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Information Overload: A Systematic Literature
Peter Melinat, Tolja Kreuzkam, and Dirk Stamer
University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock, Germany,
Abstract. Information is essential in our society and for organizations.
But the ﬂood of information aﬀects enterprises as well as individuals
also in a negative way. This problem is usually referred as Information
Overload. This paper summarizes the developments of the past years
and gives a prospect to future researches in this ﬁeld using the method
of systematic literature review. A special focus is put on the problems
of enterprises with information overload and how these can be solved by
using modern approaches.
Key words: Information Overload, Information Overﬂow, Systematic
The central aspect of modern economy is the creation, processing and sharing of
information and knowledge . A steady ﬂow of information ensures the quality
of products and increases the innovative strength. But the information ﬂow be-
came a raging current as Webster pointed out . The main advantage for an
enterprise is no longer just the access to information, but more the access to an
adequate information management. A central issue for this is the phenomena of
Information overload causes several problems, e.g. psychological stress, mistakes
in decision making or disregarding of relevant information.
Especially in the past years the importance of this topic increased by the rise of
the social networks and mobile access to the internet. These networks allow a
steady access to information of the social environment, independent from time
Because of this it is important - from the economical side as well as from the
sociological side - to deal with the issue of information overload.
This paper was conducted to get an overview about the recent developments in
the ﬁeld of information overload. For this the following research questions were
RQ1:How much activity in the ﬁeld of information overload has there been since
RQ 2:What research topics are being investigated?
RQ 3:Who is active in this research area?
2 Peter Melinat, Tolja Kreuzkam, Dirk Stamer
RQ 4:What research approaches are being used?
RQ 5:Are there diﬀerent deﬁnitions of information overload? Which?
RQ 6:What are the impacts on enterprises due to information overload?
RQ 7:What solutions were presented in prospect for these problems?
The goal is to see what topics are currently researched and to show what aspects
of information overload could be promising for future research.
But in the beginning, the idea of information overload and its related terms
need to be clariﬁed. Then, in the following section, the procedure of systematic
literature review is described. The second last section presents the ﬁndings of the
analysis and put them into relation to the research question conducted above.
Finally the conclusion sums up the whole process of research analysis and what
future implications can be deduced from it.
2 Theoretical Background: Information Overload
The term overload is commonly understood as the circumstances, where a burden
is too strong for the carrying subject. This results in an inability of the subject
to work in its full potential or even makes the subject dysfunctional [2, 3]. This
interpretation seems to be shared across the most scientiﬁc sources and so it
should be accepted in this paper, too.
This does not apply to the other important part: information. Several interpre-
tations of this term can be made, depending on the point of view and the access
to the topic.
A precise deﬁnition of information is given by Klaus North, who deﬁnes infor-
mation as data combined with a semantic . In other words: Information is
interpretable data. To interpret the information it is important for the receiver
to know the semantics. Otherwise it is just some data. This deﬁnition ﬁts more
to daily experience and common understanding of information.
Another aspect of information is deﬁned by the online business dictionary, where
information is deﬁned as a form of data with the following four attributes :
– It is accurate and it is received in time.
– It is organised to fulﬁl a purpose.
– It has a context, which allows the receiver to assess its meaning and relevance.
– It can help to improve the understanding and decrease the uncertainty.
This approach underlines the economical meaning of information. Especially the
focus to fulﬁl a goal and that it must be received timely indicates a strong will
to use the information. But in the common understanding information uses to
be information, even if its come to late. The only thing that changes is the value
of information. But it seems legit for an economical deﬁnition to deﬁne the term
in this way, because information without a value are useless in their perspective.
If the all these presented deﬁnitions for the term information show anything,
than it is that there are many diﬀerent aspects of information.
But does information overload refer to diﬀerent forms of phenomena as well
as information? Especially because one of the research questions is about the
Information Overload 3
diﬀerent deﬁnitions of information overload, it can be helpful to determine the
Alvin Toﬄer stated that especially the steady ﬂow of information is not as critical
as the speed these information appear for the person . Toﬄer formulated this
in an attempt to illustrate the future of the seventies and especially through
the establishment of the internet, it seems to be more true than ever. This is
supported by another, more recent statement of Edmunds and Morris. They say,
that ”there cannot be many people who have not experienced the feeling of having
too much information[...]”. Hence most people in the scientiﬁc community
seem to accept the general deﬁnition that information overload is the feeling
of too much information to be processed for the cognitive capacity of a person
A typical synonym for information overload is the term information overﬂow.
Diﬀerent papers show, that they are used equally and without any distinction
The following section shows how a systematic literature review is structured,
how the research was conducted and which papers were selected for a further
3 Procedure of Systematic Literature Review
The goal of this paper is to review publications, that were released during
the past eight years. To do this, the systematic literature review according to
Kitchenham  was chosen. The advantage of this method is, that it is com-
pletely transparent and repeatable, because every step done by the authors, is
documented. Another point is, that the research is probably more objective, be-
cause the results do not base on one single conference, a speciﬁc author or the
tendencies of a single search engine. Through the approach the authors have to
fulﬁl the document search in a more comprehensive way. Furthermore this ap-
proach seems to ﬁt well for the purpose of this paper, which is to get an overview
in the ﬁeld of information overload.
The review process consists of 6 steps. In the ﬁrst place the problems and research
questions should be formulated, which is already done in the motivation. The
next steps is the identiﬁcation of papers. This means to develop constraints
for the research and workarounds for unexpected limitations. Of course, these
papers need to be reﬁned some more, so that only relevant papers are part of the
review. This paper selection is the third step. For the research about information
overload both, the second and third step, are described in the later part of this
section. When the ﬁnal group of papers is deﬁned, data is collected. For the paper
at hand this step is not described any further, but in the appendix an extraction
of information from the papers can be found. Then the found information is
analysed and - according to the questions stated before - answers are given. This
leads to the ﬁnal interpretation of the results. Both steps are topic of the fourth
and ﬁfth section, while the fourth is more focused on the analytical part and the
4 Peter Melinat, Tolja Kreuzkam, Dirk Stamer
ﬁfth is about interpretation. With this short description in mind, step two and
three can be started now.
The ﬁrst point for this is to deﬁne the population and describe which parts of the
researched paper were examined for the analysis. Because the form of the papers
were highly heterogeneous several distinctions were done between those formats.
Of course every paper had a title, that was considered in the research, but after
the title the papers diﬀer strongly. Some of them follow a research paper style
with an abstract and keywords, that were used directly for the research. Others
look like article in magazine. Those have no abstract or keywords, but instead a
short introduction of the topic, that is already part of the mainmatter. Of course
this does not state anything about the quality of papers, but for the literature
review they posed a challenge. Discussing this issue, the authors decided to see
those introductions in the same way as the abstracts of the regular papers.
To ﬁnd papers for the literature review, it is necessary to deﬁne a search string
in order to be able to repeat the literature research getting the same results.
The string contains the constraints of the time frame as well as the reference
to the topic and synonyms for topic related synonyms. Because the goal of this
paper is to review the published articles in the recent years, the time frame was
limited to articles since 2006.
As stated before, one synonym for information overload is the term information
overﬂow. Because of this, both terms were used in the search.
The resulting search string was:
(Title OR Abstract OR Keywords) contain (”information overload” or
”information overﬂow”) between 2006-2013
To keep the number of papers manageable, it is necessary to integrate more
constrain for the search string. The central restriction was to ﬁnd sources that
ﬁt to the topic and are without charge. The following four sources are included:
– AAMAS (Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems)
– CACM (Communications of the Association of Computer Machinery)
– CHI (Conference on Human-computer Interaction)
– ECIS (The European Conference on Information Systems)
Most of the conferences allow to browse through their content. It shall be stated,
that the quality and usability of the search engines could hardly be seen as
adequate for this research. One of the problems was, that the search options
were not uniform and speciﬁc constraints could not be inserted into the engines.
For example not all did allow to set a wild card sign (as the ”*” in ”information
over*”). Because of this, it must be considered that several relevant papers could
not be found.
To counterbalance the disadvantages, the search process was divided into two
steps. In the ﬁrst step the search string was adapted to requirements of the
diﬀerent search engines.
Furthermore, two diﬀerent search engines were used in the ﬁrst step. The ﬁrst
one(http://cacm.acm.org/search) brought up 26 papers, while the second one
Information Overload 5
(http://dl.acm.org/results.cfm) showed 33 publications. But in the results
of the second engine 9 complete magazines were included, which could not be
considered as articles. But even after this there were diﬀerence in the results. 22
papers were presented by both search engines, while 2 papers were only presented
by dl.acm.org and 4 only by cacm.acm.org. In total 28 papers were seen as
relevant after the ﬁrst research step.
Another problem was caused by the search engine(http://is2.lse.ac.uk/asp/
aspecis/default5.asp), that was used to ﬁnd the ECIS articles. This engine
did not allow to search just in the title and the abstract and it was not clear
if the whole paper or just the title was regarded. Still, 3 research papers were
considered as result of the ﬁrst research step.
For the publications of AAMAS no working search engine could be found. Be-
cause of this, it was necessary to search by hand through the 105 available
The engine for CHI (http://dl.acm.org/results.cfm) allowed most of the nec-
essary limitations and brought up 101 papers for the ﬁrst research step.
After the step of population the intervention takes place. Goal of this is to
reﬁne the results, that were found during the population. For this research, that
meant to put the titles and abstracts(or article introductions) into an Excel
Sheet and searched for relevant phrases as information,overload or overﬂow.
When a text contained one or more of these phrases, it was read by the research
group and decided, if it is worth to be considered in this analysis. Especially the
term information is very often represented, but the priority was to ﬁnd relevant
papers. Through this method, it was possible to reduce the number from 247 to
17 ﬁnal papers. A visualisation can be seen in ﬁgure 1.
Fig. 1. Number of papers before and after reﬁnement
These 17 papers were considered as suitable to be examined for answering the
research questions. For this, a comprehensive analysis was conducted in the
6 Peter Melinat, Tolja Kreuzkam, Dirk Stamer
4 Conduction and Results of the Analysis
In the beginning seven research questions were phrased. In the following part
these are connected to the 17 identiﬁed papers. For this, the papers were read
and analysed to fulﬁl the tasks.
RQ 1: How much activity in the ﬁeld of information overload has
there been since 2006?
Fig. 2. Distribution of papers in the time from 2006 - 2013
The number of publications in the ﬁeld of information overload shows that there
is little but steady activity (see ﬁgure 3.1). In average, 2.125 papers were pub-
lished per year from 2006 to 2013. The ﬁrst three examined years showed a
straight decrease from two publications in 2006 to zero papers in 2008. After
this, from 2009 until 2011, even a little hype could be identiﬁed where the num-
ber of publications increased. 12 of the 17 researched papers were conducted in
this time frame. In the years of 2012 and 2013, this trend could not be continued
and the numbers of released papers reduced again to 1 publication per year.
Based on this data, it can be stated that the activity in this ﬁeld is low and only
small number of researchers are active in this ﬁeld. Nevertheless, the range of
topics is wide and diﬀerent aspects are touched in this ﬁeld.
RQ 2: What research topics are being investigated?
The ﬁeld of information overload includes several topics and so do the papers.
There are diﬀerent aspects which should be considered for the classiﬁcation of
One form of classiﬁcation is to determine whether the papers try to identify
or communicate a new problem, resulting from information overload, or if they
Information Overload 7
oﬀer an solution for the existing problems. These topics again can be subdivided
by the aspect they are focused on, as the organization of people, technological
improvements or other methods.
In order to answer this research question, the authors decided for the following
–Concepts, which present usually a general idea how to handle information
–Solutions, that aim to implement a general concept or at least construct a
framework for an implementation.
–Evaluations, which deal with a concept or a solution and try to verify or
falsify an approach.
–Experiments, that aim, similar as evaluations, to verify or falsify a concept.
–Examples, which are illustrating an approach and have always a second group
the example applies to.
Fig. 3. Topics of the papers
To show the whole coverage of the papers, each paper can be assigned to two of
these groups. The distribution can be seen in ﬁgure 3.2. Evaluations were usually
connected to a solution or a concept they aimed to examine. Only in one case the
evaluation was connected to an example . Most papers dealt with a concept
(11), or an evaluation (7) of existing concepts or solutions. Six publications were
about the creation of a solution, while 3 examined existing solutions or concepts
Furthermore, there were several recurring topics. For example, many papers dealt
with the questions of ﬁltering information. Most of these suggest to integrate the
users in this ﬁltering process, to let them rate the information and ﬁlter it based
on that [9, 17, 21, 29, 31].
Another topic that was often part of the paper is the processing of information,
to make them clearer for recipient [8, 14].
8 Peter Melinat, Tolja Kreuzkam, Dirk Stamer
Nevertheless, even with the sophisticated process to search for paper, an essen-
tial part of the papers have only a distant relation to the topic of information
overload. One for example was about the creation of a pragmatic web , an-
other one about the reuse of knowledge in knowledge management systems .
Still they were kept for the further steps of analysis, because their input can still
RQ 3: Who is active in this research area?
Fig. 4. The distribution of papers according to the nationality of the publishing insti-
This questions aims to identify, if there are research networks, with an higher
amount of publications in the ﬁeld of information overload, or if the activity in
this ﬁeld is the same about the whole research community. Another goal is the
identiﬁcation of active research teams by the university and their nationality, to
make the reasons for a higher (or lower) activity more transparent. In case of co-
operation between diﬀerent institutes the papers were referred to the institution
with the most authors in the paper.
Without considering diﬀerences between the ﬁrst, second and further co-authors,
48 persons were identiﬁed as authors. A small number of them work in the in-
dustrial sector, but by far the most are employed at universities or other research
Most of the papers were committed from scientists at the Palo Alto Research
Center(USA) and the Naval Posgraduate School in Monterey (USA), who both
have 2 published papers. At the Palo Alto Research Center, the author of both
papers was Peter J. Denning, while Ed H. Chi and his team released their papers
for the Naval Postgradute School in Monterey.
These numbers show, that there are no scientists who wrote far more papers
than anyone else. In general, the distribution is very even among all authors.
But this does not apply on the nationality of the publishing institutions. It can
Information Overload 9
be examined that about 50% of the papers were published from institutions
in the United States of America, while other nations released only one or two
publications. The whole distribution of papers by the nationalities can be seen
in ﬁgure 3.3.
Several reasons for this can be imagined. One could be that the researched
conferences are biased. If, for example, three of the four analysed conference
were held in the US, this could be an easy reason for the overweight of US
papers. But indeed, the opposite is true. Three of the four conferences are usually
held in Europe. Hence the reason for the higher activity in the US is probably
determined by something else, for example a special interest in the topic.
Another fact is that selected conferences seems to be focused on Europe and
the USA. Only two contributions were sent in from somewhere else (Israel and
South Korea). An interesting question for this is if these imbalances had any
inﬂuence towards the research process.
RQ 4:What research approaches are being used?
For a comprehensive analysis it is not only crucial to see the active people and
their results, but it is also important to see how they got their results and which
methods were used for the knowledge acquisition. During this project, three
main groups for research approaches were found:
– Theoretical Work
– Empirical Work
– Case Study
When authors create a new theory and substantiate it by referenced literature,
the paper is considered as a theoretical work. The other side of the spectrum is
marked by the Case Study. These papers include a practical implementation of
ideas and verify or falsify constructed theories. The strong practical alignment
usually leads to a less theoretical focus.
But of course, there are also papers which cannot easily be put in any of these
two categories because they focus on a theoretical point of view as well as a prac-
tical one. This combination can be a theoretical examination that is proved (or
disproved) by an experiment. These kind of papers were categorised as Empirical
The distribution of research approaches shows that a majority of researchers
uses the form of empirical work for their conduction.
In the section before, it was asked if the national overweight of the USA and
the concentration of the western hemisphere aﬀects the form of research. And
indeed, there is a shift of papers coming from the US. While about 60% of the
theoretical and 62,25% of the empirical work comes from there, they published
25% of the case studies. But considering the small amount of papers, this can
be also just a coincidence.
10 Peter Melinat, Tolja Kreuzkam, Dirk Stamer
Fig. 5. Distribution of papers according to national aﬃliation
RQ 5:Are there diﬀerent deﬁnitions of information overload? Which?
As stated in the ﬁrst section, the term information overload has a long history
and there are several ways to deﬁne this term. Five deﬁnitions could be examined
during analysis process. Some of them were formal and gave a proper descrip-
tion of the phenomena, others were some type of example. One of these formal
deﬁnitions is given by Whelan and Teigland, when they state:
”The dilemma of having more information than one can assimilate  or being
burdened with a large supply of information, only some of which is relevant
, is generally what is meant by information overload.” 
This deﬁnition shows diﬀerent aspects, as the general problem of humans to
process more than a limited number of information, and the eﬀort to separate
the valuable information from the unnecessary. The same is supported by Ot-
A more concise deﬁnition is given by Sevinc and D’Ambra, who say
”Information overload occurs as the volume of information received by the
individual surpasses their ability to process it” ([15, 25, 27] according to )
Perhaps this deﬁnition is not as accurate as the one by Whelan and Teigland,
but it shows the main idea of information overload. Another aspect is brought
in by Lampe et al., who specify information overload as a problem of the indi-
vidual . But as stated before, there are also papers which deﬁne the term of
information overload by example.
As a representative of this second group, Hong deﬁned information overload as
the incoming of too many items of communication, ”e.g. email messages sent
by colleagues and friends, news stories related to topics of interest, new tweets
posted to Twitter, and status updates in Facebook and LinkedIn” . In this
quasi endless stream of information, people are facing the problem to lose their
overview [10, 14].
Another form of overwhelming is the steady change of information, as in the
internet or social networks in particular. Cherubini et al. refer to this as Facebook
Information Overload 11
In general, it has to be stated that all the deﬁnitions that were made are quite
similar. All of them focus on the overload of impressions caused by the inﬂuence
of diﬀerent media. But the social networks brought a new kind of this overload,
where the change of information is the critical factor, not only the information
RQ 6:What are the impacts on enterprises due to information over-
Several problems caused by information overload can be determined. But which
of them especially aﬀect enterprises? Of course those who aﬀect the whole society,
have an impact on the enterprises, too.
To start with a very general aspect, information overload causes the victim to
need more time for the consumption of the information [7, 10]. These higher time
costs of course aﬀect enterprises, too. Furthermore, the people do not concentrate
on the given information and block reception. To avoid this, they try to ﬁlter
the information and try to delegate their responsibilities .
On the psychological level, this results in a negative assessment of the own work
and competences . And even mental illness can be caused by an overload.
Especially the phenomena of burnout is often connected to the steady ﬂow of
Finally the whole decision making process can be inﬂuenced by information
overload. People base their decisions on the wrong information or are not able
to separate the valuable information from the unnecessary . Additionally
there is no time to examine information for its verisimilitude. Hence the made
decisions have a lower quality [21, 31].
But not only decision making is aﬀected, even the general work ﬂows suﬀer from
the information overload. The regular check for news disrupts the processes
and distracts the people. Because of this, the employees time is wasted and the
quality of their work shrinks . A special problem in this ﬁeld is the E-Mail
Overload, a form of information overload, caused by the receipt of too many
E-Mails . For enterprises, this means that the employees are not able to read
every forwarded mail carefully and ignore important details [26, 29].
Furthermore, the overload aﬀects the processes in an enterprise, too. An example
for this is the feedback of end-consumer for App developers. The online market
places for these applications oﬀer a feedback-portal for the users, where they can
suggest software improvement. A problem for the developers, because they have
to extract the important facts for future development.
RQ 7:What solutions were presented in prospect for these problems?
The problems, stated in the question before, are serious and there is no perfect
solution for them. Nevertheless, several strategies were conducted and may oﬀer
relief from the problems of information overload. These strategies can be divided
into strategies for the private environment and strategies for the enterprises.
12 Peter Melinat, Tolja Kreuzkam, Dirk Stamer
On the personal level, many problems of information overload are inﬂicted by
the use of social networks (e.g. Twitter or Facebook). Possible solutions for this
would be to rate the importance of information by its relevance. One way to
capture this relevance could be to use human ﬁlters as the personal sphere of
contacts in the network . Furthermore, the own postings can be analysed to
create a proﬁle of relevant topics each user. This proﬁle again can be used for
the relevance assessment . Another form of social ﬁlters is the assessment by
a jury. This jury can be completely open (as the ranking of customer review
in online marketplaces) or exclusive for a speciﬁc group of people (as in many
online communities). This may help to integrate a social navigation into the
portal . Whelan and Teigland state that there are people with a special
information literacy, who are faster at rating information. Hence it is important
to integrate those people as information hubs . This can be an important
advantage for enterprises.
Other methods for the organizations can be reduce the number of unnecessary
messages. Especially the overload of E-Mails reduces the productivity of em-
ployees. An internal policy about E-mail etiquette may helps to reduce this .
This can also include to tag E-Mails according to their purpose. Based on this
tag, everybody has the opportunity to rate the relevance for themselves .
The same procedure applies to other cases as well, for example to show the spe-
ciﬁc skills of a person to the whole community . Furthermore, this helps to
identify experts in a ﬁeld who act as human ﬁlters and enable the reuse of in-
formation and knowledge . Another technical solution is oﬀered by Schoop et
al., who suggest to make sources of information machine-parsable, to use com-
puters for an adequate supply with information at the right time . Smart
push notiﬁcations can play an important role in this. These notiﬁcation publish
information, but they act dynamically according to deﬁned Conditions of Inter-
est(CoI) and aim to supply the user with valuable information at the right time
But there are not only the technical solutions. The right management plays a
key-role to counter information overload. Especially the support of the users self-
esteem , motivation  and commitment management are important methods
After all, it can be stated that the solution strategies depend on four factors
– The topical content of an information (What?)
– The sender of the information (Who?)
– The way the information is transferred (How?)
– The time of the transfer (When?)
A typical problem of speciﬁc solutions is that they do not focus on all the of these
facts. E.g., spam guidelines usually only look for the sender of an information.
This may work for a speciﬁc task, but an holistic application against information
overload should include all relevant factors .
These answers show, that there is no easy way out of the problems caused by
information overload, but there are several approaches that oﬀer promising solu-
Information Overload 13
tions. Now the last part for this research is about the interpretation of ﬁndings
for the research questions and give a prospect for future developments.
This research started with the deﬁnition of the fundamental terms information,
overload and information overload. After this, the process of this literature review
was explained and it was shown what conferences were examined. During the
ﬁrst steps of analysis 17 papers were considered as relevant for the topic. These
papers were used to answer the 7 research questions.
But what are the implications of these answers? And can there be made any
prospects or maybe even suggestions for future research projects in the ﬁeld of
For the answer of these question the ﬁndings need to be put in a context and
connected to each other.
It was found that there is a certain research community in the ﬁeld of information
overload, that publishes in average about two papers per year. Most members of
this community work in the United States of America. This bias can be the result
of a diﬀerent cultural perception of the topic or a speciﬁc funding by enterprises
or governmental institutions.
Furthermore, it has to be stated, that a large majority of papers came from
countries that are part of the western hemisphere . This may indicates, that
other cultural spheres are not aﬀected as the western culture or, more likely
in the opinion of the authors, that there are barriers for researchers from other
cultures to participate in the selected conferences. E.g. all conferences are held in
Europe or Northern America - this probably reduces the chance for researchers
from other parts of the world to participate.
The researched topics were mostly concepts, solutions or validations of those
through evaluations or experiments. Papers, that presented technical solutions,
were mostly published from institutions in the USA, which may indicates, that
the institutes have an higher interest to solve problems of information overload,
while others are more interested to phrase theories and evaluate models or solu-
But in general it can be stated, that the interpretation of the term information
overload is widely the same. Each of the found deﬁnitions sees information over-
load as a state, where the input of information is to high for the capabilities of
the aﬀected person. The moment this point is reached, depends on the abilities
of the person to interact with information.
The problems resulting from information overload are numerous, but especially
the higher eﬀort of employees to separate valuable information from others, is a
widely recognized issue. This stress even leads to mental health issues.
Solutions for these problems can be technologies or organizational structures,
which help to ﬁlter incoming information or help people to identify interesting
information. There are many forms of these solutions. But most papers only
concentrate on one of these aspects. Hence they were focused either on the right
14 Peter Melinat, Tolja Kreuzkam, Dirk Stamer
management of people aﬀected by information overload or the technology these
people use. But no paper combined management and technology aspects to a
comprehensive method or showed how these approaches can be combined.
There are no disputes about the meaning of information overload and the prob-
lems are deﬁned and accept throughout the whole community. Still there is just
a little group of active researchers. This group need to grow, especially because
the problems caused by information overload are not going to be easier. As al-
ready stated, it seems to be necessary to combine technological approaches with
management approaches to formulate a more comprehensive model to counter
Acknowledgments. The work presented in this paper was supported within
the project KOSMOS (Konstruktion und Organisation eines Studiums in Oﬀe-
nen Systemen) funded by the BMBF (Federal Ministry of Education and Re-
search, Germany) and the European Social Funds of the European Union.
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