Artificial Sweeteners Induce Glucose Intolerance by Altering the Gut Microbiota

Article (PDF Available)inNature 70(1) · September 2014with 7,258 Reads
DOI: 10.1038/nature13793 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are among the most widely used food additives worldwide, regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. NAS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remain sparse and controversial. Here we demonstrate that consumption of commonly used NAS formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota. These NAS-mediated deleterious metabolic effects are abrogated by antibiotic treatment, and are fully transferrable to germ-free mice upon faecal transplantation of microbiota configurations from NAS-consuming mice, or of microbiota anaerobically incubated in the presence of NAS. We identify NAS-altered microbial metabolic pathways that are linked to host susceptibility to metabolic disease, and demonstrate similar NAS-induced dysbiosis and glucose intolerance in healthy human subjects. Collectively, our results link NAS consumption, dysbiosis and metabolic abnormalities, thereby calling for a reassessment of massive NAS usage.
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  • ... The consumption of NNSs, mainly in diet sodas, has been related to an increased risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and T2D (8)(9)(10)(11)(12), although some studies did not find any association (13,14). The consumption of typically used nonnutritive artificial sweetener formulations drives the development of glucose intolerance through the induction of compositional and functional alterations to the intestinal microbiota (15). In contrast, the consumption of NNSs reduces blood glucose, which is attributed to the lower carbohydrate load rather than the activation of sweet taste receptors (16). ...
    ... In that week, the volunteers consumed the maximal ADI of saccharin (5 mg/kg). Compared with their individual glycemic response on days 1-4, the volunteers in the NAS group showed decreased glycemic responses at days 5 and 7 (15). The magnitude of the difference was >30%. ...
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  • ... These responses resulted in a 28% decline in the composite ISI, an indicator of glucose disposal relative to insulin levels. The FB employed in the present study, 5h Energy Decaffeinated, contained several insulino- genic ingredients including sucralose and free amino acids [25,26]. Higher insulin concentra- tions without altered glycemia with acute sucralose consumption has been previously reported [27]. ...
    ... Higher insulin concentra- tions without altered glycemia with acute sucralose consumption has been previously reported [27]. Likewise, there is a growing body of evidence showing that the consumption of artificial sweeteners may disrupt glucose homeostasis and is positively associated with host metabolic derangements including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease with chronic consump- tion [26,28,29]. ...
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  • ... There were reports on the carcenogenic pro- perties of saccharin and risk of development of cancer of the urinary bladder, but further studies disproved this (Weihrauch & Diehl, 2004;Vasconcelos et al., 2017). Non-calory sweeteners stimulate the develop- ment of intolerance of glucose by change in the microflora of the intesti- nes and subsequent development of inflammatory processes in the organs ( Suez et al., 2014;Nettleton et al., 2016;Qin, 2016;Bian et al., 2017b), and significantly reduce the sense of taste ( Bakali et al., 2016;Sclafani & Ackroff, 2017;Dess et al., 2017;Choo & Dando, 2018). Despite these data, nowadays, saccharin is approved for ubiquitous usage in over 90 countries. ...
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  • ... Dlatego też w niektórych badaniach stwierdzono insulinogenne działanie niecukrowych sub- stancji słodzących [11]. Są także badania, które wskazują, że sztuczne słodziki zmieniają metabolizm glukozy po- przez oddziaływanie na mikrobiotę jelitową [17]. Jednak w przypadku ksylitolu ta strefa wciąż wymaga większej liczby badań. ...
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  • ... Importantly, the negative impact of dietary emulsifiers is not observed in GF mice, suggesting that the compositional and functional modulation of the gut microbiota by emulsifiers play a key role in their adverse effect (177). Other food additives, for example artificial sweeteners, also induce gut dysbiosis (179,180). The consumption of artificial sweeteners promotes the expansion of Proteobacteria and increases the infiltration of bacteria into the ileal lamina propria in CD- like ileitis model mice (180). ...
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