According to increased bacterial resistance to common antibiotics, tendency toward using herbal drugs is increasing. Many researches have been executed about antibacterial and preservative effects of herbal essence like essences extracted from plants of Lamiaceae family (like Shiraz oregano herb). In this study, antibacterial effects of Shiraz oregano on Salmonella typhi Murium that is one of main causes of food poisoning in human, is evaluating. To provide essence 50 g of dried ground leaf of plant beside 700 mL of distilled water were poured into flask and with 1 mL min-1 velocity distillation the essence was extracted. Determination of microbial sensitivity was performed in the Kirby Bauer method. Minimal Inhibitory Condensation (MIC) and minimal bactericidal condensation for Shiraz oregano plant were 312.5 Î¼g mL-1 and 652 Î¼g mL-1, respectively. The most sensitivity of Salmonella typhi Murium was to Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and Chloramphenicole and it was severely resistant to other antibiotics. Activity of Shiraz oregano essence against Salmonella typhi Murium was more than Tetracyclin`s activity, but in comparison with Trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and Chloramphenicole is lower. According to obtained results and limitations of increasingly usage of chemical antimicrobial substances there is a need to replacement of these substances with natural and herbal essences.
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"Antimicrobial effects of essential oil of Z. tenuior (Kakouti) against several bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella, Eschericia coli and Proteus have been studied (26). Studies show that essential oil and extract of Z. multiflora (Avishan-e-Shirazi) have antimicrobial activity against some bacteria such as Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Proteus, Shigella flexneri, Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella (17,18,36,37). Crude T. vulgaris is used commonly in gastrointestinal disorders and as an antimicrobial agent (19). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus caramanicus, Zataria multiflora, Ziziphora clinopodioides and Ziziphora tenuior against four foodborne and four other bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, MRSA and Pseudomona aeruginosa and measuring the amount of total phenolics of the plants.
The extracts were prepared by maceration method. Pre-evaluation of the antimicrobial effect was utilized by cup-plate technique and then Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was determined by agar dilution method according to NCCLS. The total phenolics as a possible cause of antibacterial effect, was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry.
The results showed that T. caramanicus and Z. multiflora were the most effective ones with MIC values between 0.78-3.125 mg/ml against all of the Bactria and Z. tenuior and Z. clinopodioides had the minimum antimicrobial activity. Total phenolic contents of these five plants were different and followed the general pattern of the antimicrobial effect.
The antibacterial effects and the total phenolic content of T. caramanicus and Z. multiflora were remarkable and should be investigated more in future studies.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and objective: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen most frequently associated with extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production. These organisms are usually resistant to most antibiotics and pose a serious threat for health care associated infections. Plant essential oils rich in carvacrol and thymol have gained importance for their antimicrobial activity. We determined the composition of Zataria multiflora essential oil of the Jandagh area in Iran and measured its activity against ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae.Materials and methods: Essential oil was prepared from Z. multiflora at full flowering stage by hydrodistillation and its constituents were analyzed by a combination of capillary GC and GC-MS. Antibacterial activity was measured against 10 ESBL producing urinary isolates of K. pneumoniae as well as six ATCC bacterial standards by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) using broth microdilution. Results: Zataria multiflora essential oil contained 25 constituents of which the major components were carvacrol (50.57%), thymol (13.38%) and p-cymene (8.27%). All tested bacteria were susceptible to the essential oil with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Disc diffusion results showed inhibition zones of 18.3-30.3mm for the ATCC standards and 20.7- 29.7mm for the 10 clinical isolates. MIC and MBC values were 0.015- 2.0mg/ml for ATCC strains and 0.03 to 0.5mg/ml for the clinical isolates.Conclusion: Zataria multiflora may have the potential to be used against multidrug resistant organisms such as clinical isolates of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seventy-two 1-day-old broilers were allocated into four groups (basal diet as control, basal diet supplemented with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg Zataria multiflora essential oil) and fed for 6 weeks. In the term, chicks were slaughtered and their breast fillets were stored at 4C for 12 days. Lipid peroxidation was assessed on the basis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formed, whereas microbial growth was assessed on the basis of total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and psychrotrophic bacteria. Results indicated that incorporation of Z. multiflora essential oil in broiler diets caused the delay of lipid peroxidation in raw breast meat (from 296.08 to 472.65 µg/kg malondialdehyde [MDA] equivalents) in comparison with 854.71 µg/kg MDA equivalents of the control sample at the last day of the experiment (P < 0.05). Moreover, breast samples containing higher concentration of Z. multiflora essential oil showed lower bacterial count than the control and 100 ppm essential oil supplemented samples (P < 0.05) during the experiment.
This paper evaluates the effect of dietary Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil supplementation on the microbial growth and lipid peroxidation of broiler breast fillets during refrigerated storage. It seems that Z. multiflora essential oil can delay the peroxidation and microbial spoilage of chicken breast fillets. Therefore, Z. multiflora essential oil might be used in novel applications as a nutritional supplement or a functional food component.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Food Processing and Preservation