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The relationship between personality and value dimensions: Towards a comprehensive personality paradigm

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The dimensional approach has been adopted as a paradigmatic one in almost all areas of personality. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the relationship between basic dimensions of personality and basic dimensions of values. The results of the multivariate analyses confirmed predicted connection between both sets of variables. Consequently, we can assume that both personality traits and values share common basic structural components. Considering the extracted "superdimensions", which explain a very comprehensive range of personal and behavioural variability, we proposed and explicated new, more integrative dimensional model of personality.
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The relationship between personality and value dimensions: Towards
a comprehensive personality paradigm
Musek, J. and Avsec, A.
University of Ljubljana
Abstract
The dimensional approach has been adopted as a paradigmatic one in almost all areas
of personality. The objective of the present study was the investigation of the
relationship between basic dimensions of personality and basic dimensions of values.
The results of the multivariate analyses confirmed predicted connection between both
sets of variables.
Consequently, we can assume that both personality traits and values share common
basic structural components. Considering the extracted "superdimensions", which
explain a very comprehensive range of personal and behavioural variability, we
proposed and explicated new, more integrative dimensional model of personality.
Introduction
The hierarchical dimensional approach has been adopted as a paradigmatic
one in almost all areas of personality. Increasing research in past decades showed that
an essential amount of individual differences could be attributed to the relatively
small number of general personality dimensions. The theoretical models developed by
outstanding personality theorists achieved remarkable convergence if not even
consensus. We may put on the list the model of Cattell (secondary factors of
personality: Cattell, 1957a, 1957b, 1975; Cattell, Eber & Tatsuoka, 1970), Eysenck's
PEN model (Eysenck, 1954, 1967, 1990a, 1990b, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c, 1992a,
1992b, 1992c, 1997; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985; Revelle, 1995; Revelle, Anderson &
Humphreys, 1987; Revelle, Humphreys, Simon & Gilliland, 1980), five-factor or B5
model (Costa & McCrae, 1992a, 1992b; McCrae & Costa, 1989; Musek, 1993b,
1999; Revelle, 1995, 1997), and some others, including circumplex model of
personality structure (Acton & Revelle, 1995, 1998; Hofstee, de Raad & Goldberg,
1992; McCrae & Costa, 1989; Revelle, 1995, 1997; Wiggins, J. S., Trapnell, P., &
Phillips, N., 1988), and Brand's model of six comprehensive personality factors
(Brand, 1998).
On the other hand, the interindividual differences in the value orientations could
also be contributed to a definite number of general value dimensions. According to our
model of hierarchical taxonomy of values, the universe of values can be classified into a
number of categories occupying different levels in the hierarchical structure (Musek,
1993a, b; Musek, 2000). Numerous categories of values at different levels of hierarchy
have been identified in the theoretical and empirical investigations. In our own research, a
clear hierarchy of the categories of values emerged as a result of performed factor-, cluster-
and other multivariate analyses (Musek, 1993a; Musek, 1993b; Musek, 1994; Musek,
2000). The categories or dimensions of values in our model resemble well the dimensions
or facets of values reported elsewhere (Bond, 1988, 1991; Bond, Leung & Schwartz, 1992;
Chinese Culture Connection, 1987; Fiske, 1991, 1992; Hofstede, 1980, 1983; Hofstede &
Bond, 1988; Kagitçibasi, 1970; Leung & Bond, 1989; Leung, Bond & Schwartz, 1995;
Sagiv & Schwartz, 1995; Schwartz, 1991, 1994; Schwartz & Bilsky, 1987, 1990 Smith &
Schwartz, 1997; Smith, Trompenaars & Dugan, 1993; Triandis, 1990, 1995; Triandis et
al., 1972).
As we can see from the Figure 1, the entire structure of the value universe could be
well established through all four levels of hierarchical model, from the most general at the
top to the most specific in the bottom. This structure extends form single, specific values,
to the more and more complex categories of values. Higher range categories are based of
course on the correlations between the values on the lower degree of generality.
----- Insert Figure 1 about here
Figure 1. Hierarchical structure of value universe. The categories of values drawn from our empirical
studies occupy all four levels of the hierarchical model. The details see in the text.
The question might be raised therefore, whether and how are the basic
dimensions of personality structure related to the basic dimensions of values. The
accumulated research evidence is suggesting that at least some of the basic
dimensions from both areas of investigation (personality structure and the structure of
the values) could be significantly interrelated.
A definite clarification of the possible connection between basic dimensions of
personality structure and basic dimensions of the universe of values would
significantly improve our existing scientific knowledge of personality. In the case of
confirming such connection it would lead to the new, more comprehensive and
integrated model of personality. The objective of this study was to examine the
relationship between top-level dimensions of both domains, the personality domain
and the domain of values. Thus, a correlational and multivariate investigation has
been carried out in order to accomplish this aim.
Method
Participants
388 subjects of both sexes and different ages participated in the study. The mean
age of the participants was about 21 years (year of study 3 & 4).
Materials
Musek Survey of Values (MSV) has been used in the study as the instrument
for measuring the importance of different values. The survey contains a list of 54
different values. The complete list of values is shown in English (see Appendix A).
The data from the MSV could be arranged to represent the scores for the
following four levels of value structure:
1. Single values.
2. Middle-range categories of values
3. Value types
4. Macro categories of values
Consequently, the scores from the MSV could be interpreted on respective level of
categorisation.
Personality dimensions have been measured by three different personality
questionnaires: Cattell's 16PF (16 primary factors of personality, so called stylistic
traits of personality, according to the Cattell's model of personality), EPQ (three basic
personality dimensions according to Eysenck's PEN model: extroversion, neuroticism
and psychoticism) and BFQ (measure of "big five" dimensions of personaliy,
according to B5 model of personality).
For the moment, only the data, obtained by Cattell's 16PF are available.
Consequently, the results reported here are limited to these data.
Procedure
The investigation was designed as a correlational and multivariate study of
values and personality traits. Each subject rated first the MLV containing 54 values,
one value after another on a 1 to 100 graded importance-rating scale. Subjects
received the lists of values with detailed instructions how to complete them. The
values were listed in the same order. The subjects rated them one after another using a
rating scale continuum from the minimum importance (grade 1) to the maximum
importance (grade 100). They were asked to rate the importance of the values
presented in the list as they personally felt.
After that, the participants answered the three before mentioned personality
questionnaires (16PF, EPQ, and BFQ).
All data of participants were collected, correlated and entered into the
correlation matrix disposed for further statistical analysis. Various multivariate
analyses, especially cluster and factor analyses were then performed in order to reveal
the structure of relationships between different values.
Results and discussion
We will focus now briefly on the results dealing with corresponding top levels of
taxonomic hierarchies in both domains of personality, in trait domain and in the value
domain. More precisely, we can examine the relationship between basic personality
dimensions, obtained by factor analysis of Cattell's primary factors, and four higher-order
categories of values or value types.
Factor analysis of 16 primary factors (including intelligence) yielded six latent
dimensions. They can be viewed as an approximation of Cattell's second-order factors, and
they also resemble very well three basic dimensions of Eysenck PEN model (extroversion,
neuroticism, and psychoticism) and five robust dimensions of personality in B5 model.
The extracted dimensions (Table 1) could be interpreted in sequential order as stability
(neuroticism), extroversion, open-mindedness, dominance, projection, and intelligence.
Table 1.
Basic latent dimensions of personality extracted from 16 primary personality factors.
Factors
123456
O-.758 .106 -.117
Q4 -.754 .250
C.706 .157 -.211
Q3 .456 -.343 -.425
F.121 .733 .147 .151
A-.173 .679 .383 -.191
Q2 -.672 .167 .197
H.477 .545 .430 -.111
I-.187 .684 -.145 -.220
Q1 .120 .122 .676 -.141 .259 .105
M-.174 .668 -.119 -.141
G-.753
E.176 .285 -.164 .690 .167
L-.190 .178 .741
N-.200 -.193 -.220 -.231 .672
B.955
As we can see from Table 2, factor analysis of six basic personality dimensions
and four value types yielded common factors that accounted essentially for the variance in
both domains of personality structure, in trait as well as in the value domain. The first
common dimension connects hedonic and potency (that means dionysian) values with
extroversion. The second common factor loads most heavily on fulfilment type, open-
mindedness and introversion. The third factor is high on stability and low on projection,
and is also somewhat connected with moral and fulfilment (apollonian) values. Finally, the
fourth factor could be interpreted as bipolar dimension between dominance and moral
value type.
Table 2.
Common factor loadings of basic personality and value dimensions (value types are printed in
cursive).
Factors
1234
HEDONIC TYPE .836 .123
POTENCY TYPE .613 .305 -.213 -.207
EXTROVERSION .517 -.376 .308 .137
OPENMINDEDNESS -.453 .416 .361
FULFILMENT TYPE .172 .782 .296 -.250
INTELLIGENCE -.566 .230
PROJECTION .118 -.653 .160
STABILITY .635 .119
DOMINANCE .356 .108 .156 .734
MORAL TYPE .368 .203 .213 -.726
The results of other multivariate analyses (cluster analyses and multidimensional
scaling) of the same data have been quite concordant to the results of factor analysis. The
results of canonical analyses are of particular interest for the reason that they stress the
common variance of both domains of personality. Table 3 presents the results of canonical
analysis of both sets of variables, basic personality dimensions and higher-range categories
of values. The canonical correlation between both sets is 0.64, indicating thus an essential
part of shared variance. The redundancy between both sets of variables was not high but
nevertheless very significant. Personality dimensions explained 13.21 percent of variance
in the value set, and values explained 10.62 percent of variance in the personality traits.
Canonical variates obtained in our analysis still resemble somehow the well-known basic
dimensions of personality from the Eysenck’s PEN model or E5 (big five) model of
personality. This is especially valid for the extroversion, which is clearly connected with
dionysian, particularly hedonistic values (in positive manner) and with fulfilment values
(in negative direction). The second clear connection is between dominance and hedonistic
values on the one hand and the moral values on the other. The corresponding canonical
dimension (the second variate) could be interpreted as close to the Eysenck's dimension of
psychoticism or to the agreeableness and conscientiousness factors in the big-five model.
Table 3.
Loadings of canonical variates (roots) on basic personality dimensions (first set) and value types
(second set).
Variables Canonical variates (roots)
1 2 3 4
First set
stability -.229 .295 .138 -.229
extroversion .633 -.069 -.131 -.428
open-mindedness -.711 .078 -.219 -.092
dominance .288 .821 -.485 .049
projection .216 .258 .630 .584
intelligence .097 -.303 -.467 .673
Second set
hedonistic .729 .515 -.134 -.430
potency .293 .173 .851 -.401
moral .082 -.508 -.098 -.852
fulfilment -.511 .439 -.012 -.739
The results of other analyses at the level of middle-range categories of values and
the single values only confirmed the above mentioned findings. We can conclude therefore
that the values and personality traits although representing rather independent segments of
our personality are also sharing some common dimensions. The shared dimensions could
be interpreted as close to both basic personality dimensions and basic categories of values
(see Table 4). Therefore, it is possible that the common dimensions of personality and
value universe emerged in our studies as overall personality dimensions (“the biggest”
factors of entire personality domain outside the intellect).
Table 4.
Assumed overall personality dimensions with corresponding dimensions of (narrower) personality
domain and domain of values.
OVERALL PERSONALITY DOMAIN VALUE DOMAIN
Cattell Eysenck B5
I. exvia
(F1)
extroversion extroversion hedonic
potency
dionysian
II. anxiety
(F2)
neuroticism neuroticism moral (-)
fulfilment (-)
apollonian
III. dominance
(+E, -G)
psychoticism agreeableness (-)
conscientiousness
moral (-)
IV. I, M, Q1 openness fulfilment
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DIONYSIAN
VALUES
APOLLONIAN
VALUES
highest range categories
(macrodimensions)
HEDONIC
TYPE
POTENCY
TYPE
MORAL
TYPE
FULFILLMENT
TYPE
higher range categories
(value types)
sensual
health
security
status
patriotic
legalism
traditional
family
societal
cultural
aesthetic
actualization
cognitive
religious
middle range categories
joy, entertainment,
sociability, exciting life,
comfortable life, sexual
satisfaction, good foof,
free movement,
frreedom
health
security, rest
power, reputation,
famousness, money,
overridig others,
patriotism, national
pride
order, laws
honesty, benevolence,
family happiness, good
partnership, love for
childre, love, hope
equity, national equality,
justice, (freedom)
culture, arts, crativity
beauty, nature
selfactualization,
knowledge, progress
truth, wisdom
faith in God
specific (single) values
peace, concordance,
diligence
longevity
political success,
Figure 1. Hierarchical structure of value universe. The categories of values drawn from our empirical
studies occupy all four levels of the hierarchical model. The details see in the text.
Connections between primary personality factors and middle-range categories of values
The correlations between values and personality traits, obtained in our analyses,
are low to moderate. The values and personality traits represent rather independent
domains of entire human personality (leaving the intellect as third great domain
temporarily aside). Nevertheless, there is a significant common variance between both sets
of variables (canonical R = 0,64). The canonical analyses of shared space of values and
personality traits yielded a number of common latent dimensions (canonical variates or
roots, showed on the table 1).
Table 1.
Canonical analysis of 16 primary personality traits (first set) and 11 middle-range categories of
values (second set): loadings for 4 significant canonical variates or roots.
Variables Variate 1 Variate 2 Variate 3 Variate 4
Personality factors set
A .573949 -.054390 .118323 .288644
B .049936 .309743 -.200881 -.045642
C -.149944 -.323726 -.000302 -.052496
E .321229 -.607591 -.109763 .229159
F .417022 -.278533 -.132229 .001423
G -.150332 .518281 .582746 -.031272
H .210319 -.367326 -.009695 .164039
I -.498505 .176468 -.169008 .312708
L .237928 -.274642 .377629 .155366
M -.493813 -.343435 .337407 .231903
N .212586 -.024768 .164362 -.532523
O .015241 .270541 -.145843 .269816
Q1 -.317985 -.162119 -.149991 .323974
Q2 -.453745 -.164592 -.019044 -.485577
Q3 -.163160 .145107 .371145 .175201
Q4 .409148 .218729 -.022171 .143002
Variables Variata 1 Variata 2 Variata 3 Variata 4
Value categories set
sensual .515416 -.363341 -.441979 .029092
security .303713 .102748 -.180262 .077143
status .573753 -.546427 .271674 .026020
patriotic .314834 -.082850 .492214 .361932
societal -.067766 .357699 -.191406 .487370
social .359059 .191577 -.189283 .404662
traditional -.050703 .264448 .129636 .082622
cultural -.271812 -.444709 -.286830 .256330
cognitive -.334457 -.271040 -.101246 .083096
actualisat. .027433 -.456014 .181458 .362510
religious -.361178 .169114 .182562 -.353567
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Gray (1981, 1982) holds that 2 general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and a behavioral activation system (BAS). Self-report scales to assess dispositional BIS and BAS sensitivities were created. Scale development (Study 1) and convergent and discriminant validity in the form of correlations with alternative measures are reported (Study 2). In Study 3, a situation in which Ss anticipated a punishment was created. Controlling for initial nervousness, Ss high in BIS sensitivity (assessed earlier) were more nervous than those low. In Study 4, a situation in which Ss anticipated a reward was created. Controlling for initial happiness, Ss high in BAS sensitivity (Reward Responsiveness and Drive scales) were happier than those low. In each case the new scales predicted better than an alternative measure. Discussion is focused on conceptual implications.
Article
It is suggested that the scientific status of psychology is put in danger by the lack of paradigms in many of its fields, and by the failure to achieve unification, psychology is breaking up into many different disciplines. One important cause was suggested by Lee Cronbach in his 1957 presidential address to the American Psychological Association: the continuing failure of the two scientific disciplines of psychology - the experimental and the correlational - to come together and mutually support each other. Personality study in particular has suffered from this disunity, and the debates about the number of major dimensions of personality illustrate the absurdity of the situation. Examples are given to show that by combining methods and theories typical of these two disciplines, one can put forward paradigms that would be impossible without such unification. Such a paradigm is suggested for personality and intelligence.