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A Brief History of the Wartegg test

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Wartegg’s drawing test (WZT, Wartegg Zeichen Test) was developed in the 1920’s and 30’s by the Austro-German psychologist Ehrig Wartegg (1897- 1983). While practically unknown in English-speaking countries, the WZT is widely used in continental Europe and Latin America. Wartegg was introduced in the 1920’s to mystical philosophies, modern art, psychoanalysis and Gestalt psychology that can be considered to be the roots of the WZT. Wartegg’s academic work on the WZT at the University of Leipzig during the 1930’s was based on the doctrine of Ganzheit psychology. The rise of Nazism, the Second World War and the postwar division of Germany hampered Wartegg’s work. Wartegg lived in eastern Germany, where the post-war communist government opposed Gestalt psychology and psychoanalysis and favoured Pavlovian theories. Several interpretation methods have been developed for the WZT, but none have yet been empirically validated. There has been very little research on the WZT, despite its popularity

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... No que se refere ao contexto desfavorável acerca das evidências de validade do Teste Wartegg, Roivainen (2009) salienta que a criação de critérios mais claros e objetivos para a atribuição dos códigos poderia favorecer melhores índices de evidências de validade, não limitando à necessidade de interpretações baseadas apenas em características idiográficas, muitas vezes, de caráter subjetivo. Essa consideração é complementada por Gronnerod e Gronnerod (2012), salientando a importância da ampliação dos estudos com o objetivo de desenvolver novos parâmetros para a técnica. ...
... Outro levantamento bibliográfico com resultados semelhantes foi realizado por Roivainen (2009) Roivainen (2009) ainda complementa que a maior parte dos artigos é de base teórica e, nos poucos estudos empíricos, os índices de evidências de validade e precisão são baixos ou não satisfatórios. ...
... Outro levantamento bibliográfico com resultados semelhantes foi realizado por Roivainen (2009) Roivainen (2009) ainda complementa que a maior parte dos artigos é de base teórica e, nos poucos estudos empíricos, os índices de evidências de validade e precisão são baixos ou não satisfatórios. ...
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Wartegg is an expressive graphic test focused on identifying aspects of personality. In order to find evidence of criterion validity for the same, this study included 40 individuals, equally divided into two groups, one consisting of schizophrenics and the other of subjects with no history of psychiatric pathology. After all participants had responded to the Wartegg Test, they were coded in the system proposed by Pessotto (2015). Results indicated that, of the 55 possible variables analyzed, 7 presented a significant difference between the groups. In the logistic regression it was possible to observe the predictive character of the variables with emphasis on poor Formal Quality (FQ) and Human Movement (M). For these two variables, combined use was observed as favorable, indicating evidence of criterion validity. Emphasis is given to the need for further research as this is an initial study with the system.
... The Wartegg Test or Complement Drawing Test is one of the self-expression techniques, originally developed by the German psychologist Ehrig Wartegg and presented to the scientifi c community for the fi rst time in 1937 in Germany under the name of the Wartegg Zeichentest -WZT (Freitas, 1993;Roivainen, 2009). It is an expressive, semi-structured graphical test that seeks to verify aspects of the personality, namely, emotion, imagination, intellect and activity (the latter found in the Brazilian literature as action or will). ...
... Even with these considerations, Roivainen (2009) reported that the Wartegg Test is practically unknown in Anglo-Saxon countries, however, its use is frequent in Latin America, Finland, Italy and Germany. In Brazil, it has been widely used in the organizational context, gaining prominence in the selection, evaluation and monitoring of professionals, as emphasized by Berlinck (2000). ...
... What stands out is the character, often purely idiographic, for the attribution of the criteria. This clinical information is important and composes part of the evaluation process, however, , 2009 emphasizes the need to extend validity evidence for the selfexpression techniques by creating systems that favor greater agreement between the evaluators through means of objective criteria. Villemor-Amaral and Pasqualini-Casado (2006) verifi ed that there are few studies of these techniques, based on psychometric parameters. ...
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The Wartegg Test is composed of eight squares with small graphical stimuli in which the person must elaborate drawings from them. Although existing for almost 80 years, it still features inconsistencies in terms of validity evidence and, therefore, its use in decision making. This research aimed to propose a new mode for coding and interpretation for the technique and was divided into two studies. In the first, five different systems were identified with the aim of verifying potential variables with greater discriminative power. In the second, six judges verified which Rorschach variables could be used in a similar way in the Wartegg Test. The new system proposed presents 13 groups of classification criteria, such as orientation, localization, size, content, quality of the objects, form quality, common response, particular characteristics, special codes, line pressure, line type, repetition, sequence analysis and title.
... The Wartegg Test or Complement Drawing Test is one of the self-expression techniques, originally developed by the German psychologist Ehrig Wartegg and presented to the scientifi c community for the fi rst time in 1937 in Germany under the name of the Wartegg Zeichentest -WZT (Freitas, 1993;Roivainen, 2009). It is an expressive, semi-structured graphical test that seeks to verify aspects of the personality, namely, emotion, imagination, intellect and activity (the latter found in the Brazilian literature as action or will). ...
... Even with these considerations, Roivainen (2009) reported that the Wartegg Test is practically unknown in Anglo-Saxon countries, however, its use is frequent in Latin America, Finland, Italy and Germany. In Brazil, it has been widely used in the organizational context, gaining prominence in the selection, evaluation and monitoring of professionals, as emphasized by Berlinck (2000). ...
... What stands out is the character, often purely idiographic, for the attribution of the criteria. This clinical information is important and composes part of the evaluation process, however, , 2009 emphasizes the need to extend validity evidence for the selfexpression techniques by creating systems that favor greater agreement between the evaluators through means of objective criteria. Villemor-Amaral and Pasqualini-Casado (2006) verifi ed that there are few studies of these techniques, based on psychometric parameters. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Wartegg Test is composed of eight squares with small graphical stimuli in which the person must elaborate drawings from them. Although existing for almost 80 years, it still features inconsistencies in terms of validity evidence and, therefore, its use in decision making. This research aimed to propose a new mode for coding and interpretation for the technique and was divided into two studies. In the first, five different systems were identified with the aim of verifying potential variables with greater discriminative power. In the second, six judges verified which Rorschach variables could be used in a similar way in the Wartegg Test. The new system proposed presents 13 groups of classification criteria, such as orientation, localization, size, content, quality of the objects, form quality, common response, particular characteristics, special codes, line pressure, line type, repetition, sequence analysis and title.
... Psico (Porto Alegre), 2018; 49(1), 73-80 O Teste de Wartegg, originalmente intitulado Wartegg Zeichentest, é um teste gráfico expressivo, semiestruturado, com o objetivo de avaliar aspectos ligados à personalidade tendo por base a estrutura perceptiva do sujeito, ou seja, a maneira como ele percebe os estímulos a seu redor, os processa, e à partir disso se comporta (Freitas, 1993;Roivainen, 2009). Esta concepção baseia-se no conceito de percepção/ apercepção em que o sujeito interage com o estímulo, revelando seu modo de interação de forma geral (Koffka, 1975;Werlang & Cunha, 1993). ...
... Contudo, o teste recebeu parecer desfavorável para uso pelo Conselho Federal de Psicologia por não atender os padrões mínimos necessários descritos na Resolução 002/2003(CFP, 2003. Sobre esta consideração, Roivainen (2009) verificou fragilidades nos critérios estabelecidos para interpretação dos desenhos, limitando assim as possibilidades de uso da técnica. Alguns autores (Gronnerod & Gronnerod, 2012;Roivainen, 2009;Silva, 2008) O segundo aborda as limitações metodológicas dos estudos realizados, salientando que muitos carecem de descrições detalhadas dos métodos, métodos empregados de forma errada, como a avaliação às cegas por exemplo, ou ainda, emprega-se correlações com instrumentos em formatos diferentes, como escalas de autorrelato, por exemplo, sem que haja ponderação desta condição nos resultados, em gerais, não favoráveis. ...
... Sobre esta consideração, Roivainen (2009) verificou fragilidades nos critérios estabelecidos para interpretação dos desenhos, limitando assim as possibilidades de uso da técnica. Alguns autores (Gronnerod & Gronnerod, 2012;Roivainen, 2009;Silva, 2008) O segundo aborda as limitações metodológicas dos estudos realizados, salientando que muitos carecem de descrições detalhadas dos métodos, métodos empregados de forma errada, como a avaliação às cegas por exemplo, ou ainda, emprega-se correlações com instrumentos em formatos diferentes, como escalas de autorrelato, por exemplo, sem que haja ponderação desta condição nos resultados, em gerais, não favoráveis. Por fim, o último grupo de questões averiguadas, diz respeito à falta do acúmulo de evidências de validade, visto que muitos dos estudos não abordam de forma suficiente publicações anteriores, sendo raras as citações cruzadas entre eles (Gronnerod & Gronnerod, 2012). ...
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Evidências de validade convergente são observadas à partir de estudos utilizando-se de variáveis externas que apresentem algum grau de relação. O presente estudo teve como objetivo verificar tais evidências para o teste de Wartegg utilizando o Rorschach (R-PAS). Optou-se pelo emprego da análise de cluster visto que ela utiliza tanto do coeficiente alfa como do beta, tido como mais conservador, para a estimação dos agrupamentos das variáveis. Participaram do estudo 40 sujeitos divididos em dois grupos, sendo um composto por pacientes com diagnóstico de esquizofrenia e outro por sujeitos sem histórico de diagnóstico psiquiátrico. As idades variaram entre 21 e 70 anos (M=40; DP=12,8) sendo 36 sujeitos do sexo masculino. Os resultados indicaram 7 agrupamentos de itens, sendo 6 compostos por variáveis dos dois instrumentos. Além disso, verificou-se por meio da análise de regressão logística que um dos agrupamentos apresenta significância na predição do diagnóstico de esquizofrenia.
... Villemor-Amaral (2008) acrescenta que a interpretação feita a partir de técnicas de autoexpressão deve utilizar parâmetros estruturais claros provenientes das teorias. , 2009) salienta a necessidade da ampliação de evidências de validade para as técnicas de autoexpressão criando-se sistemas que favoreçam maior concordância entre os avaliadores por meio de critérios objetivos. Segundo Villemor-Amaral e Pasqualini-Casado (2006) existe um número reduzido de estudos destas técnicas, baseados em parâmetros psicométricos. ...
... Dentre as técnicas de autoexpressão está o Teste de Wartegg que, desde 2003, encontra-se com parecer desfavorável no Sistema de Avaliação dos Testes Psicológicos (SATEPSI), em parte, devido à limitações em seu sistema de codificação. A este respeito, Roivainen (2009) salienta que a criação de critérios de caráter mais objetivos referente às frequências de respostas e à própria interpretação das variáveis poderiam favorecer melhores índices de precisão, minimizando o caráter subjetivo da correção e interpretação. ...
... Sobre estudos de precisão realizados com o Teste de Wartegg, alguns autores (Gronnerod & Gronnerod, 2012;Roivainen, 2009;Silva, 2008) verificaram primeiramente, o reduzido número de produções em comparação com outras técnicas de autoexpressão. De forma geral, observaram ainda que a maioria apresenta índices psicométricos não satisfatórios, e outros, por terem sido encontrados apenas os resumos de apresentações em congressos, não indicam a partir de que dados ou variáveis foram evidenciados, o que torna difícil a compreensão dos resultados apresentados. ...
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Dentre os parâmetros psicométricos necessários para o uso de testes psicológicos está a precisão que, de forma geral, indica a consistência dos resultados. Uma das formas de verificação deste parâmetro é a concordância entre juízes, expressa num índice que informa o grau de concordância de protocolos avaliados por diferentes profissionais. Com o objetivo de verificar a concordância entre juízes para o Teste de Wartegg, o presente estudo contou com 4 juízes avaliando 8 protocolos de forma independente (às cegas). Os resultados indicaram coeficientes kappa variando de 0,23 à 0,74 para os protocolos, sendo que, para algumas variáveis os valores foram mais altos. De forma geral, embora tenham se encontrado bom grau de concordância entre as codificações dos juízes para alguns critérios, outros demonstraram-se não estar claros de forma suficiente. Neste sentido, se fazem necessárias reformulações dos critérios evidenciados como ruins a fim de favorecer o desenvolvimento do sistema proposto.
... The Wartegg Zeichen Test (WZT, or Wartegg Drawing Completion Test) was introduced by Ehrig Wartegg (1939) as a method of personality evaluation within the Gestalt psychological tradition in Leipzig, Germany (on the early history of the method, see Klemperer, 2000;Lockot, 2000;Roivainen, 2009). The WZT form consists of a standard A4-sized paper sheet with eight 4 cm ϫ 4 cm squares in two rows on the upper half of the sheet. ...
... The test person's task is to make a complete drawing using the printed sign as a part of the picture (see Figures 2 and 3) and then give a short written explanation or title of each drawing on the lower part of the sheet. Wartegg's (1939) early work includes of a presentation of how different personality types (synthesizing, analytical, and integrated) react in different ways to the small and simple geometrical figures, producing drawings according to the person's typical ways of perceiving and reacting (see also Roivainen, 2009;Wass & Mattlar, 2000). Theoretically, the Wartegg traditions can be categorized into analytical systems of interpretation, which regard the printed signs as visual stimuli (e.g., Kukkonen, 1962a;Takala, 1957;Takala & Hakkarainen, 1953), and dynamic systems (e.g., Crisi, 1998;Gardziella, 1985;Kinget, 1952;Lossen & Schott, 1952;Wass & Mattlar, 2000), which argue that the printed signs have certain symbolic meanings representing certain areas of individual psychology (Tamminen & Lindeman, 2000). ...
... The small number of empirical studies using the Wartegg method has indeed been noted by several Wartegg authors as well (Kuuskorpi & Keskinen, 2008;Puonti, 2005;Roivainen, 1997Roivainen, , 2006Roivainen, , 2009Tamminen & Lindeman, 2000). Tamminen and Lindeman (2000, p. 326) assumed that international journals are not interested in publishing articles on a method that they (unfortunately quite incorrectly) claim is used only in Finland. ...
Article
All available studies on the Wartegg Zeichen Test (WZT; Wartegg, 1939) were collected and evaluated through a literature overview and a meta-analysis. The literature overview shows that the history of the WZT reflects the geographical and language-based processes of marginalization where relatively isolated traditions have lived and vanished in different parts of the world. The meta-analytic review indicates a high average interscorer reliability of rw = .74 and high validity effect size for studies with clear hypotheses of rw = .33. Although the results were strong, we conclude that the WZT research has not been able to establish cumulative knowledge of the method because of the isolation of research traditions.
... Creative imagination is measured using the Wartegg Test. The wartegg test is a drawing test that has eight 4 cm x 4 cm squares arranged in two lines [18]. This wartegg test has a high-reliability score (0,74) and has high validity [19]. ...
... This wartegg test can be used as an instrument of personality evaluation which is not bound by language [19]. This test is based on the ability of the content and qualitative aspects of the image to describe a person's personality [18]. One component of personality that can be evaluated through the Wartegg test is creative imagination. ...
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The purpose of this study is to identify the level of the creative imagination of biology education students in detail based on the components of creative imagination on the wartegg test. The study was conducted with a descriptive method at one of the state universities in Bandung. The research sample was 86 of 121 undergraduate students in biology education in the 7th semester of 2019/2020 who took the bio entrepreneur course. The instrument used was the wartegg test which has a high-reliability score (0.74) and high validity. The results showed that 48% of students had creative imagination in the low category, 28% in the very low category, 17% in the medium category, 5% in the high category, and 2% in the very high category. The components that dominate the score of creative imagination are expansion components (31%), fancy (19%), and symbolism (13%). High scores obtained by students are 20% in the dark shading component. In general, the category of students’ creative imagination is in a low category. Students’ creative imagination is dominated by sensitivity and openness, healthy creative imagination, beyond the environment, still realistic, and balanced with the values of life. Most students have a strong and consistent creative imagination.
... The Wartegg Zeichen Test (or WZT for short) is a widely adopted personality evaluation instrument known for its drawing completion technique [1,2]. WZT suggests that personality could be projected through the way a person constructs the graphic elements from semi-structured signs [3]. ...
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Wartegg test is a widely adopted personality evaluation instrument known for its drawing completion technique. Employee personality data, for instance, can be sorted by the closest similarity with the expected characters. Whereas, Wartegg test plays a significant role in data similarity filtering. Despite the potential contribution of personal characters identification technique, practical guidance is rarely found in the literature. This paper demonstrates the usage of cosine-similarity method for data similarity filtering on Wartegg personality test. The method used in this study is a case study, in which will be selected several Wartegg test subjects. By using the value of each character aspect derived from the Wartegg test, the cosine-similarity value will be calculated against the expected/ideal aspect character. Based on this value, the Wartegg test subjects will be filtered based on similarity to the expected/ideal character aspects. A technical procedure to perform the method is also presented in this paper. In order to find out the effectiveness, sample data scores of each character aspect from five test subjects, and also the ideal scores of the expected characters are given. By using FWAT, a graphical representation of the test subjects' characters to the ideal characters is generated. Then, this graph was compared to the results obtained from the cosine-similarity method. Drawn from the results, the cosine-similarity is effectively applied for Wartegg test data similarity filtering.
... Reprint and any form of reproduction are forbidden. Roivainen (2009) noted that over the last decades different WDCT interpretation manuals have been published, for example, in Sweden (Wass & Mattlar, 2000), Switzerland (Avé-Lallement, 1994), Finland (Gardziella, 1985), and Italy (Crisi, 1998(Crisi, , 2007. Soilevuo Grønnerød and Grønnerød (2012) published a literature overview and meta-analysis on the use of the WDCT and concluded that the existence of too many different traditions and scoring systems have so far failed to produce cumulative empirical evidences to strongly support the method. ...
Article
A broad range of literature reported higher rates of psychopathology and personality disorders among patients affected by skin conditions. Specifically, depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideations are more frequently reported by patients affected by skin diseases. This study aimed to examine psychopathology and personality in a group of patients affected by psoriasis by means of a self-report measure (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory - MCMI-III) and a performance-based technique (Wartegg Drawing Completion Test [WDCT], CWS). Study results showed a higher rate of passive-Aggressiveness and paranoia among psoriatic patients (MCMI-III). When assessing patients through the performancebased technique (WDCT, CWS), a higher rate of global rejection (GR) - linked by previous literature to suicidal ideation -And a lower affective quality of the drawings emerged. We discuss the clinical importance of detecting psychological issues in dermatology patients by means of a multimethod assessment that goes beyond patients' self-evaluation of their symptoms and emotions.
... References: [63][64][65]. ...
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In this chapter, I will (1) review the concept and function of projective mechanisms on a psychodynamic basis. In this section, I will outline the relation of projection to the unconscious, its use in innerpsychic dynamics, and the underlying mechanisms for its use in psychotherapy like creativity, imagination, and symbolization; (2) give an overview over the use of projective methods for testing and diagnosis in the psychological sciences; and (3) exemplify the use of projective methods in diagnostics and psychotherapy of children and adolescents. I will present current methods based on drawing, verbally describing and imaginating, and playing arts, focusing on sand play therapy and miniature figure play. First, construction techniques provide the material for creative processes such as drawing or writing, for example, pencil and paper for the various drawing tasks.
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Wartegg is a personality projective drawing test frequently used in job selection processes, however with scarce validity studies. The present research intended to investigate validity evidences for this test, comparing it with three instruments: 16PF, BPR-5 and Performance Assessment Questionnaire. The participants were 131 people, with ages raging from 16 to 65 years old, from both genders. Few significant correlations were found between the test, some being coherent, and others being incoherent with the Wartegg's interpretation suggestions. A large part of the classical interpretations didn't correlate significantly with the other tests' results. Based on this study, there are not enough evidences for Wartegg's professional use.
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The Wartegg drawing test was developed in the 1930s at the University of Leipzig by the Austro-German psychologist Ehrig Wartegg (1897&endash;1983). Wartegg lived an intense life and was introduced in the 1920s to psychoanalysis, gestalt psychology, mystical philosophies and modern art &endash; the roots of Wartegg’s test. Wartegg was a member of the NSDAP in the 1930’s and remained in the GDR after the war. However, Wartegg’s test is based on theories and philosophy that were opposed by both nazis and communists, but were valued by Wartegg himself.
Although projective techniques continue to be widely used in clinical and forensic settings, their scientific status remains highly controversial. In this monograph, we review the current state of the literature concerning the psychometric properties (norms, reliability, validity, incremental validity, treatment utility) of three major projective instruments: Rorschach Inkblot Test, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), and human figure drawings. We conclude that there is empirical support for the validity of a small number of indexes derived from the Rorschach and TAT. However, the substantial majority of Rorschach and TAT indexes are not empirically supported. The validity evidence for human figure drawings is even more limited. With a few exceptions, projective indexes have not consistently demonstrated incremental validity above and beyond other psychometric data. In addition, we summarize the results of a new meta-analysis intended to examine the capacity of these three instruments to detect child sexual abuse. Although some projective instruments were better than chance at detecting child sexual abuse, there were virtually no replicated findings across independent investigative teams. This meta-analysis also provides the first clear evidence of substantial file drawer effects in the projectives literature, as the effect sizes from published studies markedly exceeded those from unpublished studies. We conclude with recommendations regarding the (a) construction of projective techniques with adequate validity, (b) forensic and clinical use of projective techniques, and (c) education and training of future psychologists regarding projective techniques. © 2000 Association for Psychological Science.
Article
The Rorschach is used to assess personality and mental illness across a wide range of circumstances: child custody disputes, educational placement decisions, employment and termination proceedings, parole determinations, and even investigations of child abuse allegations. This book challenges the validity and utility of the inkblot test and explains why psychologists continue to judge people by their reactions to inkblots, in spite of a half century of largely negative scientific evidence against the test. Surveying more than fifty years of clinical and scholarly research, the authors provide compelling scientific evidence that the Rorschach has relatively little value for diagnosing mental illness, assessing personality, predicting behavior, or uncovering sexual abuse or other trauma. The authors also present a reasoned case against using the test in the courtroom or consulting room--and reveal the strong psychological, economic and political forces that continue to support the Rorschach despite the research that has exposed its shortcomings and dangers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The editor Eugen Heuss summarizes in the introduction Krueger's researches into the wholeness of human psychology and his epistemological investigations into the "soul, this borderline concept of philosophy and Weltanschauung." Reprinted are the 9 principal contributions during the two decades when the author occupied the Chair of Psychology and Philosophy at Leipzig, and helped to found the "Second Leipzig School of Psychology." The papers include "the depth-dimension and contradictions of the emotional life" (1918), "the structural basis of emotion and will" (1936), "on psychic wholeness" (1926), "experiental wholeness and the structure of the soul" (1930), and "developmental psychology of wholeness" (1939). 71-item bibliography. Portrait. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Background: The goal of this study was to investigate whether the results of assessments of alexithymia based on a self-report questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), correlates with those based on drawing content in the Wartegg Drawing Completion Test (WZT). It was hypothesized that high alexithymia scores in the TAS are negatively correlated to the number of human drawings in the WZT. Method: Subjects were 83 patients of the Oulu Deaconess Institute, Oulu, Finland. Results: The TAS mean score for subjects with no human drawings was 56.0 compared to 45.4 for those with one or more human drawings (p
Article
Kohler's work first appeared in 1917, under the title Intelligenzprufen an Anthropoiden. The English translation of the second revised edition, under the title given above, was first published in 1924 and is adapted for this chapter. Two sets of interests lead us to test the intelligence of the higher apes. We are aware that it is a question of beings which in many ways are nearer to man than to the other ape species; in particular it has been shown that the chemistry of their bodies, in so far as it may be perceived in the quality of the blood, and the structure of their most highly-developed organ, the brain, are more closely related to the chemistry of the human body and human brain-structure than to the chemical nature of the lower apes and their brain development. These beings show so many human traits in their "everyday" behaviour that the question naturally arises whether they do not behave with intelligence and insight under conditions which require such behaviour. This question expresses the first, one may say, naive, interest in the intellectual capacity of animals. We wished to ascertain the degree of relationship between anthropoid apes and man in a field which seems to us particularly important, but on which we have as yet little information. The second aim is theoretical. Even assuming that the anthropoid ape behaves intelligently in the sense in which the word is applied to man, there is yet from the very start no doubt that he remains in this respect far behind man, becoming perplexed and making mistakes in relatively simple situations; but it is precisely for this reason that we may, under the simplest conditions, gain knowledge of the nature of intelligent acts. In the field of the experiments carried out here the insight of the chimpanzee shows itself to be principally determined by his optical apprehension of the situation; at times he even starts solving problems from a too visual point of view, and in many cases in which the chimpanzee stops acting with insight, it may have been simply that the structure of the situation was too much for his visual grasp (relative "weakness of form perception"). It is therefore difficult to give a satisfactory explanation of all his performances, so long as no detailed theory of form (Gestalt) has been laid as a foundation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Vita. Thesis (D. Ed.)--Pennsylvania State University.
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Eka Roivainen, born 1962, is a clinical psychologist at Oulu Deaconess Institute, Oulu, Finland. He obtained his MA in psychology in 1988 from the University of Tampere, Finland. Research interests include the scientific study of performance-based methods in personality assessment. Address: Oulu Deaconess Institute, PL 365, 90100 Oulu, Finland. E-mail: eka.roivainen@odl.fi
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Befragung zum Stand der Testanwendung in der allgemeinen Berufs- Studien-und Laufbahnbereitung in der deutschen Schweiz [e use of tests in vocational counselling in German–speaking Switzerland
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Wartegg-luotettava persoonallisuustesti vai maagista ajattelua ? [Wartegg -A valid personality test or magical thinking
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