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e-Skills for Jobs in Europe Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead


Abstract and Figures

The goal of this study has been to monitor the supply and demand of e-skills across Europe, benchmarking national policy initiatives and multi-stakeholder partnerships in the European Union. We have analysed the evolution of the supply and demand over the last ten years, to provide a basis for: • understanding the impact of initiatives launched at EU and national level since 2007; • proposing remedies where necessary; and • identifying efficient methods of fostering multi-stakeholder partnerships so as to reduce e-skills shortages, gaps and mismatches.
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e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf
of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made
of the following information. The views expressed are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reect those of the European Com-
mission. Nothing in this brochure implies or expresses a warranty
of any kind. Results should be used only as guidelines as part of an
overall strategy.
© European Communities, 2014. Reproduction is authorised
provided the source is acknowledged.
This brochure has been prepared by empirica Gesellschaft für
Kommunikations- und Technologieforschung mbH on behalf of the
European Commission, Enterprise and Industry Directorate General.
It is a publication of the European “Monitoring e-Skills Policies and
Partnerships” service contract.
Editors: Werner B. Korte, Karsten Gareis, Tobias Hüsing,
empirica GmbH
Design & Layout:
Printed in Germany
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
The ability of European enterprises to compete and evolve at the
beginning of the 21st century is increasingly dependent on the
innovative and eective use of new information and communication
technologies (ICT). The e-skills strategy is a component of the Digital
Agenda for Europe, and of the Employment Package to boost
competitiveness, productivity and employability of the workforce.
Europe needs to create better framework conditions for innovation
and growth, and for new digital jobs. It must also ensure that the
knowledge, skills, competences, and inventiveness of the European
workforce - including ICT professionals - meet the highest world
standards, and are constantly updated in a process of eective
lifelong learning.
Despite high levels of unemployment, shortages of e-skills continue
to increase in all sectors. The mismatch between available skills and
the needs of the labour market concern all Member States, even if it
aects them to varying degrees. The demand for ICT practitioners,
with growth of around 4% a year, is outstripping supply. Vacancies
by 2015 are forecasted to approach 500,000, and many will remain
unlled unless more is done to attract young people into computing
degrees, and to retrain unemployed people.
Governments in Europe are increasing their eorts to address the
skill shortage through dedicated policies, initiatives and partner-
ships, although most countries still lack a strategy. Positive recent
signals include national coalitions set up in Lithuania and Poland as
par t of t he „Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs“ launched by the European
Commission in March 2013. Other Member States from Southern and
Eastern Europe are preparing to launch national coalitions in 2014.
In 2013 e-Leadership skills appeared on the European policy agenda,
and the subject has generated positive feedback from stakeholders.
Skills for e-Leadership comprise a body of knowledge and set of
competences which an individual requires for initiating and guiding
ICT-related innovation at all levels of enterprises, from the start-up to
the largest of corporations, from private to public. There is agreement
that Europe urgently needs to tackle the leadership issue and mobilise
stakeholders in a joint Europe-wide eort to develop suitable
e-leadership initiatives that meet the needs of enterprises in the
digital age - not only large corporations, but those of the SMEs that
account for the vast majority of jobs in Europe.
These were key messages from the „European e-Skills 2013
Conference“ organised by the European Commission on 10 December
2013. This brochure highlights the progress of e-skills activities in
Europe. The results were welcomed, and a broad consensus emerged on
the urgency of action to ll the impending skills gap. The European
Commission and national governments need to and will continue to
be active in this area.
Michel Catinat
Head of Unit
Key Enabling Technologies and Digital Economy
DG Enterprise and Industry
European Commission
The goal of this study has been to monitor the supply and demand
of e-skills across Europe, benchmarking national policy initiatives
and multi-stakeholder partnerships in the European Union. We have
analysed the evolution of the supply and demand over the last ten
years, to provide a basis for:
understanding the impact of initiatives launched at EU
and national level since 2007;
proposing remedies where necessary; and
identifying ecient methods of fostering multi-stakeholder
partnerships so as to reduce e-skills shortages, gaps
and mismatches.
The European policy response to the e-skills challenges found
concrete shape in the European Commission’s 2007 Communication
on e-Skills for the 21st Century, which was rapidly endorsed by
Member States. Further impetus came from the 2010 launch of the
Digital Agenda for Europe, and the 2012 Communication “Towards
a Job-rich Recovery” from 2012, with their proposals on tackling
the e-skills challenge. More recently, the Grand Coalition for Digital
Jobs was launched by the European Commission at a conference in
Brussels on 4-5 March 2013.
Our study builds on previous work for the Commission on supply
and demand of e-skills across the EU, and on the policy / stakeholder
initiatives as Member States aim to ensure their labour markets
are adequately supplied with ICT practitioners. An 2010 evaluation
(eSkills21 – Evaluation of the Implementation of the Communication
on “e-Skills for the 21st Century”) identied impressive (if variable)
progress across the EU in the two years following adoption of the
European e-Skills Agenda: Member States were increasingly developing
e-skills strategies, and using innovations such as partnerships incor-
porating stakeholders not traditionally part of education system. But
more was needed to address skills shortages and to implement the
European e-Skills Agenda, the study concluded.
Klaus Behrla,
CEO, LPI Central
The Linux Professional Institute
fully supports partnerships that help to
bridge the e-skills gap in the EU.
Liaison Euro-
pean Relations
The global transition to a digital society
makes it essential to understand which
European policies can develop the
relevant e-skills.
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
Demand and supply
of e-skills in Europe
Who’s in the ICT crowd
and how many are they?
The ICT workforce in Europe in 2012 comprised 7.4 million workers,
or 3.4% of the European workforce. There were about 1.5 million
management, architecture and analysis jobs, 3.4 million professio-
nals such as developers, engineers or administrators, and 2.5 million
workers at associate and technician level.
Stable but insucient ow of budding ICT
professionals from formal education sys-
Interest in ICT careers has declined from its peak in the middle of
the last decade, and the number of computer science graduates has
fallen steadily in Europe since 2006.
The downturn in computer science graduates entering the ICT work-
force has greater impact in Europe because of increasing retirements
among ICT practitioners.
The UK has seen sharpest fall in graduate numbers, down today to
63% of the 2003 level, but decreases are apparent in many other
countries - except Germany and France.
France is now the leading university educator of ICT graduates, con-
tributing 18% of the European total of entries to the labour market,
displacing the UK (17%). Ten years ago the UK produced almost a
third of Europe’s computer scientists (30%), while Germany produ-
ced just 7% - compared to 15% now.
Enrolment peaked in 2004 and 2005, then found some stability, with
a slight increase since 2009.
The situation is similar for vocational graduates. The 2011 gure was
67,000 entering the labour market - way down on the 2005 gure of
97,000. Poland is the leading producer of vocational education, with
30% of all European graduates, and Poland, Germany, Spain and the
Netherlands between them produced 75% of all vocational graduates.
Enrolment in and graduates from Computer Science studies (ISCED 5A and 5B) in Europe (EU27) 1998 - 2012
Source: Eurostat, some imputations and assumptions apply
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012
59 62
118 126 129124 121 114 115 113 115
Computer Science graduates
(rst degrees/ qualications in ISCED 5A and 5B)
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
436 449
794 794 777 761 730 722 724 727
Enrolment in Computer Science
(in ISCED 5A and 5B)
Re-emerging demand
for skills prompts rapid changes
in skills proles and job titles
The demand for ICT workers is today outstripping supply - as has
been the case for many years, except after the burst of the dotcom
bubble. An empirica survey of CIOs and HR managers in eight
European countries in 2012 estimated the demand for e-skills
(ICT professionals and practitioners) across the EU at 274,000. This
includes 73,000 vacancies for ICT management, architecture and
analysis skills, and about 201,000 for ICT practitioners.
The demand structure is also visible in employment broken down
by occupations, with some marked changes. While the overall ICT
workforce grew by 1.8% between 2011 and 2012, the increase in
management, business architecture and analysis level jobs was 8.5%,
and in ICT practitioners at professional level (ISCO level 2) it was
3.7%. At the same time, ICT practitioners at technician or associate
level fell by 3.9%, with core technician groups (ISCO 35) down 2.5%
and industry and engineering ICT technicians down 5.1%.
Management, business
architecture and analysis
ICT practioners -
professional level
ICT practitioners -
Industry and engineering
ICT Associate/technican
ICT workforce in Europe prole changes 2011-2012
Source: empirica 2013: Calculations based on Eurostat LFS data. Some imputations and assumptions apply
The e-skills landscape in Europe is a
certication jungle. SMEs demand
political leadership to enforce
simple and non-partisan
e-skills standards.
Liz Bacon
Deputy Pro
University of
I applaud the initiatives described in
this report which highlight multi-
stakeholder approaches to
addressing the development of
e-skills at all levels and
across society.
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
Where are we going?
Three scenarios have been prepared in the course of this study.
One represents the most likely - and most optimistic - future.
Alongside this, a stagnation scenario assumes a less favourable
future, and a ‚disruptive boost‘ scenario envisages demand rising
because of ICT-based disruptions of one or more industries.
The rst scenario assumes modest economic growth (European GDP
increasing from 1.0 % annual growth in 2012-2015, then 1.7 % a year
in 2015-2020) and moderate IT investments (2.2 % p.a. growth until
2015, 3.0 % in the rest of the decade). IT investments will be largely
driven by rapid diusion of mobile devices, apps, cloud services and
other new delivery models. Signicant growth is foreseen for big
data applications and services through to 2020.
This scenario would imply modest job growth of 100,000 until 2015,
with a structural shortage of 509,000 caused by lack of available
talent. It also suggests that 509,000 jobs could be created if the skills
were available. The bottlenecks are largest in the UK, Germany, and
Italy - which together would account 60% of all vacancies in Europe.
Comparing the three scenarios, potential vacancies range from
449,000 to 558,000 in 2015, and from 730,000 to 1.3 million in 2020.
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
EU - Main Forecast Scenario
7,403,000 7,419,000 7,451,000 7,503,000 7,571,000
Demand Potential Total Jobs Total
ICT workforce development and ICT worker demand potential in Europe (EU27)
2012 – 2020 (main forecast scenario)
Source: empirica 2013
John Higgins
CBE, Director
Provided we focus on helping emplo-
yers ll their gaps and encouraging
companies to create new jobs,
I’m sure we can make
a signicant dierence.
Who will be in demand?
The trend towards higher-level skills is
expected to continue, although at a less
dramatic rate than in the changes seen
in 2011/2012. The main forecast scenario
suggests that management, architecture
and analysis jobs are expected to grow by
44% compared to 2011, and professional
level jobs (ISCO level 2) by 16%, while
technicians‘ jobs will continue to disappear
as a result of automation, o-shoring, and
productivity gains.
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Management, business
architecture and analysis
ICT practioners -
professional level
ICT practitioners -
Industry and engineering
ICT Associate/technican
Source: empirica 2013
Source: empirica 2013: forecast based on Eurostat LFS data
e-skills shortages (potential vacancies) in Europe (EU27) from 2012 – 2020:
comparison of the three scenarios
Expected ICT workforce prole changes in Europe (EU27) from 2011 - 2020
(main forecast scenario)
Pearson VUE,
EMEA Channel
Pearson VUE fully supports the
development and delivery of a
European e-Competence
compared to
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
The future remains uncertain...
The results require prudent interpretation. The projection of demand
potential - a fragile construct - does not mean that huge numbers
of vacancies will actually occur. Vacancies that cannot be lled year
after year will disappear – projects cannot be realised, tenders not
submitted, innovations will simply not be made. Persistent skills
shortages are likely to lead to increased outsourcing and o-shoring,
with untapped innovation potential, and unwanted or enforced
productivity gains accompanied by wage increases and sub-optimal
production structures.
A further caveat concerns the workarounds that have existed in IT
since the sector came into being. Our approach recognises a limited
number of side entries & non-ICT graduates. In the principal scena-
rio, about 1 million side entries and non-ICT graduates over the
eight years enter the workforce, compared to 1.4 million graduates.
However, CIOs have conrmed the tendency for side entries to occur
much less frequently than in the 1990s.
But our demand estimate is very conservative, with a model heavily
reliant on ICT workforce growth and GDP/IT spending growth of the
1990s and early 2000’s. In fact the workforce has increased signicantly
more recently, even through the crisis years of 2008-2012.
We are also cautious in our projections of new and emerging jobs.
These are not yet part of the forecasting model, and many that are
appearing around third-platform technologies are not yet accounted
for in job statistics. Big Data, cloud computing, social media, mobile
platforms and other megatrends will deliver new capabilities and
jobs that will require new skills. In addition, many third-platform jobs
that are not strictly IT jobs will be at professional level, in nance,
marketing, or consulting, as new business processes are dened and
Another current imponderable is the impact of the Grand Coalition
for Digital Jobs. But the sheer size of this exercise, engaging industry,
policymakers and other stakeholders, and the wide scope of the
pledges made within it, will certainly aect the statistical picture
across Europe.
The bottom line
Demand for ICT skills continues to grow rapidly. Core ICT jobs have
seen a growth trend of up to 4% p.a., and management jobs are up
by as much as 8% p.a. At the same time, there is a decline in demand
for associate and technician jobs with medium level skills. There is a
corresponding need to increase the quality and relevance of e-skills,
particularly since the supply of university graduates is not keeping
The signicant growth in highly skilled jobs, such as management,
architecture and analytics positions, reinforces the need for
e-Leadership skills. Since these positions are usually lled by recruits
from a pool of seasoned practitioners and other (non-ICT) managers,
a recruitment bottleneck can be anticipated over time.
The pace of change in ICT jobs is leading to new job proles - such
as Big Data and Cloud computing specialists, rather than classic
ICT jobs - which are not yet fully covered in statistical classication.
New jobs are likely to be created in all industry sectors, beyond the
traditional pathway of ICT studies, but with a strong imperative for
ICT to permeate other and new educational trajectories.
The tradition in the ICT sector for outsiders – in terms of formal
education or career trajectory – to play a crucial role is likely to
continue, but so too is the newer demand for constant professio-
nalisation through formal qualications. But these need not be the
consequence of university or vocational education, and can instead
be acquired later in the career. There is an immense opportunity
today for new education approaches, new modes of delivery, better
curricula and learning outcomes to ll this gap.
CEO & Scientic
Director CEFRIEL
We have to combine technology,
management, and creativity to educate
the professionals needed for the
challenges of the next
European Commission
e-Skills policies
The European Commission‘s decade-long
record of e-skills policies and initiatives
has culminated in the Grand Coalition for
Digital Jobs in 2013
European Commission e-skills policy activities date back to the early
years of this century. With the European e-Skills Forum the European
Commission DG ENTR established a multi-stakeholder dialogue on
this topic. In 2007 the European Commission adopted the Communi-
cation on “e-Skills for the 21st Century: Fostering Competitiveness,
Growth and Jobs”, and the Competitiveness Council of Ministers
adopted „Conclusions on a long term e-skills strategy“ on 22-23
November 2007. European e-skills conferences were organised in
subsequent years, followed by the launch of Europe 2020, the Digital
Agenda for Europe 2010-2020, and the Communication „Towards a
job-rich recovery“ in 2012.
Photo: Manuel Barroso
2013 was marked by the launch of the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs
by the President of the European Commission, José Manuel Barroso
in 2013 together with the European Commission Vice Presidents
Neelie Kroes and Antonio Tajani, Commissioners László Andor and
Androula Vassiliou as well as Richard Bruton, Irish Minister for Jobs,
Enterprise and Innovation, holding the EU Presidency at that time.
Organisations made concrete pledges to the Grand Coalition at the
launch conference, and more of these have been made since.
The European Commission Grand Coalition for
Digital Jobs Tube Map
Dean of Studies
42 is a new school that is breaking
down old pedagogical rules and
aims to increase e-skilled
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
Benchmarking national
e-skills policies in Europe
Policy activity in relation to e-skills has signicantly increased at
national level over the past ve years. However, there are sharp
dierences between countries: some are e-skills policy frontrun-
ners, while others are low performers.
The increase in policy activities emerges from analysis and bench-
marking of national policies on e-skills, e-leadership skills and digital
literacy carried out for the European Commission in all EU Member
States in 2013, and a comparison with results from 2009.
Benchmarking of the national policy activities against a 5-point
e-skills activity index shows an average activity level of 2.9 in 2013
compared to 2.4 in 2009. This is a clear sign of the progress made
in the Member States in implementing national e-skills policies and
strategies in line with the 2007 e-skills Communication endorsed by
national governments.
The country-by-country results clearly show where activity levels and
progress are at an appropriate level, and where there is a lag in policy
development and implementation to close the e-skills gap.
Country 2013 2009 Evolution
AT Austria 3,5 2,0 +1,5
BE Belgium 4,0 4,5 -0,5
BG Bulgaria 2,5 1,5 +1,0
CY Cyprus 2,0 1,5 +0,5
CZ Chech Republic 1,5 1,5 0,0
DE Germany 4,0 3,5 +0,5
DK Denmark 4,0 2,5 +1,5
EE Estonia 3,5 1,0 +2,5
EL Greece 1,5 1,5 0,0
ES Spain 2,0 1,0 +1,0
FI Finland 2,5 1,5 +1,0
FR France 4,0 3,0 +1,0
HU Hungary 2,5 3,5 -1,0
IE Ireland 4,5 4,0 +0,5
IT Italy 2,5 1,5 +1,0
LT Lithuania 2,0 1,0 +1,0
LU Luxembourg 2,5 1,5 1,0
LV Latvia 2,5 3,0 -0,5
MT Malta 4,0 4,0 0,0
NL Netherlands 4,0 3,0 +1,0
PL Poland 3,0 2,5 +0,5
PT Portugal 1,5 1,5 0,0
RO Romania 1,5 2,5 -1,0
SE Sweden 4,0 2,5 1,5
SL Slovenia 1,5 1,5 0,0
SK Slovak Rep. 1,5 2,0 -0,5
UK United King. 5,0 5,0 0,0
Source: Gareis, K., Hüsing, T., Bludova, I., Schulz, C., Birov, S. Korte, W.B.: e-Skills: Monitoring and
Benchmarking Policies and Partnerships in Europe (Final Report for the European Commission),
January 2014
e-skills Policy Index in European countries 2009 and 2013
Silvia Leal
Director of ICT
at IE Business
Academic organisations need to adapt
their curricula to the demands of
technological innovation. A European
Quality Label will be a critical factor
to generate synergies.
General, EuroCIO
The European
CIO Association
The ICT community has to work
seriously on certication and quality
labels both for industry-based training
as well as training by educational
institutes like universities.
Of the then-27 Member States, 12 show a value of 3 or higher on the
5-point index scale for e-skills activity. The leading countries, the UK,
Ireland, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, Malta, the Nether-
lands and Sweden, also perform strongly in activity for ensuring
adequate supplies of ICT practitioners on the labour market today
and in the future.
The range of interventions used by policy makers and other stake-
holders is very broad. Clearly, the 2007 e-Skills Agenda and subsequent
Commission initiatives have prompted Member States to public
debate about e-skills, and helped them to develop appropriate
1. e-Skills Activity Index 2009, 2013 measures national policy and stakeholder activity by assessing national policies and initiatives in the e-skills domain (rst in 2009, latest in 2013); three indexes: e-skills activity
index, digital literacy activity index, e-leadership skills activity index. Source: Gareis, K., Hüsing, T., Korte, W.B., Birov, S., Bludova, I., Schulz, C. (empirica): Monitoring and Benchmarking e-Skills Policies and Partner-
ships. Final Report for the European Commission (January 2014); Networked Readiness Index 2013 measures economics‘ capacities to fully leverage ICT for increased
The degree of integration and consistency of policy-making is still
limited in many Member States, where there is no master strategy or
no continuous attention across policy areas.
It is striking that countries with signicant activity in the e-skills do-
main also have the highest share of ICT workers in their workforce,
and rank highest on innovation and competitiveness indices such as
the Networked Readiness Index (NRI), which measures the capacities
of economies to leverage ICT for increased competitiveness and
It is also positive that some countries that which could be described
as ‘low performers’ have become more active, with two of them
(Lithuania and Poland) starting e-skills programmes as national
Grand Coalitions for Digital Jobs, as part of the Commission initiative
with the same name. Ten further Member States, mainly from
Southern and Eastern Europe, are also planning to launch national
03,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6
e-Skills activity Index 2013
Networked Readiness Index 2013
2009 2013
Source: Gareis, K., Hüsing, T., Bludova, I., Schulz, C., Birov, S. Korte, W.B.: e-Skills: Monitoring and Benchmarking
Policies and Partnerships in Europe (Final Report for the European Commission, January 2014
European Country Landscape on ‘e-Skills Policy Activity’
versus ‘Innovation Capability’ 2013
Prof Sharm
Professor, Henley
Business School
The development of curriculum proles
for e-leaders provides an important
bridge between business
organisations and educational
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
Initiatives on e-skills and
multi-stakeholder partnerships
The multi-stakeholder approach has proven
most eective in tackling the e-skills policy
Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) are joint initiatives bringing
together organisations from the education and training sector with
industry associations and private-sector employers, who take over
some of the responsibilities that have traditionally been held largely
by the public sector.
The logic is that the private sector can complement and extend
services provided by the public sector, enhancing available resources
and permitting faster and greater impact. For success, MSPs depend
on involving all relevant stakeholders, to ensure self-sustaining and
comprehensive progress, and to avoid piecemeal or uncoordinated
approaches that can - and often do - impede modernisation of higher
education and VET in Europe. From an industry viewpoint, MSPs
oer a valuable bridge between the public education system, with its
inuence on the supply of formalised skills to the labour market, and
private sector employers, with their demands for particular skills.
Primary &
Boosting acquistion
and supply of e-Skills
structures at
Individual level
structures at
system level
education &
training (VET)
Futher education/
Higher education
e-Skills framework
Market information
Career support & job matching
Financial and scal incentives
Awareness raising & motivation
Labour market
ICT professionalism & institution building
Bridging the gap between demand
and supply of e-skills in Europe will
require innovative approaches in
learning and validation of
The European Commission e-leadership
initiative is exactly what is needed at a
time where Europe requires
professionals to lead qualied
sta in utilizing emerging
ICT opportunities.
multi-stakeholder partnerships
Our methodology for identifying and analysing best practices uses
SWOT analysis (investigating strengths – weaknesses – opportuni-
ties – threats) as well as experience from predecessor work on MSPs
for e-skills. The unit of observation has been the initiative, together
with the policy context it is embedded in. Selection and benchmar-
king through a multi-stage process have applied criteria including:
To what extent does the initiative represent a multi-stakeholder
partnership? Does it target ICT practitioner skills rather than digital
literacy in general?
To what extent is the partnership embedded in a broader policy con-
text? Do its size and scope ensure relevance to the country‘s e-skills
related development? Has the initiative been in operation for long
enough to make it possible to assess its experience? Is it innovative
in either approach or objectives? Has it shown sucient exibility to
adapt to changing circumstances? Has it achieved the expected out-
puts, and are there tangible outcomes in ensuring sucient supply of
suitably qualied ICT practitioners today and in the future?
Awareness-raising among the right targets
Awareness-raising activities assume limited understanding of
ICT-linked employment, the role of ICT practitioners within the economy,
their relevance for the performance of SMEs, and career prospects in
ICT. Typical target groups are young people prior to career decision-
making, whether in primary, secondary or tertiary education.
Approaches across Europe range from competitions and event-type
„meet your future employer“ activities to tools and platforms that
seek to make ICT an attractive career choice among teenagers.
Women are signicantly underrepresented among current ICT practi-
tioners and ICT students, and many of these initiatives explicitly
target school-age girls and young women. In Germany and Austria,
such programmes started in the early years of the century, and many
other Member States have followed suit, often sending female ICT
students or graduates into schools as role models and mentors.
Austria’s Sparkling Science is a funding scheme for collaborative
projects between universities and schools that aim to bring children
into contact with science in real-world settings. It has succeeded
in making research (much of it directly or indirectly related to ICT)
appealing to youngsters, including by launching „Children‘s Univer-
The well-established “women into technology” programme in
Austria makes use of mentoring via an ambassador programme that
uses female ICT students and graduates as role models. Crucially,
measures target teachers and parents as well as pupils.
Laying the ground at an early age
Some initiatives aim at adapting primary and secondary education
not only to provide basic ICT user skills at an early age, but also to
raise interest in continuing with computing-related studies after
secondary school. In recent years all Member States have been
updating and modernising school curricula and ICT infrastructure to
match technical innovation and the evolving needs of industry and
society. Success has varied, partly related to each country‘s ability
to invest in its education system, but some countries have reviewed
their entire primary and secondary education system and main-
streamed pupils‘ exposure to science, technology and engineering-
related subjects to increase interest an early age. Some have over-
hauled curricula to embed ICT use and media literacy throughout the
learning process. Denmark‘s new subject, „Computational thinking
and practice“, is an innovation in teaching computing related issues
at school, and the UK is developing a similar approach.
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
• Benchmarking using common set of indicators
qualitative and quantitative
• Lessons learned and recommendations to be derived
• MSP-like initiatives identication (”stocktaking“)
• MSP analysis and revised typology
• MSP and policy context studies and descriptions
>200 MSP abstract descriptions
135 selected as candidates for futher analysis
17 Good Practices presented in Final Report
58 selected as candidates for Good Practice
17 of these selected based on validated descriptions
• In-depth case studies of MSPs
• Validation by third parties (national experts)
Dr. George
European Soft-
ware Institute
If you work in IT qualication or
IT-intensive competitive business, the
competences you develop or require
should be expressed in a commonly
understood language.
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
Coder Dojo is a grassroots movement that organises programming
sessions („Dojos“) for school children of all ages. It started in Ireland,
and operates today in 29 countries. It is an example of bottom-up
digital social innovation, based on word-of-mouth through social
In Denmark, a new school subject “computational thinking and
practice” has been designed through a multi-stakeholder partnership
and successfully introduced. It moves the focus from mere ICT user
skills to creative applications of ICT for real-world challenges.
Development and provision of
tailored education & training
Developing and providing education and training oers tailored to
the needs of the labour market is one of the most important areas
for MSPs. Faced by rising unemployment at a time when there are
hard-to-ll vacancies for ICT practitioners, many Member States
have attempted to channel graduates and other jobseekers towards
ICT jobs for which there is strong demand.
Ireland has been especially successful in this area. New approaches
to VET are being sought as well: some initiatives seek to provide
students and workers with alternative channels of educational
achievement and to oer improved means for “on-the-job” and
“just-in-time learning”.
The IT Academy program in Estonia is a joint eort by government,
higher education and industry to boost the quality of ICT higher edu-
cation and to promote education oers within Estonia and beyond.
The objective is to establish Estonia as an attractive place for young
Europeans to study ICT.
The ITMB Degree in the UK is a tailored education programme
combining ICT and management skills in a bachelor’s degree. The
design is driven by the needs of major UK employers, who seek graduates
who combine ICT practitioner with business and leadership skills.
Malta has succeeded in channelling students to parts of the economy
deemed essential for the country’s development. The Get Qualied
Scheme provides grants to students who choose qualications
required by industry, with an emphasis on ICT practitioners.
The Level 8 Conversion Programme in Ireland is oered to unemployed
academics from non ICT areas. It represents a prime example of
how to boost numbers of ICT professionals in the short term via
close collaboration between government, employers and education
Prof Jaak
Estonian Minister
of Education and
By investing in IT curricula we contri-
bute to welfare and economic growth
in Estonia. Estonian universities
have found their strength in
niche areas, especially in
the Cyber Defence
Understanding and quantifying the
skills Europeans have with tech is vital
to our society‘s future and this is why
work on e-skills is vital.
In ‘Create IT’, high school teachers
share online teaching resources
oriented towards students‘ interests,
and university professors produce
teaching resources for high
school teachers.
Career support, lifelong learning
and e-leadership training
It is dicult for people who are making career choices to perceive
the ICT labour market clearly, because the professions it oers are
less well dened than in other, longer-established, sectors. Initiatives
have been taken for career support of those who are already
ICT practitioners, often providing market information tailored to
individual needs. Some are aimed at individuals seeking (re)training
in professional e-skills, supplying advice on training oers on the
The development of widely recognised e-skills frameworks and
denitions has been underway at national level since the 1990s (such
as AITTS and APO-IT in Germany; SFIA in the U.K.; Les Métiers des
Systèmes d’Information dans les Grandes entreprises – Nomenclature
RH in France). The process has been stimulated more recently with
the development of the e-Competence Framework (e-CF). Many
European schemes for education and certication of e-skills make
use of, or are closely aligned with, the e-CF. Coherent systems have
also been developed at sub-national level to steer relevant professional
skills to where there is demand for ICT practitioners, and to counsel job
seekers on re-skilling and certication. Workforce mobility across
regions and countries can play a major role, as exemplied by
CompeTIC, a project between the Belgian Walloon region and the
neighbouring French Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. Other measures
include providing user-centred internet portals/knowledge databa-
ses, and running awareness-raising campaigns among employers,
especially SMEs.
The ICT reference centre for the Brussels region is successfully boos-
ting transparency on the market for ICT education, training and the
ICT practitioner labour market. EVOLIRIS has helped overcome the
ineciencies and obstacles of a heterogeneous and bilingual market.
The RETE Competence Network for the Digital Economy in Italy is a
collaboration between major companies for exploiting the potential
of the e-CF. Its underlying assumption is that one of the solutions to
Italy’s economic diculties lies in an eective e-skills framework.
The ECF-NL Working Group has developed a strategic approach
to exploiting the e-CF at national level, so major stakeholders in
the public and private sector are now using it extensively in human
resource management.
Finish-IT is a fast-track training and certication programme for
ICT practitioners who lack formal qualications - including univer-
sity dropouts and immigrants with qualications not recognised in
Nokia Bridge supports laid-o employees, and has become a major
enabler of digital entrepreneurship in Finland and in Nokia’s other
locations around the globe.
The EVOLIRIS ICT Reference Centre for
the Brussels region is boosting transpa-
rency on the market for ICT education,
training and the ICT practitioner
labour market.
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
Aalto University‘s
Small Business
The motivation of Nokia Bridge support
recipients to set up companies is high,
and about 90 per cent of the enterprises
continue to function actively
with a strong focus on
CIO, Holtzbrinck
Publishing Group
Encourage and foster talented
engineers and scientist to become
successful Entrepreneurs and
Intrapreneurs! That’s what
Software Campus
stands for.
Germany‘s Software Campus oers scholarships to outstanding PhD
and Master students in ICT, providing optimal conditions for them to
develop into tomorrow’s e-leaders.
Womentor is a Swedish programme that uses mentoring to help
women in lower management positions to develop their leadership
skills and to build professional networks, so as to boost the proporti-
on of women in ICT-related top management positions.
Comprehensive, national
e-skill partnerships
In addition to these focused initiatives, some Member States operate
government-supported partnerships across a range of e-skills-related
initiatives, based on long-term strategic policy - notably e-Skills UK,
the ICT Skills Sector Council, which is subject to government control,
but has benetted from signicant public funding and strong policy
support. Budget cuts have made this kind of governance model more
In other countries, comprehensive partnerships in the e-skills domain
have been established with little or no government inuence.
France‘s P@scaline, which has strong support from the business
sector as well as trade unions, is not closely embedded in the
government‘s policy agenda.
e-Skills UK is an industry-driven initiative for addressing the e-skills
challenge. Granted formal status by the government as the Sector
Skills Council for the ICT domain, it is strongly embedded in policy. It
remains the benchmark for comprehensive national e-skills partner-
ships, and has been able to keep up the level of activity in spite of
cuts in government funding.
Pasc@line has been an eective platform for cooperation between
industry and higher education to match supply and demand for ICT
professionals. Trade unions take a strong role.
Governance framework for
ICT professionalism
Maturing of the ICT profession can help in attract more people to
become an ICT practitioner or professional. The Commission has
been paving the way towards this for more than a decade, and
one result is the European e-Competence Framework. e-CF is now
being further developed, to become a European standard, to pro-
vide associated ICT professional job proles, and - it is proposed -
to oer a governance framework for ICT professionalism that can
be implemented by industry and other stakeholders.
The e-Competence Framework (e-CF) (
represents a common standard that can be used across Europe by
practitioners, employers and educators to assess practitioner
competences and prociencies, and to dene professional ICT job
roles and relevant certications and qualications. It might also be
used to dene entry criteria and requirements for progression within
the profession.
Director General,
The Swedish IT
Our leadership development and men-
toring program Womentor since 2007
is an important long-term competitive
factor for the Swedish IT and Telecom
sector. It´s important we have a
growth in women wanting to
work within the
Kay P.
Improved e-skills are key in ghting
youth unemployment and skill
shortage in Europe. This is a joint
task for industry partners,
academia and public
The CEN Workshop on ICT Skills has delivered the e-CF and the ICT
professional proles. It is a European workgroup of national and in-
ternational representatives from the ICT industry, vocational training
organisations, social partners and other institutions (approximately
100 entities in all).
The decision was taken in 2013 to set up a CEN Committee, with
representatives of national standardisation bodies, to adopt the e-CF
as a formal European standard. The kick-o meeting of this new CEN
Committee took place in Milan on 28 January 2014. The e-CF was
released in its version 3.0 in December 2013.
These activities form part of the wider European agenda to establish
a mature ICT profession, which would include a pan-European insti-
tutional and governance framework for the ICT profession.
A multi-layered approach to implementing a structure for ICT profes-
sionalism in Europe has been proposed. This would have a number
of key functions at a pan-European level, and would be reected at a
national level across the Member States. The three key functions are:
standards, professionalism, and promotion.
It is proposed to create an MSP to take responsibility for professi-
onalism and promotion at a European level. A model has also been
proposed for the national level, featuring an MSP to support all three
functions: the implementation of standards, national ICT professio-
nalism, and promotion.
Where possible, existing initiatives and mechanisms would be retained
and built into the process. Each Member State will most likely
implement the model dierently, in line with existing institutions
and initiatives, the maturity of ICT professionalism, and national
priorities and objectives. Recommendations for action were made
in a Commission report in early 2014, after their presentation at the
European e-Skills 2013 Conference in December 2013. The emerging
ecosystem of associated online support tools already includes the
“European e-skills landscape and self-assessment tool”
(, CEPIS e-Competence Benchmark
( and the service e-Com-
petence Assessment (
Attaining full maturity for the ICT profession will take many years,
and these are only the rst steps in proposing an institutional and
governance model for the profession across Europe.
feedback loop
Digital Agenda
Competences (e-CF)
Body(ies) of Knowledge
Job Roles
Portfolio and
Plattform and
Promotion Promotion
Source: Governance Framework for ICT Professionalism. Report from the European
Commission DG ENTR service contract ‚Monitoring and benchmarking e-skills policies and
partnerships‘, December 2013
ICT Professionalism: High-level Overview of an Institutional
and Governance Framework
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
Policy Recommendations
The following recommendations are proposed for ensuring Europe
has sucient e-skills and e-leadership skills. They are intended as
input for a comprehensive roadmap of actions at EU and national
The rise in activity on e-skills in Europe in 2013 is encouraging - alt-
hough it still does not apply to all Member States. As documented
in the report mentioned above, 40% of Member States are showing
strong policy activity, 10% are on the way, but 50% still exhibit only
modest levels of commitment, and need urgently to step up their ef-
forts. Approaches followed by national governments2 and stakehol-
der initiatives provide a valuable pool of good practice examples.
Governments in countries with low levels of e-skills activity should
establish comprehensive strategies, foster multi-stakeholder part-
nerships, and engage in related measures and initiatives. Momen-
tum is growing across Europe for such actions, and the Conclusions
of the European Council of 25 October 2013 state that “part of the
European Structural and Investment Funds (2014-2020) should be
used for ICT education, support for retraining, and vocational educa-
tion and training in ICT, including through digital tools and content,
in the context of the Youth Employment Initiative”3.
National e-skills initiatives need a long-term strategic approach -
such as e-Skills UK, the national Skills Sector Council for the ICT sec-
tor, which has received public funding and strong commitment from
industry, or P@scaline, supported by academia, industry and unions.
Funding can be leveraged from the European Structural and Social
Funds to implement eligible e-skills initiatives. Public authorities at
national and regional level can be advised on how best to incorpo-
rate e-skills in their Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart
Specialisation4 - particularly in the Smart Specialisation Platform5.
The Commission and national and regional governments should
support awareness-raising, based perhaps on the pan-European
„e-Skills for Jobs“ campaign in 2014. Member States should help
employers (especially SMEs) to oer work placements and provide
guidance to students, and new sources of funding should be identi-
ed, from industry associations, CSR activities, and social partners.
Implementation rests mainly with Member States in launching
national initiatives, supporting the „Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs“,
and mobilising funding instruments. National and regional innovati-
on strategies should integrate e-skills, and the European Commissi-
on network launched in 2014 to support the Grand Coalition activities
can help by supporting the development of activities with potential
for learning from existing pledges and initiatives, and by motivating
local stakeholders to replicate them in a format suited to their needs.
2. National policy frameworks need to include a wide spectrum of activities and will have to range from:
· Awareness raising activities and those providing the basis at early age in primary and secondary education, others aimed at the provision of tailored education and training to meet labour market needs,
· Career support to help improve skills and qualications of those ICT workers threatened by automation processes and newly emerging trends with completely new demands for dierent types of skills not available
to these individuals,
· Lifelong learning including higher education and executive education activities responding to changing market demands through the development of new curricula or e-skills partnerships etc.
Experience suggests that activities that embedded in a coherent
long-term national policy - as exemplied by the U.K. or Ireland -
have a better chance of survival after initial funding comes to an end.
Initiatives driven only by individuals or a small number of industry
players can be vulnerable to changes in business strategies.
All national governments should put in place a long-term strategy,
with clear goals and measures, to ensure sustainability of successful
activities and partnerships that can address the e-skills challenge. To
strengthen the link between e-skills development, promotion of
entrepreneurship and innovation leading to growth and employment,
every eort should be made to incorporate e-skills into policies
on education, training, innovation and entrepreneurship, at EU,
Member State and regional/local level.
Since 2007, the Commission6 has provided a solid knowledge base of
information on Member States e-skills policies and multi-stakeholder
partnerships for national policy decision making. This continuous
exercise in stock taking, monitoring and benchmarking progress has
put into the hands of national governments the evidence on which to
agree on and implement the necessary policies and actions.
The European Council conclusions of 25 October 2013 urge “a higher
degree of integration of digital skills in education, from the earliest
stages of school to higher education, vocational education and
training and lifelong learning”. Success has been variable in Member
States‘7 eorts to update school curricula and ICT infrastructure in
line with the rapid pace of technical innovation and the evolving
needs of industry and society. While some countries have overhauled
their curricula with the purpose of embedding ICT use and media
literacy within all segments of the learning process, most Member
States have not yet gone so far. Multi-stakeholder partnerships are
important to the development and provision of education and trai-
ning oers corresponding to the needs of the labour market. Many
Member States have attempted to channel graduates and jobseekers
towards particular ICT jobs for which there is strong demand, and
some aim to provide students and workers with alternative channels
of educational achievement, with improved means for “on-the-job”
and “just-in-time learning”. Some of the examples8 in this report may
lend themselves to localised replication.
National and regional authorities should ensure that primary and
secondary school curricula embed ICT use and media literacy throug-
hout the learning process, with a focus on creative ICT applications
for real-world challenges. National governments and stakeholders
should dedicate resources to job placement and adjustment services,
to help willing workers nd positions that use their skills. Member
States need to improve the matching of new graduates with industry
requirements. The German and Austrian VET dual and apprenticeship
system also oer alternative ICT career paths for those interested
in a more practical vocational job in this eld. So do further educa-
tion and training activities, where approaches can build on previous
work experiences. Cooperation with employment agencies and the
recruitment industry to ensure placement of graduates from these
schemes and programmes is important, and implementation should
aim at the adaptation or integration of recognised industry-based
training and certication schemes. Other valuable stakeholders will
be leading ICT companies oering industry-based certication cour-
ses, international certication and examination providers, industry
representatives, associations and unions.
Because the ICT profession is not clearly dened, making informed
career choices runs up against the opacity of the ICT education and
training market. Career support is starting to become available at
national level for ICT practitioners to remedy this diculty, with
programmes providing market information tailored to individual
needs, and advice about training oers on the market for individuals
seeking (re)training in professional e-skills. And an increasing number
of schemes for education and certication in Europe make use of, or
are closely aligned with, the e-CF, which should become a European
standard by 2015. Facilitating geographical workforce mobility
across regions and countries can be an important aid, along with
user-centred Internet portals, knowledge databases, and awareness-
raising campaigns.
6. As a contribution to the implementation of its Communication on „e-Skills for the 21st Century: Fostering Competitiveness, Growth and Jobs“, COM (2007) 496
7. Denmark introduced a new subject „Computational thinking and practice“ which represents the state-of-the-art in the didactical approach to teaching computing related issues at school.
The UK is advancing along similar lines. Coder Dojo has been set up as a grassroots movement which organises programming sessions („Dojos“) for school children of all ages, at rst in Ireland and today
in 29 countries around the world.
8. The „IT Academy program“ in Estonia; the „ITMB Degree“ in the UK and the „Get Qualied“ scheme in Malta; the „Level 8 Conversion program“ in Ireland etc.
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
National and EU-level Initiatives should be fostered to strengthen
ICT professionalism, to steer professional skills to where there is
demand for ICT practitioners using the e-Competence Framework
(e-CF) and online tools for career support and lifelong learning, and
to counsel job seekers on re-skilling and certication. These acti-
vities would benet from a coordinated approach at EU level. The
implementation in each Member State will depend on the national
situation, but should include stakeholders from industry, certication
institutions, national or regional government, associations repre-
senting ICT professionals, and employment agencies. Europe-wide
industry activities to promote ICT professionalism, initiated in March
2013 by the Council of European Professional Informatics Societies,
the European e-Skills Association and several other stakeholders
within the „Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs“, will need to be closely
coordinated with those of CEN and of the Commission.
Too few students pursue a career in science, technology, engineering
and mathematics (STEM), although these oer promising job and
career opportunities, irrespective of whether the skills are obtained
through university, an apprenticeship, or vocational training with
work placements. Unbiased and high quality career information and
support services are needed9 for young people and their parents,
advising on job opportunities and demonstrating that such skills are
in demand. Companies which have not been able to directly recruit
ICT professionals also regard STEM graduates as a suitable pool for
recruiting sta to ICT-related jobs after training. Promoting the use
of ICT industry certication and dedicated courses and certica-
tions10 for non-ICT STEM graduates and employees can increase the
number ICT professionals urgently needed by industry. Commission
awareness-raising campaigns have also shown their worth.
National governments should oer access to high quality information
and career-support services for young people, providing advice on
existing and future job opportunities and industry demand, and
demonstrating that they could quickly nd a job. Governments have
a role in collecting the data needed to determine which skills are in
demand and what kind of education and training is eective -
perhaps through an observatory that would provide the labour-market
data that could allow students to make informed choices, and would
track students’ progress – including their studies, their rst employ-
ment, their starting salaries etc. Prospective students could thus
obtain a clearer picture of their future prospects. Initiatives for ICT
career development for students, such as the Academy Cube, should
be evaluated and lessons drawn about scaling up, replication and
roll-out in other countries. National governments and employment
institutions should be responsible for quality career-support and
advice services at postsecondary and university institutions. But
for motivating widespread use of ICT industry certication and
dedicated courses and certications for non-ICT STEM graduates
and employees, the responsibility should be shared among
ICT industry players, user industries, universities and education
institutions as well as employment agencies and the recruitment
9. At present only 25% of experts see the current career support initiatives addressed to STEM students, graduates and employees but also those from other disciplines interested in an ICT professional career as
appropriate and eective, slightly more are satised with these. However, almost 70% see these as a relevant element of future policies and initiatives (Source: empirica survey, October 2013).
10. The ‘Academy Cube’ is an online learning platform for ICT practitioners open to all ICT companies. It was started in Germany and developed to become a pledge for the Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs to cover
and be rolled out in further European countries.
This service contract was commissioned by the European Commission
DG Enterprise and Industry. André Richier, Principal Administrator,
Unit Key Enabling Technologies and ICT, was our contact point
throughout the study.
The separate report on ‘Governance Framework for ICT Professio-
nalism – a Proposal’ was conducted by our subcontractor Innovation
Value Institute (IVI) National University of Ireland Maynooth.
The project would not have been possible without the generous
participation of around 800 experts from national stakeholders of
dierent type in all EU Member States who supported us throughout
the duration of this service contract.
We are grateful for the support and contributions from the Steering
Committee, consisting of Nils Fonstad (INSEAD eLAB), Diem Ho (IBM),
Markku Makkula (Aalto University), Silvia Leal (IE Business School),
Anders Flodström (EIT ICT Labs Master School) and Alfonso Fuggetta
Acknowledgements are due to Louise Veling, Sinéad Murnane and
Stephen McLaughlin from IVI our National Correspondents in each
EU Member State from our European Information Society Research
(ENIR) Network and the experts and participants at the European
e-Skills 2013 conference which took place in Brussels on 10 December
2013 and especially to the speakers, panellists and roundtable
experts: John Higgins (DIGITALEUROPE), Antti Peltomäki (European
Commission DG ENTR), Kay P. Hradilak (SAP), Olivier Crouzet (42),
Erki Urva (IT Foundation for Education), Sebastiano Toaletti (PIN
SME), Heleen Kist (ECP), Francis Behr (Syntec numérique), Sasha
Bezuhanova (BCWT), Jan Muehlfeit (Microsoft), Fabianne Ruggier
(e-Skills Alliance Malta), Johann Kempe (Holtzbrinck Publishing
Group), Kaisa Olkkonen (NOKIA), Alexander Riedl (European
Commission DG CNECT), Jutta Breyer (Breyer Publico), Fiona
Fanning (CEPIS), Peter Hagedoorn (EuroCIO - The European CIO
Association), Maarten Dolf Desertine (EXIN), Philippe Saint-Aubin
(industriALL Europe), Peter Baur (European Commission DG EAC),
Silvia Leal (IE Business School), Sharm Manwani (Henley Business
School), Tawk Jelassi (ENPC School of International Management,
Paris), Joe Peppard (ESMT - European School of Management and
Technology) and Nils Fonstad (INSEAD eLab).
We would also and specically like to acknowledge the valuable
insight we were able to gather through several hundred interviews
with experts and stakeholders and dierent online surveys of
hundreds of experts. We are grateful to the many professionals who
took the time to share their views.
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
European Commission
DG Enterprise and Industry
Key Enabling Technologies and Digital Economy | ENTR/E4 BREY 10/083 |
1049 Brussels
Contact Information
empirica GmbH
Oxfordstr. 2
53111 Bonn, Germany
For further information and to request copies of this brochure, please contact:
e-Skills for Jobs in Europe
Measuring Progress and Moving Ahead
... These models and methods need to consider complex systems, comprehensive infrastructure consisting of a high-quality information network and internet connectivity; security and privacy, data protection, work organisation and design, and the effective use of resources [3,17,19,20]. As these complex systems impact the roles of the employees and managing teams of highly specialised technical experts, organisational performance needs to take cognisance of skilling employees to operate in the new technological revolution, with specific profiles that are currently non-existent [21,22]. ...
The fast-paced evolution of digital technologies, termed the fourth industrial revolution (4IR), influences organisations to realise digital technology potential from a holistic point of view. In this context, organisational competitiveness relies on whether organisations’ business value-creation capabilities are adaptable and flexible. The purpose of this study was to consider the 4IR key organisational capabilities that organisations require to ensure sustainability and to create business value. We identified 14 4IR organisational capabilities and operationalised these capabilities by mapping them to the dynamic capabilities sensing (strategic leadership, external drivers, data value), seizing (decision-making, technology features, software services and solutions) and transforming (business model, process optimisation, product efficacy, organisation, customer) as defined by Teece. Three 4IR organisational capabilities, namely employees, skills and expertise, as well as communication, are relevant across all three dynamic capabilities. By applying the 4IR organisational capabilities, organisations will be able to consider the end-to-end impact of 4IR on them and to address action plans to sustain value, or to create new business value.
... Organisations will have to manage multiple complexities, namely complex systems, as it is required to develop and apply new models and methods [25]; comprehensive infrastructure consisting of a high-quality information network and internet connectivity; security and privacy, enforcing data protection [12]; work organisation and design, as the roles of the employees change [26]; new and relevant legal frameworks [1] and the effective use of resources [24]. Organisational performance in this new era requires managing teams of highly specialised technical experts, as well as employees trained to operate in the new technological revolution, with specific profiles that are currently non-existent [27,28]. In the next section we consider strategic alignment in organisations. ...
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The so-called fourth industrial revolution or Industry 4.0 (I4.0), with its potentially disruptive technologies, is changing the way we socialise, live and work and provides opportunities for organisations to innovate and disrupt. Although organisations are acknowledging the emergence of I4.0 and realise the importance of being ready for its impact, better understanding is required of the potential of I4.0 and its holistic impact on organisations. In this paper, we conducted a systematic literature review to identify all I4.0-related organisational aspects, such as an I4.0-relevant strategy, digital business model innovation, technology investment optimisation, workforce management complexity, digital eco-systems, technology-centric convergence, virtual model and physical environment linkage, value chain digitalisation and product portfolio innovation. Furthermore, we presented these I4.0 organisational aspects identified in a conceptual model based on the components of organisational strategic alignment. By using such a conceptual model, organisations can ensure that both optimisation and new opportunities enabled by I4.0 are leveraged and that a relevant, strategically aligned approach to I4.0 may be considered.
... In the light of the results of this study, the horizontal segregation is particularly strong with regard to the attractiveness of the ICT field among Finnish upper secondary education students. The low share of females in digital education and workforce has long been not only typical for Finland but also a global problem (see e.g., Dass, Goodwin, Wood & Luanaigh 2015;Korte, Gareis & Hüsing 2014). The results of this study confirm the relevance of these concerns and stress the need to provide young people with intriguing information, role models and skill-related preconditions for digital education and labour market that not only increase the attractiveness of the field, but also challenge traditional gender roles and attitudes. ...
Full-text available
The purpose of this work is to broaden the debate on digital technology in education by emphasising the digital affordances enabled by these technologies instead of focusing on the integration of digital devices and learning materials and digital pedagogy into educational practices. Digital action potentials are not equally open to everyone, requiring the scrutinisation of digital inequality as a relative issue limiting the abilities of individuals to benefit from these opportunities. In the context of education, this dissertation concentrates on the social structures affecting the unequal distribution of digital engagement which determines individual's positioning in relation to digital affordances. These theoretical backgrounds construe the following research questions: To what extent do social structures, specifically gender, age, and educational choices, determine the digital engagement of 12–22-year-old Finns? And, to what extent and in what ways does digital engagement accumulate, as exhibited by certain individuals more than others among Finnish lower and upper secondary school students? An empirical part answering these questions consist of five original articles utilising two samples of Finnish lower and upper secondary school students. In total, the 11,820 students' digital usage habits and digital skills are analysed through multivariate statistical methods. Gender as a social category appears to be producing differences in students’digital engagement. The results indicate that gender differences in digital engagement among Finnish lower and upper secondary school students are largely domain-specific and related to gendered preferences and interests. In other words, tendencies towards the ways of experiencing digital technology and potential digital affordances appear to be gendered. Because the patterns of these preferences appear clearly in the data concerning lower and upper secondary school students, they are likely to develop during the early years of childhood and youth. Age, even among young people, has an impact on both digital skills and usage. The importance of age as an independent variable is explained by the increasing versatility of students’ use of digital technology as they grow older. It is the diversity of digital experiences, in particular, that enriches young people's digital skills. Education appears as the most significant single factor producing differences in young people's digital engagement. Education manifests itself as a categorical social hierarchy as the level of education increases the digital engagement. At the same time, there are significant differences in digital engagement within the same educational level, and digital engagement is generally most likely exhibited by students in the male-dominated fields of education. In particular, genderedness is present in relation to students' views of the ICT as a tempting field of education or profession in the future. As both students’ orientation towards technology and their educational choices are heavily gendered, they reinforce each other and increase gender gaps in relation to digital engagement and potential digital affordances among the future citizens of the information society. Overall, the current study emphasises the need of sociological scrutinisation in order to understand the importance of digital technology and related social activities in the context of education. The results of this dissertation indicate that gender, age and gendered educational choices determine the digital engagement of young Finns. Digital engagement tends be exhibited by certain individuals as skills and usage are intertwined and mutually reinforcing. It is evident that compound and sequential dimensions distinctively describe the digital engagement of Finnish lower and upper secondary school students. Where comboundness characterises the accumulation of digital engagement for certain individuals, sequentiality increases the likelihood that these individuals will also benefit most from the available digital affordances. In extreme circumstances, sequentiality of digital engagement describes the path to either digital prosperity or exclusion making it an important educational policy issue to be acknowledged in the information society.
... The development of e-skills and e-competencies has been shown to contribute to a large extend to increasing individuals' advantage in the ICT labour sectors as well as to play a key role in strengthening competitiveness, innovation and social cohesion in the European economy (Giotopoulos at al, 2017), (Korte at al, 2014), (Martin, 2018) Moreover, e-skills and e-competencies have a strong potential to influence positively competitiveness and innovation (OECD, 2016(OECD, , 2018Ananiadou & Claro, 2009). ...
... Several national studies are available to confirm this situation (Fedil, ABBL, & CLC, 2014;Gouvernement du Luxembourg, 2011). However, this topic also appears to be a major issue in surrounding countries and generally in Europe (European Commission, 2014b; Gareis et al., 2014). Moreover, participants mentioned the lack of appropriate training and education within Luxembourg both in terms of software programming but also more generally in terms of technical and scientific education (European Schoolnet, 2012). ...
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Information and communication technologies (ICT) are increasingly becoming an important component of economic development. Luxembourg’s ICT sector is usually characterized as performing admirably - it is often at the top-end of different indices and international league tables. Nevertheless, headline statistics and high-level assessments often disguise the complexities of dynamic relations. Ecosystems are one way of understanding complex interactions and relationships. It is in this respect that this paper deploys the concept of ecosystems to investigate Luxembourg’s ICT sector. The layered ecosystem model, devised by Martin Fransman, was utilized to map key actors that comprise Luxembourg’s ICT ecosystem, following which a program of unstructured interviews were conducted. This empirical material, combined with documentary analysis, provides the basis for an analysis of the interrelated elements that are shaping the development of Luxembourg’s ICT ecosystem. The study has identified the main forces that affect the ICT ecosystem and concluded that Luxembourg’s strengths are related to its well-developed ICT infrastructures such as international fiber and national ultra-high broadband connectivity and high quality datacenters and its political vision for ICT that has led to a supportive policy environment. Its main weaknesses are related to an inappropriate educational system in which technical and scientific training is less developed, missing e-skills such as coding, application development, technical IT know-how as well a non-entrepreneurial mind-set and a risk averse culture. The paper highlights the importance of the different socio-economic, political, strategic and technological forces that shape the ICT ecosystem of a small country in order to provide a comprehensive basis for its policy makers. An empirical focus on a small country helps to redress the research imbalance, whereby small countries are often overlooked by scholars. Nevertheless, we contend that such “smallness” engenders a unique opportunity for research engagement with a majority of primary actors in ecosystems, which might be unfeasible in larger countries.
This volume constitutes the proceedings of the 20th IFIP WG 6.11 Conference on e-Business, e-Services, and e-Society, I3E 2021, held in Galway, Ireland, in September 2021.* The total of 57 full and 8 short papers presented in these volumes were carefully reviewed and selected from 141 submissions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: AI for Digital Transformation and Public Good; AI & Analytics Decision Making; AI Philosophy, Ethics & Governance; Privacy & Transparency in a Digitized Society; Digital Enabled Sustainable Organizations and Societies; Digital Technologies and Organizational Capabilities; Digitized Supply Chains; Customer Behavior and E-business; Blockchain; Information Systems Development; Social Media & Analytics; and Teaching & Learning. *The conference was held virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Despite being a problem reported in a long time, the high rate of dropout and failure in computing courses remains a problem for the area. In this context, the introductory programming courses are among the worst, generating the highest rates of dropout in the first semesters of the program. Several studies describe pedagogical strategies that try to improve teaching programming and retain more students. Other studies try to identify factors that are related to the success or retention of students. One of the strategies to support the teaching-learning process is to identify students at risk in advance. Although there is a strong relationship between the motivation and the students’ outcome, few works use the motivation as a factor to identify students at risk. This work presents and evaluates a method to identify features that allow predicting at-risk students in introductory computing courses, based on four main components: pre-university factors, initial motivation, motivation through the course, and professor perception. In addition, it is proposed an instrument to assess educational factors that impact on motivation. The method is based on questionnaires, and the results were validated regarding reliability and validity by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, omega coefficient, and factor analysis, which we proved to be satisfactory. Using the method created, named EMMECS, case studies with 173 students from different courses in computer science in four different universities in southern Brazil were conducted. We carried out several simulations of prediction, using ten different classification algorithms and different datasets. As a result, the best-case scenarios, using support vector machine and AdaBoostM1 algorithms, we identified on average more than 80% of students that would fail, since the first week of the study. The results show that the proposed method is effective compared with related works and it has as advantages its independence of programmatic content, specific assessments, grades, and interaction with learning systems. Furthermore, the method allows the weekly prediction, with good results since the first few weeks
EIT ICT Labs Master School) and Alfonso Fuggetta (Cefriel)
  • Anders Flodström
Anders Flodström (EIT ICT Labs Master School) and Alfonso Fuggetta (Cefriel).
Fabianne Ruggier (e-Skills Alliance Malta) Peter Hagedoorn (EuroCIO -The European CIO Association
  • Erki Urva
Erki Urva (IT Foundation for Education), Sebastiano Toffaletti (PIN SME), Heleen Kist (ECP), Francis Behr (Syntec numérique), Sasha Bezuhanova (BCWT), Jan Muehlfeit (Microsoft), Fabianne Ruggier (e-Skills Alliance Malta), Johann Kempe (Holtzbrinck Publishing Group), Kaisa Olkkonen (NOKIA), Alexander Riedl (European Commission DG CNECT), Jutta Breyer (Breyer Publico), Fiona Fanning (CEPIS), Peter Hagedoorn (EuroCIO -The European CIO Association), Maarten Dolf Desertine (EXIN), Philippe Saint-Aubin (industriALL Europe), Peter Baur (European Commission DG EAC),
Sharm Manwani (Henley Business School
  • Silvia Leal
  • Tawfik Jelassi
Silvia Leal (IE Business School), Sharm Manwani (Henley Business School), Tawfik Jelassi (ENPC School of International Management, Paris), Joe Peppard (ESMT -European School of Management and Technology) and Nils Fonstad (INSEAD eLab).
Alexander Riedl (European Commission DG CNECT)
  • Roundtable Panellists
  • Experts
especially to the speakers, panellists and roundtable experts: John Higgins (DIGITALEUROPE), Antti Peltomäki (European Commission DG ENTR), Kay P. Hradilak (SAP), Olivier Crouzet (42), Erki Urva (IT Foundation for Education), Sebastiano Toffaletti (PIN SME), Heleen Kist (ECP), Francis Behr (Syntec numérique), Sasha Bezuhanova (BCWT), Jan Muehlfeit (Microsoft), Fabianne Ruggier (e-Skills Alliance Malta), Johann Kempe (Holtzbrinck Publishing Group), Kaisa Olkkonen (NOKIA), Alexander Riedl (European Commission DG CNECT), Jutta Breyer (Breyer Publico), Fiona Fanning (CEPIS), Peter Hagedoorn (EuroCIO -The European CIO Association), Maarten Dolf Desertine (EXIN), Philippe Saint-Aubin (industriALL Europe), Peter Baur (European Commission DG EAC),
Joe Peppard (ESMT -European School of Management and Technology) and Nils Fonstad
  • Silvia Leal
Silvia Leal (IE Business School), Sharm Manwani (Henley Business School), Tawfik Jelassi (ENPC School of International Management, Paris), Joe Peppard (ESMT -European School of Management and Technology) and Nils Fonstad (INSEAD eLab).