25 Dekker and Pol, Female Transvestism; Cressy, ‘Gender Trouble’, p. 460; Capp,
‘Playgoers’, pp. 165 and 167.
26 Great Chronicle of London, p. 136.
27 Images that depicted transvestite saints in conventional clothing suggest some discom-
fort with the practice: Saisha Grayson, ‘Disruptive Disguises: the Problem of Transvestite
Saints for Medieval Art, Identity, and Identification’, Medieval Feminist Forum 45, 2009.
28 Schibanoff, ‘True Lies’, p. 51.
29 Geoffroy de La Tour Landry, The Book of the Knight of the Tower, transl. William
Caxton, ed. Marguerite Y. Offord, Early English Text Society, Supplementary Series no. 2,
London, 1971, pp. 87–92, at p. 89. The tale also appears in fabliaux collections.
30 Twycross and Carpenter, Masks and Masking, pp. 75–6.
31 Anne F. Sutton, The Mercery of London: Trade, Goods and People, 1130–1578,
Aldershot, 2005, p. 51 and n. 18.
32 Janelle Werner, ‘Promiscuous Priests and Vicarage Children: Clerical Sexuality and
Masculinity in Late Medieval England’, in Negotiating Clerical Identities: Priests, Monks and
Masculinity in the Middle Ages, ed. Jennifer D. Thibodeaux, New York, 2010, pp. 169–70; Ruth
Mazo Karras, ‘The Latin Vocabulary of Illicit Sex in English Ecclesiastical Court Records’, The
Journal of Medieval Latin 2, January 1992, p. 5.
33 The Wisdom Symposium: Papers from the Trinity College Medieval Festival, ed. Milla
Cozart Riggio, New York, 1986 and The Play of Wisdom: Its Texts and Contexts, ed. Milla
Cozart Riggio, New York, 1998; Two Moral Interludes: the Pride of Life and Wisdom, ed. David
N. Klausner, TEAMS Middle English Texts Series, Kalamazoo MI, 2009.
34 John B. Post, ‘A Fifteenth-Century Customary of the Southwark Stews’, Journal of the
Society of Archivists 5, 1977; Karras, Common Women.
35 Twycross and Carpenter, Masks and Masking, throughout, and especially pp. 65–76, 90.
36 Edward Hall, Hall’s Chronicle, ed. Henry Ellis, London, 1809, throughout pp. 507–803,
for instance pp. 513–14, 580, 595–7, 619–20.
37 Baldassare Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier, transl. Leonard Eckstein Opdycke,
New York, 1903, p. 87. See also Clark and Sponsler, ‘Queer Play’; Varholy, ‘Rich like a Lady’,
p. 5; and Sarah Carpenter, ‘Masking and Politics: the Alison Craik Incident, Edinburgh 1561’,
Renaissance Studies 21: 5, 2007.
38 Karras, Common Women, pp. 21–2. See also Erik Spindler, ‘Were Medieval Prostitutes
Marginals? Evidence from Sluis, 1387–1440’, Revue Belge de philologie et d’histoire 87: 2, 2009,
pp. 265–8; Storey, ‘Clothing Courtesans’, pp. 99–106.
39 Karras, Common Women, p. 157, n. 39.
40 David Sanderson Chambers, Jennifer Fletcher and Brian S. Pullan, Venice: a
Documentary History, 1450–1630, Toronto, 2001, p. 123; see also a later ordinance that con-
nects cross-dressed prostitutes to young men’s ‘appetite’ for sodomy; Cibin, ‘Meretrici e corte-
giane’, p. 99; Trexler, ‘Florentine Prostitution’, pp. 48–51. See also Everett Rowson, ‘Gender
Irregularity as Entertainment: Institutionalized Transvestism at the Caliphal Court in Medieval
Baghdad’, in Gender and Difference in the Middle Ages, ed. Sharon Farmer and Carol Braun
Pasternack, Minneapolis, 2003.
41 Carolyn Dinshaw, Getting Medieval: Sexualities and Communities, Pre- and Post-
Modern, Durham NC, 1999, pp. 106–12.
42 Karras, Common Women, p. 149, n. 10.
43 LMA, COL/AD/01/010, Letter Book K, f. 11v; COL/AD/01/011, Letter Book L, f.
275v–276r. Men’s hair was sometimes clipped too: LMA, COL/AD/01/012, Letter Book M, f.
44 LMA, COL/CA/01/01, Repertories of the Court of Aldermen, vol. 12, f. 473r; see also
vol. 13, f. 128v–129r.
45 On aliens and prostitution generally, see Karras, Common Women, pp. 56–7.
46 Dekker and Pol, Female Transvestism, p. 2. They link the phenomenon to the relatively
late age of marriage in northern Europe.
47 Dekker and Pol, Female Transvestism, p. 11.
48 The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundeville, Kt., ed. James O. Halliwell-Phillipps,
London, 1839, p. 250.
49 LMA, Comm. Act Book 1, f. 38v; Comm. Act Book 4, f. 250r, 240v; Karras, Common
Women, pp. 56–7; Richard M. Wunderli, London Church Courts and Society on the Eve of the
Reformation, Cambridge MA, 1981, p. 100.
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