History, Memory, and Utopia in the Missionaries' Creation of the Indigenous Movement in Brazil (1967–1988)

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On April 17, 1974, and die two days following, a gathering of 16 indigenous participants from nine different indigenous societies was held in Diamantino, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During the three days, vernacular narratives, trivial announcements, and critiques of the government and local ranchers were presented—without any of the participants significantly engaging with one another. Only one primary source on this event, a short, typed document, is available today. The historicity of this “Assembly of Indigenous Chiefs” is granted by both the anthropological and the historical situations of the participating communities. For the first time, individuals from indigenous societies that did not share ethnic borders or history met to advance indigenous rights; for the first time also, these individuals were granted political representation (of their groups), a notion largely foreign to indigenous political traditions. There was a conscious effort to draw chiefs from as many communities as possible and to establish a large, pan-Indian movement.

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A questão indígena no Brasil tem uma simbologia própria que vai até o profundo das raízes mais essenciais da narrativa nacional e do relato de autorrepresentação do país tropical. Muitas vezes ao longo do século XX usou-se com diferentes objetivos governamentais de propaganda e autopromoção, recurso que chegou a sua máxima expressão durante a ditadura civil-militar nascida em 1964. A partir do estudo da imprensa, publicações institucionais e de organizações sociais, assim como os discursos políticos feitos na Câmara dos Deputados, pretende-se analisar o uso político que se fez da questão indígena durante este período. Parece que o governo dos militares realizou uma intensa propaganda sobre sua política indigenista para esconder a crueza da ocupação da Amazônia. Este discurso foi contrariado pela oposição ao regime que, procurando apoiar os povos indígenas, acabou por transformar a questão indígena numa batalha ideológica na que os próprios indígenas passaram a representar os anseios de liberdade e democracia da sociedade brasileira. Dita carga simbólica afetou a luta dos próprios povos indígenas, pois adaptaram-se às novas representações nascidas deste uso político. Palavras Chave Questão indígena-Brasil-Ditadura civil-militar-Propaganda-Ideologia
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Este libro pretende analizar la polisemia que contiene el concepto o categoría indio para el indigenismo brasileño del siglo XX. Comenzando en 1910 con la creación del Serviço de Proteção ao Índio hasta el fin del régimen tutelar con la promulgación de la Constitución de 1988, se expondrán las diferentes representaciones realizadas por el imaginario colectivo brasileño en su relación interétnica con su más íntima otredad: los pueblos indígenas. El indigenismo será aquí el protagonista, es decir, tanto el ejercicio de imaginar a los pueblos indígenas dentro de unos parámetros históricos y culturales concretos herederos de una larga tradición, como su dimensión performativa en los diferentes contextos del contacto interétnico, violentos o no, de resistencia o de negociación. Por ello se transitará por una buena parte de los actores productores de ese indigenismo, desde instituciones, militares, sertanistas, antropólogos, activistas y misioneros, para desgranar cómo se ha ido formando la visión que la sociedad brasileña ha tenido tradicionalmente de lo indio a partir de las herencias coloniales y su continua búsqueda de construcción identitaria, en ese desencuentro permanente entre la idealización europea y la, a veces menospreciada y otras romantizada, realidad tropical. ¿Interactuamos y diseñamos el mundo a partir de cómo la representamos? ¿Estamos eternamente condenados a estar sometidos por nuestro imaginario?
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This article discusses the relationship between the Amazonian indigenous movement, especially Achuar indigenous organizations, with the Catholic and Evangelical Churches associated to the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL). In the first section it presents the origins and development of the indigenous organizations in the Peruvian Amazon region. The following sections develop the positions and plans of both the Catholic church and the SIL for their work with indigenous communities and leadership formation. The last section is devoted to discuss the relationship of both churches with the Achuar indigenous organizations.
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RESUMO O estudo do Movimento Indigena no Brasil, tendo como hipotese principal a percepcao das Assembleias Indigenas como acontecimento fundador do mesmo, e o objetivo principal deste artigo. O periodo historico em pauta perpassa os anos de 1974 a 1980, momentos marcados pela ditadura militar no Brasil e a subsequente abertura politica. O objeto maior de analise sao as falas dos chefes e lideres indigenas, suas ansiedades e reivindicacoes. Palavras-Chave: Movimento Indigena; Assembleias Indigenas; acontecimento fundador.
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Land for the landless, food for the hungry, literacy for the uneducated—not through charitable works, but by forcing the state to take seriously its responsibilities to its poorest citizens. This was integral to the theology of liberation as it was practiced by bishops, priests, and nuns in Brazil beginning shortly after the close of the Second Vatican Council in 1965. Important sectors of the Brazilian Catholic Church were “opting for the poor” at a time when economic development, modernization, and democracy were not considered appropriate or meaningful partners in the repressive environment characterized by the Brazilian military dictatorship (1964-1985).
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This article explores how new political actors form and reproduce themselves within societies’ most vulnerable sectors, those marginalized from the state’s authoritative decision-making centers. It explores this question in national settings that characterize much of the contemporary world ^ that is, settings marked by high levels of political con£ict over basic parameters of the political system and hence by signi¢cant institutional change. Dominant theories of collective action, such as those rooted in rational choice, political process, and ‘‘new social movements’’ literatures, are based on the experience of relatively stable Western democracies. 1 This article suggests that such theories may not travel well to regions where key background conditions, such as the stability of institutional arrangements that link state and society, do not hold. It develops an approach to collective action that theorizes the impact of high levels of con£ict over national patterns of political authority ^ that is, over the boundaries and nature of the state and national political regime ^ on the formation and reproduction of new political actors.This‘‘authority-centered’’approach understands the interaction between political elites and politically marginalized groups to be central to actor formation. It suggests that this interaction is shaped by historically contingent con¢gurations of three sets of factors: (a) the level of intra-elite con£ict over the pattern of political authority, (b) the relative strength of a group’s social base, and (c) the nature of the structural and political linkages that bind state and society. The analytic value of this approach is nicely illustrated by the formation and reproduction of the Rural Workers’ Union Movement (Movimento Sindical dos Trabalhadores Rurais), the principal political representative of peasants, small farmers, and rural wage laborers in Brazil, during the 1964^1989 period.The rural workers’ movement claimed to
From the early 1950s to the mid-1970s, missionaries from several congregations in the south-western Amazon region of Brazil, notably a group of young Jesuits, developed an avant la lettre radical brand of inculturation theology, based on close relations with academic anthropology and cultural relativism. By the 1990s, this "type" of inculturation became one of the missionary norms in the region; it was also instrumental in the creation and orientation of the Indigenist Missionary Council, the main missionary organization in Brazil. I explore the trajectories of three inculturation theology Jesuits who asserted the need to protect indigenous cultures, including their shamanic rituals.
In recent years, a number of anthropologists have come to recognize that missionaries, who play a central role in many of the social systems that anthropologists study, have yet to receive the ethnographic and theoretical attention they deserve. Often, when anthropologists discussed missionaries at all, they treated them as part of the setting, much like rainfall and elevation: matters one felt obliged to mention, but peripheral to the real object of social anthropological description and analysis. There were, to be sure, exceptions, notably the body of anthropological literature that has dealt with the effects of missionaries on various areas of native life.
O movimento indígena no Brasil: mito ou realidade?
  • Moonen
O código da cultura. O CIMI no debate da inculturaçào
  • Rufino
The Indian Long March
  • de Certeau
Os Tapayuna (Beiço-de-pau)
  • Pereira
Les capucins français et leur passé
  • Dompnier
500 anos de resistencia e luta
  • Heck
Résistance Gaviào: d’une frontière l’autre
  • Ferraz
Missionários e indios na ocupaçâo do Mato Grosso
  • Silva Joana
  • A F Utiariti
Missào e ciencia: os verbitas e o anthropos no Brasil
  • Pissolato
Da importancia das Assembléias Indígenas para os estudos brasilciros
  • Hoonaert
A açâo da Igreja Católica e o desenvolvimento rural
  • Balduíno
O papel das Assembléias de Líderes Indígenas na organizaçïo dos povos indígenas no Brasil
  • Ossami
Missa da terra sem males
  • Tierra
O Brasil no Movimento Indígena Americano
  • Ramos