009834 (CUW).
Pluteus shikae Justo & E.F. Malysheva, sp. nov. Fig. 22
MycoBank 808730
Diagnosis:—Distinct from P. brunneidiscus in the slightly shorter and narrower basidiospores.
Holotype:—JAPAN. Hokkaido: Sapporo, on decayed wood, 15 September 2003, S. Takehashi s.n. TNS-F 12349, nrITS
HM562093, tef1 KJ009837 (TNS!).
Etymology:—shikae comes from shika ( ), the Japanese word for “deer”. It is given to this taxon for its morphological
similarity with other “deer” mushrooms and the distribution in Japan.
Pileus 20–50 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with or without a low, broad umbo; surface smooth or innately radially fibrillose, with or without well defined
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
squamules at center; brown (7.5YR 4/2–4/6, 5/2–5/8); dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth or slightly
translucently striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 6 mm broad, white when young, later pink, with
even, or white, flocculose edges, very rarely with pale brown edges near pileus margin. Stipe 30–65(–70) × 3–6
mm, cylindrical, with slightly broad base; surface white, smooth or with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils
especially near the base. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell not recorded. Taste not recorded. Spore print not
recorded.
FIGURE 22. Pluteus shikae. A. Pleurocystidia from TNS-F 12349. B. Pleurocystidia from LE 289383. C. Cheilocystidia from
TNS-F 12349. D. Basidiospores from TNS-F 12349. E. Cheilocystida from LE 289383. F. Pileipellis from TNS-F 12349. All
line drawings from TNS-F 12349 by A. Justo. All line drawings from LE 289383 by E. Malysheva. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Basidiospores [80, 4, 4] 5.5–8.0 × (3.5–)4.0–5.5(–6.0) μm, avl × avw = 6.5–7.1 × 4.4–5.0 μm, Q = 1.34–1.70,
avQ = 1.42–1.56, ellipsoid to oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle. Basidia 18–27 × 6–10
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μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid, 60–97 × 12–22(–29) μm,
fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform with 2–4 apical hooks (usually entire, a few bifid), sometimes
with small lateral hooks, hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia
similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical
hooks and/or with rounded apices; without a predominant morphological type. Lamellar edge sterile.
Cheilocystidia (27–)34–55 (65) × 12–20(–29) μm, clavate or narrowly clavate, more rarely narrowly utriform or
cylindrical, hyaline, very few with intracellular brown pigment and/or incrusting parietal pigment, thin-walled,
crowded, forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 90–150 × 7–17 μm, individual
elements cylindrical, usually strongly tapering towards apex, a few subcapitate, mostly filled with brown
intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–20 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or
with brown pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections common and readily seen on pileipellis hyphae
but not at every septum; also observed in other parts of the basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or subgregarious, growing on well-decayed wood of hardwoods
(Quercus). In hardwood-dominated or mixed forests. June–September.
Distribution:—Eurasia. Known from northern Japan (Hokkaido) and the Russian Far East (Primorsky
Territory).
Observations:—Based on molecular data P. s h i k a e is a separate taxon from P. brunneidiscus but
morphologically it is hard to distinguish them. P. shikae has slightly shorter and narrower basidiospores (avl × avw
= 6.5–7.1 × 4.4–5.0 μm; avQ = 1.42–1.56) than P. brunneidiscus (avl × avw = 7.1–8.1 × 5.1–6.2 μm, avQ =
1.30–1.45). The ecological preferences and full geographical distribution of both taxa are still in need of further
study to determine whether they are of any value in species delimitation.
Pluteus microspermus and Pluteus concentricus have only slightly shorter basidiospores than P. s h i k a e , up to
6.0 and 6.5 μm respectively, but both taxa differ from P. shikae in the pigmented lamellar edges and the absence of
clamp-connections (Horak 2008). Both species are only known from New Zealand (Horak 2008).
Additional collections examined:—JAPAN. Hokkaido: Ebetsu, Nopporo, mixed forest, on decayed wood,
01 June 2005, S. Takehashi s.n. TNS-F 12356, nrITS HM562097, tef1 KJ009839 (TNS). Kuromatunai-cho,
deciduous forest, on decayed wood, 20 June 2006, S. Takehashi s.n. TNS-F 12360, nrITS HM562095, tef1
KJ009838 (TNS). Sapporo, mixed forest, on decayed wood, 15 September 2003, S. Takehasi s.n. TNS-F 12348,
nrITS HM562094, tef1 KJ009836 (TNS). RUSSIA. Far East Federal District: Primorsky Territory, Sikhote-
Alinsky Nature Biosphere Reserve, vicinities of Blagodatny Reserve Field Station, Quercus mongolica forest with
isolated Betula platyphylla, on decayed wood of Quercus (or Betula), 29 August 2011, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE
289383, nrITS KJ009696, KJ009835 (LE).
Pluteus kovalenkoi E.F. Malysheva, sp. nov. Fig. 23
MycoBank 808731
Diagnosis:—Differs from P. shikae by the stipe surface features, basidiospore size and shape of pleurocystidial hooks.
Holotype:—RUSSIA. Southern Federal District (Caucasus): Krasnodar Territory, vicinities of Kamyshanova Polyana, on
decayed wood, 5 October 1978, A.E. Kovalenko s.n. LE 9691, nrITS KJ009697, tef1 KJ009830 (LE!).
Etymology:—kovalenkoi is dedicated to Dr. Alexander Kovalenko.
Pileus 37–49 mm in diameter, obtusely campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex, with a
low, broad umbo; surface smooth, slightly glistening when moist, innately fibrillose, with well-defined squamules
at center; brown or gray-brown (7.5YR 3/3–3/4, 4/6, 5/6–5/8, 5/1–5/2); margin slightly translucently striate.
Lamellae crowded, free, slightly ventricose, up to 5 mm broad, white-cream when young, later pink, with
concolorous edges. Stipe 70–80 × 5–6 mm, cylindrical, slightly broad towards base (up to 7–8 mm); surface white
or white-cream in the upper part, yellowish brown or terracotta towards base, glabrous or slightly pruinose at apex,
longitudinally fibrillose towards base, without distinct squamules in the lower part. Context in stipe and pileus
white. Smell indistinct. Taste not recorded. Spore print not recorded.
Basidiospores [30/2/1] (7.3–)7.6–9.0(–9.5) × 4.6–5.8 μm, avl × avw = 7.8–8.2 × 5.2–5.5 μm, Q =
(1.38–)1.44–1.70, avQ = 1.49–1.60, broadly ellipsoid to oblong, a few ovoid, often slightly constricted in the
middle. Basidia 18–30 × 5.5–8 μm, tetrasterigmate, narrowly to broadly clavate, some with distinct median
constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid, 70–90 × 10–25 μm, narrowly to broadly fusiform or broadly utriform,
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
provided with 2–3(–4) apical hooks (usually entire, sometimes obtuse and poorly developed), hyaline, with up to
2.7 μm thick-wall, frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia similar to the pleurocystidia but often with
thinner walls, predominantly inflated fusiform, with or without distinct apical hooks. Lamellar edges sterile.
Cheilocystidia 30–55 × 13–23 μm, clavate or broadly clavate, some spheropedunculate or utriform, hyaline, thin-
walled, crowded, forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with terminal elements 70–110 × 12–20 μm;
individual elements mostly cylindrical or slightly inflated, some tapering towards apex, hyaline or with pale
yellow-brown intracellular pigment, thin-walled. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 7–20 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or
with yellow-brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections present on pileipellis
hyphae, but not at every septum; also present in other parts of the basidiocarp.
FIGURE 23. Pluteus kovalenkoi. A. Pleurocystidia. B. Basidiospores. C. Basidia. D. Cheilocystidia. E. Pileipellis. All from LE
9691. All line drawings by E. Malysheva. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Subgregarious. In mixed forest. On well-decayed wood of conifers (October.
Distribution:—Eurasia: Only known from the type locality: Caucasus, Krasnodar Territory.
Observations:—Based on molecular data P. kovalenkoi is separated from P. s h i k a e and P. brunneidiscus but
morphologically it is very close to both of them. P. sh i k a e differs in distinct gray-brown fibrils at lower part of
stipe, smaller and more elongated basidiospores, pleurocystidia with developed apical hooks but all of these
characters are rather variable; and only the shape of the pleurocystidia separates P. kovalenkoi from P.
brunneidiscus. The ecological preferences could serve as an additional distinguishing character, but the strict
conifer habitat of this new species requires further collections to be confirmed.
Pluteus microspermus and Pluteus concentricus have much shorter basidiospores than P. kovalenkoi, up to 6.0
and 6.5 μm respectively (Horak 2008). Additionally, both taxa differ from P. kovalenkoi in the pigmented lamellar
edges and the absence of clamp-connections. Both species are only known from New Zealand (Horak 2008).
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IV. petasatus clade. Fig. 5
Species growing mostly on angiosperm wood or on the humus layer without apparent connection to wood; one
species (P. petasatus) relatively common in urban and ruderal areas. Clamp-connections absent on pileipellis
hyphae (P. petasatus, P. leucoborealis) or present (P. pellitus).
Pluteus petasatus (Fr.) Gillet (1876: 395). Fig. 24
Basionym: Agaricus petasatus Fr. (1836: 142). Neotype (designated here):—RUSSIA. Northwestern Federal District: St
Petersburg, Botanical Garden, stump of deciduous tree, 09 August 2011, O. Morozova s.n. LE 289372, nrITS KJ009705,
tef1 KJ009952 (LE!).
Synonym: Agaricus curtisii Berkeley (in Berkeley & Curtis 1849: 98); Pluteus curtisii (Berkeley) Saccardo (1887: 675).
Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. South Carolina: Beneath fallen trunks in woods. October, Curtis 1523 s.n.
(K). Epitype (designated here):—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Florida: Leon Co., Tallahassee, Lake Overstreet, 24
August 2010, A. Justo 161, nrITS KJ009708, tef1 KJ009977 (CUW!).
Synonym: Agaricus patricius Schulzer in Kalchbrenner (1874: 20); Pluteus patricius (Schulzer) Boudier (1905: 87). To the
best of our knowledge, no holotype exists and no lectotype, neotype or epitype have been designated for this taxon.
Synonym: Pluteus magnus (1897: 383). Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California: San Gabriel Canyon and
near Los Angeles, A.J. McClatchie NY 775453 (NY!).
Synonym: Pluteus australis Murrill (1945: 119). Holotype:—UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Florida: Alachua Co.,
Gainesville, 24 October 1942, FLAS 19140 (FLAS!).
Synonym: Pluteus viscidulus Singer in Singer and Digilio (1952: 255). Holotype:—ARGENTINA. Tucumán: near Tapia, 01
January 1949, R. Singer T797 nrITS HM562110, tef1 KJ009978 (holotype at LIL and isotype at MICH!).
Pileus 30–200 mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-convex,
with or without a low, broad umbo; surface completely smooth, squamose-fibrillose only around center or set with
distinct brown squamules all over, with or without radial fibrils; pure white, pale gray-brown or brown (7.5YR 7/
2–7/6, 6/2–6/7), more rarely with darker colors (7.5YR 4/4/–4/6); dry or markedly viscid when moist, margin
smooth or translucent-striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 15(–20) mm broad, white when young,
later pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 30–200 × 5–20 mm, cylindrical, with slightly broad base;
surface white, smooth or with longitudinal brown or gray-brown fibrils, especially near the base. Context in stipe
and pileus white. Smell strongly sweet and unpleasant, sweet-raphanoid or indistinct. Taste similar to smell or
indistinct. Spore print pink to pinkish brown (2.5YR 8/4, 7/6–7/8; 5YR 7/6).
Basidiospores [840, 41, 37] 5.5–8.0(–9.5) × 3.5–5.5(–6.0) μm, avl × avw = 6.1–7.0 × 4.2–4.8 μm, Q = 1.20–1.70,
avQ = 1.35–1.55, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, more rarely oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the
middle. Basidia 15–35 × 5–12 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid,
45–95 × 10–25(–30) μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform with 2–3 apical hooks, some fusiform and
without apical hooks (usually entire, sometimes poorly developed), sometimes this later type is predominant, some
with small lateral hooks, hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia in
most collections predominantly fusiform and without apical hooks, often with small lateral hooks, some similar to the
pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 30–70 × 10–25 μm,
clavate, narrowly clavate or spheropedunculate, hyaline, thin-walled, in most collections scarce and scattered, more
rarely forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis or ixocutis, with terminal elements 80–135 × 6–15 μm,
individual elements cylindrical, some strongly tapering towards apex, hyaline or filled with brown intracellular
pigment, with thin, smooth walls; in most collections a gelatinous matrix is present at least in the most external part,
with embedded hyphae 2–5 μm wide, some with irregular outline. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–20 μm wide,
cylindrical, hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections absent on
pileipellis hyphae; in some collections present on stipitipellis (but very scarce).
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Commonly gregarious to caespitose, more rarely solitary. Growing on
decayed wood of hardwoods (Acer, Betula, Quercus, Fagus, Populus), also on wood chips, sawdust or on the
humus layer. Common in urban parks, lawns, roadsides and other disturbed/ruderal areas but also occurring in
natural, undisturbed forests. Recorded year round.
Distribution:—Eurasia. Widespread, recorded from Spain to Japan. North America. Widespread. In the East
recorded from Florida and Louisiana northwards into Maine and Ontario, westwards into the Midwestern States
(e.g. Missouri). Also known from the West Coast (California). Recorded from the Southern Hemisphere
(Argentina, Papua-New Guinea).
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FIGURE 24. Pluteus petasatus. A. Collection A. Caballero 1945 (photo by A. Caballero). B. Collection AJ 143 (photo by A.
Justo). C. Collection AJ 325 (photo by A. Justo). D. Collection AJ 541 (photo by A. Justo). E. Basidiospores. F. Pleurocystidia.
G. Intermediate cystidia. H. Cheilocystidia. I. Pileipellis. E–I from AJ143. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
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Observations:—Morphologically a highly variable fungus, Pluteus petasatus is the most widespread of all the
species studied here. Its common occurrence in urban and man-made habitats may account for part of this extended
geographical range, but it also occurs in natural, undisturbed forest areas throughout Eurasia, North America and
extending even to the southern hemisphere.
At one extreme of the morphological variation of Pluteus petasatus are the collections with smooth and viscid
pileus and at the other extreme are the collections with distinctly squamose and dry pileus. Between both extremes
all kinds of intermediates regarding color (white, brown, brown-gray), presence of squamules and fibrils and
viscidity of the pileus can be found. This great morphological variation accounts for the extensive synonymy of
this species.
Agaricus petasatus was originally described from Uppsala (Sweden). To the best of our knowledge no original
collections exist and no illustrations of Agaricus petasatus are cited in the protologue (Fries 1836). To stabilize the
usage of this name a modern collection from northern Europe (LE289372, from the Russian Northwest) is
designated here to serve as neotype.
Pluteus curtisii, a name that commonly appears in the taxonomic literature of the 20
th
century in connection
with P. petasatus has a long and convoluted taxonomic history. Agaricus curtisii was originally described by
Berkeley from South Carolina (USA) as a fungus with a “Pileus 2 inches or more broad, convex, dark liver-brown,
smooth, not wrinkled, viscid when moist, with a satiny luster when dry” (Berkeley & Curtis 1849). Singer (1956)
studied the type at Kew and other original collections at the Farlow herbarium and mentioned the existence of
original colored paintings “which showed white pileus and stipe, and cinnamon-ochraceous squamulose centre,
broad lamellae and the general habit of the fungus best known in Europe as Pluteus cervinus var. patricius”. Singer
(1956) suggests that the original collections probably represent a mixture of species, and although his own
interpretation of Agaricus curtisii corresponds to our concept of Pluteus petasatus, that does not settle the question
of what the original description of Agaricus curtisii represents. Most authors (Murrill 1917; Orton 1960, 1986;
Vellinga 1990; Banerjee & Sundberg 1995) have placed Agaricus curtisii in synonymy with Pluteus cervinus with
some authors excluding Singer’s interpretation as representing Pluteus petasastus (Vellinga 1990) or Pluteus
patricius (Orton 1986). From what we currently know about the diversity of Pluteus section Pluteus in the
Southeastern USA, the name Agaricus curtisii could be applied to three species: Pluteus cervinus, Pluteus hongoi
(in which case it would take precedence) or Pluteus petasatus. To settle the issue of the identity of Agaricus curtisii
a modern collection made in the Southeastern USA (AJ 161, from near Tallahassee in Florida) that fits the original
description by Berkeley (pileus brown [7.5 YR 6/4-6/8, 5/4-/58], smooth and viscid) has been selected here as the
epitype of Agaricus curtisii (see nomenclature section above). This collection represents P. petasatus (based on
microscopic and molecular data) and therefore P. curtisii is considered a synonym of P. petasatus.
Pluteus patricius is considered by some authors (Orton 1986; Banerjee & Sundberg 1995) as a species with a
distinctly squamose and dry pileus in contrast with the smooth and viscid pileus they attribute to P. petasatus.
Molecular data does not support the recognition of collections fitting the morphological concept of P. patricius
(e.g. LOU 7570, AJ 201; Fig. 5a) as a separate species.
We have studied the type collections of Pluteus magnus, described from California and Pluteus australis
described from Florida (see nomenclature section above). Although no molecular data could be obtained both taxa
are considered to represent P. petasatus based on their morphological characteristics.
In contrast to the great variation in external appearance, the microscopic characters of Pluteus petasatus are
rather constant and can be helpful for identification. P. petasatus can be separated from other taxa without clamp-
connections in the pileipellis by the combination of: basidiospores relatively short and narrow (on average, 6.1–7.0
× 4.2–4.8 μm); intermediate cystidia predominantly fusiform and without apical hooks; cheilocystidia usually
scattered and not forming a continuous strip; pileipellis with a gelatinous matrix at least in the most external part.
Additional collections examined:—JAPAN. Honshu: Chiba Prefecture, Chosei-gun, Nagara-machi,
scattered on waste sawdust medium after cultivation of Grifola frondosa, 17 April 2007, A. Yashiro s.n. CBM
36790, nrITS HM562087, tef1 KJ009972, (CBM). MONGOLIA. North Mongolia, Research Station “Khonin
Nuga”, Mandal Sum, Selenge Aimak West-Khentee, mountain Betula-Larix forest, on fallen Betula trunk, 10
August 2007, A.V. Aleksandrova s.n. LE 289423, nrITS KJ009721, tef1 KJ009953 (LE). PAPUA-NEW GUINEA.
UOG campus, near Multi-P, EHP, 27 June 2006, K. Barakove TR 148-06 (M-0138487), nrITS KJ009730, tef1
KJ009979 (M). UOG campus, EHP, 29 November 2006, Horosso TR 160-06 (M-0138488), nrITS KJ009731, tef1
KJ009980 (M). RUSSIA. Northwestern Federal District: Novgorod Region, vicinities of Syuiska, on Betula
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logs, 17 June 2010, S. Arslanov s.n. LE 289376, nrITS KJ009718, tef1 KJ009968, (LE). Siberian Federal
District: Buryatia, lower reaches of Selenga River, vicinities of Il’inka, on fallen trunk of Betula, 30 July 1997,
A.N. Petrov s.n. LE 201194, nrITS KJ009724, tef1 KJ009965 (LE). Novosibirsk Region, Kuybushev town
vicinities, Betula forest, on rotting stump, 2005, I.A. Gorbunova s.n. LE 289409, nrITS KJ009720, tef1 KJ009962
(LE). Novosibirsk Region, Novosibirsk District, Akademgorodok, planted Betula pendula grove ca. 40 years old
with dense shrub undergrowth and relatively scarce grassy vegetation, on Betula trunk, 23 August 2011, T.M .
Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289416, nrITS KJ009725, tef1 KJ009967 (LE); ibid., mixed forest (Betula pendula, Pinus
sylvestris), on decayed wood, 2008, I.A. Gorbunova LE 289411, nrITS KJ009727, tef1 KJ009957 (LE); ibid.,
mixed forest (Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris), on decayed wood, 08 July 2010, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289414,
nrITS KJ009722, tef1 KJ009959 (LE); ibid., lawn with planted trees (Populus, Picea), on rotten trunk of Populus,
08 August 2011, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289401, nrITS KJ009723, tef1 KJ009951 (LE); ibid., mixed forest
(Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris), on decayed wood of Betula, 15 September 2010, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE
289412, nrITS KJ009716, tef1 KJ009958 (LE). Vicinities of Tomsk, on decayed wood, Aug-2007, S.I. Gashkov
s.n. LE 262803, nrITS KJ009729, tef1 KJ009981 (LE). Southern Federal District: Rostov Region, Sholokhovsky
District, vicinities of Veshenskaya, garden, at the base of the stump of Prunus armeniaca, 24 October 2011, Yu.A.
Rebriev, LE s.n. 289387 nrITS KJ009717, tef1 KJ009960 (LE). Volga Federal District: Orenburg Region,
Kuvandyksky District, Nature Reserve "Orenburgsky", on charred stump of Populus nigra, 25 July 2005, O.A.
Desyatova s.n. LE 235213, nrITS KJ009726, tef1 KJ009961 (LE). Samara Region, Zhigulevsky Nature Reserve,
broadleaf forest, on decayed wood of deciduous tree, 19 August 2007, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE 289386, nrITS
KJ009719, tef1 KJ009954 (LE); ibid., broadleaf forest (Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides), on fallen trunk of Acer
platanoides, 28 July 2002, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE 213025, nrITS KJ009728, tef1 KJ009955 (LE). SPAIN. A
Coruña: Brión, Adoufe, on unidentified stump, 17 September1979, L. Cabo s.n. LOU-Fungi 2714 (LOU).
Santiago de Compostela, San Antolín de Toques, on unidentified wood, 7 October 1985, F. Cabo s.n. LOU-Fungi
4123 (LOU); Barcelona: Argentona, on sawdust, 10 April 1988, A. Rocabruna s.n. SCM474 (SCM); Cardedeu,
Carretera de Cardedeu a St. Ignasi, on straw, 11 June 1987, A. Rocabruna s.n. SCM 154 (SCM). Cáceres:
Aldeanueva del Camino, on trunk of Quercus suber, 11 April 1996, A. Caballero 1945 (LOU). Monfrague,
Villareal de San Carlos, Quercus suber forest, on decayed wood of Quercus suber, 18 April 1994, R. Gonzalez s.n.
LOU 7570, nrITS KJ009701, tef1 KJ009964 (LOU). Huelva: La Rocina, Doñana, on Quercus suber wood, 24
March 1978, J.M.Rey s.n. MA-Fungi 330 (MA). La Rioja: Villarroya, on Quercus ilex stump, 24 May 1988, A.
Caballero 1054 (LOU). Ortigosa de Cameros, terrestrial, 13 July 1988, A. Caballero, 1125 (LOU). Villarroya, on
Quercus ilex stump, 27 September 1999, A. Caballero 2288 (LOU). Madrid: Valdetorras de Jarama, terrestrial, 25
June 1978, J.L.Vicioso s.n. MA-Fungi 4716 (MA). Segovia: Riaza, on Populus wood, 17 June 1979, C. Santonja
s.n. MA-Fungi 2961. Sevilla: locality unknown, March 2003, A. Garcia s.n. AJ 201, nrITS HM562038, tef1
KJ009956, (LOU). Cazalla de la Sierra, Arroyo Hiel de la Vaca, on Quercus suber wood, 29 October 2002, N.
Rodríguez-Ramos & L. Cabrera-Muñoz s.n. COFC 3923 (COFC). Constantina, Navalvillar, on Quercus ilex subsp.
ballota wood, 21 October 2003, I. Olariaga s.n. COFC 2944 (COFC). El Pedroso, La Jarosa, habitat unknown, 30
April 2003, N. Rodríguez-Ramos s.n. COFC 2961 (COFC). Las Navas de la Concepción, Embalse del Retortillo,
habitat unknown, 29 November 2002, COFC 2957 (COFC). Valladolid: Mucientes, on straw, 15 March 2003, A.
García-Blanco & al. s.n. MA-Fungi 55409 (MA); Villalba de los Alcores, on straw, 15 March 2003, A. García-
Blanco & al. s.n. MA-Fungi 55410 (MA). UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California: Alameda Co., Berkeley,
Scenic Ave, between Vine and Cedar streets, on rotten stump of ornamental tree, 28 January 2013, E.C. Vellinga
s.n. UC 1999432, nrITS KF306019 (UC). Los Angeles Co., Burbank, 01 April 2007, N. Wilson s.n. UC 1998685,
nrITS JX857453, tef1 KJ460260 (UC). Marin Co., Point Reyes National Seashore, Fire Trail area, 10 December
2011, N.H. Nguyen s.n. UC 1861126, nrITS JX857460 (UC). San Mateo Co., San Francisco Watershed area, mixed
forest with Pinus radiata, Cupressus macrocarpa, Quercus agrifolia, 02 December 2011, E.P. Blanchard s.n. UC
1998559, nrITS JX857452 (UC). Santa Cruz Co., Henry Cowell State Park (NAMA Foray 2012), on decayed
wood, 15 December 2012, R. Miller s.n. UC 1999301, nrITS KF306014 (UC). Florida: Leon Co., Tallahassee,
Lake Overstreet, mixed forest, apparently terrestrial, 24 August 2009, A. Justo 145, nrITS HM562109, tef1
KJ009973 (MICH). Illinois: Locality and date unknown, LE 22977, nrITS KJ009713, tef1 KJ009950, (LE). 25
September 2009, Smith Foray participant, SF3-BPI 882766, nrITS HM562175, tef1 KJ009974 (BPI). Jackson Co.,
Carbondale, SIU Campus, on log, 08 June 1978, Mueller-Strack1, nrITS HM562070 (ILLS). Louisiana: Lafayette
Parish, Lafayette, on decayed wood, 25 October 2009, Bernadine PLA3, nrITS KJ009709, tef1 KJ009966 (BPI).
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St. Martin Parish, St. Martinville, on leaf litter in live oak environs, 28 October 2009, A. Bornstein PLA2, nrITS
KJ009703, tef1 KJ009982 (BPI). Maine: Penobscot Co., Bradley, on decayed wood, 10 August 2007, M. Ledeco
s.n. PBM 2854, nrITS KJ009711 (TENN). Massachusetts: Middlesex Co., Mt. Misery Trails, on the litter layer, 21
June 2010, A. Justo 325. Worcester Co., Harvard Forest, mixed forest, 29 July 2011, M. Nuhn & A. Carlson s.n. AJ
411, nrITS KJ009714, tef1 KJ009969 (CUW). Worcester Co., Purgatory Chasm State Reservation, 06 May 2012,
A. Justo 541 (CUW). Worcester Co., Worcester (Clark Univ. Campus), urban area, near planted trees, on dead
wood, 11 June 2010, M. Binder s.n. AJ 318, nrITS KJ009715, tef1 KJ009963 (CUW); ibid., on decayed wood of
hardwood, 27 May 2010, A. Justo 305, nrITS KJ009707, tef1 KJ009975 (CUW); ibid., on decayed wood of
hardwood (at the base of tree), 17 August 2011, A. Justo 414, nrITS KJ009706, tef1 KJ009970 (CUW); ibid.,
apparently terrestrial, 02 July 2009, A. Justo 143, nrITS HM562065, tef1 KJ009971 (MICH). Michigan: No
locality data, Harrison 10325, nrITS HM562073 (MICH). Baraga Co., Erickson Sawmill, on sawdust, 16 July
1969, J. Ammirati 3103, nrITS HM562084 (MICH). Missouri: Mingo National Wildlife Refuge, 23 September
2005, Mingo Foray participant, SF9-BPI 882770, nrITS HM562179, tef1 KJ009976 (BPI). Tennessee: Knox Co.,
Knoxville, 10 December 2007, R.H. Petersen TFB 13183, nrITS KJ009702 (TENN); ibid., lawn, 31 July 2008, P.
B. Matheny 2978a, nrITS KJ009704 (TENN); ibid., lawn, on buried rotten wood, 15 June 2011, P. B. Matheny
2943, nrITS KJ009710 (TENN). Wisconsin: Dane Co., Madison, on wood mulch, 26 June 1977, H. Burdsall MAD
9301, nrITS KJ009712 (CFMR).
Pluteus pellitus (Persoon : Fries) Kummer (1871: 98). Fig. 25
Basionym: Agaricus pellitus Persoon (1801: 366); Agaricus pellitus Persoon : Fries (1821: 198). Neotype (Bonnard
1995):—FRANCE. Môle, 31 July 1960, R. Kühner SA-60-2 (G-K!).
Synonym: Pluteus sandalioticus Contu & Arras (2001: 137). Neotype (Justo et al. 2006):—SPAIN. Sevilla, Cazalla de la
Sierra, La Atalaya, on decayed wood of Quercus suber, 21 March 2002, N. Rodriguez-Ramos s.n. COFC-F 2959 (COFC!).
Pileus 30–75(–130) mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-
convex, with or without a low, broad umbo; surface smooth or innately radially fibrillose, usually with well-defined
squamules at center; brown at center (7.5YR 4/4–4/6) and much paler towards margin (7.5YR 7/4–7/8) or white all
over; dry or slightly viscid when moist; margin smooth or slightly translucent-striate. Lamellae crowded, free,
ventricose, up to 7 mm broad, white when young, later pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 35–70 ×
5–15 mm, cylindrical, with slightly broad base; surface white, smooth or with longitudinal brown or gray-brown
fibrils especially near the base. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell indistinct. Taste indistinct. Spore print not
recorded.
Basidiospores [140, 5, 5] 5.0–7.5(–8.0) × 3.5–5.0(–5.5) μm, avl × avw = 5.8–6.5 × 4.3–4.6 μm, Q = 1.24–1.71,
avQ = 1.34–1.46, broadly ellipsoid, ellipsoid or oblong, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle.
Basidia 15–32 × 6–10 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid, 50–95
× 12–25 μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform, provided with 2–4 apical hooks, rarely fusiform
and without hooks at apex, a few with lateral hooks (usually entire), hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick wall, frequent
all over lamellar faces. Intermediate cystidia similar to the pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls, a
few irregularly shaped, without distinct apical hooks and/or with rounded apices; in some collections fusiform
cystidia and cystidia with no hooks dominate, in others there is no predominant morphological type. Lamellar edge
sterile. Cheilocystidia 34–100(–115) × 10–27 μm, clavate, narrowly clavate or cylindrical (either type
predominant), a few spheropedunculate, hyaline, crowded, forming a well-developed strip. Pileipellis a cutis, with
terminal elements 60–165 × 7–25 μm; individual elements cylindrical, usually strongly tapering towards apex,
hyaline or filled with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae 5–20 μm
wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-connections
common and readily seen on pileipellis hyphae but not at every septum; also observed in other parts of the
basidiocarp.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Solitary or subgregarious, growing on well-decayed wood of hardwoods
(e.g. Quercus, Eucalyptus) more rarely terrestrial. In temperate or Mediterranean forests, also in Eucalyptus
plantations. May–November.
Distribution:—Eurasia. France, Italy, Spain, South-western Russia.
Observations:—The present concept of P. pellitus is in agreement with the neotypification made by Bonnard
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(1995) that defines P. pellitus as a species with relatively small basidiospores, with clamp-connections in the
pileipellis and growing on angiosperm wood or terrestrial. For a detailed discussion about this species and its
different interpretations see Vellinga (1987), Bonnard (1995) and Justo & Castro (2007b). In the field it can be
confused with white variants of other species, and the name has been variously misapplied. Pluteus pellitus is
restricted to Europe.
Collections corresponding to the morphological concept of P. sandalioticus (Contu 2001; Justo et al. 2006),
with pigmented pileus and longer cheilocystidia, fall within the molecular variation of P. pellitus (coll. AJ200,
AJ60; Fig. 5a).
FIGURE 25. Pluteus pellitus. A. Pleurocystidia. B. Pileipellis. C. Cheilocystidia. D. Basidiospores. E. Cheilocystidia. All from
AJ 74, except E from AJ 200. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
Additional collections examined:—ITALY. Sardinia: Olbia-Citta, urban park, apparently terrestrial, 25 May
2008, M. Contu s.n. AJ 72, nrITS HM562036, tef1 KJ009988 (LOU). RUSSIA. Southern Federal District:
Krasnodarsky Territory, broadleaf forest (Quercus, Carpinus), 23 June 1974, A.E. Kovalenko s.n. LE 9686, nrITS
KJ009700, tef1 KJ009990 (LE); ibid., Stanitsa Kaluzhskaya, Quercus forest, on stump, 19 September 1979, A.E.
Kovalenko s.n. LE 9687, nrITS KJ009699, tef1 KJ009983 (LE). Volga Federal District: Samara Region,
Zhigulevsky Nature Reserve, vicinities of Bakhilova Polyana, broadleaf forest, on fallen trunk of deciduous tree, 08
August 2000, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE 289374, nrITS KJ009698, tef1 KJ009984 (LE). SPAIN. Huelva: Los
Romeros, Quercus forest, on decayed wood of Quercus, 06 November 2003, J. Siquier s.n. AJ 60, nrITS HM562107,
tef1 KJ009986 (MA). La Rioja: Villaroya, Quercus forest, on decayed wood of Quercus ilex, 20 October 2011, A.
Caballero s.n. AJ 200, nrITS HM562052, tef1 KJ009989 (LOU). Pontevedra: Vigo, urban park, apparently
terrestrial, October 2008, A. Justo 74, nrITS HM562047, tef1 KJ009985 (LOU). Sevilla: mixed forest, on decayed
wood of Alnus glutinosa, March 2003, N. Rodriguez s.n. AJ 202, nrITS HM562037, tef1 KJ009987 (LOU).
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Pluteus leucoborealis Justo, E.F. Malysheva, Bulyonkova & Minnis, sp. nov. Fig. 26
MycoBank 808732
Diagnosis:—Differs from Pluteus petasatus in the comparatively larger basidiospores and in the boreal distribution.
FIGURE 26. Pluteus leucoborealis. A–B. Collection LE 289421 (photo by A. Alexandrova). C. Collection AJ 587 (photo by
A. Justo). D. Collection LE 289424 (photo by A. Alexandrova). E. Basidiospores. F. Pileipellis. G. Pleurocystidia. H.
Intermediate cystidia. I. Cheilocystidia. E–I from AJ 587. All line drawings by A. Justo. Scale bars = 10 μm.
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HOLARCTIC SPECIES OF PLUTEUS SECTION PLUTEUS
Holotype:—RUSSIA. Siberian Federal District: Krasnoyarsky Kray, Turukhansky District, right bank of Yenisei River, on
decayed Betula trunk, 26 August 2009, A.V. Aleksandrova s.n. LE 289421, nrITS KJ009746, tef1 KJ009994 (LE!).
Etymology:—leucoborealis is a combination of the Greek “λευκοϛ” (white or pale) and the Latin borealis (derived from the
Greek “βορειος” meaning northern), making reference to the external aspect and distribution of this species.
Pileus 20–60(–80) mm in diameter, hemispherical or campanulate when young, expanding to convex or plano-
convex, with or without a low, broad umbo; surface completely smooth, squamose-fibrillose only around center,
with radial fibrils all over (sometimes forming a star-shaped pattern) or with distinct brown squamules all over;
pure white but fibrils and squamules (when present) are brown or gray-brown (7.5YR 7/2–7/6, 6/2–6/8); slightly to
distinctly viscid when moist; margin smooth or translucent-striate. Lamellae crowded, free, ventricose, up to 8 mm
broad, white when young, later pink, with even, or white, flocculose edges. Stipe 30–80 × 3–8 mm, cylindrical with
slightly broad base; surface white, or yellowish near base, usually with distinct gray-brown squamules and fibrils
near the base or all over, more rarely smooth. Context in stipe and pileus white. Smell indistinct. Taste indistinct.
Spore print pink to pinkish brown.
Basidiospores [90, 3, 3] (5.5–)6.0–8.0(–8.5) × (4.5–)5.0–6.0 μm, avl × avw = 6.8–7.4 × 5.3–5.5 μm, Q =
1.17–1.50, avQ = 1.26–1.36, ellipsoid or broadly ellipsoid, sometimes ovoid or slightly constricted in the middle.
Basidia 14–28 × 5–10 μm, tetrasterigmate, clavate, some with median constriction. Pleurocystidia metuloid, 40–93
× 10–30 μm, fusiform, narrowly fusiform or narrowly utriform with 2–3(–4) apical hooks (usually entire,
sometimes bifid or poorly developed), some fusiform and without apical hooks, sometimes this later type is
predominant, some with small lateral hooks, hyaline, with up to 3 μm thick wall, frequent all over lamellar faces.
Intermediate cystidia in most collections predominantly fusiform and without apical hooks, some similar to the
pleurocystidia but smaller and/or with thinner walls. Lamellar edge sterile. Cheilocystidia 30–72(–85) × 10–23 μm,
the majority narrowly clavate or clavate, a few cylindrical or narrowly utriform, hyaline, thin-walled, forming a
well-developed strip, more rarely scarce and scattered. Pileipellis a cutis or ixocutis, with terminal elements
85–140(–170) × 7–17 μm; individual elements cylindrical, some strongly tapering towards apex, hyaline or filled
with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls; in some collections a gelatinous matrix is present in the
most external part, with embedded hyphae 2–5 μm wide, some with irregular outline. Stipitipellis a cutis; hyphae
5–25 μm wide, cylindrical, hyaline or with brown intracellular pigment, with thin, smooth walls. Clamp-
connections absent on pileipellis hyphae; in some collections present (but very scarce) in pileitrama, hymenophoral
trama and/or stipitipellis.
Habit, habitat and phenology:—Commonly gregarious, more rarely solitary. Growing on decayed wood of
Betula, more rarely Alnus. In boreal or transitional boreal/temperate forests. June–September.
Distribution:—Eurasia. Widespread from north-western Russia to Siberia. North America:—Widespread. In
the East recorded from the northern parts of Michigan (Emmet Co., Tahquamenon Falls) and New York
(Adirondacks). In western North America, only recorded from Alaska.
Observations:—Pluteus leucoborealis resembles externally P. petasatus, and has a similar degree of extensive
morphological variation. Basidiospore size is the most reliable character to tell both species apart. P. leucoborealis
has usually a well-developed strip of cheilocystidia but this character is less reliable than basidiospore size.
Pluteus leucoborealis is widespread geographically, from the St. Petersburg area in Russia to the Adirondacks
in New York, but seems to be confined to boreal or transitional forests, and has not been recorded in geographically
close but ecologically different areas like the temperate forests of western Europe or eastern North America. It has
a strong preference for wood of Betula and Alnus.
Pluteus glaucus (Singer 1961a: 114) can also have very pale and squamulose pileus but it differs from P.
leucoborealis in the presence of bluish green tinges on the pileus, the pigmented lamellar edges, the much smaller
cheilocystidia (up to 27 μm long) and the abundant clamp-connections. This species is only known from Chile
(Singer 1961a).
Additional collections examined:—MONGOLIA. North Mongolia, Research Station “Khonin Nuga”,
Mandal Sum, Selenge Aimak West-Khentee, riparian Betula-Picea forest, on fallen Betula trunk at site of fire, 14
August 2007, A.V. Aleksandrova s.n. LE 289424, nrITS KJ009743, tef1 KJ009999 (LE). RUSSIA. Far East
Federal District: Primorsky Territory, Ussuriisky Nature Reserve, vicinities of Peishula Reserve Field Station,
floodplain Ulmus forest, on decayed wood of Alnus, 13 August 2011, E.F. Malysheva s.n. LE 289373, nrITS
KJ009734, tef1 KJ009992 (LE). Northwestern Federal District: Leningrad Region, Luzhsky District, Shalovo-
Perechinsky Reserve, Picea forest with isolated Betula and Quercus, on fallen trunk of Betula, 21 August 1997,
O.V. Morozova s.n. LE 216010, nrITS KJ009744, tef1 KJ009991 (LE). Leningrad Region, Vyborgsky District,
vicinities of Lebedevka, Betula forest, on decayed wood of Betula, 24 July 1997, O.V. Morozova s.n. LE 215340,
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nrITS KJ009742, tef1 KJ010002 (LE); ibid., vicinities of Roschino, “Lindulovskaya Roscha” Reserve, on fallen
trunk of Alnus, 09 June 1995, E.A. Fomina s.n. LE 289364, nrITS KJ009748, tef1 KJ010001 (LE). Novgorod
Region, vicinities of Syuiska, mixed forest, on fallen trunk of Betula, 04 July 2011, S. Arslanov s.n. LE 289375,
nrITS KJ009745, tef1 KJ010000 (LE). Pskov Region, Sebezhsky District, National Park “Sebezhsky”, bank of
Midino Lake, Picea forest, on fallen trunk of Betula, 23 July 2002, O.V. Morozova s.n. LE 217548, nrITS
KJ009739 (LE). St Petersburg, Primorsky District, “Yuntolovsky” protected area, mixed forest (Pinus, Betula), on
fallen trunk of Betula, 08 September 2004, O.V. Morozova s.n. LE 234709, nrITS KJ009751 (LE). Siberian
Federal District: Baikal region, Barguzinsky Nature Reserve, conifer forest (Pinus, Larix), on fallen trunk, 10
August 1969, E.L. Nezdoiminogo s.n. LE 9808, nrITS KJ009749, tef1 KJ010006 (LE). Novosibirsk Region,
Novosibirsk District, Akademgorodok, planted Betula pendula grove with many fallen trees and dense shrub
undergrowth, on Betula, rotten trunk, 19 July 2011, T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289399, nrITS KJ009741, tef1
KJ010004 (LE). ibid., mixed forest (Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris), on Betula, rotten wood, 14 August 2007,
T.M. Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289419, nrITS KJ009747, tef1 KJ009995 (LE); ibid., planted Betula pendula grove ca. 40
years old with dense shrub undergrowth and relatively scarce grassy vegetation, on rotten trunk, 05 July 2011, T.M.
Bulyonkova s.n. LE 289405, nrITS KJ009735, tef1 KJ009993 (LE). Tyumen Region, Berezovsky, Pripolarny
Village, on fallen trunk of Betula at a burn site, 30 June 2010, E. Zvyagina s.n. LE 235802, nrITS KJ009736, tef1
KJ010007 (LE). Ural Federal District: Yugra, Khanty-Mansiykiy District, Shapsha Village, mixed dark conifer
taiga (Picea obovata, Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica with scarcer Betula pendula, Populus tremula, Pinus
sylvestris), on decayed wood, 04 August 2007, N.V. Filippova s.n. LE 289402, nrITS KJ009740, tef1 KJ010003
(LE). Yugra, Khanty-Mansiyskiy District, Mukhrino Field Station of the Ugra SU UNESCO chair, mixed dark
conifer taiga (Picea obovata, Abies sibirica, Pinus sibirica with scarcer Betula pendula, Populus tremula, Pin