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Interactive White Boards in Preschool and Primary Education

  • University of the Aegean; National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos


Technologies within the domain of interactive, remote and on line science which are extensively adopted in education’s everyday life are interactive whiteboards and related applications. Interactive whiteboards indicate positive effects on students’ learning and instructors' teaching, promoting whole class teaching. In this review-paper we cope with the studies that explore the integration of IWBs in preschool and primary education in the last decade (2004- 2013). Research has shown that interactive whiteboards are able to keep students involved and foster their attention in every aspect of the curriculum, much easier than without it. This technology has proven its value added to students and teachers in different facets of teaching and learning, in literacy, in mathematics, in science, in physics, its impact on English Language Learners, on relations and learning, on the use of IWBs by kindergartners, professional development of teachers, pedagogical orchestration, classroom dialogue and pedagogic practice.
Interactive White Boards in Preschool and
Primary Education
Athanasios S. Drigas and George Papanastasiou
NCSR DEMOKRITOS, Institute of Informatics and Telecommunications, Net Media Lab, Athens, Greece
AbstractTechnologies within the domain of interactive,
remote and on line science which are extensively adopted in
education’s everyday life are interactive whiteboards and
related applications. Interactive whiteboards indicate posi-
tive effects on students’ learning and instructors' teaching,
promoting whole class teaching. In this review-paper we
cope with the studies that explore the integration of IWBs in
preschool and primary education in the last decade (2004-
2013). Research has shown that interactive whiteboards are
able to keep students involved and foster their attention in
every aspect of the curriculum, much easier than without it.
This technology has proven its value added to students and
teachers in different facets of teaching and learning, in liter-
acy, in mathematics, in science, in physics, its impact on
English Language Learners, on relations and learning, on
the use of IWBs by kindergartners, professional develop-
ment of teachers, pedagogical orchestration, classroom dia-
logue and pedagogic practice.
Index TermsIWB, interactive, multimodal teaching, col-
laboration, e-teaching, e-learning
IWBs introduce the education community to an im-
portant point of principle that we should be talking about
‘interactive technologies’ that use multimedia resources,
support the planning and development of resources, and
allow improved presentation by the teacher and/or pupils.
Also accommodate different learning styles, motivate and
engage pupils by their coming up to the IWB and interact
with the program through the IWB and model ICT skills.
The added value becomes a lot clearer if we focus on
teaching, where the IWB helps to sustain the pace of the
lesson and allows a seamless flow from one teaching point
to the next [1].
The ‘boon’ of the IWB technology lies in its unique
features that foster pupils’ learning through multimedia
and multi-sensory presentation, resulting in improved mo-
tivation and affect, promoting both technical and pedagog-
ic interactivity in whole class interactions [2].
There might be a ‘tipping point’ of technical compe-
tence and pedagogical interactivity, before teachers and
their classes can fully exploit these technologies in ways
that promote student learning [3].
Interactive teaching and learning based on constructiv-
ist theories, by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, have
shaped how teachers approach instructional design and
explore options which could aid in knowledge retention
and inspire the learner to participate more [4].
Blackboard was introduced in 1801 and became so per-
vasive and its use so normalised that it took 200 years to
begin to be superseded by another whole-of-class technol-
ogy board, namely ‘Interactive white board’. It is indicat-
ed that only if the vast majority of the teachers in a school
are using the digital technology effectively and not im-
proving the ways of the old, can quality teaching and im-
proved student attainment be expected [5].
One of the defining skills of quality teaching offered by
an interactive whiteboard is the digital convergence where
students can interact with the concepts, content and con-
text of a media rich, multi-literacy teaching environment
driven by the teacher’s ability to manage classroom activi-
ties, use of ICTs and enhance their existing professional
skills [6].
Quality teaching is the teacher’s ability to manage
classroom IWB’s activities, which are following closely
the framework of Gagné’s nine events of instruction. IWB
offers many features that are used to address each of the
nine steps: Gaining Attention, Informing the Learner of
Objectives, Stimulating Recall of Prior Knowledge, Pre-
senting the Stimuli, Providing Learner Guidance, Eliciting
Performance, Providing Feedback, Assessing Perfor-
mance, Enhancing Retention and Transfer [7].
A. Implementation in Literacy.
Potentially IWBs can offer a multimodal approach to
teaching literacy which, in practice, suggests that this po-
tential is beginning to be realised. Also , in order to help
more teachers towards effective use of the IWB, it is bet-
ter to follow a ‘bottom-up’ approach in their transmission
training, which is more practitioner focused, than a ‘top-
down’ commercial one [8].
While some children benefited from the approach, of
using interactive whiteboard technology and interactive
talking books in whole-class writing lessons, teaching
children to write through examination of professional
models of writing in whole-class lessons did not promote
the most effective learning. Children should be asked to
write on topics that are meaningful to them, taking into
account their experiences and interests [9].
An important finding in Kate Wall’s, S. Higgins and
H. Smith’s enquiry is that there is an obvious visual and
verbal-social state of learning, between IWBs and pupils’
views of interacting, in the teaching and learning process-
es. IWBs can be effective tools for initiating and facilitat-
ing pupils’ understanding, remembering, and thinking,
especially where pupil involvement and use of the board is
taken place. Color and movement in particular, is seen by
the pupils to be motivating and reinforces concentration
and attention [10].
Damian Maher (2011) demonstrates the use of an e-
book through IWB’s facilities and states that through the
use of text, sound, images, color and animation a rich tap-
estry of semiotic resources was made available to allow
students to appreciate, interpret and review texts.
He concludes that not only does the IWB facilitate an
increased range of modes, allowing students with different
learning styles and educational needs to participate, it also
allows for a greater level of interactivity than a data pro-
jector or traditional book [11].
B. Implementation in Mathematics.
Students’ attitudes towards the use of IWB in mathe-
matics classes is at a medium level, which can be inter-
preted as positive as they were introduced with this new
technology for the first time and students see the IWB as a
tool which increases their interest and facilitates learning.
It’s characteristic that more than half of the students stated
that they would like to do all their math lessons using the
IWB, because the IWB provided the advantage of solving
more questions, saving time and providing visuals [12].
The children, in a study presented by Merilyn Taylor
Ann Harlow, Michael Forret (2010), used the IWB space
to co-construct knowledge as they participated in socially
shared cognition. The IWB was pivotal in supporting the
development of task-related talk for the children, while the
teachers had set up their classroom learning environments
and modeled behaviors to encourage a culture of listening
to and respecting others’ views [13].
In conjunction with this, the teacher must select the so-
lutions that are discussed, analyzed, and developed further
in the IWB, and steer the discourse conducting a discus-
sion involving the entire class. The survey results showed
that the students perceived they could discuss and com-
municate more often and better with both their teacher and
classmates than in regular math lessons [14].
In the research presented by B. Torff, R. Tirotta(2010)
it is reported a study, where students exposed to IWB-
assisted lessons showed a slightly higher level of engage-
ment in mathematics classes, relative to a control group
taught without the IWB. In parallel their teachers’ atti-
tudes about the IWB were associated with slightly higher
levels of motivation; in other words, teachers who strong-
ly supported using the IWB (and likely used the technolo-
gy well) produced larger motivational effects in their stu-
dents [15].
C. Implementation in Science.
IWB can be used collaboratively in a variety of science
activities closely related to familiar classroom practice and
the children can engage effectively in the collective learn-
ing experience including the open-ended tasks, a series of
cumulative tasks set up by the teacher and paced by the
children; tasks requiring the integration of web-based ma-
terials and peripheral technologies; and investigative work
requiring discussion, visual representation, and note-
taking. This represents an interacting system with social,
cognitive, technical, and temporal dimensions [16].
P. Warwick, Neil Mercer, Ruth Kershner, Judith Kleine
Staarman (2010) examining the vicarious presence of the
teacher in pupil's learning of science, suggest that the
teacher remotely mediates the activity of the pupils at the
board in two specific and interlinked ways. The first of
these is concerned with the ways in which the pupils ap-
propriate and use introduced rules and procedures. The
second is in the ways in which the teacher uses the task
structure to guide and mediate the pupils’ actions, ena-
bling them to interpret and act upon the teacher’s inten-
tions for the task [17].
Karen Murcia and Rachel Sheffield (2010) in their re-
search suggest that teachers’ effective IWB pedagogy
impacts positively on the way students talk about science.
Seven principles of effective interactive pedagogy focused
on scaffolding deep substantial science discourse emerged
from the action research: Engaging and appealing interac-
tive displays, Accessing online information, linking in
media files, interacting with online activities, constructing
a series of interactive activities to develop the scientific
story, Reviewing learning, Using IWB tools to increase
wait time [18].
P. Warwick, Neil Mercer, Ruth Kershner (2013) aim to
show how a teacher can use the cultural tool of spoken
language in conjunction with another cultural tool, the
interactive whiteboard, to provide effective support for
children's collective learning. They are very conscious of
the need to maintain a rigorous definition of ‘scaffolding’
whereby it reduces the degrees of freedom of a task in
ways which are contingent to, and orientated to, the de-
veloping expertise of the learners, even though this scaf-
folding was sometimes achieved without the teacher being
physically present [19].
D. Implementation in Physics.
Daniela Stoica, Florica Paragina, Silviu Paragina, Cris-
tina Miron, Alexandru Jipa (2012) have tried to describe
how the interactive whiteboard can be used during Physics
classes, so as to value the opportunities offered by this
interactive tool, while taking into account the cognitive
load theory, which can provide guidelines to assist in the
presentation of information in a manner that encourages
learning. They concluded that the interactive whiteboard
has many advantages, both for teachers and students, in-
cluding the ability to manipulate objects in real time, effi-
ciency in presenting a lesson and support for the long-term
planning and use of resources as well as visual enrichment
of web documents [20].
E. Impact on English Language Learners
Using an interactive whiteboard for visual presenta-
tions, interactive games, and test reviews in an ELL class-
room not only help teachers create active learning envi-
ronments but also assist students in practicing English in
class and at home, resulting in higher test scores. In the
study conducted by Jung Won Hur & Suhyun Suh (2012),
technology motivated students during the learning process
and provided more opportunities for speaking and writing
practice, which assisted them in improving their English
proficiency. The project provided ample opportunity for
students to research a topic, develop a presentation, and
practice speaking skills. Regardless of its long-term ef-
fects, the incorporation of the new technology clearly
helped create active learning environments. This result
implies that educators should strive to find new ways to
motivate students by integrating technology and creating
engaging learning activities [21].
Omar S. López (2010) in his research concludes that the
Digital Learning Classroom equipped with an IWB tech-
nology demonstrates its potential value, to achieve per-
formance parity between English Language Learners and
regular students. Furthermore, greater results should be
expected for ELL, as teachers gain still higher levels of
proficiency in using the IWB’s advanced functions and
find ways to engage ELL students in meaningful learning
that results in higher levels of student academic achieve-
ment and challenge them to continue their studies in ad-
iJOE Volume 10, Issue 4, 2014
vanced subjects so that they can join their peers in similar
course-work-taught in the English language [22].
F. Impact on Relations and Learning
Higgins, S. E. (2010) designed a research under a pilot
program and showed that students were very positive
about the use of interactive whiteboards. They particularly
liked the multimedia potential of the technology and that
they would like it if their teachers used the interactive
whiteboard more in lessons. There were overwhelmingly
positive teachers’ and students’ perceptions of aspects
affecting teaching and learning. Results suggest that the
use of the interactive whiteboards did lead to significant
changes in teachers’ practices in the use of technology and
in aspects of classroom interaction, affecting positively the
learning process [23].
For this interaction to be more than superficial, learners
must engage with the teaching in some meaningful man-
ner, bringing something of them to the exchange and not
merely acting as passive recipients of preformed infor-
mation. It is considered that interactivity demands a grate
level of active participation by learners who contribute to
the development of collective understanding [24].
H. Riese et al.(2012), showed in their research analysis
that peer learning activity is described as a communicative
process characterised by three distinct features: (a) it relies
on meditational means; (b) it needs trust and a safe social
environment; and (c) it allows disagreement. All of these
features may be accomplished through IWB's features, as
well [25].
G. The Use of Interactive Whiteboards by
Kindergartners (and their Teachers)
An exploratory case study analyzes various dimensions
of problem solving, conducting a series of analogous
computer programming problems, using a Logo-based
environment on an IWB by 5–6 years old kindergarten
children. The teacher expressed her preference in activities
that engage the whole class, with the use of the IWB, in
comparison to the computer corner, as she believes that
this mode strengthens the collaboration and the active
participation of the children and encourages extensive
dialogue [26].
A. Morgan (2010) in his paper indicates the following
principles in the teaching and learning of children aged
three to seven years regarding the use of IWBs: Represen-
tation and organisation of ideas, visualisation and reflec-
tion on thinking, communication of ideas and collabora-
tion, extension and communication of learning to the
broader community and documentation of a more diver-
gent form of pedagogical practice [27].
A. Harlow, Bronwen Cowie & Megan Heazlewood
(2010)focus on how the features of the IWB supported
teaching actions and provided potential and structure for
the children to develop their ‘key competencies’, working
as active learners and creating a feeling of achievement or
managing self.!he authors demonstrate that it was the
teacher’s orchestration of the classroom environment,
incorporating the use of the IWB, that was the key to the
development of a classroom culture that includes a partic-
ipatory pedagogy [28].
Kung-Teck Wong, Sharon Russo, Janet McDowal
(2013) in their study showed that performance expectancy
and effort expectancy were found to have a direct and
statistically significant positive effect on behavioral inten-
tion, meaning that student teachers will engage themselves
when they are able to see the value and benefits of using
IWB. Also implies that efforts to prepare new teachers to
use IWBs effectively should synchronize the implementa-
tion with its pedagogical benefits. This is the first paper
that investigated the acceptance and use of IWB among
early childhood science student teachers based on the Uni-
fied Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology
(UTAUT) model. Hence, it provides several prominent
implications for the research and practice [29].
A. Professional Development of Teachers.
Teachers’ professional development in the use of in-
formation and communications technology should neces-
sarily be integrated with discussion of thinking through
new ideas and trying out new practices rather than focus-
ing on technical skills alone. It is essentially the way in
which the teacher constructs and guides the work at the
IWB to promote collaborative interaction and learning that
is important [30].
P. Serow and R. Callingham (2011) through their anal-
ysis of teacher use of IWBs in four different levels, name-
ly Retreatism/Technical Deficiency (Level 0), Black/
Whiteboard Substitute (Level 1), Apprentice User (Lev-
el2) and Initiate User (Level 3) emphasised the need to
provide sustained professional development. All teachers
involved in the research expressed the view that their stu-
dents’ learning had motivated either using the IWB in the
form of a presentation tool or using the ‘fun’ nature of the
equipment [31].
Gary Beauchamp (2004) states that, IWB can create a
new freedom in pedagogy to develop a progressive
framework, or a means to deliver existing practice in an-
other format, where teacher and pupils work together to
achieve learning objectives. The technology thus becomes
a liberating force and allows children to interact confident-
ly with the IWB, developing the transition framework
from beginner to synergistic user of the IWB as follows:
black/whiteboard substitute, apprentice user, initiate user,
advanced user, synergistic user. Teachers are able to see
how this can be used to facilitate a synergy of learning,
which allows them to co-construct new understanding of
both subject content and pedagogy in the primary class-
room. In which pupils and teacher combine joint technical
skills and teachers’ pedagogic vision create a new learning
praxis [32].
Essam Bakadam and Mohammed J. Sharbib Asiri
(2012) through their findings revealed that most teachers
believe that IWB constitutes an effective and convenient
way to deliver the learning content ( 90% of them agreed
with the statement) and that it increases the level of class-
room interaction which in turn increases the learning ex-
perience. However it is recommended that teachers using
the IWB in class undergo more training so that they can
become fully aware of how to optimize its use to ensure
that learners are motivated and engaged. Overall, the re-
sults showed a positive attitude towards implementing the
IWB, indicating that it was enjoyable as an instructional
tool and technological adjunct to classroom lessons [33].
S. Hodge and B. Anderson (2007) used a qualitative,
self-study methodology to explore the impact of introduc-
ing interactive whiteboard technology to a primary school
classroom. Several key insights, described as ‘nodal mo-
ments’, provided the impetus for the teacher to review her
practice, reconsider her students’ learning approaches and
becoming a much more confident user as time passed.
These features site this study at the intersection between
technical and pedagogical interactivity [34].
B. Fostering Pedagogical Orchestration
The characteristics of pedagogical interactivity are
more important in stimulating the reflection and intention-
ality of higher-order learning. If these characteristics can
be appropriated by learners when using ICT, we should
start to see the benefits of the greater learner autonomy
which ICT provides [35].
Gary Beauchamp & Steve Kennewell (2013) revisit the
analysis of how the IWB can contribute to effective peda-
gogy where the IWB functions as a hub for classroom
activity in order to facilitate effective learning by the pu-
pils.. The key difference is that both the teacher and pupils
use the affordances of IWB for orchestration of activity,
such as the accumulation of resources which are ready-to-
hand on the board, rather than merely using a set of unre-
lated tools predominantly used by the teacher [36].
IWB may be a useful heterogeneous tool kit in facilitat-
ing interactions with multiple modes of representation that
engages students in a multimodal series of recaps, elicita-
tions and reformulations. It is not that access to these
modes was previously impossible for teachers, but rather
that this technology makes it so easy and convenient for
the teachers to deploy them as rapidly as wanted to con-
struct pedagogic practices, communicative processes and
educational goals. The IWB offers a number of presenta-
tional and ICT functions, which, taken together, offers
new opportunities for fostering multifaceted pedagogic
strategies [37].
F. Smith, Hardman Frank and Higgins Steve (2006) in
their article argue that an IWB lesson had a faster pace,
contained more whole class teaching and less group work
than non-IWB lessons and this was true for both numeracy
and literacy lessons. With regard to the frequency of dis-
course moves, the lessons which used IWBs had signifi-
cantly more open questions, answers from pupils and
evaluation. According to the researchers, while the emerg-
ing literature is promising and generally supportive of
IWBs they do not suggest a fundamental change in teach-
ers’ underlying pedagogy and more extensive research
needs to be carried out into ways of effectively supporting
teachers in their professional development, in order to
change traditional patterns of whole class interaction nec-
essary for responsive teaching, to increase the opportuni-
ties for extended teacherpupil interactions [38].
B. Sundberg, Maria Spante & Jörgen Stenlund (2012)
found in their project that the implementation process of
IWBs is very technology-oriented, dependent on attitudes
either being less accustomed to the digital world than the
children or saw it as a way to invite the students to be-
come active. Thus, different types of communicative ap-
proaches (dialogicauthoritative and interactive–non-
interactive) emerged among the teachers regarding wheth-
er and how they used the IWBs in their lectures. What
also became increasingly clear during this study was the
apparent distinction between the interactive utility of the
technology and teachers’ part of the pedagogical applica-
tions [39].
C. Promoting Classroom Dialogue
IWB does offer some useful facilities for supporting
children’s discussion. One of these is really related to a
pedagogic approach in which teachers encourage students
to participate actively. This dialogic space allows them to
‘scaffold’ collaborative tasks by arranging material, in a
specific sequence and implement a dialogic pedagogy that
incorporates three aspects: IWB’s use for creating joint
activity, student’s use of such joint collaborative activity
and the teacher’s use of a dialogic pedagogy organising
activities [40].
Tanner H., Beauchamp G., Jones, S. & Kennewell, S.
(2010) observed that in effective learning environments,
teachers and learners often moved outside the constraints
of pre-determined orchestration and began to improvise,
like jazz musician’s unplanned improvisations in response
to stimuli from other players. The dynamic and contingent
properties of ICT can facilitate the exploration of ideas
and improvisation by both pupils and teachers leading to
effective teaching and learning [41].
Neil Mercer, Sara Hennessy & Paul Warwick (2010)
investigated how teachers could use the technical interac-
tivity of the IWB to create interesting multimodal stimuli
for whole-class dialogue. It is clear from their study that
the effective use of the IWB as an educational tool is not
inherent in the hardware, software or even the materials it
displays. It is predicated upon the evolving pedagogy and
the teacher’s practical understanding of how to engage
students and to help them learn [42].
D. Influence on Pedagogic Practice (Creation,
Interaction, Collaboration ,E-teaching)
The shared representation of content on the IWB poten-
tially may be used: a) to function as a communicative and
pedagogic tool in the teacherpupil interactions, b) to en-
courage more interactive and non-authoritative dialogue,
c) to alter well-documented features of normal classroom
interaction, d) to build a shared frame of reference be-
tween teacher and children or to build common
knowledge amongst members of the class and e) pursue
teachers’ pedagogic tools [43].
V. Armstrong et al. (2006) illustrate that through the in-
troduction of IWBs into the classroom teachers have
deepened and enhanced their own reflections on their
changing pedagogic practices. Teachers and students are
critical agents in mediating the software and bring a
much-needed critical perspective to the research process,
which relate to their previous cultures of teaching, learn-
ing and tool use [44].
Cathy Lewin, Bridget Somekh, Stephen Steadman
(2008) argue that the IWB’s use becomes embedded in the
teachers’ pedagogy as a mediating artefact for their inter-
actions with their pupils, and pupils’ interactions with one
another, and this is when changes in attainment, attend-
ance and behavior become apparent [45].
Michiel Renger, Gwendolyn L. Kolfschoten, Gert-Jan
de Vreede (2008) offer a first overview of advantages and
disadvantages of interactive whiteboards, providing first
insights in the various settings in which they can be used
to support collaborative modeling and manipulate the
model directly, stimulating participation. They discuss the
way IWB’s are used on three different topics: the group
composition, technology and modeling approach, concern-
ing the group size, level of participation, role assignment
manipulation and access rights, text and structure recogni-
iJOE Volume 10, Issue 4, 2014
tion, storage and versioning, no process support, chauf-
feured and facilitated process [46].
An interactive whiteboard is a necessary component for
an e-teaching approach to classroom practice. The interac-
tivity, the tactile nature of students’ interactions with the
board alongside with the teacher’s ability to manage class-
room activities where students can interact with the con-
cepts, content and context of the lesson, promotes an ele-
vated level of engagement with the lesson that makes e-
teaching as a pedagogical approach effective in the long
term [6].
Evidence showed that IWB’s impact in the pedagogy of
the class depends on teacher’s fluency in the use of IWB
affordances as long as whole-class use of its technology to
enliven presentation, increase pupil participation and rein-
force learning. Teachers are critical agents in implement-
ing the software and in ensuring the appropriate use of the
technology to promote quality interactions and interactivi-
ty, although in terms of impact on pupils’ attainment the
IWBs appeared to have a negligible effect [47].
The benefits of a successive adaptation of the IWB
technology could be gained through a more open, collabo-
rative and imaginative use of its affordances, taken into
consideration useful insights provided by the students,
into the uses of IWB and most of all through an educa-
tional climate that don’t militates against increased pupil
access to the technology [48].
Pupil perspectives identify the IWB’s visual, aural, tac-
tile and multimedia presentation. Thus, IWB has devel-
oped a perception as a tool for implementing engaging
pedagogies and serves as a focus for communal attention,
action and cognition [49].
The effectiveness of the IWB has been proven either di-
rectly or indirectly, demonstrating a number of benefits
perceived for teaching including efficiency, versatility,
multimodal presentation and interactivity, which are in-
tended to be transformed into benefits for learning, such as
engaging less able, longer attention span and better focus,
visual and dynamic representations, motivation, pace and
flow. In addition there are some others that are worthy of
further investigation such as differentiation, reflection,
collaboration, retention and transfer [50].
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Athanasios Drigas is a Senior Researcher at N.C.S.R.
Demokritos. He is the Coordinator of Telecoms Lab and
founder of Net Media Lab since 1996. From 1985 to 1999
he was the Operational manager of the Greek Academic
network. He has been the Coordinator of Several Interna-
tional Projects, in the fields of ICTs, and e-services (e-
learning, e-psychology, e-government, e-inclusion, e-
culture etc). He has published more than 200 articles, 7
books, 25 educational CD-ROMs and several patents. He
has been a member of several International committees for
the design and coordination of Network and ICT activities
and of international conferences and journals. (e-mail:
George Papanastasiou is a Special Education Teacher
at a public primary school in Athens. Among various
research projects, in the framework of the project "Further
training of educators in the use and application of ICTs in
the teaching practice" under the Education and Life-Long
Learning Operational Programme, Ministry of Education
and Religious Affairs, he has co-authored Volume A
"Theoretical Framework: The Interactive Whiteboard in
the school classroom: Pedagogical Approaches - Teaching
Applications" and Volume B "Educational Scenarios for
the Use of the Interactive Whiteboard" (e-mail:
Submitted 08 April 2014. Published as re-submitted by the authors 08
June 2014.
iJOE Volume 10, Issue 4, 2014
... ( The positive and useful contributions that digital technologies provide to the field of stress reduction and education should be highlighted as a final point. Mobile devices (112)(113)(114)(115), a range of ICT apps (116)(117)(118)(119)(120)(121)(122)(123)(124)(125)(126)(127), AI & STEM ROBOTICS (128)(129)(130)(131)(132), and games (133)(134)(135) are some examples of the technologies that enable and improve educational processes including evaluation, intervention, and learning. Additionally, the use of ICTs in conjunction with theories and models of metacognition, mindfulness, meditation, and the development of emotional intelligence , accelerates and improves educational practices and outcomes, especially for students with stress issues. ...
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The objective of this paper is to explore the use of Internet of Things (IoT) technology, specifically through the use of a smart watch, in identifying and managing stress in individuals with autism. Autism is characterized by social anxiety, particularly in situations that require social skills. A literature review was conducted to examine the role of IoT technology in the daily lives of autistic individuals and its potential in identifying and managing stress. The significance of this research lies in highlighting the role of IoT technology in addressing the challenges faced by individuals with autism and paving the way for further studies on the use of sensor-equipped devices to improve their quality of life. The correlation of the pillars smart devices-identifying stress with the help of technology, is analyzed through the following literature review.
... Finally, we must highlight the productive and effective role of digital technologies in the field of emotional education. These technologies, which include mobile devices (35)(36)(37)(38), a variety of ICTs (39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50)(51)(52)(53)(54)(55)(56)(57)(58), AI & STEM ROBOTICS (59)(60)(61)(62)(63), and games (64)(65)(66), facilitate and improve educational procedures such as assessment, intervention, and instruction. In addition, the use of ICTs in conjunction with theories and models of metacognition, mindfulness, meditation, and emotional intelligence cultivation , accelerates and enhances educational practices and outcomes, particularly for autistic children. ...
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A range of chronic difficulties known as autism spectrum disorders interfere with social interactions and communication. The state of the art shows how robots in particular can provide potential methods to advance ASD research and treatment. This review aims to investigate how robot-assisted therapy techniques support children with autism in increasing social contact and in imitating, recognizing, and expressing their feelings. If robots appear to be useful tools for assistive therapies was one of the paper's main questions. The study team behind this publication came to the conclusion that robots are extremely effective in the intervention process and provide ASD youngsters with a predictable and secure setting. In addition to the aforementioned, this project also discusses ethical concerns that therapists and researchers should keep in mind while human-robot interaction is taking place.
... Finally, it's critical to emphasize the beneficial and influential role that all digital technologies play in the field of education in general as well as in metacognitive and executive functions' education. Mobile devices (21)(22)(23)(24), a range of ICT apps (25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44), AI & STEM ROBOTICS (45)(46)(47)(48)(49), and games (50)(51)(52) are examples of the technologies that facilitate and improve educational processes including evaluation, intervention, and learning. Additionally, the use of ICTs in combination with theories and models of metacognition, mindfulness, meditation, and the development of emotional intelligence , speeds up and improves educational practices and results, especially for students with ADHD. ...
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Metacognition and working memory from executive functions are higher order cognitive processes that undergo steady improvements throughout childhood. They are of great importance for daily functioning in a variety of domains, including academic achievement. Both concepts have been intensively researched, but little literature has attempted to link them theoretically and empirically. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a high prevalence and high heterogeneity, which is identified as early as childhood, causing problems in almost every aspect of the ADHD child's life. In this paper, we will present research data from around the world that link working memory and metacognitive skills to the development or management of ADHD.
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The contribution of working memory both in the educational process and in our everyday life is considered very important and is widely accepted by the scientific community. Working memory is what helps humans to retain information and mentally perform a series of actions. This paper examines working memory in people with dyslexia and dyscalculia. The aim of the paper is to suggest ways to improve working memory as a method of intervention for children with dyslexia and dyscalculia using ICT.
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This article presents a research whose objective was to investigate how the teaching-learning process of mathematics occurs in the final years of elementary school. To achieve this goal, two integrative literature reviews were initially carried out based on data available on the Web of Science, Scopus and Scielo and, in a later phase, a field research was carried out with students and teachers of the final years of elementary education in municipal schools. from Florianópolis - SC. In this research characterized as descriptive in terms of its objectives and qualitative in terms of approach, in addition to the integrative review, participant observations and semi-structured interviews were used. As for the use of TDIC's for learning mathematics, the results of the reviews revealed that the gradual increase in this use has been pointed out as positive. However, in field research with 15 teachers and 50 students, it was identified that, for the majority, at the time the data were collected, the technologies were not yet actively participating in this process. As with other findings at this stage, it should be noted that, for these students, mathematics was mentioned as one of the disciplines with greater “ease” of understanding. In addition, they pointed out “fractions” as the content with the greatest difficulty in understanding. In this way, it is concluded that the analysis and reflection on the relevant aspects of the observed experience, focusing on the use of technologies or, the difficulties pointed out in the teaching of fractions, can greatly contribute to the educational praxis of mathematics.
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The use of special educational software for students with dysorthographia provides the possibility to develop tools, materials and teaching practices that can help students with special educational needs to access information, engage in the educational process, develop interaction with their peers and the teacher, to undertake tasks using multiple accessible methods and tools. All this contributes to the formation of a favorable learning climate in the classroom with various pedagogical and learning benefits for all students. Of course, the use of technology in special education is not a panacea in solving all educational problems, but it is possible to contribute to the all-round development of a child who faces learning difficulties, always in combination with the appropriate pedagogical method and support.
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The combination of virtual reality and fMRI is an innovative methodology that is used to make inferences about the neurological stimulations that take place in the brain of the person with ASD during the use of the VR tool. At the same time, the use of the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) will be important, as it can be used to achieve direct interaction between the person with ASD and the computer. Still, equally important conclusions can be arrived at through the EEG electroencephalogram, also establishing the neurological processes that are carried out during the use of the VR tool. The use of the two technologies mentioned above contributes to presenting in-depth conclusions and data about the emotional state experienced by children with ASD throughout the experimental process and their interaction with the virtual reality tool.
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No presente artigo apresenta-se uma pesquisa que investigou o processo ensino-aprendizagem da matemática nos anos finais do ensino fundamental. Inicialmente foram realizadas duas revisões integrativas da literatura e, após, foi efetivada uma pesquisa de campo junto a estudantes e professores das escolas municipais de Florianópolis. A pesquisa, caracterizada como descritiva e qualitativa, utilizou além da revisão integrativa, observações participantes e entrevistas semiestruturadas. Em observância ao uso das TDIC’s para a aprendizagem da matemática as revisões revelaram que o aumento gradativo desta utilização vinha sendo apontado como positivo. Contudo, na pesquisa de campo identificou-se que, para a maioria dos participantes, no momento em que os dados foram coletados, as tecnologias ainda não participavam ativamente deste processo. Como demais achados nesta etapa salienta-se ainda que, para estes estudantes, a matemática foi citada como uma das disciplinas com maior “facilidade” de compreensão. Ademais, os mesmos apontaram as “frações” como sendo o conteúdo de maior dificuldade de entendimento. Tais resultados podem ser considerados contribuintes à reflexão sobre o uso das tecnologias ou, ainda, as metodologias utilizadas e as dificuldades apontadas no ensino de frações, informações que podem aprimorar sobremaneira a práxis educacional da matemática.
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Schools are cultural curators, along with libraries and museums. The development and use of technologies are a fact and an important tool in the evolution of the educational process, shaping new attitudes in the functioning of the educational community among parents, students, and teachers. At the same time, cultivating and improving the emotional intelligence of all those who make up the school environment will lead to well-being without stress, which is benefitial for the whole world. The teacher of the future is called and must give a resounding presence as he is the connecting link between the school, students, and parents. This article is a bibliographic review of the research results and articles to date about the school and especially the teacher of the future and deals with the existential technological identity of the educational future, its role in shaping the existential identity of the student in educational and social becoming, and the additional important skills a teacher should have for creative, happy, and well-balanced students.
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The present study examines the levels of burnout among special educators of students with mental retardation and the relationship among gender, age, marital status, work experience, training, initial personal career prospects and the degree of burnout experienced by teachers of mental retardation students. The survey was distributed in a sample of 64 special education teachers working with mental retardation students in public schools. The data was collected by using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I.-E.S.). The results indicated that special education teachers experience middle levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization and middle levels of personal achievement. Gender, marital status, training and initial personal career prospects were found to have significant correlation with special educators΄ burnout. In addition, the results showed that there is not significant correlation between teachers' age or work experience and the three dimensions of burnout.
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The term 'orchestration', has been used to describe the teacher's role in activity settings incorporating interactive technologies. This musical analogy suggests pre-planned manipulation of events to generate 'performance' leading to learning. However, in two recent projects we have observed how effective teaching and learning is often based on serendipity and improvisation – characteristics more often associated with jazz. This paper explores how a jazz analogy can be useful when analysing classrooms in which serendipitous events were exploited and performances were improvised During the last decade, interactive whole-class technologies (IWCTs) such as interactive whiteboards (IWBs) have become increasingly prevalent in classrooms. In the course of two funded studies (see Kennewell et al., 2009a; 2009b), a framework of classroom use of ICT was developed (Tanner et al, 2005; Beauchamp & Kennewell, 2010) which examined the orchestration of activity settings (Tharp & Gallimore, 1988). Emerging from this work was the need to take account of serendipity in learning situations. It was clear from our observations that in effective learning environments, teachers and learners often moved outside the constraints of pre-determined orchestration and began to improvise.
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The aim of this study is to examine the views of teachers of intermediate school on the use of the Interactive White Board (IWB) as an instructional tool in the classrooms. A questionnaire was distributed to fifty teachers, and three teachers were interviewed at Prince Sultan Intermediate School in order to determine their views on the use of the IWB. Findings revealed that most teachers believe that IWB constitutes an effective and convenient way to deliver the learning content and that it increases the level of classroom interaction which in turn increases the learning experience. However, the result of study also revealed that the majority of teachers use the IWB as an overhead projector and for internet research but do not make use of the many other advantageous features of the IWB. Based on the fact that the teachers’ reluctance to utilize all of the available IWB features stems from their limited knowledge of all that IWB technology has to offer, it is recommended that teachers using the IWB in class undergo more training so that they can become fully aware of how to optimize its use. It is also suggested that the number of students in the classroom is reduced to allow for more interactive learning.
The UK Government's Primary National Strategy undertook a pilot programme "Embedding ICT in the Literacy and Numeracy Strategies" where interactive whiteboards were installed in the classrooms of teachers of 9-11 year old students in more than 80 schools in six regions of England. Research to evaluate this project collected multiple sources of data, including students' attainment, structured lesson observations and the perceptions of teachers and students. Results suggest that the use of the interactive whiteboards did lead to significant changes in teachers' practices in the use of technology and in aspects of classroom interaction, and that the perceptions of those involved were overwhelmingly positive, but that the impact in terms of students' attainment on national tests was very small and short-lived. This raises questions about the integration of new technologies into classroom teaching and how such technologies might improve teaching and learning.
The purpose of this study was to examine effective ways to integrate an interactive whiteboard, podcast, and digital storytelling for language proficiency development in English language learners. Researchers integrated these three technologies into a 60-hour intensive summer English program and investigated their impacts on student vocabulary skill development. Researchers collected multiple data including daily video podcasts, vocabulary tests, a student survey, Photostory videos, and a teacher interview. The results showed that using an interactive whiteboard for (a) visual presentations, (b) interactive games, and (c) test reviews was useful for the English language learners to learn new vocabulary and engage in learning. The effects of a digital storytelling project and the video podcasts are also discussed.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understanding early childhood student teachers’ self‐reported acceptance and use of interactive whiteboard (IWB), by employing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as the research framework. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 112 student teachers enrolled in science‐related papers from Bachelor of Early Childhood Education completed the questionnaire, measuring their responses to performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition and behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling was used as the main technique for data analysis. Findings – The results of this study showed that performance expectancy and effort expectancy were found to have a direct and statistically significant positive effect on behavioural intention. Of the four variables in the UTAUT model, the model accounted for 41 per cent of the variance in behavioural intention to use IWB among student teachers. The findings obtained in this study fail to verify the predictions about IWBs experiences having moderating effects towards the relationships. Originality/value – This is the first paper that investigated the acceptance and use of IWB among early childhood science student teachers based on the UTAUT model. The findings have uncovered the important distinction of performance expectancy and effort expectancy in IWB acceptance and use. Hence, it provides several prominent implications for the research and practice.
This paper revisits the analysis of how the interactive whiteboard (IWB) can contribute to effective pedagogy. It builds on previous work concerning the relationship between the features of IWBs and associated technologies and some key components of pedagogy, including the stage of IWB use, the role of ICT, the type of interactivity, and the overarching aspect of orchestration for learning. Two example lessons are constructed to illustrate the relationships associated with a basic stage of IWB use as a blackboard substitute and the most sophisticated, synergistic stage of IWB use. The analysis of these lessons is used to show that in the synergistic lesson, the IWB functions as a hub for classroom activity. The key difference is that both the teacher and pupils use the affordances of IWB for orchestration of activity rather than merely using a set of unrelated tools predominantly used by the teacher. Implications are drawn concerning the need to develop skills in orchestration for learning alongside technical skills in IWB use through initial teacher education and subsequent professional learning.
Interactive whiteboards (IWBs) are usually used by teachers for whole-class teaching. This paper is based upon an ESRC-funded project1designed to investigate the value of this technology for supporting collaborative learning in the classroom. Groups of pupils used the IWB in a semi-autonomous manner when working together on science-related activities designed by the teacher. Using an analysis of video and other data from UK primary classrooms (pupils aged 8–10 years), it focuses on how the teacher may guide the children's collective learning at the IWB through the scaffolding of collaborative activities. We suggest that a distinction between ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ scaffolding is helpful, with the former happening when the teacher is present, and the latter achieved through the teacher's vicarious influence when a group is working independently. Our analysis supports the conclusions that teachers are able to scaffold children's group activities ‘directly’ and ‘indirectly’, that this promotes the development of children's ability to reason collectively and regulate their joint activities, and that the IWB provides a useful tool for enabling this process of scaffolded, collective learning.
Education systems worldwide must strive to support the teaching of a set of New Media Literacies (NMLs). These literacies respond to the need for educating human capital within participatory cultures in a highly technologized world. In this paper, we present Collboard, a constructivist problem solving activity for fostering the development of specific NMLs in classrooms: collective intelligence, distributed cognition and transmedia navigation. Collboard encompasses successive individual and collaborative work phases that prompt active student participation and engagement. It integrates digitally augmented appliances, namely, digital pens as a means to support individual work, and interactive whiteboards as a collaborative knowledge construction space. We report on the conceptual design of Collboard, its different technological and software components, as well as our findings from experiences we conducted in a Swedish school with 12 students from a 7th grade maths class. Findings from the experience provide an indication that Collboard can be well integrated in classroom teaching, and that it can foster the development of collective intelligence, distributed cognition and transmedia navigation in different knowledge domains.