Article

Using Space Syntax to Model Pedestrian Movement in Urban Transportation Planning

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Abstract

Transportation planning is changing. What used to be a concern with motorized vehicles only is evolving into a discipline dealing with multimodal systems where priority is given to transit and nonmotorized means of transport, chief among them being walking. The city of Bat Yam in Israel has chosen to pioneer planning for pedestrians as an integral component of its transportation master plan. This article presents a novel use of pedestrian movement modeling within urban transportation planning, by means of pedestrian movement volume prediction maps for the city, both at its current state today and at its future state planned for the year 2030. The study shows that a pedestrian movement distribution can be explained mainly by the spatial variables that represent properties of a street network. Changes to this network structure are relatively rare, and, therefore, pedestrian movement will not change in a fundamental way in the future. Furthermore, by overlaying the models for pedestrian movement and motorized traffic, as well as the underlying public transit and bicycle networks, focus can be on those streets and places where conflicts among the various road users (i.e., pedestrians, bicycles, transit vehicles, and private cars) are expected.

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... Although prior research has attempted to capture the pedestrian volume of urban spaces (Raford and Ragland 2006), the intrinsic complexity of cities (Batty 2013) made it impossible to predict urban movement patterns through a single perspective of street network. While it is widely acknowledged that the space syntax approach is an effective method of simulating human movement patterns (Law et al. 2014;Lerman et al. 2014;Liu et al. 2018;Mohamed 2016), some point to its limitations, arguing that it overemphasizes the configurational aspect of urban spaces (Ozbil et al. 2011;Ratti 2004). Urban morphologists state that morphological variables such as density, land use, and transportation are equally important in modelling movement patterns in urban areas (Marcus 2010;Pont and Marcus 2015). ...
... Given that this approach relies heavily on the street network, a body of research seeks to introduce new morphological variables to the modelling process (Omer and Kaplan 2017;Ye et al. 2017;Ye and van Nes 2014). However, few have delved into the functional attractors or the subcategorization of functional factors and their interrelationship with the structure of the built environment (Lerman et al. 2014;Obeidat and Al-Hashimi 2015;Omer and Goldblatt 2016). With the increased use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to conduct quantitative analysis of urban form and the open urban data available to urban designers, planners, architects, and urban scholars, a burgeoning body of literature has reported the successful integration of space syntax into GIS (Gil et al. 2015;Jiang and Claramunt 2002;Li et al. 2017) and the simultaneous advancement of research methods (see works by Knöll et al. 2018;Long et al. 2018;Niu et al. 2017). ...
... For the other three districts, no correlation is reported, except for some correlations at the local scale in the Jiefang Lu district. In contrast to our research, previous studies have reported significantly higher correlations between simulation results and actual pedestrian volume, with R-squared values from 0.5 to 0.8 and even higher (for example, Hillier and Iida 2005;Lerman et al. 2014;Raford and Ragland 2006). We attribute this discrepancy to the outliers in the observed data resulting from the unforeseeable pedestrian volume created by tourists. ...
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The space syntax approach has been widely applied in urban studies and practices to investigate urban form and predict pedestrian movement patterns. Prior research has identified the ‘circular causality’ associated with the ontology of space syntax, indicating that network structure and functional attractors are mutually reinforced by movement patterns in urban spaces. Using the city of Xi’an as a case study, this research aims to deepen the understanding of urban form and human movement patterns from a new perspective that integrates the space syntax approach with multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). To quantify the city’s attractors and gauge their impacts on its urban form, this research uses available open urban datasets, including street networks from OpenStreetMap (OSM) and Point of Interest (POI) data. Facilitated by sensitivity analysis (SA), the findings suggest that the functional distinctiveness of districts plays a nuanced role in attracting and generating pedestrian flow. It is therefore essential to introduce a ‘real-time’ representation of urban spaces to supplement our conventional understanding.
... Several empirical studies have shown positive correlations between integration and the presence of pedestrians [5,[7][8][9]; in this regard, it can be argued that more integrated street segments attract more pedestrians partly because of the presence of various economic activities along them [4]. Lerman et al. (2014) [8] suggested pedestrian movement analysis to predict the future results of urban planning as well as to offer specific recommendations for areas where conflicts arise between cars and pedestrians. ...
... Several empirical studies have shown positive correlations between integration and the presence of pedestrians [5,[7][8][9]; in this regard, it can be argued that more integrated street segments attract more pedestrians partly because of the presence of various economic activities along them [4]. Lerman et al. (2014) [8] suggested pedestrian movement analysis to predict the future results of urban planning as well as to offer specific recommendations for areas where conflicts arise between cars and pedestrians. Kooshari et al. (2016) [10] have proposed an alternative walkability index based on the concept of Space Syntax. ...
... Several empirical studies have shown positive correlations between integration and the presence of pedestrians [5,[7][8][9]; in this regard, it can be argued that more integrated street segments attract more pedestrians partly because of the presence of various economic activities along them [4]. Lerman et al. (2014) [8] suggested pedestrian movement analysis to predict the future results of urban planning as well as to offer specific recommendations for areas where conflicts arise between cars and pedestrians. Kooshari et al. (2016) [10] have proposed an alternative walkability index based on the concept of Space Syntax. ...
Article
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Space Syntax theory is a methodological framework for describing and analysing the relationships between spaces and buildings. The fundamental building blocks of Space Syntax are called axial lines, which represent lines of sight from a specific point in space. These lines can then be used to quantitatively analyse the integration (or attractiveness) of an area. However, many public squares and transport hubs are crossed by roads which prove a hinderance when walking although not impairing the sightlines of pedestrians. The aim of this paper is to test how this limitation affects the concept and whether Space Syntax is still useful to understand how people move in such areas. Seven public squares and transport hubs in Malmö (Sweden) were selected and their Space Syntax integration was calculated. These values were compared with pedestrian detections from the same areas based on video recordings from a drone. When aggregating the areas into several levels based on their integration value, the result shows a clear link between Space Syntax integration and the number of pedestrian detections made at each location, demonstrating how this measure could be useful for understanding micromobility usage on a small scale.
... Given the above discussion, the aim of the spaces syntax method is studying spatial configuration in how patterns of human co-presence emerge in the network [5] which can assign the sociability potential of urban spaces. Hence, Yoav and his colleague [11] explain that this methodology is based on topological-visual analysis of a built environment that in an attempt aims to explain the movement patterns of both vehicles and pedestrians in urban space [12,13] affecting the floating urban flows, not only movements like pedestrian and traffic but also land-use distribution [12,14]. ...
... Natural movement is directly affected by the integration value and connectivity of some parts of the urban fabric to the adjacent urban fabric. Natural movement analysis is performed by an axial map, which shows the degree of visual accessibility from the perspective of a person moving in urban space [11]. ...
... Necessarily, some indicators should be defined to know how to interpret the results of the depthmap analysis, including connectivity, integration (HH, n, R3) and depth. Connectivity measures the number of immediate neighbors that are local measures and reflects the number of axial lines directly intersecting each line in a network [11] and has a direct relationship with integration. Integration as the other indicator reflects the average topological distance (number of direction changes) from each line to all the other lines in a network [11] and it is a static global measure, describing the average depth of space to all other spaces in the system. ...
... That is, for every human movement decision within a city space, there are certain unified causes based on the connectivity pattern of that space to every other space within the spatial network (Hiller and . Nowadays, the theory's applicability has extended beyond architectural (building) investigations to more city space analyses, including areas of city planning Hillier and Lida, 2005;Karimi, 2012;Stonor, 2013;Lerman et al., 2014), land value assessment , urban land use studies Lerman et al., 2014), city crime detection analysis (Jones and Fanek, 1997;Hillier, 2004;Wu et al., 2015) and many others. One of the factors responsible for the extensive applicability of space syntax is the development of space syntax ideologies in computer algorithms that has allowed street segment analysis to be conducted through the spatial configuration technique using road centre lines (otherwise known as street map data) (Penn et al., 1998;Figuerdio, 2015). ...
... That is, for every human movement decision within a city space, there are certain unified causes based on the connectivity pattern of that space to every other space within the spatial network (Hiller and . Nowadays, the theory's applicability has extended beyond architectural (building) investigations to more city space analyses, including areas of city planning Hillier and Lida, 2005;Karimi, 2012;Stonor, 2013;Lerman et al., 2014), land value assessment , urban land use studies Lerman et al., 2014), city crime detection analysis (Jones and Fanek, 1997;Hillier, 2004;Wu et al., 2015) and many others. One of the factors responsible for the extensive applicability of space syntax is the development of space syntax ideologies in computer algorithms that has allowed street segment analysis to be conducted through the spatial configuration technique using road centre lines (otherwise known as street map data) (Penn et al., 1998;Figuerdio, 2015). ...
... • connectivity: it is a local variable that indicates the number of elements directly connected to a space; • choice: represents the flow present through a space (a high value is obtained when there are short paths that connect several spaces); • integration: it is a global measure of accessibility that indicates the minimum number of steps of a graph necessary to reach a point from another; this parameter can be evaluated either locally, by means of a so-called "topological radius" (usually equal to 3) or a buffer-based metric (usually 400 m) [43,44] which appears to be the best predictor of small-scale movements [45][46][47] or globally (with a topological radius n) ...
... • connectivity: it is a local variable that indicates the number of elements directly connected to a space; • choice: represents the flow present through a space (a high value is obtained when there are short paths that connect several spaces); • integration: it is a global measure of accessibility that indicates the minimum number of steps of a graph necessary to reach a point from another; this parameter can be evaluated either locally, by means of a so-called "topological radius" (usually equal to 3) or a buffer-based metric (usually 400 m) [43,44] which appears to be the best predictor of small-scale movements [45][46][47] or globally (with a topological radius n) which predicts large-scale movements (including vehicle movements, because people on longer journeys will tend to read the grid in a more globalized way) [48]. This index presents several mathematical formulations [49][50][51][52], the most immediate seems to be the one reported by Raford and Regland [13]: ...
Article
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Background: Since the beginning of the new millennium, sensitivity towards the environment has been spreading globally. In fact, countries are adopting measures to develop new decision support tools that can evaluate the impact of interventions to promote and encourage sustainable mobility. To reduce the levels of pollution related to road traffic, policies that favor multimodal transport alternatives have been strengthened. This involves the combined use of public transport, cycling and walking paths, as well as sharing services where available. Regardless of the type of transport, the pedestrian component remains relevant in cities, even if the infrastructures are often not adequate to accommodate it and conflicts arise that must be managed. It is, therefore, necessary to assess the exposure to risk in terms of road safety. Methods: To this end, the work proposes a forecasting model to estimate the pedestrian flows that load the network. The methodology employs a hybrid approach that appears to better capture the movements of pedestrians. Results: By comparing the results of the model with the real data collected on the study area, satisfactory estimates were obtained. Conclusions: Therefore, this can be an effective tool to help road managers to evaluate the actions to protect vulnerable users.
... Indeed, the literature identifies choice or option as the spac e syntax measure that has stronger and more consistent correlation with pedestrian movement , than other conventional syntactic measures (Bill Hillier et al., 2012). This is because pedestrians are more likely to choose t he visually short est route out of the competitive routes in a network (Lerman et al., 2014). ...
... Among the space syntax indicat ors, choice and depth are statistically and positively associated with the dependent variable. It is related to the fact that pedestrians tend to choose the visually shortest route out of the competitive routes in the street network(Bill Hillier, Y ang, & Turner, 2012;Lerman, Rofè, & Omer, 2014), especially when they do not know the layout of the built environment through which t hey are moving, as is the case of cruise tourists visiting Tarragona. In contrast, we have detected a statistically significant negative association with the dependent variable in relation to the presence of resident-orient ed businesses. ...
Article
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The article studies the relationship between the characteristics of the built environment and the spatial behaviour of cruise passengers in a city. For this purpose, the mobility of cruise passengers visiting the city of Tarragona (Catalonia) is monitored by means of GPS tracking technologies and analysed through the use of GIS. Consideration has been given to diverse and multiple indicators related to the syntax of the urban space, its physical attributes, the economic activity and the visibility of tourist points of interest. Results show that the visibility of tourist points of interest and the type of economic activity have more influence than other factors related to the characteristics of the urban layout. The resulting information is particularly valuable for city management.
... Indeed, the literature identifies choice or option as the spac e syntax measure that has stronger and more consistent correlation with pedestrian movement , than other conventional syntactic measures (Bill Hillier et al., 2012). This is because pedestrians are more likely to choose t he visually short est route out of the competitive routes in a network (Lerman et al., 2014). ...
... Among the space syntax indicat ors, choice and depth are statistically and positively associated with the dependent variable. It is related to the fact that pedestrians tend to choose the visually shortest route out of the competitive routes in the street network(Bill Hillier, Y ang, & Turner, 2012;Lerman, Rofè, & Omer, 2014), especially when they do not know the layout of the built environment through which t hey are moving, as is the case of cruise tourists visiting Tarragona. In contrast, we have detected a statistically significant negative association with the dependent variable in relation to the presence of resident-orient ed businesses. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article studies the relationship between the characteristics of the built environment and the spatial behaviour of cruise passengers in a city. For this purpose, the mobility of cruise passengers visiting the city of Tarragona (Catalonia) is monitored by means of GPS tracking technologies and analysed through the use of GIS. Consideration has been given to diverse and multiple indicators related to the syntax of the urban space, its physical attributes, the economic activity and the visibility of tourist points of interest. Results show that the visibility of tourist points of interest and the type of economic activity have more influence than other factors related to the characteristics of the urban layout. The resulting information is particularly valuable for city management.
... ese approaches consider spatial structure by quantifying the importance of network elements in terms of how central they are in relation to other network elements [10]. Studies have shown that centrality measures derived from urban street networks are capable of explaining a significant proportion of pedestrian activity in a variety of different urban settings with minimal data requirements [8,[11][12][13][14][15][16][17]. ...
... In short, these studies have shown that streets that are more "integrated" (or accessible within fewer direction changes) attract higher pedestrian numbers. For example, fundamental studies in London have found axial integration able to predict pedestrian activity in the range of 55-75% [12,15,40,48] with similar ranges also reported in other European capitals [49]. Betweenness centrality has also been shown to powerfully predict pedestrian activity with Law and Traunmueller's [17] results indicating that betweenness accounted for more than 50% of observed pedestrian movement in their London study sites. ...
Article
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Studies have shown that street network centrality measures are capable of explaining a significant proportion of pedestrian activity. These studies typically employ street centreline networks that differ significantly from the networks that pedestrians use to traverse the built environment. Presently, centrality approaches are rarely applied to dedicated pedestrian network (DPNs). This creates uncertainty regarding their ability to explain pedestrian activity when derived from DPNs. This study addresses that gap by investigating the extent to which centrality metrics derived from DPNs can explain observed pedestrian densities, both alone and when controlling for other built environment variables in metro station environments in Asia. In total, four DPNs were created centred on metro stations in Bangkok, Manila, Osaka, and Taipei chosen to represent different urban typologies. Multivariate results show that centrality metrics alone explain a mere 6–24% of observed pedestrian densities when calculated on DPNs. When all factors are considered, the contribution of centrality remained consistent in most study sites but is somewhat reduced with land-use variables and proximity to rail transit revealed as the strongest predictors of pedestrian density. Pedestrian design factors were also frequently associated with pedestrian density. Finally, stronger associations between centrality and pedestrian densities were observed in the denser, more complex pedestrian environments. These findings provide insight into the performance of centrality measures applied to DPNs expanding pedestrian network research in this area.
... That is, for every human movement decision within a city space, there are certain unified causes based on the connectivity pattern of that space to every other space within the spatial network (Hiller and . Nowadays, the theory's applicability has extended beyond architectural (building) investigations to more city space analyses, including areas of city planning (Jiang et al., 2000;Hillier and Lida, 2005;Karimi, 2012;Stonor, 2013;Lerman et al., 2014), land value assessment (Chiaradia et al., 2009;Law et al., 2013, Muldoon-Smith et al., 2015, Giannopoulou et al., 2016, urban land use studies (Peponis et al., 2008;Lerman et al., 2014), city crime detection analysis (Jones and Fanek, 1997;Hillier, 2004;Wu et al., 2015) and many others. One of the factors responsible for the extensive applicability of space syntax is the development of space syntax ideologies in computer algorithms that has allowed street segment analysis to be conducted through the spatial configuration technique using road centre lines (otherwise known as street map data) (Penn et al., 1998;Figuerdio, 2015). ...
... That is, for every human movement decision within a city space, there are certain unified causes based on the connectivity pattern of that space to every other space within the spatial network (Hiller and . Nowadays, the theory's applicability has extended beyond architectural (building) investigations to more city space analyses, including areas of city planning (Jiang et al., 2000;Hillier and Lida, 2005;Karimi, 2012;Stonor, 2013;Lerman et al., 2014), land value assessment (Chiaradia et al., 2009;Law et al., 2013, Muldoon-Smith et al., 2015, Giannopoulou et al., 2016, urban land use studies (Peponis et al., 2008;Lerman et al., 2014), city crime detection analysis (Jones and Fanek, 1997;Hillier, 2004;Wu et al., 2015) and many others. One of the factors responsible for the extensive applicability of space syntax is the development of space syntax ideologies in computer algorithms that has allowed street segment analysis to be conducted through the spatial configuration technique using road centre lines (otherwise known as street map data) (Penn et al., 1998;Figuerdio, 2015). ...
Thesis
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Abstract The influence of consumer activities on the performance of retail locations and retail property market in cities can be critical. This is because where and how retail consumers choose to transact influences the locational performance of retail property markets in cities. This study investigates relationships between consumer movement and the performance of retail property markets (RPM) between 2010 and 2017 in York, Leeds and Newcastle. The study adopts the spatial configuration (street segment) analysis technique to compute consumer movement patterns (CMP) on the sampled cities’ layouts using DepthMapX to obtain the CMP variables; specifically, integration, choice and NACH metrics. The RPM data were sourced from valuation summary lists belonging to the VOA dataset and analysed using MS Access and MS Excel to obtain RPM variables, namely, changes in retail rental value and changes in retail stock across locations. The study investigates the spatial and statistical relationships between the CMP and RPM variables of cities at mesoscales and macroscales using QGIS and SPSS tools, respectively. The spatial investigations visualise locational relationships between changes in RPM variables and the spatial accessibility index of the CMP variables. The statistical analyses adopted Spearman-rho coefficients to investigate the rank correlation between the RPM and CMP variables. Further statistical (multiple regression) analysis were undertaken to estimate the locational performance of the RPM (dependent variable) using the CMP (independent variables) across all the estimable city layouts. Findings show that there are significant relationships between changes in retail rental value and all the CMP variables at York mesoscale, Leeds mesoscale and Newcastle macroscale. The results indicate that the relationship between configured consumer movement and changes in retail rental value are influenced by scale and city characteristics. The research is the first to estimate the location performance of commercial property by way of spatial configuration analysis. The research outputs are useful tools for retail property market actors to make locational decisions on investments, occupation, development and the strategic management of urban retail space. The study recommends further studies on the prospects of spatial configuration analysis and other methods in estimating the future performance of the commercial property market for optimum utilisation and the management of urban resources.
... Later, by comparing the pedestrian volume from field survey data and Baidu street view map data, some researchers confirmed the feasibility of measuring urban vitality using street-view images (Liu, Sheng, & Yang, 2018). Other types of movement have also been explored to provide more evidence of the correlation with urban vitality (Hillier & Iida, 2005;Hillier & Penn, 1996;Lerman, Rofe, & Omer, 2014;McCahill & Garrick, 2008;Sheng, Yang, & Hou, 2015). Therefore, selected street movements, such as those of pedestrians, bicycles, motors, buses, and private cars, could represent urban vitality due to their capacity to induce communications and businesses. ...
... From the accessibility perspective, the space syntax method is often used to investigate the associations among street configuration, urban function, and human activities, providing valuable evidence for understanding the dynamic mechanism of urban vitality. For instance, researchers have observed that streets with a higher degree of integration tend to have greater pedestrian volumes (Foltête & Piombini, 2007;Hajrasouliha & Yin, 2015;Lerman et al., 2014); a possible explanation is that travel distances are shorter between places with well-connected linkages (Frank, 2000), and the core argumentation is based on the theory of natural movement, which affirms that various urban phenomena are intrinsically influenced by the directness and accessibility of routes within a street network (Handy, Cao, & Mokhtarian, 2005;Hillier & Hanson, 1984;Hillier, Hanson, & Graham, 1987;Hillier, Yang, & Turner, 2012). Natural movement refers to the ability of the street configuration itself to shape the pattern of human flows rather than relying on only the presence of specific magnets. ...
Article
Long-standing attention has been given to urban vitality and its association with the built environment (BE). However, the multiplicity and complex impacts of BE factors that shape urban vitality patterns have not been fully explored. For this purpose, multisource data from 1025 communities in Wuhan, China, were combined to explore the BE vitality nexus. A deep learning method was explored to segment street-view images, on which a composite indicator of urban vitality was developed with social media data. Then, six dimensions of BE factors, neighbourhood attributes, urban form and function, landscape, location, and street configuration, were incorporated into a spatial regression model to systematically examine the composite influences. The results show that population density, community age, open space, the sidewalk ratio, streetlights, shopping and leisure density, integration, and proximity to transportation are positive factors that induce urban vitality, whereas the effects of road density, proximity to parks, and green space have the opposite results. This study contributes to an improved understanding of the BE nexus. Managerial implications for mediating the relationship between planning policies and urban design strategies for the optimization of resource allocation and promotion of sustainable development are discussed.
... For instance, research in Geography, the study of human activities, in space-time has attracted considerable interest from researchers in a wide range of research areas including migration, retail, residential mobility, and travel behaviour [2]. A global focus on sustainability, including the development of the UN Sustainable Development goals [3], has led to urban transportation plans which increasingly focus on facilitating pedestrian movement more than vehicular movement [4]. The travel and activity behaviour of an individual is influenced by numerous spatial and temporal factors and constraints, travel and activity characteristics and personal attributes [5]. ...
Conference Paper
Tracking of pedestrian behaviour, particularly route selection and temporal behaviours, can be difficult to undertake. This is especially true of studies at a community or campus level where the anonymity of pedestrians can be difficult to protect. The introduction of the EU's General Data Protection Regulations 2016 (GDPR) has increased the complexity of this challenge. Advances in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technology in recent years have increased the potential to monitor human behaviour by tracking and triangulating pedestrians. This paper describes an experiment undertaken along The Great South Wall at the Port of Dublin, which is considered a leading amenity location. Monitoring of visitor behaviour in places of this type can provide valuable information about the use of this and other public resources. The aims of this study were to test two prototypes to: i) determine the direction of participants carrying BLE devices, ii) determine the capabilities of two BLE scanning prototypes, (ESP32 & Raspberry Pi3), iii) test the ability of detecting a small number of BLE devices simultaneously while minimising interference or loss of passers-by data, iv) to investigate the use of a hash encoding scheme to anonymise BLE device identifiers. The findings show that the direction of the visitors to the pier can be detected by correlating the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from multiple Bluetooth scanning devices and this can work where scanning devices are as close as 10m apart. The locations of the BLE scanners has a slight effect on detecting the RSSI from different distances and the distance between scanners needs to be considered to facilitate accurate measurement of direction. As a pier like the South Wall has only one entrance and exit point, this approach can also be used to determine the length of time spent on the pier. The technical performance of the two BLE scanners was also reviewed and the ESP32 was shown to have significantly lower power consumption with only a slight decrease in performance. Finally, it was shown that the BLE scanners can detect multiple carried BLE devices successfully without interference or loss of data as long as those devices are within range of the BLE scanners.
... They found that integration is the most frequently applied measure in studies of pedestrian movement and the built environment. In particular, several studies have shown positive associations between the integration value of street networks and pedestrian movements [22][23][24][25][26]. Foltête and Piombini [24] examined the effects of urban layout and landscape features on pedestrian activities in Lille, France. ...
Article
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This study combined space syntax metrics and geographic information systems (GIS)-based built-environment measures to analyze pedestrian volume in different land-use zones, as recorded in unique public data from a pedestrian volume survey of 10,000 locations in Seoul, Korea. The results indicate that most of the built-environment variables, such as density, land use, accessibility, and street design measures, showed statistically significant associations with pedestrian volume. Among the syntactic variables, global integration showed a statistically significant association with the average pedestrian volume in residential and commercial zones. In contrast, local integration turned out to be an important factor in the commercial zone. Therefore, this study concludes that the syntactic variables of global and local integration, as well as some built-environment variables, should be considered as determinant factors of pedestrian volume, though the effects of those variables varied by land-use zone. Therefore, planning and public policies should use tailored approaches to promote urban vitality through pedestrian volume in accordance with each land-use zone’s characteristics.
... These indices include: connectivity, integration, choice and others. Each index reflects a specific and measures a certain aspect [15]. ...
... In particular, space syntax theory, which interprets the configuration of urban space as a network of street segments and their connections [26][27][28][29], is becoming widely accepted in the fields of architecture and urban studies. Space syntax measures that result from the network analysis of either street segment maps or axial maps are used to explain and predict pedestrian movements in cities [30][31][32][33]. ...
Article
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Advancements in remote sensing techniques and urban data analysis tools have enabled the successful monitoring and detection of green spaces in a city. This study aims to develop an index called the urban green accessibility (UGA) index, which measures people's accessibility to green space and represents the citywide or local characteristics of the distribution pattern of green space. The index is defined as the sum of pedestrians' accessibility to all vegetation points, which consists of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with integration and choice values from angular segment analysis. In this study, the proposed index is tested with cases of New York, NY, and San Francisco, CA, in the US. The results reveal differences based on the significance of streets. When analysis ranges are on a neighborhood scale, a few hotspots appear in well-known green areas on commonly accessible streets and in local neighborhood parks on residential blocks. The appearance of high-accessibility points in low-NDVI areas implies the potential of the efficient and proper distribution of green spaces for pedestrians. The proposed measure is expected to help in planning and managing green areas in cities, taking people's accessibility and spatial relationships into consideration.
... Among other techniques, the space syntax tool is stands out for being less data-intensive and relying only on street network data [11]. While this configurational approach has been used to predict pedestrian movement to an acceptable extent (roughly 60%) [21] in urban spaces, it is well-studied and has a well-developed methodology. But, existing literature has not employed social media data, or even investigated, in the first place, whether it can be used as a measure of estimating the number of pedestrians at a given location at a given time period. ...
Conference Paper
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Since existing methods to estimate the pedestrian activity in an urban area are data-intensive, we ask the question whether just georeferenced Twitter data can be a viable proxy for inferring pedestrian activity. Walking is often the mode of the last leg reaching an activity location, from where, presumably, the tweets originate. This study analyses this question in three steps. First, we use correlation analysis to assess whether georeferenced Twitter data can be used as a viable proxy for inferring pedestrian activity. Then we adopt standard regression analysis to estimate pedestrian traffic at existing pedestrian sensor locations using georeferenced tweets alone. Thirdly, exploiting the results above, we estimate the hourly pedestrian traffic counts at every segment of the study area network for every hour of every day of the week. Results show a fair correlation between tweets and pedestrian counts, in contrast to counts of other modes of travelling. Thus, this method contributes a non-data-intensive approach for estimating pedestrian activity. Since Twitter is an omnipresent, publicly available data source, this study transcends the boundaries of geographic transferability and scalability, unlike its more traditional counterparts.
... This is why pedestrians tend to use links with high Integration and high Choice. This aspect has been noted and confirmed by various research studies [72][73][74][75] which is the primary reason behind the application of Space Syntax theories to urban transportation studies (SS also has application in studying architectural layouts). Weeding out SS indices bearing insignificant and weak correlation values with pedestrian volume, 27 out of the total 45 SS indices were taken forward for further investigations as their correlations values were found to be in the range of 0.38 to 0.60 and were also statistically significant. ...
Article
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Network connectivity is an important aspect of the built environment. However, it rarely captures the attention of decision-makers while implementing pedestrian projects. In recent years, Space-Syntax (SS) analysis is gaining popularity among researchers due to its ability to clearly demonstrate the topological configuration of a physical network. This research carries out a connectivity analysis of 297 links across three pedestrian networks in Varanasi, India, thereby exploring the relationship between pedestrian volume, SS indices in the Indian context, and other built environment features, such as presence of sidewalk, right-of-way (ROW) and landuse area. Data collection includes developing a GIS database of the pedestrian network, 30-min pedestrian volume counts at various locations, and calculating SS connectivity measures from the configuration of the pedestrian networks. Resulting SS indices were analyzed with existing pedestrian volumes through correlation, stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR), and path models. Results of the analysis showed that the SS index ‘Normalized Angular Integration (NAIN)’ to be highly correlated with pedestrian volume (r = 0.57). Subsequently, the MLR and path models show a statistically significant relationship of pedestrian volume with NAIN, ROW, presence of sidewalk, and commercial area. ROW affects the pedestrian volume both directly and indirectly in a commercial area, thereby indicating a requirement for improving/providing walking facilities in such areas. The study concludes with practical implications for local authorities that highlight the importance of providing walking infrastructures at commercial streets having high connectivity. The study also shows the significance of NAIN as an effective measure of pedestrian street network connectivity.
... Falasca et al. (2019) stated that the sky visibility rate, street canyon, and wind movement affect thermal comfort. Street corridors are connected to intersections such as parks, schools, city centers, shopping centers, and other pedestrian roads (Lerman et al. 2014). In general, pedestrian corridors are also defined as streets that connect areas within the city center or city center to central residential areas (Delso et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Urbanization models that do not comply with the planning criteria are affecting human lives. In urban areas, street trees have positive contributions to the ecosystem and human thermal comfort. In this study, the thermal comfort of the main streets that connect people to each other and provide access and transportation has been thermally explored. Cumhuriyet Street, which is one of the vibrant streets in Erzurum, was selected as a case study scenario in the winter and summer periods in 2018 by using the ENVI-met V. 4.4.2 winter model. A different green scenario is proposed, and the best thermal comfort scenario in both seasons is determined. The results show that, in the summer period, the air temperature of the greener street scenario is about 1.0°C cooler than the existing condition and about 2.0°C warmer in the winter period. Physiological equivalent temperature (PET) value was better in narrow canyon streets in winter months, but in wide canyon streets in summer months. The green scenarios of wide canyon streets positively affect the outdoor thermal comfort in both seasons. These results clearly imply that green streets are an appropriate strategy for city streets that suffer from discomfort levels in cold winter and hot summer periods. It has been concluded that it is possible to increase thermal comfort through improvement in the open space in street and more suitable plant preferences for livable urbanization. Planning streets in a new city characterized by summer and winter seasons should take into consideration an accurate decision for providing a thermal comfort level and healthy urbanization.
... Network-based urban models, which are based on the street network's centralities in addition to land use and socio-economic variables, have been used for exploring urban movement (Jiang, 2009;Omer, Rofe, & Lerman, 2015;Ozbil, Peponis, & Stone, 2011) and for predicting pedestrian and vehicular movement flows, especially in transport planning (e.g. Desyllas, Duxbury, Ward, & Smith, 2003;Lerman, Rofè, & Omer, 2014). And yet, network-based urban models refer to limited aspects of individuals' spatial behaviour, that is to the distance types people use to calculate the shortest routes to their destinations from within the network (metric, topological and angular distance) and to the relative attractiveness of land use, which tends to be defined according to objective criteria, such as the number and size of non-residential buildings. ...
Chapter
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Determining how the use of social media and digital social networks (DSNs; e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Gowalla, and Foursquare data) influences the definition of a city is a necessary inquiry, from both academic and policy perspectives. It is also an elusive topic that presents a dilemma resulting from the interpretation of a new social phenomenon in constant transformation and the fact that, to date, scholars and practitioners have not been able to agree on a unique and valid definition of what attributes define a city. The concepts of city and urban are closely related. Nevertheless, as Fishman (1987) points out, depending on the perspective of scholars and practitioners, city attributes and features can vary significantly. Ebenezer Howard (1898), Frank Lloyd Wright (1932), and Le Corbusier (1933) all reacted to the same phenomenon: the grimy features of industrial cities; nonetheless, they designed very different ideal urban environments, ranging from a small city surrounded by nature to a densely populated and efficiently managed city. Moreover, together with the existence of different designs and plans, from past to present, cities have remained centres of political, economic and cultural power (Hall, 1988). But most of all, cities provide the conditions for the formation of social interaction among people. Accordingly, many efforts have been devoted to the question of how political, economic, cultural, and technological factors, as well as urban design aspects, are related to social interaction in the city. In the era of globalization, some of the powerful images of what constitutes a city recall Jean Gottmann's definition of megalopolis (1961) as a colloidal mixture of rural and suburban landscapes; Saskia Sassen (2001) and Taylor's (2004) global and world cities as centres of command and control nodes of the global economy; and Florida, Gulden, and Mellonder (2007) mega-regions as clustered cities that operate as economic organizing units producing the bulk of the world's wealth and attracting a large share of creative people. In past decades, the new values and cultural systems, together with the technological potentials that the ICT offers, have contributed to another radical transformation in how we live and communicate through time and space in an urban environment. A city is no longer the place where we just live or work but the place where we travel, move and visit 10 Modelling the city in dialogue with new social media and modes of travel behaviour Antònia Casellas and Itzhak Omer Modelling the city in dialogue Antònia Casellas and Itzhak Omer 15032-3188d-1Pass-r02.indd
... Regarding street segment characteristics, street segments having higher pedestrian volumes, better walkability, and greater street connectivity (as measured by walkable catchment) had greater accuracy. It is worth noting that pedestrian volume and street connectivity are highly correlated (Hajrasouliha & Yin, 2015;Hillier & Iida, 2005;Lerman, Rofè, & Omer, 2014;Ozbil, Peponis, & Stone, 2011). Hence, street connectivity may affect accuracy via the mediation effect of pedestrian volume. ...
Article
Pedestrian volume is an important indicator of urban walkability and vitality. Hence, information on pedestrian volumes of different streets is indispensable for creating healthy, pedestrian-oriented cities. Pedestrian volume data have traditionally been collected through field observations, which has many methodological limitations, e.g. time-consuming, labor-intensive, and inefficient. Assessing pedestrian volume automatically from Street View images (SVIs) with machine learning techniques can overcome such limitations because this approach offers a wide geographic reach and consistent image acquisition. Nevertheless, this new method has not been rigorously validated, and its accuracy remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a large-scale validation test by comparing pedestrian volume extracted from SVIs with the results from field observations for more than 700 street segments in Tianjin, China. A total of 4507 sampling points along these street segments were used to collect SVIs. The results demonstrated that using SVIs with machine learning techniques is a promising method for estimating pedestrian volumes with a large geographic reach. Automated pedestrian volume detection could achieve reasonable (Cronbach's alpha ≥0.70) or good (Cronbach's alpha ≥0.80) levels of accuracy. It is worth noting that various factors of SVIs and street segments may affect the accuracy. SVIs with higher image quality, larger image size, and collection times closer to the targeted periods produced more accurate results. The automated method also worked better in areas with high pedestrian volume and high street connectivity.
... Space syntax methods have been used as the indicator of street connectivity in neighbourhood research [15]. Positive correlation between the degree of street integration and pedestrian volume have found in the previous researches [16][17]. Streets which can be accessed easily from different lanes means integrated, which will attract more pedestrians [18]. ...
Article
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Jalan (street) Slamet Riyadi in Surakarta has a pedestrian lane called City Walk located at the centre point of the city. Having been a decade, this pedestrian lane, however, is rarely used. The lack of connectivity may become the reason why it is abandoned. Connectivity is one of the important aspects in sustainable development. This research aims to understand the connectivity at Jalan Slamet Riyadi using the Space Syntax as the analytical instrument. The research procedures employed were (1) creating axial maps by using the Open Street Map (OSM) as the data source, (2) arranging outputs with the field observation, and (3) interpreting the street connectivity using the space syntax analysis with Depthmapx program. The findings obtained from Depthmapx indicate that Jalan Slamet Riyadi has high connectivity and is tremendously integrated. These findings indicate there may be other elements, beside connectivity, able to make the city walk more utilized; and these elements are the availability of supporting facilities and the proximity of the housing area to the activity centre. In conclusion, the research findings can be furthermore included in the policymaking related to the Surakarta City future urban planning that aims to improve connectivity and to achieve sustainable city development.
... Building on the theory, a strand of literature concentrates on explaining and predicting human movement through the lens of Space Syntax. Lerman, Rofè and Omer (2014) utilize the space syntax to simulating the pedestrian movement in preparing transportation master plan for the city of Bat Yam, Israel. Law, Sakr, and Martinez (2014) analyze the relationship between spatial configuration and one specific human movement, cyclist movement, through statistical regression model in London. ...
Conference Paper
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The research on urban form and its related socioeconomic activities have been undertaken for long, while the evolution of research approaches and tools are limited by the conventional medium such as maps to interpret the built environment. Emerging new urban data has equipped urban morphologists with innovative datasets for urban form studies. This paper aims to explore the relationship between urban form, and human movement flows through a new perspective, which integrates quantitative data generated from space syntax with new urban data in GIS using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Xi'an, as one of the most renowned historic cities in China, is selected as the case since the city has undergone an unprecedented transformation of urban form in recent years. In this study, the space syntax model of Xi'an is built primarily based on the OpenStreetMap (OSM) with further refinement by the Baidu Map. The Point of Interest (POI) data acquired from the Baidu Map API serves as the main datasets for the criterion of MCDA. The social data of human movement flow is gathered by the gate observation in three representative areas in Xi'an. The correlation analysis with observation data is employed to compare the result of original space syntax analysis and MCDA. The findings suggest that the new perspective can facilitate the quantifying process and enhance the comprehensive understanding of urban form. Based on the research, recommendations for further studies and urban planning of Xi'an are discussed.
... Space syntax's Integration values have shown 6 in numerous studies to correlate well with diverse urban phenomena and especially with 7 pedestrian movement and viability of urban centres (Hillier 1996;Karimi 2012;Lerman, 8 Rofè, and Omer 2014). For example, studies on pedestrian movement patterns have found 9 a relatively high correlation between actual movement and Integration values at radii of 10 1,000 to 2,000 m in Israeli cities (Lerman, Rofè, and Omer 2014;Lerman and Lebendiger 11 2017), while other studies have found that an Integration value at a regional radius of 12 7,500 m can be associated with conurbation centralities and the creation of regional 13 business districts (Serra and Pinho 2013). 14 ...
Article
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This article presents a methodology for evaluating microclimatic summer conditions across an entire city, focusing on the provision of outdoor shade as a primary comfort indicator. Based on high-resolution 2.5D and 3D mapping of buildings, ground, and tree canopies in Tel Aviv-Yafo, a city of hot-summer Mediterranean climate, we employed a detailed calculation of solar exposure of streets and open spaces (public and private) using commonly available GIS algorithms. The raw results of these calculations were used for calculating summer Shade Index values for every street segment and neighbourhood of the city, which were then plotted to a comprehensive 'shade maps' reflecting the city's spatial hierarchy of shade. The shade maps, combined with analysis of tree canopy cover on similar scales, enabled to relate building and tree morphologies to outdoor shade conditions. For prioritizing intervention of local planning authorities in improving poor shade conditions or conserving highly-shaded locations, we related the climatic analysis to space-syntax classification of streets according to their potential to attract pedestrian movement, and produced a city-wide map that highlighted streets that have high pedestrian movement potential while requiring high level of shade intensification or conservation.
... Peponis et al. (1989) presented some findings about morphology of Greek towns and their patterns of pedestrian movement. Some researchers have relied on general Graph theory to simulate the pedestrian network, which is detected in the conceptualisation of the patterns of urban morphology (Hillier & Iida, 2005;Jayasinghe, Sano, Kasemsri, & Nishiuchi, 2016;Lerman, Rofè, & Omer, 2014;Li et al., 2016;McCahill & Garrick, 2008;Önder & Gigi, 2010). In this sense, urban morphology is other parameter for assessing the effects of urban form on walkability. ...
Chapter
The quality of life in cities depends on the existence of suitable conditions to walk. The aim of this chapter is to assess the conditions provided to pedestrians in two cities with different urban morphologies: Qazvin (Iran) and Porto (Portugal). The assessment was performed through a model that combines multi-criteria analysis with street network connectivity to evaluate the pedestrian conditions. The multi-criteria analysis was carried out by using four criteria and nine sub-criteria that mostly influence walkability and by involving a group of experts from Qazvin and Porto. Street network connectivity was assessed by Space Syntax. Results showed that Qazvin provides better conditions and a network of pedestrian streets more connected than Porto. The model can be a useful tool for planning more walkable and sustainable cities in urban areas.
... The space syntax analysis used as a tool for assessing traffic volumes pedestrian and motorized in a town was studied. It was validated previously for many case studies [22][23][24][25][29][30][31][32][33]. Thus, it was assumed correct to validate the results obtained with the axial analysis for the town of Pontedera by carrying out a traffic observation campaign. ...
Article
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Street lighting plays a crucial role in a city’s night landscape and in urban traffic management, influencing users’ comfort and safety. To contain costs of public street lighting systems and to avoid energy waste, illuminance levels on road surfaces must be adequate to fit actual traffic volumes, as prescribed by regulations. This is true not only for motorized roads but also for sidewalks, paths, and pedestrian areas. Regulations in force establish a relationship between road traffic volumes and minimum illuminance levels through the lighting classes selection procedure. Lighting classes selection is based on various para meters among which traffic volume is the most difficult to evaluate because traffic volumes are generally estimated or measured by a traffic observation campaign. In this paper, an alternative method for classes association which is based on a space syntax approach, is described. The method was applied to the case study town of Pontedera (Italy) for the analysis of the pedestrian and motorized traffic and it shows a good correlation between measured and estimated traffic volumes, demonstrating how the methodology, with a precise and quick estimation of traffic volumes, can help lead to a suitable design of the lighting infrastructure, aiming to reduce energy waste and to avoid oversized lighting systems.
... It is based on the argument that the urban open space itself is the most critical (non-)object in the performance of cities and that the street network has intrinsic influence on multiple urban phenomena (Hillier, 2002;Hillier et al., 2012). Using this fundamental notion, space syntax studies have shown that flows in urban settings are strongly modulated and determined by the configuration of the spatial network itself (Penn et al., 1998;Jiang, 2009;Lerman et al., 2014). Space syntax offers a set of analytical techniques for representing and analyzing urban topology to explore the link between city form and city function, which grants immediate operability for urban planning. ...
Article
This paper presents a technique aimed to assist in planning of surface rapid transit alignment in a metropolitan area by applying space syntax configurational approach. The technique proposed in this study was applied to the proposed surface rapid transit network for the Metropolitan Area of Tel Aviv. For this research a bi-modal model of the spatial structure, which includes the street network as well as the planned rapid transit routes, was analyzed. The results show that a substantial share of the network's alignment can be described solely by measuring through-movement potentials. This finding demonstrates the significant role of spatial accessibility analysis in transit planning. Consequently, this study provides a reproducible methodology for identifying the routes which hold the highest potential to serve as strategic movement corridors at a metropolitan scale, thus improving current RTS (Rapid Transit System) planning practice.
... Space Syntax does just that by applying three different weight definitions to represent distance-cost relationships: least length (metric), fewest turns (topological) and least angle change (geometric). To date, there is robust evidence that models based on least angle change correlate significantly better with empirically-observed pedestrian movement than models based on metric distance, and slightly better than models based on topological distance (Hillier and Iida 2005, Lerman et al. 2014, Sharmin and Kamruzzaman 2018, Berghauser Pont et al. 2019b). ...
... He termed the movement which is shaped by space itself 'natural movement'. A significant amount of evidence has being gathered in the last fifty years about the correlations between such space syntax predictions and actual vehicular and pedestrian patterns in cities (Lerman et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Despite widespread agreement that agglomeration externalities present a powerful economic force, understanding how they work in practice has constituted a “black box” problem. The word “agglomeration” is itself a crude term for describing the spatial characteristics of cities, which disguises the important role that the spatial configuration of street networks plays in structuring the operation of shared supply chains, labour pools, and knowledge-spillovers. At the same time, while most would agree on the importance of economic diversity to urban agglomeration, it is increasingly recognised that this diversity also has relational structure, with certain industry sectors being more likely to interrelate with each other, and share skills, knowledge, and products. This thesis will unpack the role of these spatial and economic configurations in the functioning of Greater Manchester as an “engine of creativity” in the broadest sense. To do so it draws on two main types of network analysis – space syntax analysis (developed by architects) and industry relatedness analysis (developed by economic geographers). This network analysis is contextualised in qualitative and historical research to produce a “thick description” of the city's evolving economy, with an in-depth focus on the clothing, textile, and waterproofing industries. The configurational characteristics of Greater Manchester's street network have brought diverse economic capabilities within reach of each other, while also connecting them into national and international economic flows. A degree of mess and redundancy in the system has been important to spurring unlikely collaborations and new innovations. However, there has been an overall decline in the capacity of the city street network to support agglomeration externalities in recent years, due to a loss of configurational structure and network density that is partly associated with planning changes from the 1950s onwards. The thesis concludes by considering what this means for contemporary policy.
... Hillier reported that the high correlation was between the road network deflection angle and pedestrian travel (Hillier and Iida, 2005). The angle pattern is more consistent with what people perceive under natural travel than other models (Lerman et al., 2014). Human beings do not have a God-like perspective on urban space and thus do not deliberately choose routes that are closer in terms of distance. ...
Article
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The quality of street space plays an important role in promoting urban development. Street space refers to public spaces consisting of street elements such as plant, roads and buildings. Humans are the main users of street space. How to quantify the human perception of the quality of street space and how to explore the connection between the quality of street space and street composition elements have been major topics of research in various fields. The development of big data and computing has offered new technical tools for the quantitative assessment of street perception, while space syntax can provide a theoretical complement to fine-grained spatial perception studies for streets. Our research introduces a new method to evaluate the quality of street space on a large scale based on street space perceptions. The Binjiang district of Hangzhou city of Zhejiang Province of China was used as the study area to validate our method. A deep learning scoring model was constructed using street images of the area. The perception of the street scenes was scored on six dimensions: beautiful, wealthy, safety, lively, depressing, and boring. The six perceptual dimensions were further divided into positive and negative perceptions. The top 20% of street views with the highest positive perception scores were considered high-quality street spaces, and the top 20% of street views with the most negative perception scores were considered low-quality street spaces. Finally, an overlay of those streets with the highest accessibility identified street spaces with the highest probability of travel and the highest or lowest quality for residents. These streets are of high priority in the subsequent urban plan. We used multiple linear regression to explain the association between the spatial quality of the streets and their constituent elements. The results showed that positive perceptions were positively correlated with the presence of plants and roads and negatively correlated with walls, the ground, water, and fences. Negative perceptions were positively correlated with walls and buildings. The present study provides fundamental information on the patterns of urban spatial perception. The use of space syntax in deep learning can provide methodological support for more refined urban planning research and provide a reference for future urban planning that embraces a human perspective. To facilitate future research and the dissemination of this innovation, source data and code of the research can be found in https://github.com/LandscapeWL/SHAPClab_UrbanPerception_StreetAccessibility.
... It could respond to the need to collect data on children residents and intrinsically should express how a configurational approach could influence children's social and physical behavior. Space syntax can analyze the physical environments, calculate the relationships between spatial elements, and understand children's behaviors (e.g., PA), relying solely on the spatial characteristics of built environments [41,42]. Previous research also showed that the potentiality of space syntax works with refugee camps' built environments [43,44]. ...
Article
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Refugee children often spend a considerable amount of time in refugee accommodations with limited space and limited access to communal facilities. Such environmental settings make it difficult for refugee children to engage in physical activity (PA), which is essential for their health and social inclusion. While there is a strong evidence base for environmental attributes associated with non-refugee children’s PA, only a few studies have focused on refugee children. This article presents an exploratory study on the spatial characteristics of six refugee accommodations in Berlin and their relation to school-aged refugee children’s opportunities to engage in PA. Micro-environmental attributes included building typology and availability, size, and access to communal PA spaces using Space Syntax. PA opportunities were assessed using staff surveys, interviews, and field trips. Results indicated that none of the case studies provided a comprehensive range of PA opportunities. They also revealed unequal access within the facilities. Whereas the role of size was inconsistent, vital predictors included fewerfloors and corridors with easy access to internal and external PA spaces. Our recommendations include prioritizing compact buildings with moderate heights when retrofitting existing facilities and raising awareness for the importance of active play for this vulnerable group.
... For example, the shortest route is the most preferred among competing routes, as it was generally perceived that pedestrians frequently minimize distance and walking time when selecting a route (30,31) and there exists adequate empirical evidence to support this claim (32,33). On the other hand, several studies have focused on the topological view based on the space syntax concept that pedestrians always chose the simplest route and have established that the route with the least directional change could account for most of the pedestrian movement in streets (34)(35)(36). ...
Article
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To better comprehend the relationship between the environment and walking, this study developed a conceptual framework that explained the association between the street environment and the route choice behavior of pedestrians. We collected the route choice data of 219 residents of the Chunliu community in Dalian and used a conditional Logit model to analyze the factors influencing route choice behavior to explain how the street environment affected pedestrians' walking habits and induced them to choose longer or more complicated routes for their activities. We found that sidewalk and driveway width, garbage bins, green spaces, the characteristics of street walls, the proportion of facilities could influence pedestrians' walking habits and compel them to choose longer and more complex routes. This study would provide new insights into walking characteristics and offer policy recommendations to the government on improving the street environment.
... The concept of space syntax was developed by Hillier et al. [20] at University College London using digital technology to quantitatively express the logical relationship between spaces, so as to quantitatively describe the structure of human activity space [6]. Space syntax has been widely used in spatial analysis in the fields of architecture, urban planning, urban transportation, and landscape architecture [8,[21][22][23]. It is mainly used to study the impact of spatial structure on human activities and social connections, such as the relationship between spatial accessibility, spatial network pattern characteristics, spatial structure, and human activities. ...
Article
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The vitality of outdoor space is largely determined by its quality, which encompasses many factors such as traffic accessibility, openness, microclimate, etc. Creating space with high quality can attract more visitors and contribute to urban vitality and sustainability. Visualization of quality distribution can aid the design and management of high-quality outdoor spaces. In this study, we developed a method for generating an integrated outdoor space quality map by normalizing, weighting, and summing up the traffic accessibility, openness, and microclimate distributions in the space. Field surveys were conducted on a neighborhood park in Shanghai, China, to obtain data to determine the relative importance of the studied factors. Integrated mapping was then performed on the park as a case study. As for accessibility, since the park only has one entrance, the metric step distance (MSD) increased with the distance from that entrance, indicating poor accessibility. The high openness found in the central areas of the park indicate that people may easily notice the central spaces and conduct activities there. The microclimate map denoted by physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) shows that in winter in Shanghai, the distribution of heat stress is mainly dominated by solar radiation. By integrating the distributions of accessibility, openness, and microclimate, we found that some spaces had better space quality than others. Based on the comprehensive map, we proposed a series of design strategies. The method developed in this study provides a quantitative tool to design outdoor spaces with high quality.
... In the past 30 years since the reform and opening up, our society has developed at an alarming rate. There have been earth-shaking changes in every region of our country (Chiaradia 2013;Lerman et al. 2014;Yuan et al. 2016). It also means that these cities have to go through massive updates. ...
Article
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With the rapid development of economy, China's cities and villages have been changing with each passing day. The planning and updating of traditional settlements have become an important topic in the development of our country. By studying the theory of space syntax, the author extracted the technical method of updating traditional settlements. We chose a traditional settlement as the research object. Based on the regional function of traditional settlements, the spatial structure of the region has been used to plan and update the area. The method designed in this paper can effectively update and transform traditional settlements. This is of practical significance to the progress and construction of our society.
... To characterize spatial configuration, space syntax has been a welldeveloped theory, allowing us to understand urban configuration from physical and social dimensions (Lerman et al., 2014;Hillier, 1996). Specifically, space syntax explores the relationships between people and spaces (Bafna, 2003), that is, the relationships of spatially-linked urban systems and socially-interacted human activities (Hillier and Vaughan, 2007). ...
Article
The planning of green-blue spaces (GBSs) requires considering the pedestrian needs in their walking routes for improving the walking experience. Incorporating the quantitative spatial characteristics of pedestrian movement is essential for pedestrian-friendly urban planning, which however received insufficient attention. Based on the space syntax theory, this study provided three indicators – accessibility, visibility, and intelligibility – to demonstrate the needs of physical access, visual access, and spatial cognition, respectively, in pedestrian movement. Measuring these three indicators, this study exemplified the planning of pedestrian-friendly GBSs using Guangzhou, China as a case study. Spatial design network analysis was used to quantify heterogeneous values of accessibility, visibility, and intelligibility of each GBS throughout the city. Moreover, we used principal component analysis to identify the leading indicators based on their weightings and then to calculate the scores to compare these three aspects of GBSs. The measurements of accessibility, visibility, and intelligibility of each GBS were then averaged across urban administrative districts for evaluating city-scale GBSs. The findings showed that GBSs in central districts were most accessible and visible but least intelligible. In contrast, the overall intelligibility of GBSs throughout the city was the greatest but the visibility was the least. Furthermore, intelligibility, as a more important factor than accessibility and visibility, should be particularly emphasized in future planning of pedestrian-friendly GBSs. Pedestrians from the central districts of Guangzhou city were most satisfied with the walking experience, in terms of accessing to, viewing, and cognizing the GBSs. ‘Yuexiu’, ‘Huadu’, and ‘Nansha’ districts were found as the key places where improved accessibility, visibility, and intelligibility were particularly needed to improve the GBS pedestrian-friendliness throughout the city. In summary, this study not only demonstrated a human-scale GBS evaluation framework for improving the human walking experience but also provided empirical evidence for building pedestrian-friendly green-blue spaces at the city scale.
... The analysis radius is the only parameter that has to be defined for both the closeness and betweenness centrality. Similarly, as in the case of cumulative accessibility, this parameter defines the maximum acceptable travel distance and is routinely used to differentiate between the local and global type of movement as well as different modes of transport (Hillier & Hanson, 1984;Lerman et al., 2014;Raford et al., 2007). This approach, based on the fixed travel distance threshold, causes the same difficulties as the cumulative accessibility measure discussed before. ...
Thesis
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This dissertation investigates the interactions between urban form, allocation of activities, and pedestrian movement in the context of urban planning. The ability to assess the long-term impact of urban planning decisions on what people do and how they get there is of central importance, with various disciplines addressing this topic. This study focuses on approaches proposed by urban morphologists, urban economists, and transportation planners, each aiming the attention at a different part of the form-activity-movement interaction. Even though there is no doubt about the advantages of these highly focused approaches, it remains unclear what is the cost of ignoring the effect of some interactions while considering others. The general aim of this dissertation is to empirically test the validity of the individual models and quantify the impact of this isolationist approach on their precision and bias. For this purpose, we propose a joined form-activity-movement interaction model and conduct an empirical study in Weimar, Germany. We estimate how the urban form and activities affect movement as well as how movement and urban form affect activities. By estimating these effects in isolation and simultaneously, we assess the bias of the individual models. On the one hand, the empirical study results confirm the significance of all interactions suggested by the individual models. On the other hand, we were able to show that when these interactions are estimated in isolation, the resulting predictions are biased. To conclude, we do not question the knowledge brought by transportation planners, urban morphologists, and urban economists. However, we argue that it might be of little use on its own. We see the relevance of this study as being twofold. On the one hand, we proposed a novel methodological framework for the simultaneous estimation of the form-activity-movement interactions. On the other hand, we provide empirical evidence about the strengths and limitations of current approaches.
... In other words, one area consisting of more integrated streets, which are likely to be more accessible from other areas, will draw more pedestrians. A positive correlation between higher street integration and a greater pedestrian volume has been found in several previous studies [33,38,[65][66][67]. Places linked directly to other environments are more accessible and tend to attract more people making areas busier [51,68]. ...
Article
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Distance is a recognized key determinant of walking. Pedestrians tend to choose the shortest route between two points. Shortest routes can be spatially described in terms of distances between two points or topologically described as the number of turns/directional changes between these points. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the conditions provided by a street network to pedestrians, by using two space syntax measures. Accessibility was calculated through Angular Segment Analysis by Metric Distance (ASAMeD), a measure of street integration and choice strongly correlated with pedestrian movement pattern. Street Connectivity was calculated by using the space syntax measure of connectivity, which shows the direct connection of street nodes to each individual nodes. The streets criterion values of both approaches were normalized by using fuzzy logic linear functions. The method was applied in the city center of Qazvin, Iran. Results showed that the urban structure of Qazvin has a strong impact on the performance of the network. The old neighborhood centers widespread in the city center presented a high topological accessibility, while the most connected street are those streets crossing and surrounding the neighborhood areas. The method can be used to evaluate and improve pedestrian networks, as it can distinguish the most and least attractive streets according to the criteria used. These findings can be used to guide policies towards improving walkability and to create more walkable and sustainable cities.
Article
This research examines the predictability of geo-tagged Twitter data via space syntax integration measurement using geographic information system (GIS). Mobile networking mediums are an emergent part of everyday life in the city. In light of this, research on cities needs to take into account these new data sources. The study was conducted in two Cypriot cities, Famagusta and Kyrenia, and the result shows the significance of local accessibility in predicting Twitter data in both cases. The outcome also suggests the critical importance of investigating the outliers in the dataset because they might clarify hidden potentials of urban spaces.
Article
There are 127 million walking trips in the United States every day. For many years, urban planning has intentionally disregarded or remained unconscious about the needs of human beings as the rate of vehicle ownership in cities continues to increase. Thus, improving urban morphology to promote a better quality of life among pedestrians is necessary. The article provides an integration review between several urban approaches to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting pedestrians? And How does urban morphology affect pedestrians? The study proposes three categories of factors, The study finds seven pedestrian responses related to the effect of urban morphology on pedestrians. The main contributions of this research study are (1) an integrative review of existing literature studying the interaction between pedestrians and urban morphology using social, spatial, visual, or climatic approaches and (2) a novel Factors/Responses model base on stimulus organism response theory the model integrates multiple approaches to identify urban morphology factors that affect pedestrians and find pedestrian responses to each of these factors. (3) Update a pedestrian needs model based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. The novel model can be used to study the interaction between pedestrian and urban morphology to enhance pedestrian conditions.
Chapter
Analysis of the vehicles’ movement on the territory of the organization represents an area of considerable interest for both cyber-physical security and financial applications. In the paper an approach to the analysis of the vehicles routes on the territory of the organization is presented. The vehicle route is reconstructed on the basis of the data from different sources such as access control system, video surveillance and weight measuring devices. The approach presented consists of two stages: exploratory analysis of the data that allows constructing analysis models for detection deviations in the vehicle movement in the real time mode; and analysis of the sensor readings in the real time mode. We tested our data on both artificial data and real world data.
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Public Bus Network Evaluation: A Guide for Benchmarking Hassan Shuaibu Abdulrahman*, Mustafa Özuysal Dokuz Eylul Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, İzmir, Turkey *Corresponding author: ahas92@yahoo.com Keywords: bus network, evaluation, benchmarking, transit planning Discipline: Civil Engineering Abstract There are many existing systems and tools which can be used to evaluate the bus network systems be it in terms of quality and quantity. Evaluation of bus systems refers to monitoring and analysis process of existing bus networks to determine to how well they are performing with regards to their intended goals and objectives, thus, providing a basis for preparing planning schemes and optimizing the layout of urban transit network by determining the relative importance of the different planning alternatives. Many different performance measure exists largely due to varying field of application. They are predominantly used in trend analysis, comparism, target setting, systems improvement, and may also be used as incentives for managers and employees. They can also help in identifying potential problems and optimal solutions. This work identifies the basic framework for evaluation of bus network systems and uses İzmir, Turkey as case study using the highlighted framework as a guide. The case study was compared with some selected cities across the globe. This frame work can be used as a basic guide for evaluating bus systems which may serve as a tool to various stakeholders in the urban transit planning and operational design of bus networks for developing countries.
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Chapter
The pedestrian accounts for part of the road safety problem in most developed countries. Pedestrian accidents are thus an urgent issue for safety improvement, particularly in urban area. Furthermore, recent sustainable mobility oriented policies are boosting walking in urban areas. In order to cope with this increase in pedestrian flows, European municipal authorities, responsible for road safety, traffic management and mobility, need reliable engineering methods to plan urban road safety and protect vulnerable users. Road safety management systems are usually developed to identify hazardous sites and to find suitable countermeasures. Risk exposure assessment is required to identify sites with high accident potential. This assessment requires the knowledge, on one side, of the known vehicular flows and, on the other, of the pedestrian flows, which are not normally known to road operators. In this paper a methodology to develop and calibrate forecasting model aimed at evaluating pedestrian exposure is presented. The model is based on original approach that integrates the Space Syntax modelling framework with pedestrian mobility aspects and a calibration procedure was proposed that use counts on a limited number of roads. Preliminary results derived from a case study in an urban environment seem promising and confirm the model's good ability to predict pedestrian flows.
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Chapter
This study examines the publicness level of the interior spaces of public buildings. As a method, VGA (visual graph analysis) is used for analyzing the early design phases of selected municipal service buildings. In this study, the authors utilized from VGA for quantifying the publicness level of the two selected architectural competitions of municipality buildings. The method allows us analyzing the floor plans of each project in obtaining an eventual assessment of permeability and accessibility which give an idea of the levels of publicness comparatively. Subsequently, representation parameters are compared under two main criteria: connectivity and integration. The aim of the study is to understand the level of publicness and efficiency of spatial settings for the users circulating in the public buildings, which have dissimilar plan schemes. This method would be used by the designers for early design stage and provide useful feedback for understanding the level of accessibility and permeability of the structures and adjust their schemes accordingly.
Thesis
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EN (PL below): The aim of this thesis was to investigate the correlation between the detailed pedestrian path configuration, land use characteristics and the pedestrian movement patterns in the historically and spatially diverse urban grid of Bydgoskie Przedmieście and Bielany in Toruń. Open-source geospatial processing software QGIS was used to model the detailed pedestrian network covering both formal and informal paths and to analyse the spatial and functional characteristics of all network elements. The attributes independent from network configuration were measured as the sum of topological and functional weights given to the elements within a direct buffer of each network segment. The configurational characteristics in which the real length of pedestrian routes was considered, were analysed using sDNA – a spatial network analysis plugin developed at Cardiff University. The weighted network analysis was conducted using topological weights, such as segment length and a new weight proposed by the author referring to the length of perceived space boundary. Additionally, functional weights derived from buildings were used – total floor area and retail area. Several routing methods were tested and a hybrid between Euclidean and angular routing was selected as the best match for modelling the measured pedestrian traffic, defined by sDNA creators as ‘pedestrian’ routing. This research proves the lack of statistically significant relation between the pedestrian traffic and spatial and land use characteristics measured as the crow flies and a strong correlation between the pedestrian counts and path betweenness centrality – a measure of strategic positioning of each network segment depending on the number of geodesic paths that pass through the segment. It was revealed that the value best fit for sole modelling pedestrian movement patterns is betweenness centrality weighted using the proposed space boundary length. It was concluded that the betweenness value can be interpreted as pedestrian potential of movement on a given segment in a pedestrian network and that the hybrid between Euclidean and angular routing matches the common tendency of pedestrians to select routes that are not only the shortest, but also the most simple in terms of angular changes. A metric based on network configuration and land use characteristic was recommended to use for accessibility assessment, enabling a quantitative analysis of selected spatial and functional characteristics within a considered walking distance of each network segment. As a practical example of methodology application, the author proposed several changes to the pedestrian network of Bydgoskie Przedmieście and Bielany and analysed their impact on pedestrian movement patterns and accessibility. It was recommended that the presented tools were used in spatial planning units as evidence-based support for planning decisions regarding new walkways, optimal location selection for links between interrupted axes or to evaluate the impact of new investments on spatial accessibility and pedestrian movement patterns. The presented tools can also serve as support in area regeneration programs, enabling conscious rechannelling of main footfalls, which can also prove beneficial to investors and business-owners interested in increasing the number of customers. PL: W niniejszej pracy magisterskiej podjęto tematykę zależności pomiędzy przestrzennym rozkładem ruchu pieszych a strukturą przestrzenno-funkcjonalną sieci dróg pieszych na różnorodnym pod względem układu urbanistycznego obszarze Bydgoskiego Przedmieścia i Bielan w Toruniu. Za pomocą programu QGIS służącego do przetwarzania danych geograficznych, wymodelowano sieć dróg pieszych formalnych i nieformalnych oraz zbadano cechy przestrzenno-funkcjonalne wszystkich elementów sieci. Właściwości niezależne od konfiguracji sieci dróg mierzono jako sumę wybranych wartości topologicznych i funkcjonalnych przypisanych elementom znajdującym się w badanej prostoliniowej odległości od każdego punktu tego odcinka. Cechy zależne od konfiguracji, czyli te uwzględniające rzeczywistą długość trasy pieszej, zostały obliczone za pomocą opracowanego przez Cardiff University narzędzia sDNA służącego do przestrzennej analizy sieci. Do badania struktury przestrzenno-funkcjonalnej jako wagi wykorzystano dane topologiczne takie jak długość elementów sieci oraz zaproponowana przez autorkę długość granicy przestrzeni, a także wagi funkcjonalne jak powierzchnie całkowite budynków oraz powierzchnie handlowo-usługowe. Przetestowano różne metody wyznaczania najkorzystniejszych tras i wybrano mającą najlepsze dopasowanie z pomiarami metodę trasowania hybrydowego, zawierającą w sobie elementy trasowania metrycznego oraz kierunkowego., a przez twórców sDNA nazwana trasowaniem pieszym. Wykazano brak statystycznie istotnej zależności pomiędzy ruchem pieszym a zbadanymi cechami niesieciowymi oraz silną relację pomiędzy zmierzonymi natężeniami ruchu pieszego a obliczoną miarą pośrednictwa dróg pieszych, będącego miarą położenia odcinka względem najkorzystniejszych tras pomiędzy wszystkimi innymi odcinkami dróg w sieci przestrzennej. Najlepsze dopasowanie modelu opisującego natężenie ruchu pieszego otrzymano dla hybrydowego pośrednictwa ważonego długością granicy przestrzeni. Zauważono, że miara pośrednictwa może być interpretowana jako potencjał ruchu pieszego na danym odcinku sieci dróg pieszych, a pośrednictwo hybrydowe uwzględnia powszechne dążenie pieszych do wybierania tras nie tylko metrycznie najkrótszych, ale też najprostszych w rozumieniu zmian kierunku. Zaproponowano miarę określającą dostępność przestrzenną bazującą na strukturze przestrzenno-funkcjonalnej, pozwalającej na analizę ilościową wybranych cech przestrzennych lub funkcjonalnych znajdujących się w wybranej rzeczywistej odległości od każdego z odcinków badanej sieci. Pokazano przykład stosowania opisanej metodologii do analizy oddziaływania zaproponowanych zmian w układzie dróg pieszych Bydgoskiego Przedmieścia i Bielan na przestrzenny rozkład ruchu pieszego oraz dostępność przestrzenną. Opisywane narzędzie zaleca się stosować w jednostkach samorządowych w celu naukowego wsparcia decyzji o wyznaczaniu nowych ciągów pieszych, wybierania optymalnych lokalizacji dla łączników ciągów przerwanych, a także oceny wpływu planowanych inwestycji na dostępność przestrzenną i zmian w przestrzennym rozkładzie ruchu pieszego. Przedstawiony typ analizy może też być pomocny w programach rewitalizacji umożliwiając świadome zmienianie potencjału ruchu pieszego, co może być również korzystne dla inwestorów i przedsiębiorców zainteresowanych zwiększaniem liczby potencjalnych klientów.
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Preface Introduction 1. The problem of space 2. The logic of space 3. The analysis of settlement layouts 4. Bindings and their genotypes 5. The elementary building and its transformations 6. the spatial logic of arrangements 7. The spatial logic of encounters: a computer-aided thought experiment 8. Societies as spatial systems Postscript Notes Index.
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This project used Space Syntax to create a Pedestrian Risk Index for the city of Oakland, California. The Index helped planners identify high risk intersections for the first time, using predicted pedestrian volumes and existing pedestrian - vehicle collision data. A major challenge facing pedestrian safety advocates and urban planners at this time is the availability of detailed, high quality pedestrian exposure data. Exposure is defined as the rate of contact with a potentially harmful agent or event. Pedestrian exposure is therefore defined as the rate of contact with potentially harmfully situations involving moving vehicles (i.e., crossing intersections). Pedestrian risk is defined as the probability that a pedestrian - vehicle collision will occur, based on the rate of exposure. To estimate exposure, pedestrian volume measurements must be made, but such measurements are often unavailable or too expensive. In the absence of accurate exposure data, pedestrian safety decisions are often made by estimation, rules of thumb, or political influence, resulting in mixed and potentially less effective outcomes. This paper explores the value of Space Syntax in generating volume estimations for pedestrian exposure measurement, discusses a novel approach for utilising a "volume co-efficient" to extrapolate volume based on Integration, population density, and a limited set of pedestrian counts, and explores issues associated with applying Space Syntax research in a "real world", resource- constrained planning environment within the United States.
Article
The sole application of land-use zoning in the urban planning process has generally been accepted as obsolete. However, its role as the main mechanism to control urban development still seems irresistible for most metropolitan cities. When the walking environment is taken into account in the urban realm, the conflict between the land-use zones and the demands of the pedestrians becomes the root of most urban design problems. Evidence has showed that urban life experience has been downgraded under inappropriate solutions, e.g. elevated walkway system. Early in the 1970s, researches have already indicated the strong interrelationship between human activities and the urban environment in temporal terms. It has even been suggested that by colonization of time for different activities, two cities might co-exist within the same territorial space. However, until now, no planner or urban designer has practically adopted the fourth dimension, space of time, for facilitating our urban environment. To explore that issue, a study has been carried out by the author in Wan Chai District of Hong Kong to investigate the characteristics of pedestrian patterns in a daily cycle. Preliminary results in the earlier stage of this study has indicated that physical setting of different mixing of urban elements in the urban street can generate specific time-patterns of pedestrian movement, which evidences the potential of individual urban elements on influencing the pedestrian pattern in temporal term. This paper illustrates the study process and the results in the 2nd stage of this study in order to demonstrate the significances of influence of the designated urban elements in terms of land-use and service facilities on the time-pattern of pedestrian movement. Results indicate that pedestrian flow-rate and pedestrian density are influenced diversely even by the same urban element. Generally, land-use elements of residence, office and hotel have comparably little influence on both pedestrian flow-rate and density; street level facilities for entertainment and retail reveal different features of influence in terms of intensity and time period; even transportation facilities show different intensities of influence according to time period of a day. In order to supplement the insufficiency of land-use zoning for handling the walking space for pedestrian, this paper provides a hint for the solution by introducing the human responses on different urban elements in connection with space of time in the dense urban territory.
Article
With federal policy beginning to shift from auto-centric planning, provision for pedestrian and bicycle access is now mandated in federally supported projects. However, the field of transportation planning has little in the way of theory and methods to guide design and planning for walkable cities. Walkability is increasingly valued for a variety of reasons. Not only does pedestrian transportation reduce congestion and have low environmental impact, it has social and recreational value. Recent research suggests that walking also promotes mental and physical health. The quality of the pedestrian environment is key to encouraging people to choose walking over driving. Six criteria are presented for design of a successful pedestrian network: (1) connectivity; (2) linkage with other modes; (3) fine grained land use patterns; (4) safety; (5) quality of path; and (6) path context. To achieve walkable cities in the United States it will be necessary to assess current walkability conditions, revise standards and regulations, research walking behavior in varied settings, promote public education and participation in pedestrian planning, and encourage collaboration and interdisciplinary education between transportation engineers and the design professions. Journal of Urban Planning and Derveloping
Article
The boundary determination problem is one of the most fundamental and difficult issues in spatial analysis. This is also true of space syntax where syntactic values are meaningful only with reference to the system boundary we have chosen to draw for analysis. This paper investigates how our choice of a boundary can affect our understanding of a system's spatial structure and functionality. It will be argued that to draw a boundary is not only a priori condition for syntactic analysis but also a posteriori product which should be carefully designed based on our understanding of a syntactic structure it induces. The four standard test areas in London -Barnsbury, Calthorpe, South Kensington and Brompton -are re-employed for this purpose. We apply various boundary conditions, both in topological and metric spaces, to these areas, and compare how sensitively the predictability of human movement patterns by global syntactic values change under each condition. Although many researches in the space syntax community have untilised the same datasets already, few views the boundary condition as an independent variable. We then recall one of the key propositions in space syntax that the degree to which movement rate is predictable from a spatial system is a function of its intelligibility. This proposition is tested against the empirical findings, which will lead to a critical discussion as to how and why the conventional measure of intelligibility falls short of holding the proposition to be valid. Our aim in this regard is to develop a novel morphological index that may work, in place of the measure of intelligibility, more effectively for the proposition. That is, we will find that the new measure, called 'understandability' in this paper, is a better indicator of the spatial system's predictability. Based on this it is suggested that such kind of measure has the potential to serve as a useful guide and reference for designers as well as researchers at their earlier stage of practices.
Article
The New Urbanism movement calls for redesigning American neighborhoods so that they are less oriented toward automobile travel and more conducive to walking, bicycling and transit riding, especially for non-work trips. New Urbanism calls for a return to compact neighborhoods with grid-like street patterns, mixed land uses and pedestrian amenities. This paper investigates the effects of New Urbanism design principles on both non-work and commuting travel by comparing modal splits between two distinctly different neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area. The neo-traditional neighborhood, Rockridge, and the nearby conventional suburban community, Lafayette, were chosen as case sites because they have similar income profiles, freeway and transit service levels, and geographical locations. Rockridge residents averaged around a 10 percentage point higher share of non-work trips by non-automobile modes than did residents of Lafayette, controlling for relevant factors like income and transit service levels. The greatest differences were for shop trips under one mile. Rockridge residents also averaged substantially higher rates of non-work walk trips per day, matched by lower rates of daily auto travel, suggesting that walking substitutes for motorized travel, at the margin. Modal splits were more similar for work trips, confirming the proposition that neighborhood design practices exert their greatest influence on local shopping trips and other non-work purposes. For work trips, compact, mixed-use, and pedestrian-oriented development appears to have the strongest effect on access trips to rail stations, in particular inducing higher shares of access trips by foot and bicycle.
Conference Paper
Correlations are regularly found in space syntax studies between graph-based configurational measures of street networks, represented as lines, and observed movement patterns. This suggests that topological and geometric complexity are critically involved in how people navigate urban grids. This has caused difficulties with orthodox urban modelling, since it has always been assumed that insofar as spatial factors play a role in navigation, it will be on the basis of metric distance. In spite of much experimental evidence from cognitive science that geometric and topological factors are involved in navigation, and that metric distance is unlikely to be the best criterion for navigational choices, the matter has not been convincingly resolved since no method has existed for extracting cognitive information from aggregate flows. Within the space syntax literature it has also remained unclear how far the correlations that are found with syntactic variables at the level of aggregate flows are due to cognitive factors operating at the level of individual movers, or they are simply mathematically probable network effects, that is emergent statistical effects from the structure of line networks, independent of the psychology of navigational choices. Here we suggest how both problems can be resolved, by showing three things: first, how cognitive inferences can be made from aggregate urban flow data and distinguished from network effects; second by showing that urban movement, both vehicular and pedestrian, are shaped far more by the geometrical and topological properties of the grid than by its metric properties; and third by demonstrating that the influence of these factors on movement is a cognitive, not network, effect.
Article
One of the main tasks in analyzing pedestrian movement is to detect places where pedestrians stop, as those places usually are associated with specific human activities, and they can allow us to understand pedestrian movement behavior. Very few approaches have been proposed to detect the locations of stops in positioning data sets, and they often are based on selecting the location of candidate stops as well as potential spatial and temporal thresholds according to different application requirements. However, these approaches are not suitable for analyzing the slow movement of pedestrians where the inaccuracy of a nondifferential global positioning system commonly used for movement tracking is so significant that it can hinder the selection of adequate thresholds. In this article, we propose an exploratory statistical approach to detect patterns of movement suspension using a local indicator of spatial association (LISA) in a vector space representation. Two different positioning data sets are used to evaluate our approach in terms of exploring movement suspension patterns that can be related to different landscapes: players of an urban outdoor mobile game and visitors of a natural park. The results of both experiments show that patterns of movement suspension were located at places such as checkpoints in the game and different attractions and facilities in the park. Based on these results, we conclude that using LISA is a reliable approach for exploring movement suspension patterns that represent the places where the movement of pedestrians is temporally suspended by physical restrictions (e.g., checkpoints of a mobile game and the route choosing points of a park).
Article
Since The social logic of space was published in 1984, Bill Hillier and his colleagues at University College London have been conducting research on how space features in the form and functioning of buildings and cities. A key outcome is the concept of ‘spatial configuration’ — meaning relations which take account of other relations in a complex. New techniques have been developed and applied to a wide range of architectural and urban problems. The aim of this book is to assemble some of this work and show how it leads the way to a new type of theory of architecture: an ‘analytic’ theory in which understanding and design advance together. The success of configurational ideas in bringing to light the spatial logic of buildings and cities suggests that it might be possible to extend these ideas to other areas of the human sciences where problems of configuration and pattern are critical.
Article
Axial analysis is one of the fundamental components of space syntax. The space syntax community has suggested that it picks up qualities of configurational relationships between spaces not illuminated by other representations. However, critics have questioned the absolute necessity of axial lines to space syntax, as well as the exact definition of axial lines. Why not another representation? In particular, why not road-centre lines, which are easily available in many countries for use within geographical information systems? Here I propose that a recently introduced method of analysis, angular segment analysis, can marry axial and road-centre line representations, and in doing so reflect a cognitive model of how route choice decisions may be made. I show that angular segment analysis can be applied generally to road-centre line segments or axial segments, through a simple length-weighted normalisation procedure that makes values between the two maps comparable. I make comparative quantitative assessments for a real urban system, not just investigating angular analysis between axial and road-centre line networks, but also including more intuitive measures based on metric (or block) distances between locations. I show that the new angular segment analysis algorithm produces better correlation with observed vehicular flow than both standard axial analysis and metric distance measures. The results imply that there is no reason why space syntax inspired measures cannot be combined with transportation network analysis representations in order to create a new, cognitively coherent, model of movement in the city.
Article
Space syntax, as developed at the Bartlett, University College London, proposes a fundamental relationship between the configuration of space in a city and the way that it functions. The analysis of space in terms of its configurational properties -- or syntax -- may, according to the theory, allow us to determine some aspects of the functioning of cities. It has been the aim of the work described in this paper to test this proposition in five Dutch cities, and to try to explore the nature of any fundamental space - function relation in the Dutch city reflected by space syntax. The results include a basic confirmation of the ability of space syntax methodology to postdict the intensity of the occupation of public space by people in the cities studied at two levels -- at the level of the individual space embedded in the local area, and at the level of the local area embedded in the whole city. This second level may be something particular to the Dutch city and it is argued that it may arise -- in spite of variation in conditions such as population and housing density -- because of certain homogeneities in the spatial and functional structure of the Dutch city and out of certain historical and practical conditions affecting the expansion and development of the Dutch city.
Article
Transportation research has usually seen road networks as inert systems to be navigated and eventually filled up by traffic. A new type of 'configurational' road network modelling, coupled to detailed studies of vehicular and pedestrian flows, has shown that road networks have a much more constructive role. They strongly influence the pattern of flows through quantifiable properties of the network 'configuration'. Recent research results are presented showing that rates of vehicular movement in road segments are to a greater extent than previously realised the direct outcome of the location of those segments in the network configuration as a whole and that this is the case especially in the fine structure of the urban grid. A supply and demand model of urban movement is proposed in which the degree to which a street alignment is on simplest routes between all other pairs of alignments in the system determines the demand side of the equation, and the effective road width available to traffic determines the supply side. Regression analysis shows that these two factors alone account for the majority of the variance in flows from street to street (r(2) similar to 0.8) A model is then proposed of the evolution of the city in allocation of land uses to land parcels, and the allocation of capacity in the road network, where each reinforces the underlaying configurational logic through a feedback 'multiplier' effect. These findings suggest the possibility of using urban design parameters, such as the plan configuration of the street grid, building height, and street width, to arrive at a better controlled relationship between vehicles and pedestrians in urban areas. As these design parameters are under the direct control of the urban master-planner, the new techniques lend themselves to application in design decision support. A case example of the application of these techniques in the master-planning of the redevelopment of London's South Bank cultural centre is presented.
Looking Both Ways: Space Syntax for Pedestrian Exposure Forecasting and Collision Risk Analysis
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Raford, N. (2003). "Looking Both Ways: Space Syntax for Pedestrian Exposure Forecasting and Collision Risk Analysis." In Proceedings of the Fourth International Space Syntax Symposium, edited by J. Hanson. London: University College London.
City of Cambridge Cambridge Pedestrian Plan
  • Zurich
Zurich, 22–23 September 2005. City of Cambridge. (2000). " Cambridge Pedestrian Plan. " Available at http://www.cambridgema.gov/~/ media/Files/CDD/Transportation/Pedestrian/ped_plan_2000.ashx (accessed on 25 March 2013).
The Use of Space Syntax in Urban Transport Analysis: Limits and Potentials
  • R Pereira
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Pereira, R., Holand, F., Medeiros, V. and Barros, A. (2012). "The Use of Space Syntax in Urban Transport Analysis: Limits and Potentials." In Proceedings of the Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium. Santiago de Chile, 3-6
Using Space Syntax in Transportation Planning MOT (Ministry of Transportation) and MOCH (Ministry of Construction and Housing) City Streets Design Guidelines
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Yoav Lerman et al. Using Space Syntax in Transportation Planning MOT (Ministry of Transportation) and MOCH (Ministry of Construction and Housing). (2009). " City Streets Design Guidelines " (in Hebrew). Available at http://www.moch.gov.il/ SiteCollectionDocuments/tichnun/hanhayot_umadrichim/tichnun_tenuat_holchey_regel.pdf (accessed on 1 April 2013).
Demand Modeling of Large Cities: An Applied Example from London London: UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis
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Portland Pedestrian Master Plan
  • City Of Portland
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Ministry of Transportation) and MOCH (Ministry of Construction and Housing)City Streets Design Guidelines Available at
MOT (Ministry of Transportation) and MOCH (Ministry of Construction and Housing). (2009). "City Streets Design Guidelines." (in Hebrew). Available at: http://www.moch.gov.il/SiteCollectionDocuments/tichnun/hanhayot_umadrichim /tichnun_tenuat_holchey_regel.pdf (accessed on 01 April 2013).
Cambridge Pedestrian Plan Available at http://www.cambridgema.gov
  • Cambridge City
City of Cambridge. (2000), "Cambridge Pedestrian Plan." Available at http://www.cambridgema.gov/~/media/Files/CDD/Transportation/Pedestrian/ped _plan_2000.ashx (accessed on 25 March 2013).
Portland Pedestrian Master Plan Available at http://www.portlandoregon.gov/transportation
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Towards a Fine City for People Available at: http://www.gehlarchitects.dk/files/pdf
  • Gehl Architects
Gehl Architects. (2004). "Towards a Fine City for People." Available at: http://www.gehlarchitects.dk/files/pdf/London_small.pdf [Accessed: March 25, 2013]
Public Space and Public Life Survey Available at:http://www.gehlarchitects.com/index.php?id=159110#
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Gehl Architects. (2007), "Public Space and Public Life Survey." Available at:http://www.gehlarchitects.com/index.php?id=159110#/165357/ (accessed on 01 April 2013).
When and Why do People Walk in the City: The Influence of Urban Elements on Time-Pattern of Pedestrian Movement
  • S C H Chu
Chu, S. C. H. (2005). "When and Why do People Walk in the City: The Influence of Urban Elements on Time-Pattern of Pedestrian Movement." Proceedings of the Sixth International Walk 21 Conference. Zurich, 22-23 September, 2005. City of Cambridge. (2000), "Cambridge Pedestrian Plan." Available at http://www.cambridgema.gov/~/media/Files/CDD/Transportation/Pedestrian/ped _plan_2000.ashx (accessed on 25 March 2013).
Towards a Fine City for People
  • Gehl Architects
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Public Space and Public Life Survey
  • Gehl Architects
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Boundary Effects on the Intelligibility and Predictability of Spatial Systems
  • H D Park
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  • Steen
Park, H. (2009). "Boundary Effects on the Intelligibility and Predictability of Spatial Systems." In Proceedings of the Seventh International Space Syntax Symposium, edited by D. Kock, L. Marcus and J. Steen. Stockholm: KTH.
Pedestrian Volume Modeling for Traffic Safety and Exposure Analysis: Case of
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Raford, N. and Ragland, D. R. (2006). "Pedestrian Volume Modeling for Traffic Safety and Exposure Analysis: Case of Boston, Massachusetts." Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Paper # 06-1326.
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Read, S. (1999). "Space syntax and the Dutch city." Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 26, 251-264.
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Turner, A., Penn, A., and Hillier, B. (2005). "An Algorithmic Definition of the Axial Map." Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 32, 425-444.
Cambridge Pedestrian Plan
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