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The Model of Managerial Intervention Decisions of Mobbing as Discrimination in Employees' Relations in Seeking to Improve Organization Climate

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According to J. F. Yates (1990), managers understand their responsibility in making good decisions, but only few of them perceive that a manager does not avoid a role of decision manager. P. F. Drucker states that organizations are more and more based on trust, though the trust does not mean that people like each other; thus it is necessary to absolutely take responsibility for interrelationship at work, and the responsibility for relations is the duty of the employees. The authors of the article follow the attitude that main responsibility for the expression of mobbing as discrimination in employees' relations goes to an organization's manager. The process of mobbing as discrimination in employees' relations, which touches organization climate, directly involves an organization manager, who faces a complex problem – to envisage mobbing within a conflict and as a participant he / she has to take efficient decisions. The article draws trajectories of improvement of managerial decisions, and organization climate; it discusses the structure of diagnostics dysfunctional relations of employees, prevention and intervention of conflicts. The article refers to the works of P., J. Vveinhardt and other works. As a brief review of the researches performed in Lithuania and abroad on mobbing, organization's commitment, a manager's role, the sequence of actions that should guarantee positive influence upon organization climate is presented. In emphasising the complexity of the phenomenon, it pointed out that attention is hardly paid to managerial decisions on conflicts' mobbing. The composed structure-gram helps organizations to envisage the process and character of intervention decisions of mobbing as discrimination in employees' relations. Thus, when solving the problem of mobbing as discrimination, responsibility of organization's employees and prevention of the phenomenon as well as development of intervention system. In solving any problem it is very important to specifically diagnose, to formulate and to assess it. The model of managerial intervention decisions of mobbing as discrimination in employees' relations, designed by the authors of the article, presents certain, specific interrelated stages. The field of the first decision discloses the factor of information about dissemination of the phenomenon of mobbing, which separates into: understanding of the phenomenon by society, trade unions and their pressure; decisions of manager's will that involve understanding of the phenomenon and its interconnection to organization's activity. The field of the second decision reveals the importance of the solution of problems in human resource management, i.e. variety of workforce. It involves the policy of minorities that are understood at the level of every person with individual differences; of procedures of employment, involvement and discharge; of career, stimulation and reward; of internal communication, of competition; of conflict resolution; organization climate, culture development. In the field of the third decision two stages are distinguished. The first stage seeks to fix employees' claims; to operatively and objectively react to them as well as to evaluate the situation in question. Having performed the evaluation, in the second stage the rulebook, code of work ethics, as well as abilities of personnel to resolve conflicts are integrated.
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ISSN 1392 – 2785 Inzinerine Ekonomika-Engineering Economics, 2010, 21(3), 306-314
The Model of Managerial Intervention Decisions of Mobbing as Discrimination
in Employees‘ Relations in Seeking to Improve Organization Climate
Pranas Zukauskas, Jolita Vveinhardt
Vytautas Magnus University
Daukanto str. 28, LT-44246, Kaunas, Lithuania
e-mail: p.zukauskas@evf.vdu.lt, j.vveinhardt@evf.vdu.lt
According to J. F. Yates (1990), managers
understand their responsibility in making good
decisions, but only few of them perceive that a manager
does not avoid a role of decision manager. P. F.
Drucker states that organizations are more and more
based on trust, though the trust does not mean that
people like each other; thus it is necessary to
absolutely take responsibility for interrelationship at
work, and the responsibility for relations is the duty of
the employees. The authors of the article follow the
attitude that main responsibility for the expression of
mobbing as discrimination in employees’ relations goes
to an organization’s manager.
The process of mobbing as discrimination in employees’
relations, which touches organization climate, directly
involves an organization manager, who faces a complex
problem – to envisage mobbing within a conflict and as a
participant he / she has to take efficient decisions. The
article draws trajectories of improvement of managerial
decisions, and organization climate; it discusses the
structure of diagnostics dysfunctional relations of
employees, prevention and intervention of conflicts.
The article refers to the works of P. F. Drucker, H. A.
Simon, J. F. Yates, K. Tafel-Viia, R. Alas, C. Seydl, B.
Meschkutat, M, Stackelbeck, G. Lagengoff, A. Valackiene, P.
Zakarevicius, P. Zukauskas, J. Vveinhardt and other works.
As a brief review of the researches performed in Lithuania
and abroad on mobbing, organization’s commitment, a
manager’s role, the sequence of actions that should
guarantee positive influence upon organization climate is
presented. In emphasising the complexity of the
phenomenon, it pointed out that attention is hardly paid to
managerial decisions on conflicts’ mobbing.
The composed structure-gram helps organizations
to envisage the process and character of intervention
decisions of mobbing as discrimination in employees’
relations. Thus, when solving the problem of mobbing
as discrimination, responsibility of organization’s
employees and prevention of the phenomenon as well as
development of intervention system.
In solving any problem it is very important to
specifically diagnose, to formulate and to assess it. The
model of managerial intervention decisions of mobbing as
discrimination in employees’ relations, designed by the
authors of the article, presents certain, specific
interrelated stages. The field of the first decision discloses
the factor of information about dissemination of the
phenomenon of mobbing, which separates into:
understanding of the phenomenon by society, trade unions
and their pressure; decisions of manager’s will that
involve understanding of the phenomenon and its
interconnection to organization’s activity. The field of the
second decision reveals the importance of the solution of
problems in human resource management, i.e. variety of
workforce. It involves the policy of minorities that are
understood at the level of every person with individual
differences; of procedures of employment, involvement and
discharge; of career, stimulation and reward; of internal
communication, of competition; of conflict resolution;
organization climate, culture development. In the field of
the third decision two stages are distinguished. The first
stage seeks to fix employees’ claims; to operatively and
objectively react to them as well as to evaluate the
situation in question. Having performed the evaluation, in
the second stage the rulebook, code of work ethics, as well
as abilities of personnel to resolve conflicts are integrated.
Keywords: interpersonal relations, discrimination,
mobbing, organization climate, intervention,
managerial decisions, model.
Introduction
A lot of factors, among which one of the most
important is organizing organization’s activity, and to
be more precise – manager’s decisions and their
efficiency, condition emergence of mobbing within
organizations. The data of the researches performed in
2008 and 2009 (more in: Vveinhardt, 2009) show
significant expression of dysfunctional employees’
relations at Lithuanian organizations. At present
scientific literature pays great attention to the research
of: problems of employees’ interrelationship (Zukauskas,
Vveinhardt, 2009a, 2009b; Tafel-Viia, Alas, 2009;
Zukauskas, Vveinhardt, 2010, etc.), motivation of
employees (Srivastava, Kakkar, 2008; Palidauskaite,
Segaloviciene, 2008; Bakanauskiene, Ubartas, 2009;
Buciuniene, Skudiene, 2009; Ciutiene, Adamoniene,
2009, etc.), employees’ identification at an organization
(Valackiene, 2009, etc.), career (Petkeviciute, 2001,
2007; Zuperkiene, Zilinskas, 2008; Sakalas, 2008;
Zakarevicius, Zukauskas, 2008, etc.), development of
competences (Grundey, Varnas, 2006; Savaneviciene,
Stukaite, Silingiene, 2008; Sakalas, 2008; Zakarevicius,
Zuperkiene, 2008; Kersiene, Savaneviciene, 2009, etc.),
The article suggests the corrections of structural
system of activity organization settled in Lithuania.
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PranasZukauskas,JolitaVveinhardt.TheModelofManagerialInterventionDecisionsofMobbingasDiscriminationinEmployees‘Relationsin
SeekingtoImproveOrganizationClimate
competitive excellence (Kazlauskaite, Buciuniene, 2008,
etc.), organizational obligation (Brooks, 2002; Maxwell,
G., Steele, 2003; Petkeviciute, Kalinina, 2004; McKenna,
2005; Urboniene, 2007, etc.), as well as guarantee of
employees’ long-term relation with an organization
(Buciuniene, Skudiene, 2009, etc.); however managerial
intervention decisions of mobbing as discrimination in
employee relations in order to guarantee good state of
organization climate are hardly identified. Thus, the
research problem is as follows: how to guarantee good
state of organization’s climate by invoking managerial
decisions of intervention when mobbing is identified
within an organization.
The research object – model of managerial decision
intervention.
The research aim – is to form the model of managerial
decisions of intervention of mobbing as discrimination in
employees’ relations in order to improve organization’s
climate.
Research methods: analysis of scientific literature by
systemising, synthesizing, generalizing, comparing and
modelling.
Managerial intervention decisions
People who experience discrimination in interrelations at
organizations are subject to suffer for a long time; this
gives reference to latent processes as well as to certain
formed culture, which ignores the damage of the
phenomenon for an organization. Researches revealed an
ambivalent problem: people who suffered mobbing as
discrimination in employees’ relations face difficulties in
getting professional psychological help; outcomes of the
conflict are diagnosed only when they gain the form of
disorder of observable psycho-somatic functions of an
organism. Peculiarities of Lithuanian mentality complicate
diagnostics of mobbing as discrimination in employees’
relations at initial phases; however, direct and / or indirect
symptoms of organization’s climate show its possibility:
the symptoms are observed through the character of
communication, verbal and / or non-verbal contacts of
organization’s members, etc.
The organizations providing psychological and other
services of professional activity care and observation, as
well as in the field of educational management conflicts
have already been established in Lithuania. However, a
rather high price of the services determines the risk that
consultation of specialists for single persons who suffer
from escalated conflicts can be not available, and at an
organization’s level can be assigned to dispensable or even
unnecessary expenditure. This risk also grows because the
practice of consultations for solving problems of
organization’s climate as well as employees’
interrelationship has not been formed at Lithuanian
organizations yet. In addition, most managers consider
organization’s culture moral ethical values and business as
not interrelated subjects. This is partly determined by
Soviet heritage and stereotypes of viewpoint to business.
Western business ethics is still the guide to be achieved by
Lithuanian organizations. Yet it is necessary to assert the
importance of organization’s social responsibility as well
as implementation and support of ethical norms because
this is not enough understood at the level of
organization’s managers.
They performed researches have limited only in the
levels of organizations and their subdivisions. It is
necessary to point out that due to wide extent of the
problem not only managerial decisions within an
organization are important; this is the problem of society
and government. The decisions taken at a particular
organization are inseparable from the environment that
influences directions of internal policy. Nevertheless
organizations differ both in culture and in organizational
as well as human resource structures. Thus the corporate
model of decisions, which enables solution of a problem
at individual, group, organizational and meta-
organizational levels, should be projected by considering
results of diagnostics.
Referring to H. A. Simon (1960), organizations are
blamed in all social diseases, including widespread
‘alienation’ of employees against their work and
society, the result of which is ‘bureaucracy’ and
organizational inefficiency. The author distinguishes
the following stages of managerial decision-making:
identification of reasons for decision-making, detection
of possible directions of activity as well as the choice
among the directions of activity. Decisions are
commitments to act so that a result of the activity
would satisfy the parts related to certain activity. In
solving any problem it is very important to specifically
diagnose, to formulate and to assess it.
Decision-making is an inseparable part of every
manager’s work, which involves identification,
assessment of possible alternatives of a decision and
choice of an optimal alternative; this is the setting and
choice of the direction of actions for solution of a
particular problem (Simon, 1960; Yates, 1990;
Bakanauskiene, 1995, etc.). The authors who have
analysed managerial decisions (Wales, Nardi, Stager,
1986; Simon, 1987; Heirs, Farrell, 1987; Arkes,
Hammond, 1992; Levin, 2006; Facione, Facione, 2007,
etc.) seldom mention the importance of managerial
intervention in managing a particular mobbing process
within an organization. The authors who analyse
mobbing point out intervention tools (Meschkutat,
Stackelbeck et al., 2002; Kolodej, 2005; Litzcke,
Schuh, 2005; Seydl, 2006a, 2006b, etc.). The model of
managerial decisions being presented involves three
blocks of decisions: dissemination of information about
the phenomenon of mobbing (society, trade unions,
managers of organizations); human resource management
(variety of workforce); the system enabling to register
roots of conflicts. In her previous researches the author
of the article did not aim to identify the level of
mobbing cognition as well as understanding of the
problem in society; however, the tendency – that in
Lithuania the phenomenon is not known enough,
analysed and discussed – has been disclosed. Thus, the
first block of decisions would involve the increase of
problem’s cognition at different levels of an
organization; especially that corporate intolerance
against mobbing as discriminating relations in work
environment prevents development of a conflict.
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Dissemination of information on mobbing phenomenon
Figure 1. The model of managerial decisions of intervention of mobbing as discrimination in employees’ relations
Source: developed by the authors.
Thus, dissemination of the phenomenon’s cognition
should be a complex part of the decisions forming
organization’s climate. Anti-discriminatory law acts,
which influence the policy of human resources being
formed within organizations, function in Lithuania. The
variety in the aspect of mobbing as discrimination in
employees’ relations extends traditional framework and
it is understood as any, especially professional
particularity / difference of an individual and / or
individuals, which provokes an attack. This viewpoint
obligates a manager to evaluate employees as
personalities. Thus, management of the variety in work
environment should involve what could be relatively
called management of individual differences. Managers
often have to resolve different conflicts of employees;
and in the case being discussed the policy of decisions
Society, trade unions and their:
[ Understanding of the phenomenon,
[ Pressure.
Decision
1
Intervention decisions of mobbing as discrimination in
employees’ relations
Manager’s voluntary decisions:
[ Understanding of the phenomenon,
[ Relation to organization’s activity.
Intervention decisions of mobbing as discrimination in
employees’ relations
HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
DECISIONS OF PROBLEMS OF WORKFORCE
VARIETY
Decisio
n 2 Policy of an organization:
minorities, employment, involvement and dismissal
procedures, career, training, stimulation and reward,
internal communication, competition, conflict
resolution, organization climate, culture development,
etc.
Stage 1
Stage 2
SYSTEM ENABLING TO REGISTER CONFLICT
ROOTS
Intervention decisions of mobbing as discrimination in
employees’ relations
Fixation of employees’ claims
Objective, operative reaction
Evaluation
Decision
3 Rulebook
Work ethics code and practice
Abilities of personnel department to solve conflicts
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PranasZukauskas,JolitaVveinhardt.TheModelofManagerialInterventionDecisionsofMobbingasDiscriminationinEmployees‘Relationsin
SeekingtoImproveOrganizationClimate
should be formulated at a strategic level. At modern
organizations the competition, which inevitable guards
are conflicts – both rational and dysfunction, is
stimulated. In evaluating dynamics of globalisation and
competition, the tendency of conflict intensity growth,
which obligates more responsive reaction to conflicts
emerging within an organization, is presumptive.
Mobbing as discrimination in employees’ relations
distinguishes from other conflicts also in that interpersonal
conflict of employees outgrows into a conflict of a person
and a group as well as a conflict of a person and a manager
as representative of a subdivision or organization. Thus,
the system of identification and registration of conflict
roots at its early stages is necessary. This system has to be
based on openness and support founded on the policy of
organization culture formation; and the policy of ethical
principles implementing publicity and relations is employed
(Figure 1).
Several reasons, which directly converge to
manager’s will, can influence managerial decisions
within an organization. In large part a solution of a
problem depends on how a manager understands and
relates it to effectiveness of the organization’s activity.
Another reason can be the pressure of society and trade
unions. Thus, it is important that the damage of mobbing
as discrimination in employees’ relations would be
understood by society, that enough dissemination of
information about the phenomenon being discussed
would be guaranteed. In other words, internal processes
have to be influenced by external environment of an
organization as well (Figure 2).
Intervention of mobbing as discrimination in
employees’ relations is an inseparable part of
management of organization’s human resources, as well
as solutions of workforce variety problems. Managerial
decisions are influenced by the policy of minorities;
procedures of employment, involvement and discharge;
career; training; stimulation and reward; internal
communication; competition; conflict resolution;
organization climate; culture development and other
factors being formed by an organization (Figure 3).
Dissemination of information on mobbing phenomenon
Figure 2. Internal and external fields of will influencing managerial decisions
Source: developed by the authors.
Figure 3. The entirety of decisions in variety management
Source: developed by the authors.
Society, trade unions and their:
[ Understanding of the phenomenon,
[ Pressure.
Decision
1 Manager’s voluntary decisions:
[ Understanding of the phenomenon,
[ Relation to organization’s activity.
Intervention decisions of mobbing as discrimination in
employees’ relations
Intervention decisions of mobbing as discrimination in
employees’ relations
Human resource management
Decisions of problems of workforce variety
Decision
2
Policy of an organization:
minorities, employment, involvement and dismissal
procedures, career, training, stimulation and reward,
internal communication, competition, conflict resolution,
organization climate, culture development, etc.
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ISSN13922785InzinerineEkonomikaEngineeringEconomics,2010,21(3),306314
All above-mentioned and most other circumstances
greatly influence the intervention of managerial decisions
by applying mobbing as discrimination in employees’
relations in improving specifics and problems of climate at
Lithuanian organizations. Particular actions begin when the
wide spectrum of a problem is being realized and
understood. Then the system, which enables to register
conflicts at their primary stages by involving employees’
claims, to objectively and with expedition react, to assess
and to make decisions is created (if it does not exist) or is
developed. This system is inseparable from the rulebook
and norms of ethics in employees’ interrelationship.
Western principles of organization activity postulate
that personnel office is responsible for healthy climate of
an organization. Actually special attention falls to
personnel office, its readiness and instruction to solve the
conflicts emerging in work environment. Responsibility
falls to personnel office for diagnostics of organization
climate and mobbing as discrimination in employees’
relations as well as for application of intervention (Figure
4). However, the problem is that in Lithuania personnel
offices traditionally are not the structure of an
organization, which would create and implement the policy
of formation of organization culture and climate. Functions
of a personnel office are very often entrusted for one
specialist, not necessarily a professional of the field. Thus,
a person making decisions within an organization or an
institution (the Board, the Board of Observers, etc.) has to
solve a problem of creation and effective functioning of a
personnel office as well as system of personnel
management. This system involves: registration of
employees’ claims; their analysis; their evaluation;
recommendations for the authority making decisions.
In order to avoid conflicts and to rationally solve the
problems of hostility emerging in work environment, the
following means are necessary:
- the rulebook that schedules not only material but also
moral responsibility as well as individual responsibility for
interrelationship by relating it to development of organization
activity , success and liability;
- the system of employees’ professional and
interrelationship ethics;
- development of abilities of the structure responsible
for organization’s personnel to solve discriminating
conflicts of mobbing.
In forming the strategy of intervention of mobbing as
discrimination in employees’ relations in order to improve
the climate, an organization has a task to choose an optimal
alternative from a range of alternatives (e.g., by applying a
tree of decisions, etc.).
The first group of alternatives – gives a possibility to
assess outcomes and to decide which decisions would
essentially change a situation or to leave the situation for
its ride, the presumptive result of which is victim’s retreat
from the organization and flashpoints of conflicts, which
decrease effectiveness of organization’s activity and its
competitiveness in markets (Table 1).
In creating the strategy, an organization has two
alternatives. The first alternative – is to solve it themselves,
the second one – is to hire professional activity keepers and
observers, psychologists, consultants of mobbing, jurists or
managers. Both alternatives are related to additional
expenditure. In the first case – it is for employment of
specialists at personnel office (if it exists), in the second
case – expenditure to pay consultations. In any case
mobbing as discrimination in employees’ relations is
too complicated phenomenon that it could be managed
without appropriate preparation.
In order to make the efforts efficient, assistance of
specialists is necessary in solving emerged problems as
well as in training the personnel of an organization.
When applying intervention, an organization chooses:
to act at organizational or individual level. In both
cases active performance of organization’s authorities
is inevitable; however, if organization’s level is
ignored, the risk of dissemination of mobbing as
discrimination in employees’ relations and the decline
of the state of organization climate increases.
Having identified the main features of mobbing in
Lithuanian organizations, the following managerial
decisions should be applied (Table 2):
preventive decisions: development of publicity
culture; clear framework of responsibility; clear
assignments; uniform system of assessment, stimulation.
intervention decisions: practice and control of work
ethics code; general intolerance; penalties for mobbing
actions; specialist’s assistance.
Particular tactical decisions are conditioned by
settled correlation relations of mobbing as
discrimination in employees’ relations and factors of
organization climate. The most efficient managerial
decisions are those, which determine changes within an
organization by forming favourable climate of work
environment that is based on the culture of openness,
inter-confidence, and tolerance. Important features of
the culture are development of perception of workforce
variety value and moral system. The model of
managerial decisions of intervention of mobbing as
discrimination in employees’ relations discloses that
successful functioning of an organization (in the
analysed case – organization climate) depends on
managerial decisions; thus the expression of mobbing
as discrimination in employees’ relations decreases by
improving the climate.
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PranasZukauskas,JolitaVveinhardt.TheModelofManagerialInterventionDecisionsofMobbingasDiscriminationinEmployees‘Relationsin
SeekingtoImproveOrganizationClimate
Figure 4. The scheme of prevention of conflicts enabling two-stage intervention
Source: developed by the authors.
Table 1
Strategic decisions and outcomes of prevention of mobbing as discrimination in employees’ relations in order to
improve its climate
Strategic
decisions Outcomes of
decisions
to evaluate outcomes of mobbing as discrimination in employees’
relations and to resolve decisions..
the state of organization climate changes essentially.
to let the situation of mobbing as discrimination in employees’
relations ride.
a victim retires from the organization.
flashpoints of conflicts decrease effectiveness organization’s
activity and its achievements in competitive markets.
Source: developed by the authors.
Table 2
Managerial decisions and fields of their influence
Managerial decisions and fields of their influence
Preventive decisions Intervention decisions
Features of
mobbing
Development
of publicity
culture
Clear range of
responsibility,
clear
assignments
Uniform
system of
evaluation,
stimulation
Assistance of
a specialist
Practice and
control of
work ethics
code
General
intolerances
Penalties for
mobbing
actions
Responsibility
of managers
(of different
levels)
+ + + + +
Isolation of a
victim; lack of
assistance
+ + + + +
Attack in
social and
work levels
+ + + + + +
Unhealthy
conflicts and
long-term
stress.
+ + + + + +
Nag at
workplace
+ + + +
Source: developed by the authors.
Stage 1
Stage 2
System enabling to register conflict
roots
Intervention decisions of mobbing as discrimination in
employees’ relations
Fixation of employees’ claims
Objective, operative reaction
Evaluation
Decision
3
Rulebook
Work ethics code and practice
Abilities of personnel department to solve conflicts
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Conclusions
Mobbing as discrimination in employees’ relations
exists in Lithuanian organizations and negatively
influences their climate; however, it is analysed not
enough as a managerial problem. Society hardly knows
the phenomenon. Notoriety presupposes the pressure of
society or trade unions to make decisions. Decisions
incorporate the responsibility of both a manager and
organization’s members; thus dissemination of
information about the phenomenon becomes an
important condition. The increase of the knowledge
about the phenomenon should be a complex part of
decisions forming organization’s climate. The policy of
variety; procedures of employment, involvement and
discharge; career; training, stimulation and reward;
internal communication; resolution of competition
conflicts; organization climate; culture development and
other factors. In the context of mobbing as discrimination
in employees’ relations the variety should be treated as
possession of any peculiarities – physical, psychological,
cultural, work and professional, which distinguishes an
individual from other individuals as well as causing or
being able to cause attacks. This viewpoint obliges a
manager to evaluate employees as personalities. Thus,
decisions, which are related to variety management in
work environment, should also involve what relatively
could be named as management of individual
differences. Organizations that traditionally arrange their
activity need structural changes in developing a
personnel office and emphasising responsibility for
maintenance of organization climate state.
Creation and development of the system enabling to
register conflicts’ roots at their primary stages is a
complex part of decisions oriented to the improvement of
organization climate. The system of identification and
registration of conflicts’ roots at early stages as well as
the policy development of organization culture based on
openness and assistance is necessary. In the context of
the improvement of organization climate the activity of a
manager involves two alternatives: to take preventive and
intervention decisions against mobbing as discrimination
in employees’ relations, which would improve the
climate; to let conflicts and climate’s state ride. It should
be stated that organizations are not ready enough to
independently resolve mobbing conflicts; thus, assistance
of outside specialists is necessary. Two groups of
decisions should be distinguished and be applied in
complex: preventive decisions (development of publicity
culture; clear range of responsibility, clear assignments;
uniform system of assessment, stimulation); intervention
decisions (practice and control of work ethics code;
general intolerance; penalties for mobbing actions;
assistance of specialists; groups of mutual assistance).
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Pranas Žukauskas, Jolita Vveinhardt
Vadybinių mobingo kaip diskriminacijos darbuotojų santykiuose siekiant gerinti organizacijų klimatą intervencijos sprendimų modelis
Santrauka
Organizacijos klimatą pažeidžiantis mobingo kaip diskriminacijos darbuotojų santykiuose procesas tiesiogiai įtraukia organizacijos vadovą,
kuriam kyla kompleksinė problema – vykstant konfliktui įžvelgti mobingą ir kaip dalyviui priimti veiksmingus sprendimus. Šiame straipsnyje
nagrinėjami vadybiniai sprendimai, organizacijos klimato gerinimo kontekste, aptariama disfunkciškų darbuotojų santykių diagnozavimo, konfliktų
prevencijos ir intervencijos struktūra.
Straipsnyje remiamasi P. F. Drucker, H. A. Simon, J. F. Yates, K. Tafel-Viia, R. Alas, C. Seydl, B. Meschkutat, M, Stackelbeck, G. Lagengoff,
A. Valackienės, P. Zakarevičiaus, P. Žukausko, J. Vveinhardt ir kt. autorių darbais. Glaustai apžvelgiant užsienyje ir Lietuvoje atliktus mobingo,
organizacijos įsipareigojimo, vadovo vaidmens tyrimus, pateikiama veiksmų seka, kuri turėtų užtikrinti teigiamą poveikį organizacijos klimatui.
Įvertinant reiškinio sudėtingumą akcentuojama, kad Lietuvoje dar per mažai dėmesio skiriama vadybiniams mobingo konfliktų sprendimams.
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ISSN13922785InzinerineEkonomikaEngineeringEconomics,2010,21(3),306314
Tyrimo problema keliama klausimu: kaip užtikrinti gerą organizacijos klimato būklę, remiantis vadybiniais intervencijos sprendimais, kai
organizacijose aptinkamas mobingas?
Tyrimo tikslas – suformuoti vadybinių mobingo kaip diskriminacijos darbuotojų santykiuose siekiant gerinti organizacijų klimatą intervencijos
sprendimų modelį.
Tyrimo objektas – vadybinių intervencijos sprendimų modelis.
Tyrimo metodai – mokslinės literatūros analizė sisteminant, sintetinant, apibendrinant, lyginant ir modeliuojant.
Sprendžiant bet kokią problemą, be galo svarbu ją tiksliai diagnozuoti, suformuluoti ir įvertinti. Šio straipsnio autorių sudarytame vadybinių
mobingo kaip diskriminacijos darbuotojų santykiuose intervencijos sprendimų modelyje pateikiami tam tikri, specifiniai tarpusavyje susiję etapai.
Pirmojo sprendimo lauke išryškintas informacijos apie mobingo reiškinį sklaidos faktorius, kuris skaidomas į: visuomenės, profesinių sąjungų
reiškinio suvokimą ir spaudimą; vadovo valios sprendimus, apimančius reiškinio suvokimą ir susiejimą su organizacijos veikla. Antrojo sprendimo
lauke išryškinama skirtas žmogiškųjų išteklių valdymo, t. y. darbo jėgos įvairovės problemų sprendimo reikšmė. Jis apima mažumų, kurios
suvokiamos kiekvieno individualių skirtumų turėtojo lygmeniu, priėmimo, įtraukimo ir atleidimo procedūrų, karjeros, mokymo, skatinimo ir atlygio,
vidinės komunikacijos, konkurencijos konfliktų sprendimo organizacijos klimato, kultūros vystymo politiką. Trečiojo sprendimo lauke išskiriamos
dvi stadijos. Pirmoje stadijoje siekiama fiksuoti darbuotojų nusiskundimus, operatyviai ir objektyviai reaguoti į juos bei vertinti susidariusią situaciją.
Atlikus vertinimą antroje stadijoje, apjungiamos vidaus darbo tvarkos taisyklės, darbo etikos kodeksas ir jo praktika, personalo tarnybos gebėjimai
spręsti konfliktus.
Straipsnyje siūlomos struktūrinės tradiciškai Lietuvoje nusistovėjusios veiklos organizavimo sistemos korekcijos.
Anot J. F. Yates (1990), vadovai suvokia savo atsakomybę priimant gerus sprendimus, bet tik nedidelė jų dalis suvokia, kad vadovas neišvengia
sprendimų vadovo vaidmens. P. F. Drucker teigia, kad organizacijos vis didesniu mastu grindžiamos pasitikėjimu, tačiau jis nereiškia, kad žmonės,
patikdami vieni kitiems turi absoliučiai prisiimti atsakomybę už tarpusavio santykius darbe; tai reiškia, kad atsakomybė už santykius yra pačių
darbuotojų pareiga. Straipsnio autoriai laikosi nuostatos, kad pagrindinė atsakomybė už mobingo kaip diskriminacijos darbuotojų santykiuose raišką
tenka organizacijos vadovui.
Sudaryta struktūrograma padeda numatyti organizacijoms mobingo kaip diskriminacijos darbuotojų santykiuose intervencijos sprendimų eigą ir
pobūdį. Todėl sprendžiant mobingo kaip diskriminacijos problemą svarbiu uždaviniu tampa organizacijos darbuotojų atsakomybės bei reiškinio
prevencijos bei intervencijos sistemos plėtojimas.
Raktažodžiai: tarpasmeniniai santykiai, diskriminacija, mobingas, organizacijos klimatas, intervencija, vadybiniai sprendimai, modelis.
The article has been reviewed.
Received in March, 2010; accepted in June, 2010.
- 314 -
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Entering a new organization employees face unknown environment with new emotions, requirements, possible consequences, influencing organizational processes such as adaptation, socialization and identification of a new member (Zukauskaite, 2005). It is noticed that the employee identification in an organization is a complex process. To identify yourself in an organization means to be actively involved into the processes which include specific activity areas and behaviour, determined by the interaction of the organizational environment and employee adaptive behaviour. Employee social identification in an organization actualizes one of the socium expression aspects in the labour environment. When employee social identification is unsatisfactory and inadequate, the possibility for crisis situation grows up and it needs to be controlled operatively to avoid the crisis. These actions enable to moderate crisis development in an organization and to control its consequences. The discussed problems have become the aspect of the research analysis. The scientists analyse the coordination positions of the organization and employee interests in the transformable business environment (Davidaviciene, 2008), as well as the changes of business and management in the informative century (Sakalas, Ciutiene, Neverauskas, 2006), survey the influence of employee interests in the contemporary career formation (Savaneviciene, Stukaite, Silingiene, 2008), they also notice that it is very important to develop individual strategic competencies in an organization (Melnikas, 2005), point out the main principles of managers'training and apply practical experiments (Kumpikaite, 2007), survey the economic costs of personnel training in Lithuanian organizations (Saee, 2005), emphasize the efficient leadership in the global economics. The authors claim that the main attention should be paid to the individual, improving his professional skills, developing his competencies, that help him successfully identify in an organization and enables to integrate in the labour activities in the nearest future. This is the essential principle of crisis situation management and decision making. The principle requires to evaluate the processes of employee socialization, individualization and adaptation as well as to form the expression of employee identification in an organization. Recent scientific literature deals mainly with the problems of crisis in a company in the economic aspects. Altman (1968;1971;1983), Alesina (1997), Ansoff (1987), Darling (1998), Fink (1986), Kash (1998), Cumikov (1998), Roselieb (1999), Hauschildt (2000), Bartl (2000), Sarafanova (2001), Petuhov (2007) and other scientists deals with the analysis of crisis in a company. Lithuanian authors Januleviciute (2003), Bieleviciene (2003), Dambrava (2003), Sakalas, Savaneviciene (2003), Valackiene (2005), Virbickaite (2006); Garskaite, Garskiene (2005), Berzinskiene (2006; 2007), Virbickaite (2006; 2007), Stoskus (2007), Stundziene (2006), Boguslauskas (2006), Neverauskas (2008), Staskeviciute (2008), Valackiene (2009) and others write about the structure of crisis situation, pointing out the reasons of the economic expression, describe the methodology of crisis diagnosis and possible decisions. The social aspect of this phenomenon is less presented. If the crisis is analyzed as the social phenomenon, then crisis reasons are hardly estimated and defined. It is not easy to explain the employee identification in an organization as well as to form conceptual expressions to estimate identification positions in crisis situations. The same situation is with crisis situation management (socio-economic aspect). Analyzing the mentioned phenomena - the employee social identification and crisis management - the methodological difficulties appear: the design of research instrument, analysis presentation. Every manager should know the weakest areas in personnel management and have the prepared identification strategy, which will relieve the adaptation of a new member in an organization, its aims and value process and influence on the performance efficiency and satisfaction of the work seeking to control a crisis situation. Difficult business environment stimulates to look for new ways to assess the changing situation as well as to implement and manage new means for business continuity. The structure of the paper: in the first part of the paper the strategic dimensions of employee identification in an organization have theoretically been based; in the second part the results of the combinative research have been presented applying two research methods: questionnaire, which helps to define dimension expression of employee identification in an organization (questionnaire was given to the employees of Panevezys clinics) and structural interview, which helps to present the trends of crisis situation management in organizations (the interviewed organizations: Panevezys clinics, UAB "Odenta", UAB "Dentavita and co", and UAB "Panevezys odontologai"executives); the third part of the paper presents the theoretical model of social identification managing crisis situations in an organization. The theoretical model of social identification of managing crisis situation in an organization was justified, which requires designing the programs of crisis situation prevention in every dimension of employee identification in an organization considering the priority of the employees. In this model crisis situation management is described as the closed cycle involving these stages: the design of crisis situation management programs; the identification of crisis nature; the operative means in crisis situation and its liquidation in rehabilitating organizational performance.
Article
With a constantly changing environment and an increasing competition, organizations face new challenges. In order to meet customers' requirements and ensure the growth of activity and finance results, organizations are interested in quality improvement, in the increase of the quality of work as well as in the implementation of new technologies and modern working methods. The meeting of the above mentioned interests could be reached only by organizations having necessary competences, which are created by the workers of enterprises. The most important thing is that every employee should to the maximum open up his potential as well as effectively use personal and professional competences when striving to coordinate the objectives of an organization. At present, the importance of employee (as the most important factor of the activity of an organization) showed up in the development of management theory. Only properly motivated and able to meet his interests, an employee strives for better working results. Organizations face a number of problems connected with human resources management, they are as follows: how to attract necessary competitive employees and what measures should be taken in order to hold these employees; how to properly stimulate employees and what measures should be predicted for the meeting of employees' interests. The limited resources and possibilities of organizations handicap the situation. In order to obtain optimal results the coordination of interests should be striven for. One of the possible interests of coordination measures can be the modern career system allowing clearing up personnel's interests and integrating various possibilities, which coordinate interests. It is not so easy for organizations to evaluate employees' interests. Employees' interests are defined by a number of personal and demographical characteristics. Employees' interests constantly change subjected to the social economic changes occurring in the environment. Interests expressed by the employees are determined by common orientations of individual and attitude towards work. The article considers the actual problem of the management science – formation of modern career on the ground of interest coordination. The question of the employee's interests in modern career is analysed in the article written by Ciutiene, Sakalas and Neverauskas "Influence of personnel interests on formation of modern career" (2007). In this article interests are analysed in the aspect of the attitude towards work, i.e. it was solved how interests forming employee's career vary subject to the employee's sacrifice in the name of his work. The carried out empirical research showed that employees, expressing different attitudes, motivate their main interests with different priorities. It only confirms that every employee is unique and an organization should create possibilities for the realization of individual interests. It should be noted that the differences of employees' interests determined during the investigation should not be considered as typical in the context of today's Lithuania subject to the indicated attitude towards work. The research should be carried out to a larger extent.