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Abstract

The paleotropical subtribes Erlangeinae, Centrapalinae and Gymnantheminae are described as new. Fourteen paleotropical genera are described, raised from lower rank, resurrected, enlarged or reduced with 110 new combinations. Cabobanthus (2 spp.), Hilliardiella (8 spp.), Orbivcstus (4 spp.), Vemoniastrum (8 spp.), Koyamasia (1 sp.), Brenandendron (3 spp.), Myanmaria (1 sp.) and Manyonia (1 sp.) are described as new. Oocephala (S. B. Jones) H. Rob. (2 spp.) and Lampropappits (O. Hoffm.) H. Rob. (3 spp.) are elevated to generic rank. Four genera are resurrected, the Asian Acilepis D. Don with 9 of 10 species newly combined, the African Bechiwn DC. (2 spp.), Centrapaliis Cass. (9 spp.), Linzia Sch. Bip. ex Walp. with 5 of 7 species newly transferred, and Polydora Fenzl (8 spp.). One species is transferred to make a total of 27 in Distephanus, 4 species are transferred to total 7 in Cyanthillium, and 39 species are transferred to total 43 in Gymnantheinum. Lamprachaeniwn Benth. is synonymized with Phyllocephalum Blume with 1 species transferred.
... Robinson (1979) accepted Blake's (1945) concern but accepted the occurrence of heterocarpy in that species compared with Heterocypsela andersonii H.Rob. Although Robinson (1999) cited the shared occurrence of pericarp crystals as indicating a relationship among Heterocypsela, Dipterocypsela and Manyonia peculiaris (Verdc.) H.Rob., he emphasised that heterocarpy is lacking in Manyonia . ...
... Our results confirm the heterocarpy previously described in A. gamolepis ( Bringel Jr et al., 2011 ), H. andersonii ( Blake, 1945 ), and H. brachylepis ( Marques et al., 2020a ). In addition, the absence of heterocarpy in M. peculiaris ( Robinson, 1999 ) was also confirmed, without any evidence of reduction or loss. ...
... On the other hand, the cypsela shape proved relevant for recognition at the generic level, as each presented a different type of heterocarpy. The systematic significance of the pericarp anatomy in Dipterocypselinae was also identified by Robinson (1999) , who allied Manyonia to Heterocypsela and Dipterocypsela . According to Robinson (1999) , "Further examination of specimens of Manyonia shows a strong resemblance to New World genera such as Heterocypsela H. Rob. and Dipterocypsela S. F. Blake, especially in the wall of the achene 3 with extremely crowded subquadrate or polygonal raphids. ...
Article
Heterocarpy occurs when a plant produces fruits of more than one distinct shape. This phenomenon may result in different dispersion, dormancy, and germination, enabling survival in diverse environmental conditions. Heterocarpy is common in Asteraceae, and one of its most extreme examples occurs in Heterocypsela H.Rob. However, the difference between outer and inner cypselae can be originated from its developmental stage. Even with doubts, heterocarpy is applied to circumscribe Heterocypsela, Allocephalus Bringel, J.N.Nakaj. & H.Rob., Dipterocypsela S.F.Blake, and Manyonia H. Rob. in the subtribe Dipterocypselinae S.C.Keeley & H.Rob. A recent phylogenetic study has also raised uncertainties about the Dipterocypselinae monophyly and, consequently, the importance of the heterocarpy and pericarp crystals in the subtribe circumscription. Thus, we reviewed the heterocarpy and its systematic significance in the Dipterocypselinae, using light microscopy and SEM techniques. Our results confirmed the heterocarpy in Heterocypsela, reaffirmed it in Allocephalus and Dipterocypsela, and refuted its loss hypothesis in Manyonia. However, the heterocarpy was not homologous between studied genera and should not be applied as a parameter to group them. The pericarp tissue organization of the studied species, including crystals, was similar to previously studied Vernonieae Cass., reaffirming the systematics significance of the pericarp anatomy at a tribal level. Gaps in the Vernonieae cypselae knowledge hampered the morphological approximation of Allocephalus gamolepsis from Lychnophorinae, and Heterocypsela from Chrestinae-Vernoniinae. However, the Vernonieae morphology comparison demonstrated fruitful, mainly to assess the systematic significance and evolutionary patterns of the cypselae tribe.
... There was, however, no need for them to make a choice between the two 1836 epithets considering that transfer of the epithet 'elaeagnoides' to Vernonia was precluded by the rules, because of the existence of an earlier homonym. Robinson (1999) published the new generic name Hilliardiella to accommodate the species originally placed in Webbia by Candolle (1836). Similar to the above-mentioned late 20 th century authors, he treated the two taxa of Candolle (1836), under consideration here, as a single species, namely Hilliardiella oligocephala. ...
... Similar to the above-mentioned late 20 th century authors, he treated the two taxa of Candolle (1836), under consideration here, as a single species, namely Hilliardiella oligocephala. When deciding on an epithet for the combined species in Hilliardiella, Robinson (1999) was the first to be met with a situation where no pre-existing names precluded the transfer of an epithet to the new genus. Hence he had to make a choice between the two competing epithets of Candolle (1836). ...
... Hence he had to make a choice between the two competing epithets of Candolle (1836). Robinson (1999) adopted 'oligocephala' as the preferred epithet in a combination at species level, and simultaneously relegated to synonymy the competing epithet 'elaeagnoides', as well as some later synonyms. Robinson (1999) therefore effected a choice (nomenclatural act) as required by Art. ...
... Briefly, due to similarities in their morphologies and high-elevation habitats (2000-4200 m) in the mountains of Mexico (Eremosis) and the Andes (Critoniopsis), it was unclear whether they were congeners or separate morphologically convergent genera. In a revision of New World Vernonieae (Robinson, 1999a), they were both placed in Critoniopsis (Piptocarphinae). However, it later became clear from molecular studies (Keeley et al., 2007) that they were not closely related and so were once again given separate generic status (Haro-Carrión and Robinson, 2008;Keeley and Robinson, 2009). ...
... Critoniopsis remained in the South American Piptocarphinae, but Eremosis had no apparent affinity and so remained unplaced (Keeley and Robinson, 2009). Here, and in a prior study (Keeley et al., 2007), Eremosis is found to be most closely related to the Leiboldiinae with which it shares part of its geographic range (southern Mexico and northern Guatemala) and at least one distinctive morphological character (i.e., basal stylar node; Robinson, 1999a). Additional studies with increased sampling will be required to ascertain whether Eremosis would be best recognized by its own subtribe or placed within the Leiboldiinae. ...
Article
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Premise: With over 1500 species, the globally distributed Vernonieae is one of the most successful members of the Compositae. However, due to its morphological complexity and limited geographic representation in previous studies, subtribal and biogeographic relationships are unclear. Here new DNA sequence data spanning the geographical range of the tribe provides a taxonomically robust time-calibrated phylogeny, an estimation of migration pathways and timing of important biogeographical events and allows inference of environmental factors that have contributed to the success of the Vernonieae worldwide. Methods: Phylogenetic relationships were estimated for 368 taxa representing all Vernonieae subtribes. Molecular clock and ancestral range estimation analyses provide a framework for inference of the tribe's biogeographic history. Results: Relationships among the subtribes were established. We confirmed that the Moquinieae are nested in Vernonieae, determined the correct placement of several problematic taxa, and conducted the first model-based assessment of the biogeographical history of the tribe. The . Vernonieae were estimated to have evolved ~50 Ma ago. Africa was the first center of diversity, from which a single dispersal event established the monophyletic New World lineage. Long-distance dispersal from Africa and Brazil established the tribe on five continents and Oceania. Conclusions: Moquinieae are nested in Vernonieae. The New World lineage is monophyletic, but Old World taxa are not. New subtribal taxonomies are needed. Long-distance dispersal from Africa beginning 45 Ma was key to establishing the tribe’s near-global distribution. Migration corridors created by volcanic mountain chains and iron-rich soils in Africa and the Americas promoted radiation and range expansion.
... ex Walp. (Asteraceae) (Robinson 1999) is an annual herb that grows up to 60 cm high with leaves of 1-3 cm long. It is commonly found in abandoned fields in Northern Nigeria, where the leaves are widely used as purgative agents for gastrointestinal problems (Hutchinson and Dalziel 1963;Burkill 1985). ...
... Although not much information regarding the ethnobotany of Polydora occurs in the literature, species within the genus Vernonia have been used in traditional medicine for decades across Africa and South America. Some of these Vernonia species are synonyms for Polydora species (Robinson 1999;Robinson et al. 2016). The plant's activity is probably due to secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) found in most Vernonia species. ...
Article
The leaves of Polydora serratuloides, with the synonym Vernonia perrottetii are widely used as purgative agents for gastrointestinal problems, and other members of Vernonieae have been used in African traditional medicine for decades. A new sesquiterpene lactone of the keto-hirsutinolide type, 13-acetoxy-1(4β),5(6)β-diepoxy-8α-(senecioyloxy)−3-oxo-1,7(11)-germacradiene-12,6-olide 1, was isolated from the hexane extract of its leaves, in addition to the known 13-acetoxy-1,4β-epoxy-8α-(senecioyloxy)−3-oxo-1,5,7(11)-germacratriene-12,6-olide 2. Three common flavonoids (apigenin 3, luteolin 4 and velutin 5) were also isolated. The antibacterial and quorum sensing inhibitory activities of compounds 1 and 2 and crudes extracts showed limited activity on Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, with no activity on Gram negative bacteria. However, quorum sensing (QSI) experiments indicated that 1 and 2, and the four crude extracts had interesting inhibitory activity on the biosensor organism, Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472 in the range of 0.33–5.25 mg mL⁻¹, with compound 1 being the most effective at 0.33 mg mL⁻¹.
... Bhattacharjee & al. (2019) reported occurrence of 52 species and 2 varieties in India; excluded 2 species, 2 varieties; listed 5 species and 1 variety as doubtfully recorded. Bhattacharjee & al. (2020) Robinson (1990;1999a;1999b;2007), Robinson & Skvarla (2006;2007;2009a;2009b) and Robinson & al. (2008), mainly based on pollen and a few micromorphological characters, divided the genus Vernonia by reinstating and describing many smaller genera. However, Bhattacharjee & al. (2020) preferred to follow the broader generic concept of Vernonia s. str. ...
Article
Vernonia pothigaiana Chellad. & Gopalan and Vernonia subsessilis DC. var. macrophylla Hook.f. are synonymised under Vernonia fysonii Calder and Vernonia subsessilis DC. var. bracteolata (DC.) Hook.f. respectively. The placement of Vernonia talaumifolia var. hirsutior C.E.C. Fisch. as a synonym of Vernonia talaumifolia Hook. f. & Thomson ex C.B. Clarke on some online resources is also found justified during the present study. Further, a lectotype of Vernonia fysonii Calder is designated in the present communication.
... H. Rob. (Robinson 1999, Todd et al. 2018. Itis a desert-adapted and low agronomic input crop that is planted in the spring and grows and blooms alongside cotton during the harsh summer months. ...
Article
Vernonia [Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) Less.] (Asterales: Asteraceae) was examined as a potential trap crop for the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvales: Malvaceae) arthropod complex. Four rows of vernonia were embedded within a 96-row cotton field. The abundance of true bug pests, true bug predators, and spiders were determined by whole-plant and sweep net sampling procedures during the early, middle, and late phases of the cotton-growing season. The census data showed that the arthropods had a strong preference for the vernonia trap crop throughout the cotton-growing season. The movement of the arthropods from the trap crop into cotton was also measured using the protein immunomarking technique as a mark-capture procedure. The arthropods inhabiting the vernonia trap crop were marked directly in the field with a broadcast spray application of egg albumin (protein) during each phase of the study. In turn, the captured specimens were examined for the presence of the mark by an egg albumin-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Very few marked specimens were captured beyond the vernonia trap crop 1, 3, and 6 d after each marking event. The arthropods' strong attraction and fidelity to vernonia indicate that it could serve as a trap crop for cotton pests and a refuge for natural enemies.
Article
Changes in chromosome number have played an important role in the diversifcation and evolution of angiosperms. In Asteraceae, tribe Vernonieae are one of the most variable groups with regard to chromosome number. Previously, chromosome numbers n = 9 and 10 were thought to characterize the Old World members of the tribe, and n = 14, 16, 17 and 18 the New World members. This scenario was revised as a result of reports of new chromosome numbers, but the events leading to this wide variation remain unknown. Here we carried out a phylogenetic analysis of Vernonieae in a temporal framework, assessing patterns of diversifcation and establishing possible relationships with chromosome events. Chromosomal evolution was analysed with ChromEvol, from a phylogenetic tree dated in BEAST. Shifts in diversifcation rates using Bayesian analysis of macroevolutionary mixtures were inferred. Vernonieae originated ~46 Mya and the diversifcation rate increased sharply ~11 Mya after the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. The ancestral chromosome number for the tribe was n = 10, which remained stable for Old World taxa, whereas n = 9 was the ancestral number for New World species. The tribe has undergone 32 chromosome rearrangements throughout its evolutionary history, with dysploidy and polyploidy possibly explaining the observed diversifcation pattern.
Article
Polydora Fenzl (1844) is recognised to be a nomen nudum that was only validly published by Robinson (1999). The inclusion by Robinson (1999) of the earlier validly published Crystallopollen Steetz ([in Peters] 1864) as a synonym however, rendered Polydora Fenzl ex H.Rob. (1999) superfluous and so illegitimate. Crystallopollen Steetz ([in Peters] 1864) is therefore the correct name for the genus as circumscribed by Robinson (1999) and later authors. Only one of the namescurrently accepted in Polydora has a combination in Crystallopollen and the necessary additional combinations are provided here for C. bainesii (Oliv. & Hiern) J.C.Manning, C. chloropappum (Baker) J.C.Manning, C. jelfiae (S.Moore) J.C.Manning, C. mbalense (G.V.Pope) J.C.Manning, C. rhodesiana (S.Moore) J.C.Manning, C. serratuloides (DC.) J.C.Manning and C. sylvicola (G.V.Pope) J.C.Manning.
Article
Vernonia shevaroyensis Gamble is treated here as a heterotypic synonym of Vernonia vivekanathanii Uniyal and a neotype has been designated for V. shevaroyensis in the present communication in absence of any original material of the name.
Article
Centrapalus pauciflorus naturally produces vernolic acid, which could replace the synthetic vernolic acid currently used as a plasticizer. Field trials conducted at Simcoe, Ontario from 2014 to 2016 show two breeding lines of C. pauciflorus (PI 642418, PI 642419), performed well under field conditions when grown from transplants. Low field germination rates made agronomic studies using direct seeded plants difficult. Variations in seeding depth, supplemental irrigation, treatment with gibberellic acid and/or fungicide, or priming with water prior to seeding did not significantly improve germination of field sown seed. In general, seed yield, oil content and vernolic acid levels were not affected by nitrogen, or early season removal of the apical meristem. Higher planting densities did significantly increase seed yield and hence overall oil yield per hectare. Over the three growing seasons, oil content ranged from 31.6 to 42.2% (ave. 37.5%) and vernolic acid content of 70.2–76.0% (ave. 73.5%). Additional research to improve field germination of seed would greatly facilitate the continued development of C. pauciflorus as a commercial crop for the production of vernolic acid.
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