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Using Webquest to Support Learning with Technology in Higher Education

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Abstract

A ‘webquest’ as defined, by Dodge (1995), is an inquiry-oriented activity that helps students to learn through gathering, analysing and evaluating information from teacher-nominated Internet websites.This paper discusses an introductory webquest aimed at teaching and enhancing student learning through technology. The paper develops a rationale for teaching practices that encompass such a webquest and outlines a step-by-step approach complete with all necessary materials. The webquest also contains a questionnaire aimed at evaluating its value, and the findings reveal that students considered that it significantly enhanced their learning. Suggestions for further development of the webquest are identified.

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... In another study, students considered their use of WebQuest as a very good and positive experience in learning and described the possibility to know the points of view of other students as a beneficial aspect of Web Quest (Gülbahar et al., 2010). In a study by Hassanien (2006), the participants viewed Web Quest as a stimulating activity and approximately 90% of the learners recommended that other learners should use theWeb Quest (Hassanien, 2006). In a study by Hassan zadehet al., where team learning was conducted on187medical students www.ccsenet.org/gjhs ...
... In another study, students considered their use of WebQuest as a very good and positive experience in learning and described the possibility to know the points of view of other students as a beneficial aspect of Web Quest (Gülbahar et al., 2010). In a study by Hassanien (2006), the participants viewed Web Quest as a stimulating activity and approximately 90% of the learners recommended that other learners should use theWeb Quest (Hassanien, 2006). In a study by Hassan zadehet al., where team learning was conducted on187medical students www.ccsenet.org/gjhs ...
... Global Journal of Health Science Vol. 7, No. 4;2015 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, over half of the students described team learning as a proper method: many of the students changed their places or stood up right in class in order to be able to participate more ingroup work (Hassanzadeh, Abolhasani, Mirzazadeh, & Alizadeh, 2013). Other researchers who have studied team learning have high lighted such issues as deep learning (Hassanien, 2006;Hassanzadeh et al., 2013), motivating students (Cheng et al., 2014;Clark et al., 2008;Feingold et al., 2008), being learner-based and encouraging students to participatein class (Feingold et al., 2008)as some other benefits of this approach. ...
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Web Quest is one of the new ways of teaching and learning that is based on research, and includes the principles of learning and cognitive activities, such as collaborative learning, social and cognitive learning, and active learning, and increases motivation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the Web Quest influence on students' learning behaviors. In this quasi-experimental study, which was performed on undergraduates taking a psychiatric course at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, simple sampling was used to select the cases to be studied; the students entered the study through census and were trained according toWeb Quest methodology. The procedure was to present the course as a case study and team work. Each topic included discussing concepts and then patient's treatment and the communicative principles for two weeks. Active participation of the students in response to the scenario and introduced problem was equal to preparing scientific videos about the disease and collecting the latest medical treatment for the disease from the Internet.Three questionnaires, including the self-directed learning Questionnaire, teamwork evaluation Questionnaire (value of team), and Buffard self-regulated Questionnaire, were the data gathering tools. The results showed that the average of self-regulated learning and self-directed learning (SDL) increased after the educational intervention. However, the increase was not significant. On the other hand, problem solving (P=0.001) and the value of teamwork (P=0.002), apart from increasing the average, had significant statistical values. In view of Web Quest's positive impacts on students' learning behaviors, problem solving and teamwork, the effective use of active learning and teaching practices and use of technology in medical education are recommended.
... Diğer taraftan birinci uygulamada yeni okuryazarlık becerileri gelişmiş olanların görevleri tamamlarken bağımsız davranmaları diğerlerinin ise yardıma ihtiyaç duymaları Gokalp, Sharma, Johnston ve Sharma (2013)'nın yaptığı araştırmada orta akademik başarıya sahip öğrencilerin daha fazla rehberliğe ihtiyaç duymaları ve yüksek akademik başarıya sahip olanların daha fazla bağımsız davranmaları sonucuyla tutarlılık göstermektedir. Hassanien (2006) (Hassanien, 2006;Ikpeze, 2009). Diğer taraftan Chang vd. ...
... Diğer taraftan birinci uygulamada yeni okuryazarlık becerileri gelişmiş olanların görevleri tamamlarken bağımsız davranmaları diğerlerinin ise yardıma ihtiyaç duymaları Gokalp, Sharma, Johnston ve Sharma (2013)'nın yaptığı araştırmada orta akademik başarıya sahip öğrencilerin daha fazla rehberliğe ihtiyaç duymaları ve yüksek akademik başarıya sahip olanların daha fazla bağımsız davranmaları sonucuyla tutarlılık göstermektedir. Hassanien (2006) (Hassanien, 2006;Ikpeze, 2009). Diğer taraftan Chang vd. ...
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Türkçe dersinde Ağ Araştırması’na dayalı öğretimin okuduğunu anlama becerisinin gelişimine etkisini belirlemek amacıyla yapılan bu araştırma eylem araştırması deseninde tasarlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 24 ilkokul dördüncü sınıf öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. 55 ders saati süren araştırmada öğrenciler grup, eşli ve bireysel olmak üzere üç Ağ Araştırması’na dayalı öğretim uygulamasına katılmıştır. Okuduğunu anlama testi çalışmada öntest ve sontest olarak uygulanmıştır. Nicel verilerin analizinde betimsel istatistiklere yer verilmiş ve ilişkili örneklemler için t testi kullanılmıştır. Nitel veriler ise betimsel analiz yapılarak çözümlenmiştir. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre öğrencilerin okuduğunu anlama öntest puanlarına göre sontest puanları lehine anlamlı farklılık bulunmuştur. Öğrenciler AADÖ sürecinde ekranın kendilerini yönlendirdiğini belirterek aradıkları bilgilere daha çabuk ulaştıklarını ve konuyla ilgili farklı sayfalara ulaşıp bilgileri bütünleştirerek metinler arası anlam kurduklarını, ekrandaki yazılı unsurlarla görsel ve işitsel unsurları ilişkilendirerek daha kolay biçimde anlam oluşturduklarını belirtmişlerdir. Farklı yazı tipi ve renginin olmasının öğrenci için araştırdığı konuya ilişkin ipucu verdiği ve e-okuma-anlama stratejilerini kullanan öğrencilerin metinleri daha kolay anlamlandırdıkları tespit edilmiştir. Bu süreçte öğrenciler arasında yaşanan anlaşmazlık, öğrenme ürünlerini kaydetmeme, göz gezdirme, özetleme gibi stratejileri kullanamama vb. yaşanan sorunlar arasındadır. Yaşanan sorunlara bazı çözüm önerileri getirilmiştir.
... Achieving such student engagement requires the creation of a learning community, whereby students are driven by a desire to collaborate with others to generate meaningful and worthwhile knowledge (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008). Active exchange of ideas among participants increases motivation, promotes critical thinking, improves attitudes toward learning, and enhances appreciation of diversity (Hassanien, 2006). Learning communities are common in face-to-face settings (Oliver, Herrington, Herrington, & Reeves, 2007). ...
Article
In recognition of the continued increase in cultural diversity in graduate tourism and hospi-tality programs, this study promotes the creation of a virtual learning community to engage international students in the learning process. The study adopted a mixed methods approach to investigate the influence of online discussion forums in the attainment of learning outcomes for international students. Data were collected from commencing international graduate students enrolled in an Australian tourism and hospitality marketing course. The qualitative phase con-sisted of 99 written student reflections regarding students' use of an online discussion forum; the reflections were content analyzed, allowing for the identification of relevant themes. The quantitative phase consisted of an online discussion forum participation survey (n = 73). The results of the study suggest that international students, particularly non-native-speaking stu-dents, welcome the opportunity to engage in a learning community that reduces cultural and language barriers. Increased exposure to and familiarity with such nontraditional forms of instruction are seen as enablers of positive learning experiences for international students when studying abroad.
... Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) learning style can significantly improve students' achievement and attitudes while decreasing necessary instructional contact times. Hassanien (2006) opined that one of the most comprehensive effectiveness of using computers is to increase student achievement and that computer-based tutorials produce improvements in learning outcomes of approximately twenty percent (20%) above the average for no computer-based learning. Effective use of simulation, interactive video instruction, hypertext programs, bulletin boards and networks can enhance teaching and learning. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of Web-Quest package as an instructional tool on the academic achievement of senior secondary school students learning QBASIC programming language. The study adopted a pretestposttest quasi-experimental design involving 80 students of senior school II computer science students. The independent variable was Web-Quest instruction package on one level (lecture method) as the control group. Data were collected using QBasic achievement test (QBAST). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for analyzing the obtained data. Our findings on mean achievement scores of students exposed to QBASICWQ showed that there are no significant differences in the mean achievement scores of students exposed to QBASICWQP, Post-test (61.78) and Pre-test (53.83). Findings on effects of Web-Quest package to that of lecture methods on SSII students’ achievement scores in learning programming (QBASIC) showed significant effects (f-cal= 3.341, df= 79, significant level = 0.00, P < 0.05). Finding based on the achievement level of the respondents was significant (High (70.63), Medium (54.60), and Low (39.00)). This showed that 50% of the students scored higher, which implies that WebQuest had an effect on students’ performance level because a large number of students performed better. Finding between male and female students’ performance after being exposed to (QBASICWQP) showed significant difference (F-cal= 51.550, df= 39, sig. level = 0.000, P < 0.05) in favour of the male students. Based on the findings, it was recommended that curriculum planners should work hand in hand with teachers to develop and evaluate the use of WebQuests for teaching QBasic programming language among others.
... Otro rasgo singular de las WebQuest es su amplio abanico tareas, el corazón de la propuesta educativa (Dodge, 2002). Los distintos tipos de tareas que se pueden proponer a través de las WebQuest han dado pie al desarrollo de una serie de experiencias en distintos ámbitos educativos (Pinya y Rosselló, 2013;Hassanien, 2006), bajo distintas circunstancias educativas (Betancourt y Perdomo, 2008;Allan y Street, 2007) y cada vez con distintos y mayores recursos educativos (Chang, Chen & Hsu, 2011;March, 2007). Se puede decir que existe una amplia experiencia de uso de las WebQuest visible no sólo los algunos trabajos como los señalados, sino también en las webs que concentran distintas propuestas i . ...
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RESUMEN Tras la primera formulación en 1995 sobre qué es una Web Quest ¿cuál es el estado de su desarrollo en el campo de la educación? Esta pregunta exige muchas miradas y respuestas. Este trabajo busca ser parte de esta evaluación poniendo en evidencia el desarrollo de la producción científica sobre WebQuest en las dos principales bases de datos científicas: WOS (Web of Science) y Scopus desde su formulación hasta la actualidad (1995‐2014). El método es el análisis bibliométrico en base a las siguientes variables: número de artículos publicados, número de citas recibidas, principales revistas citantes, promedio de citas por año, nombre y país de los autores más citados y palabras clave. Se ha procedido a la identificación del perfil y las características de las publicaciones científicas que lo tratan, sobre la conclusión de una evidente dispersión y atomización de resultados, destacando la existencia de una significativa comunidad científica sobre WebQuest en España ABSTRACT After the first formulation in 1995 on what is a Web Quest which one is it the state of their development in the field of education? This question requires many perspectives and responses. This work seeks to be part of this assessment by highlighting the development of the scientific production on WebQuest in two main databases scientific: WOS (Web of Science) and Scopus from its formulation until the present
... In Hasanian's study (2006) entitled "Using Web Quest and Technology to Support Learning", most students regarded Web Quest as an incentive to achieving academic success. The researcher concludes that Web Quest is an exciting tool and certainly encourages interactional learning (33). In their comparative study of the effects of Web Quest and lecturing on the students' ECG interpretation skills, Najafi et al. (2013) concluded that the students subject to Web Quest were more successful (34). ...
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Introduction: In this study, the authors aimed to examine the effects of cooperative learning methods using Web Quest and team-based learning on students' self-direction, self-regulation, and academic achievement. Method: This is a comparative study of students taking a course in mental health and psychiatric disorders. In two consecutive years, a group of students were trained using the WebQuest approach as a teaching strategy (n = 38), while the other group was taught using team-based learning (n=39). Data gathering was based on Guglielmino's self-directed learning readiness scale (SDLRS) and Buford's self-regulation questionnaire. The data were analyzed by descriptive test using M (IQR), Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the Mann-Whitney U-test in SPSS software, version 13. p<0.05 was considered as the significance level. Results: The results of the Mann-Whitney U test showed that the participants' self- directed (self-management) and self-regulated learning differed between the two groups (p=0.04 and p=0.01, respectively). Wilcoxon test revealed that self-directed learning indices (self-control and self-management) were differed between the two strategies before and after the intervention. However, the scores related to learning (students' final scores) were higher in the WebQuest approach than in team-based learning. Conclusion: By employing modern educational approaches, students are not only more successful in their studies but also acquire the necessary professional skills for future performance. Further research to compare the effects of new methods of teaching is required.
... In Hasanian's study (2006) entitled "Using Web Quest and Technology to Support Learning", most students regarded Web Quest as an incentive to achieving academic success. The researcher concludes that Web Quest is an exciting tool and certainly encourages interactional learning (33). In their comparative study of the effects of Web Quest and lecturing on the students' ECG interpretation skills, Najafi et al. (2013) concluded that the students subject to Web Quest were more successful (34). ...
... They also indicated that WebQuest is helpful in promoting global thinking, motivation, creativity, critical thinking, and interest. In Hassanien's (2006) study, preservice teachers found WebQuest stimulating and useful for their academic learning. All teachers agreed that WebQuest tasks helped them to take an active role in their learning. ...
Article
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Under the current trend of globalization and economic dynamics, the accountability of our educational systems is being seriously tested. In response to the demands of the future, the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Singapore has wisely proposed several initiatives to promote the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education, and to increase the competitiveness of the workforce by emphasizing inquiry-based learning, higher order thinking, and problem solving (i.e., Thinking Schools Learning Nation, Students Effective Engagement and Development). This study asserts that these two goals, rather than being mutually exclusive, are highly related. Research has shown that integrating technology in teaching and learning can have positive influences on higher order thinking, students motivation, inquiry-based learning, attitudes, achievement, and peer interactions in the classrooms (Bennett, 2001; Schofield, 1995).
... This allowed the students to develop high cognitive levels of thinking and achieve higher in questions requiring higher levels of thinking. Many studies which investigated the effectiveness of WebQuests in learning showed that it enhances students' learning and motivates them to achieve the assigned learning outcomes (Hassanien, 2006;Gulbahar, Madran & Kalelioglu, 2010). Blended learning instructions include many teaching strategies which make it always a subject which is open to research. ...
... Students will typically record the answers they find in a journal, or on a worksheet, and then move on to the next part of the task. WebQuests are cross-curricular and often place an emphasis on critical thinking skills [41]. ...
... At the same time, it should be noted that technology alone does not guarantee solutions to educational problems. It will only have a positive impact when used within the framework of a solid strategic plan for supporting learning and teaching [9]. Actually, WebQuest can be designed in several types such as Google Site, Google Docs, in some WebQuest template as Zunal, Quesgarden,... but in this research, we do suggest to design WebQuest in OKMindmap style because of the simple and flexible functions of OKMindmap service as mentioned above help users easily to create good WebQuest. ...
Article
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In this paper, we propose a new WebQuest model using Web 2.0 services to organize online learning activities by using OKMindmap for building WebQuest and suggest Scratch projects created by students for outcome. WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented lesson format in which most or all the information that learners work with comes from the web. WebQuests can be a valuable addition to a collaborative classroom. One of the goals is to increase critical thinking by employing higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy and Webb's Depth of Knowledge. WebQuests can be a versatile tool for teaching students. OKMindmap is a useful, free, easy to use knowledge manipulation tool for content creation and management. It helps building an innovative collaborating environment for online class and provides a way to embed web service as a node. With this capability, any web service can be embedded as a node on a single map. Moreover, many users (about 40) can work on a same map together. Scratch is a free educational programming language that was developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with over 21 million registered users and 25 million shared projects. Scratch is designed to be fun, educational, and easy to learn. It's a programming language for all with the tools for creating interactive stories, games, art, simulations, and more, using block-based programming. Facebook is also used as a tool for connecting and sharing WebQuest with students. This model was experimented at the School of Education at Can Tho University, which brought us positive results through blended learning. Our desire is to build a WebQuest library in a simple, cost-effective way through this STEM-style education so that inservice and preservice teachers can share together for the best professional development during the current industrial revolution 4.0.
... Students in all grades enjoy learning with technology (Abbit & Ophus, 2008). Moreover, Web Quest is stimulating and useful; students remember lessons far better via Web Quest than through traditional ways of learning (Hassanien, 2006). The teacher's role is to guide students in how to use Web Quest. ...
... Theo nghĩa hẹp, WebQuest được hiểu như một phương pháp dạy học; theo nghĩa rộng, WebQuest được hiểu như một mô hình, một quan điểm về dạy học có sử dụng mạng Internet. Ngoài ra đã có nhiều nghiên cứu về tính hiệu quả của việc thiết kế WebQuest trong đào tạo giáo viên cũng như lợi ích của việc dùng WebQuest để hỗ trợ dạy học với công nghệ ở bậc đại học (Hassanien, 2006;Iskeceli-Tunc and Oner, 2016;Shulgina, 2017). ...
... This allowed the students to develop high cognitive levels of thinking and achieve higher in questions requiring higher levels of thinking. Many studies which investigated the effectiveness of WebQuests in learning showed that it enhances students' learning and motivates them to achieve the assigned learning outcomes (Gulbahar, Madran & Kalelioglu, 2010;Hassanien, 2006). Blended learning instructions include many teaching strategies, which make it always a subject which is open to research. ...
Article
In this study, the effects of two blended learning strategies on the academic achievement of pre-service teachers were examined in two Education courses. The control group composed of 25 teaching diploma students, who received face-to-face learning instructions, in two courses: teaching methods and essentials of education. The experimental group consisted of 22 students who received blended learning instructions in the same courses. Four achievement tests were administered to measure the students’ achievement. The difference between the results of both groups was analysed using the analysis of variance statistical method. The students’ achievement in questions requiring high levels of thinking was examined and compared to both the groups. Positive results for using blended learning strategies were observed in the course of Teaching Methods but were not clearly observed in the course of Essentials of Education. The difference between the results of both the groups was statistically significant in the course of Teaching Methods. Keywords: WebQuests, blogs, critical thinking, student
... Besides, students can explore lessons more by not managing study time only in class, because they have a study room that can be accessed at any time. Thus students can determine ideas for diagnosing and can enforce the information they find when implementing on their own [22] . Thus, blended learning assisted by Webquest learning media is a combination of the advantages of two learning systems (online and face-to-face learning) as well as an alternative solution to the weaknesses of two learning systems (online and face-to-face learning). ...
... However, some research comparing WebQuest or animations with traditional teaching is available in the literature. The previous studies comparing WebQuest and traditional teaching methods report that WebQuest teaching activities increase academic achievement more, are more effective on the permanence of learned knowledge, increase learning motivation, and make teaching processes more enjoyable (Akçay and Şahin, 2012;Chang, Chen and Hsu, 2011;Gülbahar, Madran and Kalelioğlu, 2010;Hassanien, 2006;Lipscomb, 2003;Perkins and McKnight, 2005;Doğru and Şeker, 2012;Ulu and Ulusoy, 2018;Yang, 2014). The previous research findings also conclude that WebQuest teaching activities are student-centered and encourage students to research, question, and think critically (Akçay and Şahin, 2012; Gülbahar, Madran and Kalelioğlu, 2010). ...
... We understand web quest as a problematic task with role-playing elements. An educational Web quest is a site on the Internet that students use to complete a particular educational task (Hassanien, 2006). When creating and passing this type of technology, not only students is actively involved, but also the teacher (Manning & Carpenter, 2008). ...
... It allows the students to access the content that they need to complete without spending a lot of time searching. Hassanien (2006) also states that Webquest is stimulating and useful for the students because it provides motivating and authentic materials that enable the students to remember the lesson better via Webquest than through traditional learning ways. Therefore, Webquest can be an alternative learning tool that facilitates the students in studying and mastering language skills including reading. ...
... This study will implement long-term WebQuests due to its suitability for the university undergraduate level. Hassanien (2006) sets forth seven key elements for creating WebQuests: 1. Introduction: This contains a preamble that raises students' motivation through interesting images that fit the WebQuest topic. 2. Task: This defines the required final result that students must accomplish with the aim of learning the scientific subject in question. ...
Article
This study aims at uncovering the effectiveness of the WebQuest strategy-based learning environment in the teaching of biological concepts and imparting of systemic thinking. The participants of the study, 64 pre-service teachers (students) for the 2020–2021 academic year, were divided randomly into experimental and control groups. WhatsApp groups were used to communicate with the students. To achieve the study’s objectives, a teacher’s manual for biological concepts was prepared following the WebQuest Model; the WebQuests were created using the Zunal computer programmes. Both biological concepts and systemic thinking assessments were prepared and the study tools were tested for accuracy and reliability. To answer the research questions, data were analysed using ANCOVA and MANCOVA. There were significant differences between the average performances of the two study groups on the scale of the acquisition of biological concepts in favour of the experimental group. Additionally, there were significant differences between the average performances of the groups on a scale of systemic thinking in favour of the experimental group. The results encouraged the educational supervisors to hold training courses and workshops for science teachers, training them in the use of the WebQuest strategy in science teaching and urging its implementation in teaching – through individual instruction and publications. The Ministry of Education must play a role in designing and writing the science curricula and provide a guide for the teachers explaining the ways to employ the WebQuest strategy in the process of teaching science.
... Bardzo duża odpowiedzialność spoczywa na nauczycielu, który musi przygotować w odpowiedni sposób materiał wyjściowy i zaprojektować sposób realizacji zadania (rozwiązania problemu), a także dokonać oceny wykonanego zadania, czyli rozwiązania problemu. Sama technologia nie gwarantuje rozwiązania problemów edukacyjnych, ale będzie miała ona pozytywny wpływ jako narzędzie wspierające nauczanie i uczenie się (Hassanien, 2006). Dla młodych ludzi metoda WebQuestu może być bardzo interesująca ze względu na możliwość pracy nad problemem z wykorzystaniem nowoczesnych technologii informacyjnych. ...
Article
Rozwój Internetu zapoczątkował erę „natychmiastowej informacji”. Dzięki technice komputerowej wymiana informacji i poglądów dokonuje się bardzo szybko a Internet stał się bardzo ważnym źródłem informacji. Możliwości, które stwarza Internet stały elementem wspomagającym proces nauczanie – uczenie się. Ta sytuacja generuje konieczność wprowadzania zmian w doborze metod dydaktycznych. W szczególności przełożenia akcentów z nauczania na uczenie się, które staje się jedynym sposobem nadążania za szybko zmieniającą się rzeczywistością. W niniejszym opracowaniu proponuje się zastosowanie w procesie edukacji na poziomie szkoły podstawowej, metody WebQuest. Opracowano ją w oparciu o teorię konstruktywizmu. Umożliwia ona rozwój umiejętności uczenia się problemowego, a także krytycznego i twórczego myślenia oraz współpracy w zespole. Idea tej metody zakłada pracę z komputerem, determinując aktywność ucznia. Sprawdza się zatem w nauczaniu zdalnym. Celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie nowych założeń i koncepcji kształcenia w zakresie geografii, a w szczególności treści turystycznych oraz wynikających z nich możliwości wykorzystania metody WebQuestu w szkole podstawowej. Artykuł ten ma na celu przybliżyć jej strukturę, zasady tworzenia, wskazać jej zalety oraz zachęcić do stosowania jej w praktyce w nauczaniu treści turystycznych na lekcjach geografii.
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span style="font-family: 新細明體; font-size: small;"> This paper was designed to investigate the application of an online inquiry-based program to European tourism from an epistemological perspective. Fifty tourism students (n = 50) participated in this study and their epistemological beliefs were measured with the Epistemological Belief Scale. A set of pre-, post-, and delayed tests were utilised to assess each participant’s learning outcomes. The results showed that online inquiry-based learning (IBL) did change the participants’ epistemological beliefs significantly, with a large effect size (Cohen’s d) of .83. However, correlation analyses indicated that the relationship between an individual’s epistemological beliefs before and after the online IBL experience, and the differences of pre- and post-tests, is rather low (g = .287). Yet, the association between their changed epistemological beliefs and the delayed test was higher (g = .556). These results suggest the possible effectiveness of online IBL in helping tourism students’ develop more sophisticated epistemological beliefs, which may not be able to help learners comprehend the subject matter immediately but may facilitate better long-term retention. </span
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Undergraduate and graduate teacher education students in a culturally diverse, urban university consume and construct knowledge as they engage in a Piaget WebQuest and subsequently construct their own Individual WebQuests. The activities involved in these assignments are underpinned by a combination of complementary theoretical frameworks: Cognitive Constructivism, Social Constructivism, Information Processing, and Situated Learning. The chapter describes how all of these theoretical frameworks are applied in the WebQuests. It includes detailed descriptions of how students engage in and create their own WebQuests. Descriptions include details of how scaffolding is used to support students in their work. Scaffolding that occurs during the Piaget WebQuest process sets the stage for creation of Individual WebQuests, while additional scaffolding is provided during the Individual WebQuest creation process. This chapter also emphasizes teaching metacognition in the design and revision of WebQuest requirements and students' metacognition as they engage in the Piaget WebQuest and create their own Individual WebQuests. The processes of engaging in and creating WebQuests are described and examples of students' WebQuest authentic products shared with a community of learners are provided. Products include Piaget WebQuest-based quizzes, lesson analyses, handouts, and instructional activity designs. They also include individual WebQuests in a variety of academic subjects. Sharing authentic products in a community of practice reflects situated learning theory. Consuming and constructing knowledge through WebQuests involves a complex synthesis of current theories of learning and instruction which facilitates meaningful learning and transfer.
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The study aimed at exploring directions of faculty members at Shoubak University College towards the use of educational technology to facilitate the educational process. The researchers used the descriptive survey method, and then they prepared a questionnaire to investigate faculty members at Shoubak University College after adjudication and the extraction of tool reliability and validity. The study sample consisted of (27) male and female faculty members. The researchers used appropriate statistical treatments according to study questions. The study results showed that the trend of faculty members at Shoubak University College Towards the use of educational technology to facilitate the educational process was positive and at a high level of appreciation A rate of (75.6%), and the arithmetic average of the instrument as whole was (3.78). The study results also showed that there is no statistically significant differences (a ≤ 0.05) due to sex variable, and no presence of significant differences attributed to experience years, and no statistically significant differences due to the variable method of education. The study showed a positive trend towards the use of teaching technology by faculty members to facilitate the educational process at Shoubak University College and at a high level of appreciation. The study showed that there was no effect on differences due to gender variable, years of experience, and method of education
Thesis
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فاعلية الرحلات المعرفية عبر الويب ( ويب كوست ) لتعلم العلوم في تنمية بعض مهارات عمليات العلم لدى طالبات المرحلة المتوسطة مجلة دراسات عربية في التربية وعلم النفس ، العدد 34 ، فبراير ، 2013م
Article
Full-text available
Webquest is an internet based learning tool that can be used by students in learning English. This study investigates students’ perceptions about the use of Webquest to support learning grammar in Higher Education. Seventy-two of second semester students were involved as participants in this study. Questionnaire and interview were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The result of this study revealed that students had positive perceptions toward the use of Webquest in learning grammar. They believed that Webquest can be used as one of effective internet based learning tools in studying grammar.
Research
Full-text available
هدفت الدراسة إلى تقصي اتجاهات الهيئة التدريسية نحو استخدام تكنولوجيا التعليم في كلية التربية الأساسية في الهيئة العامة للتعليم التطبيقي والتدريب بدولة الكويت. استخدم الباحثان المنهج الوصفي المسحي، وقام الباحثان بإعداد استبانة لتقصي اتجاهات أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية نحو استخدام تكنولوجيا التعليم بعد تحكيمها واستخراج صدق الأداة وثباتها. تكونت عينة الدراسة من (264) عضواً وعضوة من أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية. واستخدم الباحثان المعالجات الإحصائية المناسبة بناء على أسئلة الدراسة. أظهرت النتائج إلى اتجاه أعضاء الهيئة التدريسية نحو استخدام تكنولوجيا التعليم بمستوى تقدير متوسط، وبلغ المتوسط الحسابي للأداة ككل (3.33). وأظهرت النتائج أيضاً إلى عدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية ( = 0.05) تعزى لمتغير الجنس، ووجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية ( = 0.05) تعزى لمتغير الرتبة العلمية لصالح الأستاذ المساعد، ووجود فروق دالة إحصائياً تعزى لمتغير سنوات الخبرة لصالح أقل من خمسة سنوات، أما متغير طريقة التعليم فجاءت النتيجة لصالح الطريقة التقليدية. The study aimed at exploring faculty members trends toward the use of educational technology in the college of basic education in the public authority for applied education and training in Kuwait .The researchers used the descriptive survey method, then they prepared a questionnaire to investigate faculty members trends toward the use of educational technology after adjudication and the extraction of tool reliability and validity. The study sample consisted of (264) male and female faculty members. The researchers used an appropriate statistical treatments according to study questions. The study results showed that the trend of faculty members toward the use of educational technology came medium, and the arithmetic average of the instrument as whole was (3.33). The study results also showed that there is no statistically significant differences ( ≤ 0.05) due to sex variable, and the presence of statistically significant differences ( ≤ 0.05) attributed to academic rank variable, and in favor of assistant professor, and the presence of significant differences attributed to experience years, and in favor of less than five years, while the method of education variable, its result came in favor of traditional method.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effect of using Web Quests on improving Jordanian eight graders' grammar learning. The participants of the study were 45 females students from two sections of eight grade students from a public school, Dahiyet Al Hussein Elementary School for Girls in Amman, Jordan in the first semester of the academic year 2016\ 2017. Those participants included the two intact groups of the study: (1) the control group which included (23) girls who were taught by the traditional method, and (2) the experimental group which included (22 ) girls who were taught by the Web Quests. The instrument used to collect data was a grammar pre-test and a grammar post-test. Results showed that Web Quests was not effective in improving Jordanian eight graders' grammar learning. The study also indicated that there were significant differences due to the GPA of eight graders' female students in favor of high GPA.
Article
This study examined the effect of using Web Quests on improving Jordanian eight graders' grammar learning. The participants of the study were 45 females students from two sections of eight grade students from a public school, Dahiyet Al Hussein Elementary School for Girls in Amman, Jordan in the first semester of the academic year 2016\ 2017. Those participants included the two intact groups of the study: (1) the control group which included (23) girls who were taught by the traditional method, and (2) the experimental group which included (22 ) girls who were taught by the Web Quests. The instrument used to collect data was a grammar pre-test and a grammar post-test. Results showed that Web Quests was not effective in improving Jordanian eight graders' grammar learning. The study also indicated that there were significant differences due to the GPA of eight graders' female students in favor of high GPA.
Chapter
The purpose of this study was the creation of a pedagogy inclusive electronic platform for the introduction of Remote Sensing principles to University students. In Universities throughout the world, there is a constant research about new and more flexible ways of teaching and organizing learning in all thematic areas. Environmental Remote Sensing is the measurement from a distance, of all the spectral features of the Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. These measurements are usually made by instruments carried by satellites and they are processed to create information concerning regional and global environmental issues. Remote Sensing is an interdisciplinary thematic area that evolves in a very fast manner. This course has been taught at the Physics Department of the University of Athens in the traditional lecture-based manner until now. This study describes the design, development, pilot application and formative evaluation of the learning platform proposed. The indices derived for the educational proposal’s evaluation demonstrated that the platform has a very good potential to support learning in the area of Remote Sensing and act as an interactive digital repository of knowledge that may enhance students’ learning and facilitate the organization and management of the course.
Article
Full-text available
الملخص هدفت الدراسة إلى تقصي اتجاهات أعضاء هيئة التدريس في كلية الشوبك الجامعية نحو استخدام تكنولوجيا التعليم لتسهيل العملية التعليمية. استخدمت الباحثة المنهج الوصفي المسحي، وقامت الباحثة بإعداد استبانة لتقصي اتجاهات أعضاء هيئة التدريس في كلية الشوبك الجامعية بعد تحكيمها واستخراج صدق الأداة وثباتها. تكونت عينة الدراسة من (27) عضواً وعضوة من أعضاء هيئة التدريس. واستخدمت الباحثة المعالجات الإحصائية المناسبة بناء على أسئلة الدراسة. أظهرت النتائج إلى أن اتجاه أعضاء هيئة التدريس في كلية الشوبك الجامعية نحو استخدام تكنولوجيا التعليم لتسهيل العملية التعليمية كانت إيجابية وبمستوى تقدير كبير، وبلغ المتوسط الحسابي للأداة ككل (3.78) بنسبة بلغت (75.6%). وأظهرت النتائج أيضاً إلى عدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية ( ≤ 0.05) تعزى لمتغير الجنس، وعدم وجود فروق دالة إحصائياً تعزى لمتغير سنوات الخبرة، وعدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية ( ≤ 0.05) تعزى لمتغير طريقة التعليم.
Article
Full-text available
68 ‫الصف‬ ‫طلبة‬ ‫من‬ ً ‫طالبا‬) ‫االدبي‬ ‫الثانوي‬ ‫الثاني‬ ‫مدرسة‬ ‫في‬ ‫الثانوية‬ ‫ياد‬ ‫ز‬ ‫بن‬ ‫طارق‬ ‫ية‬ ‫لمدير‬ ‫التابعة‬ ‫بية‬ ‫تر‬ ‫ماركا‬ ‫اء‬ ‫لو‬ ، ‫اسي‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫العام‬ ‫في‬ 1023-1024 ، ‫اءا‬ ‫إجر‬ ‫حيث‬ ‫من‬ ‫لمناسبتها‬ ‫وذلك‬ ‫ة،‬ ّ ‫قصدي‬ ‫ة‬ ‫بصور‬ ‫العينة‬ ‫اختيار‬ ‫تم‬ ‫وقد‬ ‫ت‬ (‫ضمت‬ ‫يبية‬ ‫تجر‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫إلى‬ ‫اسة‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫عينة‬ ‫وزعت‬ ‫وقد‬ ‫إليها،‬ ‫الوصول‬ 44 (‫ضمت‬ ‫ضابطة‬ ‫ومجموعة‬ ، ً ‫طالبا‬) 41) ‫الباحث‬ ‫استخدم‬ ‫و‬ ‫كذلك،‬ ً ‫طالبا‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫هما:‬ ‫اسة‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫في‬ ‫أداتين‬ ‫اكتساب‬ ‫المفاهيم‬ ‫الفقهية‬ ، ‫التفكير‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫و‬ ‫ائي‬ ‫االستقر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫تحليل‬ ‫وتم‬ ‫وثباتهما،‬ ‫صدقهما‬ ‫من‬ ‫التحقق‬ ‫وتم‬ ، (‫المشترك‬ ‫التباين‬ ‫تحليل‬ ‫باستخدام‬ ‫لبيانات‬ ANCOVA) ‫األتية:‬ ‫النتائج‬ ‫عن‬ ‫اسة‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫أسفرت‬ ‫و‬  ‫متوسطي‬ ‫بين‬ ‫إحصائية‬ ‫داللة‬ ‫ذي‬ ‫فرق‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫على‬ ‫اسة‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫مجموعتي‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫الفقهية‬ ‫المفاهيم‬ ‫اكتساب‬ ‫لصالح‬ ، ‫استخدمت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫يبية‬ ‫التجر‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ‫اتيجية‬ ‫استر‬ (‫فية‬ ‫المعر‬ ‫الرحالت‬ ‫كويست‬ ‫الويب‬) ‫نة‬ ‫مقار‬ ‫ب‬ ‫الضابطة.‬ ‫المجموعة‬  ‫ذ‬ ‫فرق‬ ‫وجود‬ ‫ي‬ ‫متوسط‬ ‫بين‬ ‫إحصائية‬ ‫داللة‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اختبار‬ ‫على‬ ‫اسة‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫مجموعتي‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫ائي‬ ‫االستقر‬ ‫التفكير‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ‫لصالح‬ ، ‫اتيجية‬ ‫استر‬ ‫استخدمت‬ ‫التي‬ ‫يبية‬ ‫التجر‬ (‫فية‬ ‫المعر‬ ‫الرحالت‬ ‫كويست‬ ‫الويب‬) ‫نة‬ ‫مقار‬ ‫ب‬ ‫الضابطة.‬ ‫المجموعة‬ ‫التوص‬ ‫من‬ ‫بجملة‬ ‫اسة‬ ‫الدر‬ ‫أوصت‬ ‫و‬ ‫أبرزها:‬ ‫من‬ ‫يات‬  ‫على‬ ‫التعليم‬ ‫و‬ ‫بية‬ ‫التر‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ار‬ ‫وز‬ ‫تعمل‬ ‫أن‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫على‬ ‫المعلمين‬ ‫تشجيع‬ (‫المعرفية‬ ‫الرحالت‬ ‫اتيجية‬ ‫استر‬ ‫كويست‬ ‫الويب‬) ‫في‬ ‫الطلبة.‬ ‫مع‬ ‫مية‬ ّ ‫التعل‬ ‫ة‬ ّ ‫التعليمي‬ ‫العملية‬  ‫ومعلمات‬ ‫لمعلمي‬ ‫يبية‬ ‫تدر‬ ‫ات‬ ‫دور‬ ‫عقد‬ ‫اإلسالمية‬ ‫بية‬ ‫التر‬ ‫اس‬ ‫على‬ ‫القائمة‬ ‫التعليمية‬ ‫امج‬ ‫البر‬ ‫إعداد‬ ‫حول‬ ‫الرحالت‬ ‫اتيجية‬ ‫تر‬ (‫فية‬ ‫المعر‬ ‫كويست‬ ‫الويب‬ ‫وتنمية‬ ‫الطلبة‬ ‫تحصيل‬ ‫يادة‬ ‫ز‬ ‫في‬ ‫أثر‬ ‫من‬ ‫لها‬ ‫لما‬ ‫التعلمية‬ ‫التعليمية‬ ‫العملية‬ ‫في‬ ‫استخدامها‬ ‫و‬) ‫فروع‬ ‫في‬ ‫لديهم‬ ‫التفكير‬ ‫ات‬ ‫مهار‬ ‫اإلسالمية‬ ‫بية‬ ‫التر‬. ‫المفتاحيةة‬ ‫الكلمات‬ : ‫تت،‬ ‫كويس‬ ‫تب‬ ‫الوي‬ ‫اتيجية‬ ‫تتر‬ ‫اس‬ ‫تاهيم،‬ ‫المف‬ ‫تاب‬ ‫اكتس‬ ‫تر‬ ‫التفكي‬ ‫ائي‬ ‫تتقر‬ ‫االس‬ ، ‫تالمي،‬ ‫االس‬ ‫تال‬ ‫الفق‬ ‫تالمية،‬ ‫االس‬ ‫تة‬ ‫بي‬ ‫التر‬ ‫طلبة‬ ‫الثانوية.‬ ‫المرحلة
Book
Chinese translation of Curriculum Action Research: A Handbook of Methods and Resources for the Reflective Practitioner Trans in Taiwan by Chiu Liu Publishing Co.
Article
Because the authors recognized that there is a need for a different approach to higher education than the traditional means and that the emerging capabilities of technology might meet that need, they pursued a series of experiments in educational methods. Computer and communications technology have each developed in recent years to offer individual tools that have potential for improving the quality of education. Together, these tools generate a synergy that has even more potential. Messages easily composed and transmitted can obviate face‐to‐face meetings in faculty offices. Experts from afar can be drawn into virtual classrooms to stimulate deeper learning from extended interaction. Performance assessments can be collaborative and provided frequently to improve performance. Cross‐cultural experiences can be shared in real or simulated encounters with foreign colleagues. In short, there are numerous techniques that need to be tested and developed to address the kinds of issues exposed in the Wingspread Report (Brock, 1993).
Article
Lifelong learning has come to involve a variety of learning experiences. These include conventional campus teaching, workplace open learning, modular flexible learning programmes, correspondence-based distance learning courses, and most recently Web or multimedia-based courseware. This paper considers the use of multimedia environments for open, flexible and distance education, in particular a learning environment known as the “Virtual University” as part of a process of lifelong learning. A comparison of different modes of learning is made. The Virtual University consists of virtual lectures, virtual seminars, virtual tutorials and virtual exams. It has a number of advantages over both formal lectures and conventional open learning materials, such as interactivity, adaptation, simulation, demonstration and integration. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Virtual University, and the results indicate an enhancement of the overall learning experience.
Article
Describes a study that compared the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and lecture approaches in teaching vocal anatomy and function to 60 undergraduate music students with different learning styles. Highlights include background on learning styles, implications for the use of CAI with various learning styles, and recommendations for further research. (Author/LRW)
Article
Examines the effectiveness of SIMNET (Simulation Networking), a virtual reality training simulation system, combined with a program of role-playing activities for helping Army classes to master the conditional knowledge needed for successful field performance. The value of active forms of learning for promoting higher order cognitive thinking is discussed. (22 references) (LRW)
Article
This book provides an overview of current applications of technology in education; it is organized in eight chapters covering the following trends. (1) There is near saturation of computers in K-12 schools, while higher education institutions report moderate saturation. Students and teachers have almost universal access to computers, many of which are connected to the Internet. (2) The Internet has become a major source of information for students and teachers. In higher education, the use of the Internet to deliver instruction has been steadily growing. (3) Video materials are increasingly being delivered by a variety of distribution systems, such as video streaming on the Web, video conferencing, synchronous teaching and learning by closed circuit, broadcast and satellite television systems. Use of video in classrooms and independent study spaces has leveled off. (4) More community organizations than ever are promoting and supporting the use of technology for teaching and learning in schools, colleges and the public sector. Policy organizations have joined the chorus of voices that advocate more and better use of technology in schools and higher education. (5) The home has become a classroom for children and adults. Distance education has become a significant provider of instruction through the use of technological media. (6) New delivery systems have stimulated the development and use of technological applications for teaching and learning. Foremost among them are wireless devices, such as laptop and handheld computers. (7) Opportunities for teachers to become competent in the use of technology for teaching and learning have increased substantially, resulting in greater and improved use in education. (8) More than ever, reputable organizations perceive the use of instructional technology in schools, colleges, and the public sector as a vehicle for education reform. (Contains 61 references.) (MES)
Article
Describes a study that examined the effects of personal attributes, organizational factors, and attitudinal factors on the adoption of computers for instruction by university faculty. Results are reported which indicate that the technological orientation of the faculty's discipline, computer self-efficacy, computer utility beliefs, and attitude toward computers are predictors of adoption. (37 references) (LRW)
Article
Argues that the tendency to focus on the technical aspects of distance learning contributes to the infrequency of distance learning methods usage in education and training. Discusses the technical and human dimensions of distance learning, resistance to change, user perspective, and inertia and entropy. Outlines 10 human dimension principles fundamental to successful distance learning systems design. (AEF)
Article
Provides a critical analysis of theoretical foundations concerning interactive video instruction (IVI). Theories and related research regarding multimedia interactivity, visual features, motivation, and learner control in IVI are reviewed; and the theoretical models of Hansen (relating to skill acquisition) and Clark and Sugrue (relating to motivation) are discussed. (47 references) (LRW)
Article
This study used a specially designed questionnaire to explore undergraduate students' expectations of and preferences in teaching, learning and assessment. A convenience sample of 395 first-year university undergraduates at the start of their university life was used. They were enrolled on a Medical, Business Studies or Psychology degree course at one of three British universities. Overall, the similarities in expectations and preferences between the three groups were greater than the differences. Specifically, the students expected to be taught by formal and interactive lectures but preferred to be taught by interactive lectures and group-based activities. Their least favoured learning methods were formal lecture, role-play and student presentations. Coursework assessment preference was for essays, research projects and problems/exercises. Although there was an overall preference slightly in favour of coursework assessment rather than examinations, this was not consistent across all three centres. Students asked to rate various qualities of a good teacher selected 'teaching skill', followed by 'approachability' as the most important. The effective collection and value to institutions of students' expectations is discussed.
Article
A meta-analysis of findings from 254 controlled evaluation studies showed that computer-based instruction (CBI) usually produces positive effects on students. The studies covered learners of all age levels — from kindergarten pupils to adult students. CBI programs raised student examination scores by 0.30 standard deviations in the average study, a moderate but significant effect. Size of effect varied, however, as a function of study feature. Effects were larger in published rather than unpublished studies, in studies in which different teachers taught experimental and control classes, and in studies of short duration. CBI also produced small but positive changes in student attitudes toward teaching and computers, and it reduced substantially the amount of time needed for instruction.
Article
Incl. bibliographical references, index, photos
Article
This book presents a clearly and soundly argued case for the integration of educational technology into university teaching where the primary focus is to enhance student learning. Different teaching media, including audio-visual, hypermedia, interactive, adaptive and discursive media are discussed in the light of research into student learning. Practical guidelines for designing educational technology are provided.
A Collaborative Electronic Classroom — an Emerging Teaching and Learning Environment, Paper presented at the Conference Universities in the 21st Century — Education in a Borderless World
  • D Cecez-Kecmanovic
Cecez-Kecmanovic, D. (1996), A Collaborative Electronic Classroom — an Emerging Teaching and Learning Environment, Paper presented at the Conference Universities in the 21st Century — Education in a Borderless World, 13–14 August 1996, Singapore.
Using Wequest with Students with disabilities, Center On Disabilities
  • D Ezell
  • C Klein
  • R Hines
  • S Hall
Ezell, D.; Klein, C.; Hines, R. And Hall, S. (2003). Using Wequest with Students with disabilities, Center On Disabilities, Proceedings: Technology And Persons With Disabilities Conference, [accessed April 02, 2004]. Available from: http://www.csun.edu/cod/conf/2003/proceedings/104.htm
E-Learning Series -A guide for Teachers: Learning and Teaching Support Network (LTSN) Generic Centre MacGregor A comparison of student perceptions in traditional and online classes
  • A Littlejohn
  • Higgison
Littlejohn, A. and Higgison (2003), E-Learning Series -A guide for Teachers, No 3, York: Learning and Teaching Support Network (LTSN) Generic Centre MacGregor, C. J. (2001) A comparison of student perceptions in traditional and online classes. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 5(4),pp. 38-96.
The Relationship between Attendance at University Lectures and Examination Performance
  • M Maloney
  • B Lally
Maloney, M. and Lally, B. (1998) The Relationship between Attendance at University Lectures and Examination Performance, The Irish Journal of Education, 29, 52-62.
Using CAA to support student learning. Learning Technology and Support Network Available from http
  • J Seale
Seale J. (2002) Using CAA to support student learning. Learning Technology and Support Network. Available from http://www.alt.ac.uk/docs/eln004.pdf (accessed 19 December 2004).
Teaching and Learning on the World Wide Web Ballina, New South Wales: Norsearch Limited
  • S Alexander
Alexander, S. (1995) Teaching and Learning on the World Wide Web, In Debreceny, R and Ellis, A (eds), Ausweb95: Innovation and Diversity, (pp 93-99). Ballina, New South Wales: Norsearch Limited. http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw95/education2/alexander/index.html
The Webquest design process FOCUS: Five rules for writing a great Webquest. Learning & Leading with Technology
  • B J Dodge
Dodge, B. J. (2002). The Webquest design process. Retrieved September 15, 2002, from San Diego State University, Educational Technology Department Web site, [accessed April 02, 2004]. available from: http://Webquest.sdsu.edu/designsteps/index.html Dodge, B.J. (2001). FOCUS: Five rules for writing a great Webquest. Learning & Leading with Technology, [accessed April 02, 2004]. available from: http://www.Webquest.futuro.usp.br/artigos/textos_outros-bernie1.html Ellsworth, J. (1994). Education on the Internet, Indiana: Sams Publishing.
What's the use of lectures? Exeter: Intellect Evaluating Teaching Effectiveness: A Practical Guide
  • D A Bligh
Bligh, D. A. (1998) What's the use of lectures? Exeter: Intellect Braskamp, L. A., Brandenburg, D. C. and Ory, J. C. (1984) Evaluating Teaching Effectiveness: A Practical Guide. London: SAGE.