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Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage.
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... Secondly, higher UPF consumption is inversely associated with a poor nutritional profile and quality and deficiency intake of dietary fiber, fruit, vegetables, and legumes [43]. In addition, ingredients in UPFs such as artificial sweeteners could result in dysbiosis of gut microbiota, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and diverse metabolic disturbance, which then leads to the development of MetS [44,45]. Thirdly, the physical properties of food were altered by a series of industrial processes, which could result in a higher glycemic load and reduction of gut-brain satiety signaling [46,47]. ...
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The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing and the relationship between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and MetS remains uncertain in Chinese adults. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of UPF consumption with the risk of MetS and its components in Chinese adults. Adults aged 18 years and above who participated in at least two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009, 2015, and 2018 were included in this analysis. Dietary intake data were collected by three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls and weighing household foods and condiments. Depending on the purpose and extent of food processing, UPFs were classified using the NOVA food classification system. A multivariate Cox proportional risk model was used to explore the association between UPF consumption (grouped by quartile: quartile 1 (Q1), quartile 2 (Q2), quartile 3 (Q3), and quartile 4 (Q4)) and risk of MetS and its components. A total of 5147 adults were included. During a median (IQR) 6.0 (3.0, 9.0) year follow-up with 31,878 person-years, 1712 MetS cases were identified, with an incidence of 33.26%. After multivariable adjustment, the risk of MetS was increased by 17% in the highest quartile with UPF consumption (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01–1.35, p trend: 0.047), with the lowest quartile as a reference. For the components of MetS, the risk of central obesity, raised triglycerides (TG), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and raised blood pressure (BP) was increased by 33% (HR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.18–1.51, p trend: <0.001), 26% (HR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.08–1.48, p trend: 0.003), 25% (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.07–1.46, p trend: 0.007), and 16% (HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03–1.32, p trend: 0.018) in the highest quartile with UPF consumption, respectively. Adults aged 45–59 years and living in urban areas with higher UPF consumption had higher odds of MetS. These results indicate that higher long-term UPF consumption was associated with an increased risk of MetS in Chinese adults. Further studies such as intervention trials are needed to confirm the mechanism of correlation between UPF consumption and health-related outcomes. Nutritional education actions are warranted to promote a balanced diet and improve the overall dietary quality of residents to reduce the risk of MetS effectively.
... 76+ As and BRB+ As groups were exposed to As via drinking water (10 ppm) after 2 weeks. Mice of 30 g have an average daily water intake of 2 ml [24]. After another 4 weeks of As treatment, fecal samples were collected individually, and stored at −80 °C for further experiments. ...
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Mounting evidence has linked berries to a variety of health benefits. We previously reported that administration of a diet rich in black raspberries (BRBs) impacted arsenic (As) biotransformation and reduced As-induced oxidative stress. To further characterize the role of the gut microbiota in BRB-mediated As toxicity, we utilized the dietary intervention of BRBs combined with a mouse model to demonstrate microbial changes by examining associated alterations in the gut microbiota, especially its functional metabolites. Results showed that BRB consumption changed As-induced gut microbial alterations through restoring and modifying the gut microbiome, including its composition, functions and metabolites. A number of functional metabolites in addition to bacterial genera were significantly altered, which may be linked to the effects of BRBs on arsenic exposure. Results of the present study suggest functional interactions between dietary administration of black raspberries and As exposure through the lens of the gut microbiota, and modulation of the gut microbiota and its functional metabolites could contribute to effects of administration of BRBs on As toxicity.
... A large number of Gram-positive bacteria in the body are related to the cause of cellular senescence and liver cancer onset, and the consumption of a high-fat diet changes the gut microbiota [145]. The excess consumption of sweeteners induces dysbiosis [146]. Dysbiosis induced by high-fructose consumption is responsible for the induction of metabolic syndrome [147]. ...
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In recent years, attention has focused on the roles of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables in maintaining and improving the intestinal environment and preventing metabolic syndrome. A high-fat and high-sugar diet, lack of exercise, and excess energy accumulation in the body can cause metabolic syndrome and induce obesity, diabetes, and disorders of the circulatory system and liver. Therefore, the prevention of metabolic syndrome is important. The current review shows that the simultaneous intake of phytochemicals contained in citruses and grapes together with vitamin D improves the state of gut microbiota and immunity, preventing metabolic syndrome and related diseases. Phytochemicals contained in citruses include polyphenols such as hesperidin, rutin, and naringin; those in grapes include quercetin, procyanidin, and oleanolic acid. The intake of these phytochemicals and vitamin D, along with prebiotics and probiotics, nurture good gut microbiota. In general, Firmicutes are obese-prone gut microbiota and Bacteroidetes are lean-prone gut microbiota; good gut microbiota nurture regulatory T cells, which suppress inflammatory responses and upregulate immunity. Maintaining good gut microbiota suppresses TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine that is also considered to be a pathogenic contributor adipokine, and prevents chronic inflammation, thereby helping to prevent metabolic syndrome. Maintaining good gut microbiota also enhances adiponectin, a protector adipokine that prevents metabolic syndrome. For the prevention of metabolic syndrome and the reduction of various disease risks, the intake of phytochemicals and vitamin D will be important for human health in the future.
... In order to interpret such rapid growth from 2013 to 2021, we have explored the Altmetric Top 100 over the years, which includes the top 100 studies with the highest AAS of the year. It is found that from 2013 to 2015, there was one article each year discussing gut microbiota and reaching the annual Altmetric Top 100, the titles of which are "Intestinal microbiota metabolism of l-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis" (Koeth et al., 2013), "Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota (Suez et al., 2014), " and "Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome (Chassaing et al., 2015)." Their AASs are 1089, 4794, and 1835, while their annual ranks are 64, 3, and 57 respectively (Supplementary Figure S1). ...
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Background Rheumatic diseases (RD) are a group of multi-system inflammatory autoimmune diseases whose causes are still under study. In the past few decades, researchers have found traces of the association between rheumatic diseases and intestinal microbiota, which can partially explain the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. We aimed to describe the research trend and main divisions on how gut flora interreacts with rheumatic diseases, and discussed about the possible clinical applications. Methods We analyzed bibliometric data from the Web of Science core collection (dated 15th May 2022). Biblioshiny R language software packages (bibliometrix) were used to obtain the annual publication and citations, core sources according to Bradford’s law, and country collaboration map. We designed and verified the keyword co-occurrence network and strategic diagram with the help of VOSviewer and CiteSpace, subdivided the research topic into several themes and identified research dimensions. The tables of most local cited documents and core sources were processed manually. Furthermore, the Altmetric Attention Score and the annual Altmetric Top 100 were applied to analyze the annual publication and citation. Results From a total of 541 documents, we found that the overall trend of annual publication and citation is increasing. The major research method is to compare the intestinal microbial composition of patients with certain rheumatic disease and that of the control group to determine microbial alterations related to the disease’s occurrence and development. According to Bradford’s law, the core sources are Arthritis and Rheumatology, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Current Opinion in Rheumatology, Nutrients, Rheumatology, and Journal of Rheumatology. Since 1976, 101 countries or regions have participated in studies of rheumatology and intestinal microbes. The United States ranks at the top and has the broadest academic association with other countries. Five themes were identified, including the pivotal role of inflammation caused by intestinal bacteria in the rheumatic pathogenesis, the close relationship between rheumatic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease, immunoregulation mechanism as a mediator of the interaction between rheumatic diseases and gut flora, dysbiosis and decreased diversity in intestine of patients with rheumatic diseases, and the influence of oral flora on rheumatic diseases. Additionally, four research dimensions were identified, including pathology, treatment, disease, and experiments. Conclusion Studies on rheumatic diseases and the intestinal microbiota are growing. Attention should be paid to the mechanism of their interaction, such as the microbe-immune-RD crosstalk. Hopefully, the research achievements can be applied to diseases’ prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, and our work can contribute to the readers’ future research.
... A 2015 study showed that jet lag-induced dysbiosis can promote glucose intolerance and obesity, which can be transferred to GF mice after FMT [43]. Two articles published in Nature confrmed that artifcial sweeteners can cause glucose intolerance by modulating the GM [44], and dietary emulsifers can afect the GM in mice to promote colitis and metabolic syndrome [45], which were confrmed by FMT experiments. (4) Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases: It was observed that hypertension can be transferred through FMT from hypertensive human donors to GF mice, demonstrating the direct efect of GM on host blood pressure [46]. ...
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Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a current research hotspot, with a surge in the output of publications over the past decade. This study dedicates to the exploration of the research status and highlights significant themes and future trends in FMT research with the aid of bibliometric analysis. Methods: FMT publications from 2012 to 2021 were retrieved on August 12, 2022, using the SCI-Expanded of Web of Science (WoS). The Bibliometrix in R program, Microsoft Office Excel, VOSviewer, and CiteSpace were utilized for bibliometrics and visual analysis, revealing the main publications, journals, countries, agencies, authors, and keywords distribution in FMT research. Results: There were 2,931 papers included. FMT research presented a growing trend from 2012 to 2021. The countries with the most publications and contributions in FMT area were China and the United States. The high-yield institutions were Harvard University, Udice French Research Universities, and the University of California System. The primary authors were Nieuwdorp Max, Allegretti Jessica R, and Kassam Zain. Frontiers in Microbiology and Science were the top-ranked journals in publications and total citations, respectively. The important topics primarily included FMT-related mechanisms and the usage of FMT in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), metabolic disease, neurological disorders, and psychiatric disorders. Future research would primarily concentrate on neurological disorders, chemotherapy and immunotherapy for malignant tumors, and FMT-related consensus and guidelines. Conclusion: With the help of bibliometric analysis, we were able to obtain the understanding of the status and trends of global FMT-related research. The field of FMT is undergoing tremendous progress, and our findings can guide clinical researchers' and practitioners' future work in the rapidly evolving field of FMT.
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Until the mid-90s, sugar had been the main sweetener used by the food industry, but in recent years the promotion for the consumption of artificial sweeteners has increased, including sucralose, which has gained strength and presence, gradually becoming the most widely used artificial sweetener in a variety of products. Health authorities have authorized the implementation of sucralose additives safely as a sweetener, based on numerous analyses, however, there are new studies that have reported some interesting data on its effects on health, this paper is focused on exploring what has been reported on the metabolism, effects and possible health risks related to the consumption of sucralose. These effects include increased intestinal damage and inflammation in animal models with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease; affections in the intestinal microbial flora, intestinal barrier and inactivation of digestive proteases, caused increase in TNFα, IL-1β as well as a decrease in IL-10 and with this, an increase in the risk for colorectal cancer; Other studies report an association between the intake of this sweetener and the increased risk of cardiovascular events and appetite. This new evidence raises the need to develop new nutritional strategies, as well as monitoring the proportion and type of compounds that are ingested in industrialized products. At the end of the day, the principles of a healthy diet will always prevail over the alternatives of artificial manipulation.
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