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Lyciasalamandra arikani n. sp. & L. Yehudahi n. Sp. (Amphibia, Salamandridae), two new lycian salamanders from Southwestern Anatolia

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Two new species of Lycian salamanders, Lyciasalamandra arikani n. sp. and L. yehudahi n.sp. are described and their relationships with similar and neighbouring taxa are discussed. Both taxa originate from areas new for the genus, with the former from around Erentepe Mt. (Kumluca, Antalya) and the latter from Tahtalı Mt. (Kemer, Antalya) in the southern parts of Beydağları Mountain range in southwestern Anatolia. Some information about their habitats and behaviour are reported.
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NORTH-WESTERN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY 8 (1): 181-194 ©NwjZ, Oradea, Romania, 2012
Article No.: 121113 http://biozoojournals.3x.ro/nwjz/index.html
Lyciasalamandra arikani n. sp. & L. yehudahi n. sp.
(Amphibia: Salamandridae), two new Lycian salamanders
from Southwestern Anatolia
Bayram GÖÇMEN* and Bahadır AKMAN
Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Zoology Section, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
*Corresponding Author: B. Göçmen, E-mail: cypriensis@yahoo.com
Tel: +90 (232) 311 17 95, Fax: +90 (232) 388 10 36
Received: 14. December 2011 / Accepted: 18. March 2012 / Available online: 01. May 2012 / Printed: June 2012
Abstract. Two new species of Lycian salamanders, Lyciasalamandra arikani n. sp. and L. yehudahi n.sp. are
described and their relationships with similar and neighbouring taxa are discussed. Both taxa originate from
areas new for the genus, with the former from around Erentepe Mt. (Kumluca, Antalya) and the latter from
Tahtalı Mt. (Kemer, Antalya) in the southern parts of Beydağları Mountain range in southwestern Anatolia.
Some information about their habitats and behaviour are reported.
Key words: Lycian salamanders, Lyciasalamandra arikani n.sp., Lyciasalamandra yehudahi n.sp ,
serology, taxonomy, Turkey.
Introduction
The Lycian salamanders (genus Lyciasalamandra)
are one of the most popular and, at the same time,
least known animals around Muğla and Antalya
provinces (SW Anatolia), since their cryptic life-
style in karstic areas mainly depends on suitable
climatic conditions. The genus Lyciasalamandra
contains ten allopatric species and subspecies from
an area stretching for approximately 420 km along
the Mediterranean coast of Turkey between Kap-
lanhanı Plataeu (Alanya, Antalya) and Marmaris
(Muğla) and some adjacent islands (Pieper 1963,
Başoğlu 1967, Başoğlu & Atatür 1974, 1975, Başo-
ğlu & Baran 1976, Baran & Atatür 1980, Franzen &
Klewen 1987, Başoğlu et al. 1994, Mutz & Stein-
fartz 1995, Veith et al. 2001, Budak & Göçmen
2005, Öz et al. 2004, Franzen et al. 2008, Akman et
al. 2011, Göçmen et al. 2011). In earlier articles
(Akman et al. 2011, Göçmen et al. 2011) it was re-
ported that a new Lycian salamander from
Göynük Canyon, Antalya, Lyciasalamandra irfani
Göçmen, Arıkan & Yalçınkaya 2011 was threat-
ened with extinction, and a new and somewhat
different population of L. atifi (Başoğlu, 1967) was
also found, representing a considerable range ex-
tension for both species and genus, around 35 km
air distance to the south-east. During additional
field work, we scanned the southern parts of the
Göynük Canyon, on the way to Finike, which is
inhabited by L. luschani finikensis (Başoğlu &
Atatür, 1975), and detected two new and isolated
populations of salamanders belonging to the ge-
nus Lyciasalamandra.
The new salamander populations were dis-
covered during field trips conducted to SW Anato-
lia in the midst of the rainy season (April 2011).
The two new populations, differing from previ-
ously known ones and between each other, were
discovered at sites between Kemer and Kumlu-
cayazı, separated by the snow covered Tahtalı
Mountain topping at 2366 m a.s.l. The first new
salamander species inhabits the southern moun-
tainous parts of Tahtalı Mt. between Beycik and
Kumlucayazı, and across the elevations (slopes
and plains) of “Ulupınar” (425-782 m a.s.l.) consti-
tuting an inland locality. The second new species
was found in and around Kemer, including
Gedelme (an inland locality) between the Kemer
stream at the north and Tekirova at the south, and
within the coastal strip (altitudes 87-646 m a.s.l.).
At that time, we thought that the population
around Ulupınar was closely related to the L.
luschani (Steindachner 1891) group as is shown by
its light colouration on the head, especially on the
upper eyelids and parotoid glands, whereas the
Kemer population was presumed to associate to
Bille’s salamander [L. billae (Franzen & Klewen,
1987)] due to its proximity to that species and its
rather dark coloured head. In the same rainy sea-
son, we also scanned for salamanders the area be-
tween the Göynük stream, the southernmost part
of the known distribution range of L. billae, and
Kemer stream, including Değirmendere. Although
we made some repeated trips to this area, we were
unable to find any additional Lycian salamanders.
Apparently there is a gap between the distribution
areas of L. billae and the new populations.
B. Göçmen & B. Akman
182
As a result of our survey, we concluded that
the new Lycian salamander populations repre-
sents two new species.
Material and Methods
Material examined of the new populations is deposited at
ZMHRU (The Zoology Museum of Harran University,
Şanlıurfa, Turkey) (Table 1 & 2). The comparative mate-
rial for the other taxa equals that in a previous paper
(Göçmen et al. 2011), therefore it will not be listed.
The localities where the specimens were collected
and the distribution areas of the known neighbouring Ly-
cian salamander taxa are shown on the map (Fig. 1). The
geographical coordinates of the sampled specimens were
computed with a Magellan model XL GPS (Table 1 & 2).
The specimens were kept alive for 3-30 days in terraria for
colouration analyses and photography. Some adult
specimens (at least one pair) from each population or
taxon were used to facilitate interpopulation comparisons
regarding blood-serum proteins, observed by using, the
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and densi-
tometric analyses. Within three days of collection, blood
samples were taken from specimen in the laboratory after
anaesthetizing them with ether, through ventral abdomi-
nal vein puncture using heparinized hematocrit capillar-
ies.
The separations of blood-serum proteins followed
the polyacrylamid “disc” electrophoresis method of Davis
(1964), slightly modified by Özeti & Atatür (1979). Finally
all specimens were etherized, then injected with 96%
ethanol and stored in glass jars with 70% ethanol
(Göçmen et al. 2007) to facilitate future DNA studies.
We tested for sexual dimorphism in each sample, al-
though some of characteritics is well known for all Lyci-
asalamandra taxa (swollen cloacal region and hedonic pro-
tuberance above the tail base in males). For mensural
(“metric”) characters we used only the adults, to avoid
the effects of allometry.
Measurements of body proportions and their ratios
follow previously published methods on salamanders
(e.g., Başoğlu & Atatür 1974, Öz & Arıkan 1990, Mutz &
Steinfartz 1995, Öz et al. 2004, Çiçek et al. 2010). They are
Table 1. Geographic and some climatic information of the localities of L. arikani n.sp., as well as their museum num-
bers of the specimens. The numbers in brackets correspond to the localities shown in Fig. 1b.
Museum num-
bers (ZMHRU) Localities Altitude
(m)
Latitude
(DMS)
Longitude
(DMS)
Collection date, number of
specimens
Temp.
(°C)
2011/137 Erentepe village [1] 609 36° 25' 24" N
30° 23' 10" E
23.04.2011
3 specimens (2♀♀, 1 juv.) 17
2011/130 İncircik village [2] 620 36° 26' 37" N
30° 22' 05" E
23.04.2011
2 specimens (1, 1) 19
2011/131 Ovacık plataeu [3] 782 36° 26' 32" N
30° 24' 23" E
23.04.2011
6 specimens (4♀♀, 2 juv.) 17
2011/122 Erentepe Mountain [4] 610 36° 24' 43" N
30° 25' 08" E
03.04.2011
15 specimens (3♂♂, 7♀♀, 5 juv.) 16
2011/120 Ulupınar [5] 425 36° 26' 01" N
30° 25' 40" E
03.04.2011
4 specimens (4♀♀) 16
2011/126 Dağdibi Mevki [6] 560 36° 28' 33" N
30° 25' 02" E
16.04.2011
7 specimens (1, 4♀♀, 2 juv.) 15
2011/132 Başören village [7] 748 36° 29' 52" N
30° 25' 52" E
24.04.2011
4 specimens (1, 3♀♀) 18
Table 2. Geographic and some climatic information of the localities of L. yehudahi n.sp, as well as their museum num-
bers of the specimens. The numbers in brackets correspond to the localities shown in Fig. 1b.
Museum num-
bers (ZMHRU) Localities Altitude
(m)
Latitude
(DMS)
Longitude
(DMS)
Collection date, number of
specimens
Temp.
(°C)
2011/133 Tekirova [8] 99 36° 30' 34" N 30° 30' 04" E 24.04.2011
2 specimens (1, 1) 18
2011/134 Tahtalı Mt. Teleferic
road 4th Km [9] 238 36° 32' 26" N 30° 31' 38" E 24.04.2011
7 specimens (1, 4♀♀, 2 juv.) 18
2011/135 Tahtalı Mt. Teleferic
road 8th Km [10] 646 36° 32’ 22” N
30° 29’ 09” E 24.04.2011
3 specimens (3♀♀) 18
2011/124 Servelçukuru [11] 87 36° 34' 94" N 30° 31' 07" E 04.04.2011
2 specimens (1, 1) 16
2011/125 Kuzdere [12] 100 36° 35' 28" N 30° 30' 34" E 04.04.2011
7 specimens (2♂♂, 3♀♀, 2 juv.) 16
2011/123 Gedelme [13] 196 36° 36' 00" N 30° 29' 11" E 04.04.2011
6 specimens (3♂♂, 3♀♀) 16
Two new Lycian salamanders
183
as follows: Total Body Length –the length of the whole
body including the tail (TBL), Rostrum-Anus Length –
length from the snout to the posterior end of the cloacal
opening (RA), Length of Trunk –length from gular fold to
the anterior edge of cloacal opening (LT), Tail Length
(TL), Nostril-Eye Distance (NED), Distance Between Nos-
trils (DBN), Eye Diameter (ED), Head Length –distance
from the snout to the gular fold (HL), Head Width (HW),
Parotoid Length (PL), Parotoid Width (PW), Fore Limb
Length (FLL), Hind Limb Length (HLL), Distance be-
tween Fore- and Hind Limbs (DFHL), ratios of HW/HL,
TL/TBL, PW/PL, NED/HL. Metric characters were
measured with Mitutuyo digital calipers of 0.02 mm sen-
sitivity, except RA, TL and TBL, which were measured
with a millimetric ruler. Summarized statistics of the met-
ric values of the populations and inter-population (taxa)
comparison analyses were conducted with “SPSS 15.0 for
Windows”. In comparing the metric characters, Student’s
T-test were used. Furthermore, to control the test results
of raw data, data on raw metric characters were again ex-
posed to Student’s T-test, taking index values of PERCRA
(percents of rostrum-anus length; [each metric character/
RA] × 100), according to Werner (1971). So, the evalua-
tions on similarities or differences between the popula-
tions/taxa were strengthened. The evaluations of all sta-
tistical analyses were based on the statistical significance
level of “P0.05”.
Results and Discussion
1) Lyciasalamandra arikani n. sp.
(Figs. 1-5, Table 1 & 3)
Differential Diagnosis: This is a species of Lyci-
asalamandra distinguished by colouration. The
ground colour of the dorsum in both sexes is
honey yellowish, with yellowish-whitish green
upper eyelids and yellowish white flecks on the
flanks, not forming a distinct line. The ground col-
our of the parotoid glands and the front side of the
eyes, around the snout is typically lighter and un-
spotted than the other parts of the dorsum, being
more orange in colour. Over the ground colour of
dorsum, scattered and indistinct, especially in
adults, small whitish spots are present. The juve-
niles are a bit darker.
In the light parotoid glands and upper eyelids,
the new species resembles more to the L. luschani
subspecies [L .l. luschani (Steindachner 1891), L. l.
basoglui (Baran & Atatür 1980) & L. l. finikensis (Ba-
şoğlu & Atatür 1975)], but it differs by its honey
yellowish ground colour, and its lack of dorsal
Figure 1. Maps showing (a) the distributio
n
of the known nei
g
hbourin
g
taxa based on
the data of the recent comprehensive stud-
ies and our collections; (b) the localities
where the specimens were collected of the
new populations. The numbers correspond
to the ones in the material list (Table 1 & 2).
The watermarked areas exhibit the distri-
bution of the two new species superim-
posed on a Goo
g
le topo
g
raphic map. White
filled circles (L. arikani n.sp.) and trian
g
les
(L. yehudahi n.sp.) indicate the exact places
of the new species.
B. Göçmen & B. Akman
184
Figure 2. Lyciaslamandra arikani n. sp. (a) Typical adult female (Holotype, ZMHRU 2011/124:4);
(b) Adult male showing a dark colouration; (c) Semiadult female; (d) Semiadult male; (e) Typi-
cal juvenile; (f) Juveniles showing some colour variations.
dark blotches. Also the upper eyelids in the new
species are yellowish-whitish green, not pure
whitish. It also differs from most other known Ly-
cian salamanders [viz. helverseni (Pieper, 1963),
fazilae (Başoğlu & Atatür, 1974), antalyana (Başoğlu
& Baran, 1976, billae (Franzen & Klewen, 1987),
flavimembris (Mutz & Steinfartz, 1995) and irfani
Göçmen Arıkan & Yalçınkaya, 2011], in lacking
yellow or red flecks on the dorsum. Like all other
known taxa mentioned above, the new species is
also small in size compared with atifi, which has
an almost uniform dark dorsum and is evidently
the largest taxon described up to now, reaching a
total length of over 170 mm. It is also different
from all other neighbouring taxa (L. irfani, L. billae,
L. luschani) in having no complete lateral line on
its flanks, similar to L. flavimembris, which how-
ever, has a dark brown dorsum with very few,
small silvery yellowish blotches.
The new species differs from L. irfani and L.
billae in having no whitish flecks or spots on their
dorsal background colour in adults. Whitish flecks
are seen only in young and juvenile specimens
and not ordered regularly, forming two light dor-
solateral bands as is in L. billae, which has salmon
to black ground colour on the dorsum. Also the
dorsum colour of L. irfani is aubergine reddish
brown, whereas in L. arikani n.sp. it is honey yel-
lowish, although it can be a bit dark (brownish) in
both young and juvenile individuals. Beside these
differences, L. arikani n.sp. is also distinctly differ-
ent from both previously known neighbouring
species (L. irfani and L. billae) and also the next de-
scribed new species, in having no dark (blackish)
face and upper eyelids.
Holotype and Terra Typica. (Fig. 2a) Adult
female. ZMHRU 2011/122:4. the eastern slope of
Tahtalı Mt., 4th Km Kumluca, Antalya – Turkey.
610 m. a.s.l.
Derivatio nominis. The name of the newly de-
scribed species here is derived from the surname
of the Turkish herpetologist Hüseyin ARIKAN,
who made valuable contributions to the knowl-
edge of the herpetofauna of Turkey.
Description of the holotype. Its body form is
like all other species of Lyciasalamandra. Rostrum-
anus length (RA) and tail length (TL) are 74.00 and
56.00 mm, respectively. Head flat, longer than
Two new Lycian salamanders
185
broad (HW/HL 0.66). Snout more or less rounded.
Parotoid glands long and narrow (PW/PL 0.36),
with a slight inner curvature towards the anterior
end which is narrower than the posterior part. Gu-
lar fold distinctly visible. The cloacal region shows
a very slight swelling.
Living specimen show honey yellowish
ground colour of dorsum including head, tail and
extremities, except upper eyelids. On this ground
colour there are numerous tiny, indistinct, irregu-
larly scattered brownish dots that are visible with
a magnifying glass. The upper eyelids are yellow-
ish white/green with some tiny, indistinct dark
(brownish or blackish) dots; and the front side of
the eyes, around the snout and parotoid glands is
lighter than the other parts of dorsum with some
orange tinge. The openings of the dorsal (verte-
bral), caudal and parotoid glands are visible as
black dots.
The lower parts of the body is pale yellowish,
especially on the ventral and lateral sides of the
legs and the tail including the cloacal region. The
throat is somewhat translucent without any spots,
showing the internal organs. Towards the sides,
there are many irregularly ordered, and some-
times joining with each other, white flecks dotted
with the ground colour. These flecks do not form a
continuous white lateral stripe, extending anteri-
orly to below the eyes.
The other measurements of the holotype are
(in mm): total body length (TBL) 130.00; length of
trunk (LT) 49.87; head length (HL) 16.88; head
width (HW) 11.13; nostril-eye distance (NED) 3.27;
the distance between nostrils (DBN) 4.94; eye di-
ameter (ED) 4.57; parotoid length (PL) 8.31; paro-
toid width (PW) 3.02; forelimb length (FLL) 22.54;
hind limb length (HLL) 27.29; distance between
fore- and hind limbs (DFHL) 41.75.
Paratypes and Variations. Specimens collected
from the area in the southern mountainous parts
of Tahtalı Mt. between Beycik and Kumlucayazı
(except the holotype) (N=40) were accepted as
paratypes (Fig. 2b, c, d, e & f) (Table 1).
Variations observed in some mensural charac-
ters and ratios including those of holotype were
summarized separately for adults and juveniles in
Tables 3. Sexual dimorphism was observed within
the population (P0.05) regarding the head length
(HL), the parotoid length (PL) and the parotoid
width (PW) in both raw data and PERCRA values.
In addition, the projection at the base of the tail in
six male specimens was ranging between 1.90 and
2.49 mm with an average of 2.15. Both females
and juveniles lack any protuberance at their tail
bases and have smooth or less swollen cloacal re-
gions.
In colour pattern, the description given for the
holotype would largely apply to the other adult
females, including many females observed in the
field but not collected. Adult males are a little
darker than the females as shown in Fig. 2b. Semi-
adults of both sexes exhibit a more brownish dor-
sum background colour with irregularly scattered
whitish flecks (Fig. 2 c & d), which is absent in
adults. As an important point, the semi-adult fe-
males from all locations (Fig. 2c) and also adults
around the Başören village (Beycik) show some
blackish blotches near the flanks, especially on the
anterior half of the trunk, indicating some affini-
ties in pattern to the neighbouring new taxon de-
scribed below (Fig. 3).
Regarding the juveniles, although all have
whitish flecks and dots on their dorsum similar to
those of semi-adults and bulky bodies as is in fe-
males, we may note first that they shows consid-
erable variations in colour of the dorsal back-
ground (Fig. 2 e & f). Some juveniles, especially
those observed around the eastern slope of Er-
entepe Mt. (from locations labeled as 4, 5, 6 in Fig.
1b) have dorsal coloration quite similar to that of
the holotype, i.e. they have honey yellowish dor-
sum colour. However, the other juveniles ob-
served from the remaining locations have darker
ground colour, being more brownish and promi-
nent white flecks and spots on their dorsum (Fig.
2e). As an extreme case, in one juvenile with dark
dorsal pattern from Ovacık plateau, the posterior
third of the parotoid glands is distinctly yellow
coloured (Fig. 2e, upper one) in contrast with the
common parotoid gland colouration that is lighter
than the other parts of dorsum with some orange
tinge. Along with the only observed specimens in
the field; apparently the pattern, especially that
regarding the presence or absence of the whitish
flecks and spots as well as the dorsal background
colour, can change with growth depending on age
and sex, respectively.
Habitat and Range. The specimens were col-
lected from under variably sized stones of the
more humid and rocky slopes covered with Pinus
brutia (Brutian pine), Quercus ilex (Holly oak), Ar-
buthus andrachne (Greek strawberry trees) and
Mediterranean frigana-garrique elements, such as
Phyllaria latifolia, Quercus cocciferae, Aristolochia
stenosiphon, Cistus salviifolius (Sage Leaf Rock
Rose), Cytinus hypocistis ssp. clusii (Red Cytinus),
B. Göçmen & B. Akman
186
Table 3. Some mensural characters (in mm) and ratios of the Lyciasalamandra arikani n.sp. speci-
mens. 1: Values in raw data; 2: Values in PERCRA; N: number of specimens; SD: Standard de-
viation; the abbreviations of characters were given in Material and Methods.
Adults Juveniles
N Mean
Range SD N
Mean
Range SD
1 31 121,84
94,00-146,00 13,12
10
85,20 82,00-91,00 3,26
TBL 2 31 174,23
156,25-187,27
5,75 10
170,45
167,35-173,47
2,73
RA 1 31 69,94 55,00-82,00 7,21 10
50,00 48,00-54,00 2,16
1 31 47,20 36,67-59,58 4,97 10
33,03 30,18-37,46 2,15
LT 2 31 67,56 61,84-80,51 3,52 10
66,05 61,59-69,37 2,78
1 31 51,90 36,00-64,00 6,54 10
35,20 33,00-37,00 1,48
TL 2 31 74,23 56,25-87,27 5,75 10
70,45 67,35-73,47 2,73
1 31 2,68 2,10-3,71 0,33 10
2,12 1,92-2,42 0,16
NED 2 31 3,84 3,29-4,76 0,35 10
4,25 3,56-4,94 0,42
1 31 4,75 3,81-5,58 0,48 10
3,56 3,20-3,95 0,24
DBN 2 31 6,80 6,16-7,72 0,40 10
7,12 6,56-7,86 0,42
1 31 4,09 3,37-5,15 0,43 10
3,34 3,11-3,52 0,14
ED 2 31 5,87 5,00-7,45 0,52 10
6,69 6,13-7,04 0,34
1 31 16,30 13,75-18,69 1,31 10
13,00 12,33-13,47 0,41
HL 2 31 23,41 21,46-28,16 1,46 10
26,01 24,91-27,04 0,79
1 31 10,84 8,41-12,53 0,97 10
8,44 7,80-9,77 0,55
HW 2 31 15,55 13,62-17,22 0,89 10
16,87 15,63-18,09 0,77
1 31 7,69 5,63-9,70 0,95 10
5,97 5,29-6,29 0,31
PL 2 31 11,00 9,13-12,59 0,78 10
11,95 10,80-12,84 0,69
1 31 2,40 1,69-3,27 0,46 10
2,13 1,70-2,47 0,25
PW 2 31 3,46 2,33-4,71 0,69 10
4,25 3,54-5,04 0,47
1 31 21,05 16,92-23,90 1,89 10
15,76 14,23-17,64 0,93
FL 2 31 30,18 26,23-34,64 1,58 10
31,53 29,04-34,81 1,56
1 31 25,20 20,66-29,45 2,33 10
18,90 17,89-20,16 0,70
HLL 2 31 36,12 33,51-40,71 1,77 10
37,82 36,51-39,10 0,87
1 31 38,68 30,09-44,83 4,05 10
27,26 25,09-30,46 1,79
DFHL 2 31 55,35 49,23-59,96 2,39 10
54,51 51,20-58,33 2,54
HW/HL 1 31 0,67 0,58-0,71 0,03 10
0,65 0,59-0,73 0,04
TL/TBL 1 31 0,43 0,36-0,47 0,02 10
0,41 0,40-0,42 0,01
PW/PL 1 31 0,31 0,23-0,42 0,06 10
0,36 0,30-0,42 0,03
NED/HL 1 31 0,16 0,14-0,21 0,02 10
0,16 0,14-0,19 0,02
Figure 3. Some pattern variations of Lyciaslamandra arikani n. sp. found around Başören village (Beycik).
(a) Adult female; (b) Semi-adult male (see the text for details).
Fritillaria acmopetala, Orchis anatolica, Ophrys lycien-
sis, Ophrys phryganae, Cyclamen sp., Salvia viridis,
Muscari weissii and Onopordon sp. A typical habitat
is shown in Fig. 4. All the specimens were de-
tected in the mountainous parts between Beycik
and Kumlucayazı, above the altitudes (slopes and
Two new Lycian salamanders
187
plains) of “Ulupınar”, at altitudes between 425
and 782 m a.s.l..
Figure 4. A typical habitat of Lyciasalamandra arikani n.
sp. where the pine and holly oak trees and some
Mediterranean frigana-garrique elements are ob-
served abundantly (from Ovacik plateau).
Figure 5. Defensive behaviour of a semi-adult male
of Lyciasalamandra arikani n.sp. from Ovacık plateau.
It seems that the range of L. arikani n. sp. is strictly
restricted to an area of 25-30 km2 around Erentepe
Mt.. According to the criteria of IUCN Red list
Annex-2 (IUCN 2001) L. arikani n.sp. can be de-
fined as “critically endangered” since the esti-
mated area of occupancy is less than 100 km2
(B1a). The Erentepe Mt. is not a Special Protected
Area, and open to forestry and urbanization activi-
ties especially around Ovacık plateau and Dağdibi
mevkii. This situation indicates that the species
needs strict protection measures. All specimens
were seen both in the open and under stones dur-
ing April when the air temperatures varied be-
tween 15 and 19 oC at around 11 a.m. in different
localities (Table 1). During our field work we also
observed some individuals of other herptile spe-
cies: Pseudoepidelea variabilis, Ablepharus budaki ana-
tolicus, Anatololacerta oertzeni ibrahimi, Blanus
strauchi, Eirenis modestus, Platyceps collaris and Ty-
phlops vermicularis. During our studies on Ovacık
plateau we encountered a semi-adult male sala-
mander displaying some kind of defensive behav-
iour (Fig. 5): the body in arched posture by stand-
ing high on its legs without any audible distress
call.
2) Lyciasalamandra yehudahi n. sp.
(Figs. 1, 6-7 & 8F, Table 2, 4 &5)
Differential Diagnosis: A species of Lyciasalaman-
dra (Fig. 6) distinguished by the following charac-
ters: The ground colour of the dorsum of both
sexes and of juveniles (being darker) is brown
with irregularly scattered yellowish white flecks
or spots of varying sizes, having tiny brown dots
inside the light flecks. Typically, especially promi-
nent in adults, the colouration of the dorsal side of
the anterior part of the body, including the head,
is more blackish than the other parts. The ground
colour of the upper eyelids is black surrounding a
narrow whitish zone at free margins and the front
side of the eyes, around the snout is typically
darker than the other parts of dorsum, with black-
ish tinge. The parotoid glands in both adults and
juveniles are a little lighter. In some juveniles, the
parotoid glands are lighter orange, especially ob-
vious in the posterior half. The sides of the head,
tail, legs and the upper parts of the posterior body
flanks are light orange. In the flanks, there is an
incomplete yellowish-whitish line, consisting of ir-
regularly scattered yellowish to whitish flecks
joining with each others. The venter is somewhat
translucent and flesh coloured without any spots,
showing the internal organs (Fig. 6e).
The new species differs from all L. luschani
subspecies (L.l. luschani, L. l. basoglui & L. l. finiken-
sis), L. arikani n.sp and L. antalyana in having al-
most completely black upper eyelids in addition to
the differences in dorsum background colours and
patterns (Fig. 6). In all L. luschani subspecies and
also the neighbouring L. arikani n.sp. the upper
eyelids are whitish or yellowish white, respec-
tively, and in L. antalyana they are yellow coloured
with a thin black stripe. It is unlike L. fazilae, in
which the ground colour is typically red, bearing
B. Göçmen & B. Akman
188
Figure 6. Lyciaslamandra yehudahi n. sp. (a) Adult male (Holotype, ZMHRU 2011/134:5);
(b) Adult female; (c) typical juvenile; (d) juvenile showing yellowish orange colouration on
the posterior third of parotids and yellowish orange blotches on dorsum; (e) ventral as-
pect showing the colouration of the venter; (f) A pair (male in front side) displaying de-
fensive behaviours in body-arched posture.
brown to black blotches, that can flow together
near the white lateral line. L. yehudahi n.sp. is dis-
tinguished from both L. helverseni of Carpatos is-
land and L. flavimembris of Marmaris which, on a
dark brown color, have numerous yellowish
spots mainly concentrated middorsally (in L.
helverseni) or very few, small silvery-white and
yellow spots (in L. flavimembris). In L. yehudahi n.
sp. these yellowish flecks or dots do not show any
order, as they are irregularly scattered. The new
species is neither like L. atifi nor L. billae. The dor-
sum colour of L. atifi is black or blackish brown
having a violent tinge, sometimes uniformly black
and sometimes with tiny white spots. Further-
more, it is also distinctly larger than any other
species described up to now, reaching a total
length of over 170 mm. L. billae has some white
spots distributed across the back and ordered
regularly, forming two light dorsolateral bands;
whereas in the new species the yellowish white
spots or flecks are irregularly scattered on the dor-
sum. Moreover, the ground colour of the dorsum
in L. billae can vary from salmon to black in con-
trast to the almost stable brown ground colour of
L. yehudahi n.sp. It is also different from both, L.
billae and L. irfani, in having incomplete, i.e. frag-
mented, lateral lines on the flanks. Both L. billae
and L. irfani typically have almost complete lateral
line on their flanks, but resemble L. yehudahi by
having blackish faces and blackish upper eyelids.
Moreover, the colour of the flecks forming the lat-
eral line is more yellowish in L. yehudahi n. sp. in-
stead of the whitish flecks of both L. billae and L.
irfani.
Holotype and Terra Typica. (Fig. 6a & e) Adult
male. ZMHRU 2011/134:5. The eastern slope of
Tahtalı Mt., Teleferic road 4th km, Kemer, Antalya
– Turkey. 238 m. a.s.l.
Derivatio nominis. The name of the species is
derived from the first name of the senior author’s
second herpetological father and also close friend
Yehudah Leopold WERNER (Department of Ecol-
ogy, Evolution and Behavior, The Hebrew Univer-
sity of Jerusalem, Israel), who made valuable con-
tributions to the knowledge of the herpetology of
the Middle East.
Two new Lycian salamanders
189
Description of the holotype. The general body
form resembles that of all other species of Lyci-
asalamandra. Rostrum-anus length (RA) and tail
length (TL) are 66.00 and 50.00 mm, respectively.
Head flat, longer than broad (HW/HL 0.61). Snout
more or less rounded. Parotoid glands long and
narrow (PW/PL 0.32), with a slight inner curva-
ture towards the anterior end which is narrower
than the posterior part. Gular fold distinct. The
protuberance above the base of the tail is 1.59 mm
and towards the free end it is curved forwards.
The cloacal region is swollen.
In living specimen, the ground colour of dor-
sum including head and tail, except upper eyelids
and extremities, is brown. Over this colouration,
there are numerous yellowish white flecks or spots
of varying sizes, having many brown dots that are
visible with a magnifying glass. The upper eyelids
are almost black with some tiny, indistinct whitish
dots forming a narrow whitish zone at the margin
of the eyelids. The front side of the eyes, around
the snout and the anterior half of trunk is darker
than the other parts of the dorsum with blackish
tinge. The extremities and the parotoid glands a
bit lighter (light orange). The extremities also
sparsely covered with smaller yellowish white
spots similarly to the dorsal ones. The openings of
the dorsal, caudal and parotoid glands are visible
as black dots.
The lower parts of the body, including ex-
tremities, is flesh coloured. This colouration
grades into light orange towards the lateral sides
of the legs, the tail and cloacal region. The throat is
somewhat translucent without bearing any spots,
showing the internal organs. Towards the sides,
the colour changes to light orange with yellowish
white flecks similar in form to those of the dorsum
and forming an incomplete, i.e. fragmented, yel-
lowish white lateral stripe that separates the dor-
sal and the ventral sides, extending anteriorly to
under the eyes.
The other measurements of the holotype are
(in mm): total body length (TBL) 116.00; length of
trunk (LT) 41.98; head length (HL)15.62; head
width (HW)9.56; nostril-eye distance (NED) 2.68;
the distance between nostrils (DBN) 4.14; eye di-
ameter (ED) 3.88; parotoid length (PL) 7.28; paro-
toid width (PW) 2.31; forelimb length (FLL) 20.50;
hind limb length (HLL) 24.56; distance between
fore- and hind-limbs (DFHL) 35.25.
Paratypes and Variations. All the specimens
investigated from the eastern slope of Tahtalı Mt.
around Kemer and Gedelme (as an inland locality)
which is situated in Kemer Canyon (except the
holotype) (N=26) were accepted as paratypes (Fig.
6b-e) (Table 2). Variations in some mensural char-
acters and ratios including those of holotype were
summarized separately for adults and juveniles in
Table 4. Based on the Student’s T-test results, there
is sexual dimorphism within the population
(P0.05) regarding the TBL, LT, HL, HW, PL, PW,
FLL, HLL and DFHL (Table 5). In that way, we
can say that males are smaller than the females
when we take into consideration the raw data of
the total body length (TBL) and the length of trunk
(LT). This situation is clearly seen in Fig. 6e. Simi-
lar differences can apply for the distance between
fore- and hind-limbs (DFHL), as well as the
lengths and widths of head and parotoid glands
(Table 5). In addition, the projection at the base of
the tail in the other seven male specimens ranges
between 1.64 and 2.04 mm with an average of 1.86
mm.
The colour pattern description given for the
holotype would largely apply also to all other
males and females, however the females can show
more yellowish colouration at the posterior parts
of the flanks since they have large yellow ovaria
and they can be seen through the skin (Fig. 6b &
e). They also have generally bulky bodies like ju-
veniles. Beyond this structural difference, juve-
niles have darker ground colour, being more
blackish on their dorsum than the adults (Fig. 6c).
In some juveniles from Gedelme (Fig. 6d) exists a
lighter dorsum colour similar to adults, although
some irregularly arranged yellowish orange
blotches near to vertebral zone can be seen on
their dorsum. Apparently the colour pattern, espe-
cially on the colouration of the dorsum, changes a
little during growth. Also both females and juve-
niles lack any prominent protuberance at their tail
bases and have smooth or less swollen cloacal re-
gions.
Habitat and Range. The specimens belonging
to L. yehudahi n.sp. were collected from under cal-
careous stones of the rocky areas covered with Pla-
tanus orientalis (Oriental plane), Pinus brutia
(Brutian pine) and Arbuthus andrachne (Greek
strawberry trees) in rainy days of April. As sub-
forestal elements, we detected some shrubs (such
as Phillyrea latifolia and Quercus coccifera) and also
some herbs belonging to Cyclamen hederafolium,
Elytrigia divaricata, Euphorbia kotschyana, Bromus
tomentellus, Silene aegyptiaca and Orchis anatolica.
Some habitats are shown in Fig. 7.
Th e air temperatures were measured between
B. Göçmen & B. Akman
190
Table 4. Some mensural characters (in mm) and ratios of the Lyciasalamandra yehudahi n.sp.
specimens. 1: Values in raw data; 2: Values in PERCRA; N: number of specimens; SD: Standard
deviation; the other abbreviations of characters were given in Material and Methods.
Adults Juveniles
N Mean
Range SD N
Mean
Range SD
1 23 123,74
111,00-137,00
6,75
4 81,50 77,00-88,00 4,80
TBL 2 23 176,62
170,27-182,81
2,82
4 174,53
167,39-183,72
6,82
RA 1 23 70,09 63,00-78,00 4,16
4 46,75 43,00-51,00 3,30
1 23 46,01 41,58-51,04 2,82
4 30,74 28,71-32,34 1,65
LT 2 23 65,70 61,05-70,98 2,71
4 65,83 63,41-69,11 2,62
1 23 53,65 47,00-59,00 2,95
4 34,75 31,00-37,00 2,63
TL 2 23 76,62 70,27-82,81 2,82
4 74,53 67,39-83,72 6,82
1 23 2,79 2,22-3,43 0,30
4 1,99 1,72-2,24 0,22
NED 2 23 3,98 3,29-4,91 0,41
4 4,24 4,00-4,39 0,19
1 23 4,77 4,14-5,36 0,34
4 3,33 3,05-3,76 0,31
DBN 2 23 6,80 6,09-7,60 0,37
4 7,17 6,53-8,74 1,05
1 23 4,27 3,78-4,91 0,29
4 3,26 3,00-3,50 0,21
ED 2 23 6,10 5,48-6,98 0,42
4 7,01 6,38-7,65 0,72
1 23 16,83 15,09-18,70 1,04
4 12,61 11,71-13,18 0,64
HL 2 23 24,03 22,07-25,78 1,01
4 27,00 25,84-28,13 0,95
1 23 10,89 9,52-12,49 0,73
4 7,78 7,55-8,22 0,30
HW 2 23 15,55 13,90-16,88 0,75
4 16,72 14,80-18,02 1,41
1 23 8,26 6,22-9,22 0,75
4 5,76 4,80-6,17 0,65
PL 2 23 11,78 9,72-13,19 0,90
4 12,31 11,16-13,13 0,95
1 23 2,76 1,95-3,88 0,49
4 2,04 1,40-2,44 0,49
PW 2 23 3,92 2,96-5,11 0,61
4 4,33 3,26-5,19 0,83
1 23 20,92 17,98-23,88 1,46
4 15,37 14,54-16,15 0,66
FL 2 23 29,87 26,74-32,56 1,45
4 32,99 30,25-35,67 2,79
1 23 24,62 22,15-26,68 1,26
4 17,34 15,98-19,02 1,31
HLL 2 23 35,17 31,43-38,78 1,60
4 37,12 34,00-38,84 2,18
1 23 37,86 34,01-42,10 2,55
4 24,62 22,42-25,80 1,55
DFHL 2 23 54,04 49,29-58,51 2,41
4 52,71 50,59-55,70 2,15
HW/HL 1 23 0,65 0,60-0,70 0,03
4 0,62 0,57-0,66 0,04
TL/TBL 1 23 0,43 0,41-0,45 0,01
4 0,43 0,40-0,46 0,02
PW/PL 1 23 0,33 0,25-0,43 0,05
4 0,35 0,29-0,40 0,05
NED/HL 1 23 0,17 0,13-0,20 0,02
4 0,16 0,15-0,17 0,01
16 and 18 oC at around 11 a.m. during the two
trips (Table 2). Sympatric herptiles found were
Pseudoepidelea viridis, Ablepharus budaki anatolicus,
Anatololacerta oertzeni ibrahimi, Blanus strauchi and
Pelophylax bedriagae. In the vicinity of the teleferic
(Tahtalı Mt.) we observed a pair displaying similar
defensive posture of the L. arikani n.sp. when ma-
nipulated (Fig.6f).
Although we scanned the nearby areas sur-
rounding Kemer (the area between the Göynük
stream and Kemer stream) and also the area be-
tween Tekirova and Beycik, as well as the western
slopes of the Tahtalı Mt.; we found no other terres-
trial salamander. It seems that the range of distri-
bution of L. yehudahi is restricted to the area
around the eastern parts of Tahtalı Mt., including
Gedelme as an inland locality, i.e. the northwest-
ern slopes of Tahtalı Mt., totaling an area of 35-40
km2 at altitudes between 87 m (around the Servel
Çukuru) to 646 m a.s.l. (around the Teleferic sta-
tion). According to the criteria of IUCN Red list
Annex-2 (IUCN 2001) L. yehudahi n. sp. can be de-
fined as “critically endangered” since the esti-
mated area of occupancy is less than 100 km2
(B1a). The distribution area is a Special Protected
Area opened to tourism by its historical Lycian
roads that experience traffics by many visitors.
Also the recent increase in unplanned urbaniza-
tion that we observed, especially around Servel
Çukuru and Kuzdere, gradually destroys the habi-
tats of the new species. This indicates that the spe-
cies needs additional protection measures. We
Two new Lycian salamanders
191
Table 5. Summarized statistics for males and females of Lyciasalamandra yehudahi n. sp. on various mensural characters
(in mm) and ratios, together with obtained P values of these characters according to Student’s T-test. The P values of
characters which exhibit sexual dimorphism (P0.05) are in bold. 1: Values in raw data; 2: Values in PERCRA; N:
number of specimens; SD: Standard deviation; the other abbreviations of characters were given in Material and
Method.
Males T-test
Females
N Mean Range SD SE P N Mean Range SD SE
1 8 119,63 111,00-130,00 6,52 2,306
0,040 15 125,93 117,00-137,00 5,96 1,538
TBL 2 8 176,62 170,27-181,82 3,75 1,325
0,998 15 176,62 174,29-182,81 2,34 0,604
RA 1 8 67,75 63,00-74,00 3,81 1,346
0,050 15 71,33 64,00-78,00 3,89 1,003
1 8 43,98 41,58-46,91 1,98 0,702
0,005 15 47,10 43,18-51,04 2,63 0,680
LT 2 8 65,01 61,05-70,98 3,30 1,167
0,445 15 66,06 62,24-69,27 2,38 0,614
1 8 51,88 47,00-58,00 3,36 1,187
0,065 15 54,60 52,00-59,00 2,29 0,592
TL 2 8 76,62 70,27-81,82 3,75 1,325
0,998 15 76,62 74,29-82,81 2,34 0,604
1 8 2,64 2,22-2,92 0,23 0,080
0,068 15 2,86 2,30-3,43 0,32 0,081
NED 2 8 3,90 3,47-4,24 0,27 0,096
0,443 15 4,02 3,29-4,91 0,47 0,120
1 8 4,59 4,14-5,02 0,30 0,106
0,057 15 4,86 4,26-5,36 0,32 0,083
DBN 2 8 6,77 6,27-7,27 0,31 0,109
0,732 15 6,82 6,09-7,60 0,41 0,106
1 8 4,27 3,88-4,91 0,32 0,113
0,996 15 4,27 3,78-4,84 0,28 0,072
ED 2 8 6,30 5,88-6,84 0,33 0,118
0,071 15 5,99 5,48-6,98 0,42 0,110
1 8 15,67 15,09-16,33 0,45 0,159
0,000 15 17,45 16,46-18,70 0,65 0,167
HL 2 8 23,16 22,07-23,98 0,68 0,241
0,001 15 24,49 23,13-25,78 0,85 0,219
1 8 10,25 9,52-10,94 0,53 0,186
0,001 15 11,23 10,20-12,49 0,59 0,151
HW 2 8 15,15 14,42-16,14 0,61 0,217
0,048 15 15,76 13,90-16,88 0,74 0,192
1 8 7,50 6,22-8,03 0,58 0,205
0,000 15 8,66 7,69-9,22 0,45 0,117
PL 2 8 11,07 9,72-11,68 0,69 0,243
0,003 15 12,16 10,53-13,19 0,77 0,200
1 8 2,39 1,95-2,91 0,30 0,105
0,002 15 2,95 2,04-3,88 0,46 0,118
PW 2 8 3,52 3,05-4,28 0,42 0,150
0,010 15 4,14 2,96-5,11 0,59 0,153
1 8 20,06 17,98-22,68 1,38 0,489
0,042 15 21,39 19,34-23,88 1,31 0,339
FLL 2 8 29,64 26,74-32,56 2,02 0,713
0,660 15 29,99 28,03-31,88 1,11 0,286
1 8 23,65 22,15-26,04 1,21 0,427
0,011 15 25,13 23,33-26,68 0,97 0,251
HLL 2 8 34,96 31,43-37,21 1,88 0,666
0,677 15 35,29 33,13-38,78 1,49 0,385
1 8 36,47 35,25-38,34 1,18 0,417
0,019 15 38,60 34,01-42,10 2,80 0,723
DFHL 2 8 53,93 50,84-58,51 2,53 0,895
0,874 15 54,10 49,29-56,89 2,43 0,626
HW/HL 1 8 0,65 0,61-0,69 0,03 0,009
0,392 15 0,64 0,60-0,70 0,03 0,008
TL/TBL 1 8 0,43 0,41-0,45 0,01 0,004
0,976 15 0,43 0,43-0,45 0,01 0,002
PW/PL 1 8 0,32 0,27-0,37 0,03 0,011
0,207 15 0,34 0,25-0,43 0,05 0,013
NED/HL 1 8 0,17 0,15-0,18 0,01 0,004
0,531 15 0,16 0,13-0,20 0,02 0,005
urge the Turkish ministries concerned with
natural conservation to take additional legal steps
towards the protection of the new species.
Relations
At first, the population around Erentepe Mt. (i. e.
L. arikani n.sp.) seems to be more closely related
with the L. luschani group since it has a light
colouration on the head (especially in upper eye-
lids and parotoid glands), whereas the Kemer
population appears more closely related to both
Bille’s salamander (L. billae) and Irfan’s salaman-
der (L. irfani), since their locations are very close to
its known distribution area and also because of its
similarly rather darkly coloured head. However,
both populations are clearly different from L. billae
by having more yellowish colouration, such as yel-
B. Göçmen & B. Akman
192
Figure 7. Some habitats of Lyciasalamandra yehudahin.
sp. a: general view (from the Servel Çukuru) where
some typical plant elements are observed abun-
dantly; b: a microhabitat –covered with mosses
(Brachythecium rutabulum) and Orchis anatolica- view
after rain where a male of L. yehudahi n. sp. is in
movement (from Gedelme)
lowish white flecks, spots, blotches on their dor-
sum and also yellowish incomplete lateral lines on
their flanks. They also show some affinity to L.
antalyana by having more yellowish pattern as we
noted in their differential diagnoses. The type lo-
cality of L. arikani n.sp. (i.e. Erentepe Mt., Kum-
luca) is situated almost in the middle between the
ranges of L. billae and L. luschani finikensis. Hence,
it is rather surprising that L. arikani n. sp. does not
show dark brown colouration on the dorsum, es-
pecially in adults. To account for this, we may
speculate that the ancestral colouration of L. ari-
kani n.sp. was brown, this colouration still visible
in semi-adults and also juveniles.
Regarding relationsips of the two new species
with other neighbouring Lycian salamander taxa,
we can state that the electrophoretic patterns (Fig.
8) of L. arikani n. sp. are clearly different from all
other previously known species. It has more pro-
tein fractions (a total of 12: 10 globulins, 1 postal-
bumin and 1 albumin). However, it resembles
more L. irfani by having a similar number of pro-
tein fractions (a total of 11: 9 globulins, 1 postal-
bumin and 1 albumin) and also similar corre-
sponding fractions between G4 and G8 than com-
parisons to any other taxon previously described.
The latter situation is also valid for L. billae, al-
though it has a reduced fraction numbers (a total
of 10: 8 globulins, 1 postalbumin and 1 albumin).
Regarding L. yehudahi n.sp., it is obvious that it re-
sembles more to L. billae by having the same num-
ber of protein fractions. However it is distinctly
different from the latter species in the correspon-
dence of fractions especially in the gaps of G1-G4
and G5-G7. It may also note that the highest peak
is on the G4 in the first gap (G1-G4), whereas in L.
billae it is on G2. Similarly in the second gap (G5-
G7) the highest peak is located at G6 protein frac-
tion, whereas it is on the G5 fraction in L. billae.
Among the neighbouring Lycian salamander taxa
examined, it was found that the total number of
protein fractions was lowest in L. luschani finikensis
(a total of 9: 7 globulins, 2 albumins). This means
that the new taxa described here are more closely
related with the other taxa located actually in the
northern parts of Beydağları Mountain range, i. e.
L. billae, L. irfani and L. antalyana.
Of course, geographic gaps exist between
animal populations and does by itself not consti-
tute grounds for new species. Even some geo-
graphic variation based on morphology and ge-
netics is insufficient to determine whether two
populations belong to the same biological species
or not. However, the southern margin of Anatolia
and especially Beydağları mountain range has un-
dergone so many tectonic events and also climatic
fluctuations in the past during the early to late
Miocene (Weisrock et al. 2001, Veith et al. 2001,
Hinsbergen et al. 2010). An example of the speci-
ation around the northernmost parts of Beydağları
mountain range was shown between two ex-
tremely near Lyciasalamandra species (antalyana
Two new Lycian salamanders
193
Figure 8. Electrophoregrams representing the electrophoretical separations of blood-serum proteins in some
Lycian salamanders, together with their corresponding densitometric curves (OD: optical density, S: start -
the border between the stacking and separation gels- , G: globulin zone, PO: Postalbumin zone, A: albumin-
like proteins zone). All electophoregrams used here are selected from those of adult males.
and billae) based on molecular data (Weisrock et
al. 2001, 2006, Veith et al. 2001, 2008).
Hinsbergen et al. (2010) have implied that the
Beydağları mountain range underwent a 200 coun-
terclockwise rotation between 16 and 5Ma, i.e.
during the middle to late Miocene. When we take
into consideration the current distribution areas of
all Lyciasalamadra taxa, including the new ones, it
can be speculated that the rotation could have di-
vided a main ancestral population with canyons,
streams and climatic changes formed during that
time. The following isolations would have led to
the divergence of these closely related salaman-
ders. Our findings on the similarities in both elec-
B. Göçmen & B. Akman
194
trophoretic patterns and colouration which we
mentioned in the differential diagnoses support
this assumption. However, to obtain better idea on
their phylogenetic relations, more detailed mo-
lecular studies based on nuclear DNA should be
conducted, and mitochondrial DNA comparisons
could shed light on the divergence times.
Acknowledgements. We wish to thank Dr. Konrad
MEBERT (Switzerland) for his review of an earlier
version of the manuscript, and also Mr. Deniz
YALÇINKAYA (İzmir), Mrs. Catherine DIJON (Brussels)
and Mr. Ümit KAPLAN (Hatay) for their assistances
during our field trips.
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... The tail length (TL) was 50.14 mm in the female and 47.12 mm in the male. Head length was 15.84 m in the female while it was 15.56 Göçmen et al. (2013), while gray pentagons show the localities of L. b. yehudahi and lilac triangles points the localities of L. b. arıkani according to Akman & Göçmen (2012). mm in the male. ...
... The systematic evaluations reporting new species or subspecies of the genus Lyciasalamandra were performed in previous studies (Veith et al., 2001;Göçmen et al., 2011;Göçmen & Akman, 2012;Göçmen et al., 2013;Akman & Godmann, 2014;Yıldız & Akman, 2015;Godmann et al., 2016). Populations of the same taxon, which occur only a few kilometers apart, often show distinct color and pattern differences (Veith & Steinfartz, 2004). ...
... It was characterized by having a rather darkly colored head part and also an aubergine reddish-brown ground color on the dorsum with irregularly scattered white flecks. According to the coloration of the individuals, the new species, Lyciasalamandra arikani was described by Göçmen & Akman (2012) in Antalya province from the southern mountainous parts of Tahtalı Mountain between Beycik and Kumlucayazı, and across the elevations (slopes and plains) of Ulupınar. They also reported the second new species, Lyciasalamandra yehudahi according to some morphological features [e.g. the ground color of the dorsum of both sexes and of juveniles (being darker) is brown with irregularly scattered yellowish-white flecks or spots of varying sizes, having tiny brown dots inside the light flecks] around Kemer, including Gedelme (an inland locality) between the Kemer stream at the north and Tekirova at the south within the coastal strip. ...
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The Bille’s Lycian Salamander, Lyciasalamandra billae is an endemic salamander species of Turkey and it has a very narrow distribution area in the Antalya province of the country. A limited number of the reported populations of this critically endangered species are known. The present study aims to show that the distribution of the species extends towards the northeast of Antalya province. Two adult individuals (1 ♂ and 1 ♀) were caught from the Sarısu (Antalya, Turkey) population. We recorded a new locality of the species located about 11 km northeast of Gedeller village.
... There were six described species and nine undescribed taxa of Lyciasalamandra that were considered to occur in Turkey until 2011. Lyciasalamandra arikani Göçmen and Akman, 2012, L. irfani Göçmen, Arikan, and Yalçinkaya, 2011, and L. yehudahi Göçmen and Akman, 2012 were then proposed as full species for the Turkish herpetofauna (Göçmen et al., 2011;Göçmen and Akman, 2012). However, Veith et al. (2016) concluded that these three taxa were subspecies of Lyciasalamandra billae (Franzen and Klewen, 1987). ...
... There were six described species and nine undescribed taxa of Lyciasalamandra that were considered to occur in Turkey until 2011. Lyciasalamandra arikani Göçmen and Akman, 2012, L. irfani Göçmen, Arikan, and Yalçinkaya, 2011, and L. yehudahi Göçmen and Akman, 2012 were then proposed as full species for the Turkish herpetofauna (Göçmen et al., 2011;Göçmen and Akman, 2012). However, Veith et al. (2016) concluded that these three taxa were subspecies of Lyciasalamandra billae (Franzen and Klewen, 1987). ...
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Turkey is biogeographically diverse and consequently has a rich herpetofauna. As a result of active herpetological research, the number of species has steadily increased in recent times. I here present a new checklist of amphibian and reptile species distributed in Turkey, revising the nomenclature to reflect the latest knowledge. In addition, information about the systematics of many species is also given. In total 35 (19.4%) amphibian and 145 (80.6%) reptile species comprise the Turkish herpetofauna. Among amphibians, 16 (45.7%) anurans and 19 urodelans (54.3%) are present. Among reptiles, 11 (7.6%) testudines, 71 (49%) saurians, 3 (2.1%) amphisbaenians and 60 (41.3%) ophidians are considered part of the fauna. The endemism rate in herptile species in Turkey is relatively high. A total of 34 amphibian (12 species – 34.3%) and reptile (22 species – 15.2%) species are endemic to Turkey, yielding a total herpetofsunal endemism of 18.9%. While 38 species have not been threat-assessed by the IUCN, 92 of the 180 Turkish herpetofaunal species are Least Concern (LC), 13 are Near Threatened (NT), 10 are Vulnerable (VU), 14 are Endangered (EN), and 7 are Critically Endangered (CR). In addition, 6 species are in the DD (Data Deficient) category.
... There is a need for more extensive rigorous monitoring programs to better evaluate the current population status of terrestrial salamanders, to inform models of future population distribution, and to predict the likely effects of conservation activities (Smith and Petranka, 2000). The ecology of the Marmaris salamander, for example, is largely based on limited observations in systematic studies (e.g., Göçmen and Akman, 2012;Şenol, 2015;Üzüm et al., 2015;Göçmen and Karış, 2017), with few studies focused on population ecology (Dereağzı, 2016;Başkale et al., 2019). The objectives of the present study were to: (1) determine several population parameters; ...
... After finishing our fieldwork, we re-ran the model generate a prediction of the species' current and future potential distribution. A total of 44 occurrences were obtained from current fieldwork and records in literature (Başoğlu and Atatür, 1974;Mutz and Steinfartz, 1995;Öz et al., 2004;Göçmen and Akman, 2012;Şenol, 2015;Üzüm et al., 2015;Dereağzı, 2016;Göçmen and Karış, 2017;Arslan et al., 2018). All records were geo-referenced by WGS-84 and mapped with ArcGIS v10.7. ...
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The Marmaris salamander is an endemic and endangered amphibian species in Southwestern Anatolia. Here, we estimated some population parameters of the Marmaris salamander by conducting a total of 40 days of intensive sampling across 5 different sites. We marked 323 salamanders with visible implant elastomer between 2017 and 2019 and recaptured 46 of them. The population consists of 36% juveniles, 27.9 % males, and 35.9% females with a female-biased sex ratio (m: f= 0.77) was observed. We estimated population density per site to be between 10 and 42 indiv./ha. The capture probability ranged from 0.15 to 0.54 and the survival rate ranged from 0.53 to 0.86 among the populations. Based purely on models of habitat suitability, the geographic distribution of the Marmaris salamander is likely to shrink by 9–62% in the next 30-50 years. The most important threats are land use conversion, climate change, and forest fires. If no action is taken some populations of the species might go extinct. Keywords. Anatolia, Conservation, Ecological Niche Modelling, Marmaris salamander, Population Dynamics
... And if eventually small-scale dispersal may have occurred, such founder events again should have reduced local genetic variability. All this may have led to today's small-scale differences of pattern and colour among populations, forming the basis for the description of numerous new taxa within the last years (e.g., [9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]). Unfortunately, up to know data supporting such a scenario solely stem from organelle data, so male-biased dispersal, which may erode local population differentiation, can only be detected by also analysing nuclear DNA. ...
... Variance distribution among phyloclades is more than twice as high in L. luschani, L. fazilae and L. helverseni compared to the other species ( Table 2), indicating that also taxonomic differentiation within these species might be more justified. Almost all taxa newly described during the last decade were delineated exclusively on the basis of colour and pattern polymorphisms (e.g., [10][11][12][13]) and allopatric distribution. While the latter criterion is concordant with the definition of subspecies [103], the discriminant power of the morphological characters used for the delimitation of recently described taxa within Lyciasalamandra has never been proven. ...
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Lycian salamanders (genus Lyciasalamandra) constitute an exceptional case of micro-endemism of an amphibian species on the Asian Minor mainland. These viviparous salamanders are confined to karstic limestone formations along the southern Anatolian coast and some islands. We here study the genetic differentiation within and among 118 populations of all seven Lyciasalamandra species across the entire genus’ distribution. Based on circa 900 base pairs of fragments of the mitochondrial 16SrDNA and ATPase genes, we analysed the spatial haplotype distribution as well as the genetic structure and demographic history of populations. We used 253 geo-referenced populations and CHELSA climate data to infer species distribution models which we projected on climatic conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Within all but one species, distinct phyloclades were identified, which only in parts matched current taxonomy. Most haplotypes (78%) were private to single populations. Sometimes population genetic parameters showed contradicting results, although in several cases they indicated recent population expansion of phyloclades. Climatic suitability of localities currently inhabited by salamanders was significantly lower during the LGM compared to recent climate. All data indicated a strong degree of isolation among Lyciasalamandra populations, even within phyloclades. Given the sometimes high degree of haplotype differentiation between adjacent populations, they must have survived periods of deteriorated climates during the Quaternary on the spot. However, the alternative explanation of male biased dispersal combined with a pronounced female philopatry can only be excluded if independent nuclear data confirm this result.
... Field studies were carried out at intervals in November-February between 2010-2020 and all records of the species were confirmed from previously published literature (Başoğlu & Atatür, 1974;Mutz & Steinfartz, 1995;Veith et al., 2001;Öz et al., 2004;Johannesen et al., 2006;Beukema et al., 2009;Akman et al., 2011;Göçmen & Akman 2012;Göçmen et al., 2013;Akman & Godmann, 2014;Üzüm et al., 2015;Göçmen & Karış, 2017;Arslan et al., 2018;Oğuz et al., 2020;Veith et al., 2020). A total of 249 presence records were gathered for the six species. ...
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The Lycian salamanders consist of seven allopatric endangered and endemic species restricted to Mediterranean Turkey and some adjacent Aegean islands. Mega forest fires occurred consecutively over a prolonged period of time in the distribution areas of six of the species in 2021, leading to habitat fragmentation and habitat loss. In this study, we find that a total of 751.9 hectares of Lycian salamander habitats were lost due to the mega-fires that occurred in summer 2021. Our results suggest that L. atifi is the most vulnerable with a loss of 285.84 hectares of habitat area, followed by L. flavimembris with 242.54 hectares, and L. antalyana with 124.16 hectares. L. fazilae is the species which suffered the least habitat loss, at 25.83 hectares. L. billae and L. luschani suffered habitat losses of 30.83 and 43.40 hectares respectively. When the transformation of morphological classes was examined, a significant decrease of all species was observed in the core areas which ensure spatial connectedness, and the edge magnitude, which was taken as an indicator of fragmentation, increased. Bridges providing connectedness were observed to have increased for some species. This indicates that while existing connections in habitats were fragmented due to the forest fires, potential connections may be formed after the forest fires. When the fragmentation values were examined according to the results of pattern analysis, the most notable marginal increase in fragmentation before and after the fires was found to have occurred in the habitat of L. atifi. In addition, we discuss recommendations for the sustainability of species populations in habitat restoration and forest management.
... Field studies were carried out at intervals in November-February between 2010-2020 and all records of the species were confirmed from previously published literature (Başoğlu & Atatür, 1974;Mutz & Steinfartz, 1995;Veith et al., 2001;Öz et al., 2004;Johannesen et al., 2006;Beukema et al., 2009;Akman et al., 2011;Göçmen & Akman 2012;Göçmen et al., 2013;Akman & Godmann, 2014;Üzüm et al., 2015;Göçmen & Karış, 2017;Arslan et al., 2018;Oğuz et al., 2020;Veith et al., 2020). A total of 249 presence records were gathered for the six species. ...
... The genus Lyciasalamandra is characterized by a debated taxonomy and is currently composed of seven species and 21 subspecies [23][24][25][26][27][28]: L. atifi (6 ssp), L. billae (5 ssp), L. fazilae (2 ssp), L. flavimembris (2 ssp), L. helverseni (monotypic) and L. luschani (3 ssp). Three subspecies of L. billae (irfani, arikani and yehudahi) had been described initially as full species [29,30], but molecular data suggest considering them as subspecies [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We performed the first cytogenetic analysis on five out of the seven species of the genus Lyciasalamandra, including seven subspecies, and representatives of its sister genus Salamandra. All the studied species have a similar karyotype of 2n = 24, mostly composed of biarmed elements. C-bands were observed on all chromosomes, at centromeric, telomeric and interstitial position. We found a peculiar taxon-specific NOR configuration, including either heteromorphic and homomorphic NORs on distinct regions of different chromosomes. Lyciasalamandra a.antalyana and L. helverseni showed two homomorphic NORs (pairs 8 and 2, respectively), while heteromorphic NORs were found in L. billae (pairs 6, 12), L. flavimembris (pairs 2, 12), L. l. luschani (pairs 2, 12), L. l. basoglui (pairs 6, 12), L. l. finikensis (pairs 2, 6) and S. lanzai (pairs 8, 10). Homomorphic NORs with an additional supernumerary site were shown by S. s. salamandra (pairs 2, 8) and S. s. gigliolii (pairs 2, 10). This unexpected highly variable NOR configuration is probably derived from multiple independent NOR translocations and paracentric inversions and correlated to lineage divergence in Lyciasalamandra. These results support the taxonomic validity of the studied taxa and are consistent with a hypothesized scenario of synchronous evolution in the genus.
... The current study was approved by the Animal Ethical Committee of the Ege University, Faculty of Medicine (permission number: 2011-091) and the Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs of the Republic of Turkey (date: 11 April 2011, number: 42694). Four individuals (two adult males and females) of Lyciasalamandra billae arikani were obtained from Antalya, Turkey (Göçmen & Akman 2012). Salamanders were anaesthetised with ether and their alimentary canals were quickly removed and then fixed in Bouin's fluid for 48 h. ...
Article
Chemical defenses are frequently accompanied by salient color patterns actively avoided by predators, a phenomenon referred to as aposematism. However, the production of both chemical defenses and pigments is costly, and is thus expected to be reduced under mild predator pressure. In this work, I compared the size and coloration of parotoid glands (two dorsal, external swollen structures that secrete toxins in toads) of male and female Epidalea calamita toads from agrosystems and from pine groves. I also quantified the predator attacks received by plasticine toad models, whose “parotoid glands” differed in size and color conspicuousness, exposed in each habitat. Predators avoided models with large and conspicuous parotoid glands, but models in agrosystems were more often attacked. Concerning actual toads, agrosystem and male individuals had larger parotoid glands, presumably implying greater production of chemical defenses than in pine grove and female conspecifics. These findings are aligned with previous research suggesting that both agrosystem toads and males in this system are subjected to a more intense predator pressure. Difference between parotoid gland and dorsum coloration was greater in agrosystem toads. A marked internal pattern could function as an aposematic signal, which could counteract increased predator pressure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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If there was something written to my destiny: "Biology / Zoology is not a profession for me, it is my lifestyle. My feelings, approaches, and reactions are coming out of this lifestyle. If you want to learn something, experience it! If you take nature as an example, there is no chance of making a mistake! That is the right way!"-Prof. Dr. Bayram GÖÇMEN. We (and many people around the world who know him) are in deep sorrow to have lost Prof. Dr. Bayram GÖÇMEN, who passed away on 22 March 2019. He will always be remembered with his passion to biology, his invaluable works, and the students he left behind. After the untimely loss of Prof. Dr. Bayram GÖÇMEN, who was one of the leading zoologists of Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, the first sentence said by many people from Turkish and world scientific community as well as many nature lovers was "Reptiles and amphibians are orphaned". This sentence summarizes his passion for his profession (biology/zoology) and science. With the large number of herpetological research he conducted in his last years, the taxa he described, and graduate students he supervised , Prof. Dr. Bayram GÖÇMEN was among the leading herpetologists in Turkey. He did not do merely scientific research. As an active social media user, he also founded an amphibian-reptile photo sharing web site, AdaMerOs Herptil Türkiye (The Amphibians and Reptiles Monitoring and Photography Society in Turkey) and gave opportunity to hundreds of people to know amphibians and reptiles more closely. In this sense, he made an exemplary effort to transfer scientific knowledge to the public and he led this internet community which is as valuable as the scientific articles. In addition to the herpetological studies which he concentrated on during the last years of his life, he was a world-renowned scientist in the field of protozoology-parasitology as well with his scientific research, many taxa he described, and the students he trained. He was a scientist who read immensely and had knowledge about not only in the fields of herpetology and protozoology but also in all other branches of biology and even in other fields of natural sciences such as geology and paleontology. His death was timeless for those who love him as he still had so much to give to the world. However, as we realize again while writing this article with sadness, he embraced his profession with passion throughout his life and left behind an important scientific heritage of many valuable works and trained scientists. Prof. Dr. Bayram GÖÇMEN was born on 23 December, 1965 in the village of Çanakkale (Kantou) in Limassol (Ley-mosun), Cyprus. He completed his primary and secondary Figure 1. at his office in Ege University, 09.04.2013, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey. education in Cyprus. In 1983, he started undergraduate education at Gazi University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Architecture and continued for two semesters. Then, he dropped out and returned to Cy-prus for 24 months of military service. In 1985, he came to Izmir and began to study Biology as an undergraduate student at Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology. He graduated in 1989 as the top student of the department and faculty with a high grade of 91 out of 100. He
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Additional data on the distribution of the terrestrial salamander Lyciasalamandra atifi, endemic to Turkey, are presented, based on fieldwork conducted in 2011. Five new localities situated around the Cebireis Mountain (Cebel-i Reis, Alanya, Antalya) were recorded. These represent a considerable range extension for both species and genus, around 35 km air distance to the south-east.
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A new species of the Lycian Salamander, Lyciasalamandra irfani n. sp. is described and its relation with similar previously known taxa is discussed. The new species characterized by having rather darkly coloured head part and also an aubergine reddish brown ground colour on dorsum with irregularly scattered white flecks. It originates from Göynük Canyon (Antalya) in southwestern Anatolia. At present, the distribution is limited to its type locality. Some information is added in regard to its habitat.
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Nine subspecies of the viviparous Lycian Salamander Mertensiella luschani live along the coast of southwestern and southern Turkey and on some islands (e.g. Kastellorizon, Meis, Kekova, and Carpathos). The species is locally very common. We describe seven new localities and add precise co-ordinates for most known populations. Existing confusion in the literature regarding locality names is discussed. Two type localities are re-defined. The actual and potential distribution of the species is analysed from ecological data. The range of M. luschani is restricted to karstic limestone with precipitation exceeding 800 mm annual rainfall. Most localities are below 500 m a.s.l., with a maximum of up to 1340 m a.s.l. The typical habitat of the species is pine forest on northerly exposed slopes.
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Additional data on the distribution of the terrestrial salamander Lyciasalamandra atifi, endemic to Turkey, are presented, based on fieldwork conducted in 2011. Five new localities situated around the Cebireis Mountain (Cebel-i Reis, Alanya, Antalya) were recorded. These represent a considerable range extension for both species and genus, around 35 km air distance to the south-east.