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What Is Organization Development?

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Abstract

Or ganization development is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization's "processes," using behavioral-science knowledge. 1. It is a planned change effort. An OD program involves a systematic diagnosis of the organiza-tion, the development of a strategic plan for improvement, and the mobilization of resources to carry out the effort. 2. It involves the total "system." An organization-development effort is related to a total organiza-tion change such as a change in the culture or the reward systems or the total managerial strategy. There may be tactical efforts which work with subparts of the organization but the "system" to be changed is a total, relatively autonomous organization. This is not necessarily a total corporation, or an entire government, but refers to a system which is relatively free to determine its own plans and future within very gen-eral constraints from the environment.

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... While all of these goals incorporated pedagogy around related key theories, terms, and general academic components, the last two were more functional in nature that management scholars and practitioners refer to as organization development. According to Beckhard (2006), "Organization development is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization's 'processes' using behavioral-science knowledge" (p. 3). ...
... In addition, he sought feedback on ideas he had for class discussions and activities and explained how each would fit within the goals for the course and the team. These things were done to gain the coaching staff's (or, the "top management" in this context) support, one of Beckhard's (2006) criteria for organization development. The instructor also met with the team captain to conduct a similar informal assessment, which provided additional valuable team information from a different perspective. ...
... The players' assessments of each other's complementary skills were summarized (anonymity was maintained) by the instructor and in a confidential individual report. Utilizing data and other social science practices to diagnose a team in order to identify the most appropriate interventions is a hallmark of organization development; basing a planned and managed change on that that data is another (Beckhard, 2006). From the facilitated discussions as well as his own analysis and insights including those gleaned from observations during travel in Italy, the instructor presented to the team what team dynamics he thought were most ripe for intervention. ...
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Undergraduate institutions today are increasingly looking to adopt high impact practices (HIP) as a means to provide optimal learning experiences for their students. Study abroad courses are a particularly popular HIP offerings for students, as they provide opportunities to not only experience new cultures around the world but also to gain insights into their own cultural identities. However, because of the many demands placed on Division I collegiate student-athletes, they unfortunately are often not able to engage in such a global experience. This case study describes a credit-bearing, short-term study abroad course that not only taught Division I volleyball student-athletes about theories of culture and how to analyze culture at the individual, team, and national levels; but infused a variety of experiential activities and other elements characteristic of effective HIPs. As a means to make the course more personally relevant and meaningful to these students, special attention was given to present topics in a context specific to a collegiate athletic team. These student-athletes were introduced to a host of relevant validated models and theories of culture, and engaged in a number of individual assessments to gain insights into their cultural identities and their influences, as well as in formal assessments of as their team’s dynamics and overall effectiveness. In addition, the course included team-based activities and workshops that addressed the team’s weakest areas related to performance. identified areas in need of improvement. All of these activities were aligned with a 10-day travel experience to Italy. Overall, this case study is an example of how an innovative course can be created to not only provide a study abroad opportunity for student-athletes, but also be tailored to address individual players’ and team needs and create a positive and lasing experience for all involved.
... OD consultants apply systems approaches to practice in varying degrees, depending on their training, work philosophy, client preferences, and the type of projects on which they typically work (Schein, 2007). The literature supports the systems perspective as integral to the approaches used by OD consultants (Beckhard, 2006b;Block, 2000, pp. 207-215;Block, 2006), but is lacking on the topic veteran OD consultants' application of such approaches to acquisitions or, more specifically, to sociocultural integration of acquisition (DiGeorgio, 2002(DiGeorgio, , 2003. ...
... Whereas OD lacks a single overarching theory (Bartunek, 2008;Burke, 2006;Piotrowski et al., 2001), as noted above, action theory serves as OD's integrative theory despite academic's initial assessment that occupational issues dominated action theory (Argyris & Schön, 1974). Action theory helps to explicate how sociocultural changes influence work activities (Frese & Rank, 2007), including those in postacquisition environments (Beckhard, 2006b). This section explores the theory and practice of action research (Gustavsen, 2007, pp. ...
Thesis
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Acquisitions fail to deliver on their stated objectives at a rate of 50% to 80%. One of the most prevalent explanations places blame on conflicting organizational cultures and associated sociocultural morès. Acquisitions that successfully integrate sociocultural components more likely achieve the stated objectives of the acquisition, and failure to meet the stated objectives of an acquisition can negatively influence the viability of an organization. Most organizational development (OD) consultants view sociocultural integration of acquisitions from a systems perspective, affording consideration of multiple facets of an organization in sociocultural integration activities. Yet little scholarly research exists on sociocultural integration of acquisitions from the perspective of veteran OD consultants. Veteran OD consultants' experiences with sociocultural integration of acquisitions comprised this qualitative exploratory inquiry. Literature on organizational culture and leadership, OD and large-scale change, acquisitions, and sociocultural integration were critically reviewed, and data from qualitative in-depth telephone interviews with 15 participants informed the question of how veteran OD consultants describe and explain their experiences in sociocultural integration of acquisitions. The participants in this study indicated that acquisitions are chaotic, complex, and typically overwhelming to senior managers and organizational members. The study participants indicated that senior management teams that exhibit collective certainty regarding the purpose of the acquisition can positively influence integration. These veteran OD consultants also indicated that senior managers who communicate the purpose of the acquisition with certainty, and communicate effectively throughout the newly formed organization during all steps of the integration process could positively influence integration. The study participants indicated that organizational members' understanding of what the acquisition means to them on a practical level can influence integration positively. The participants also indicated that at times senior managers are distracted by the demands of ensuring profitability of the newly formed organization and do not have the time to attend to the people side of integration. These veteran OD consultants indicated that senior managers who do not make decisions based on assumptions, and demonstrate trustworthiness in how they communicate and facilitate employee redundancy, retention, and recruitment during integration can positively influence integration.
... The availability and the quality of the various means of communication, and the possibility for communication with others is important for the team members, and can either facilitate or hamper their communication, thus influence the quality of the communication among the team members. Hence the means of communication and how well it works becomes of vital importance for the teamwork functioning (Beckhard, 2006;Furnham, 2005). ...
... This in order to be better prepared than only through what one can read in and learn from books and from only having practised the profession for a short while. Through confrontation with progressively more complex problems, obtain higher levels of conceptual capacity, and achieve a certain kind of understanding for the profession, for the industry, and for all it's challenges which only comes from having practised and lived it long enough (Beckhard, 2006;Northouse, 2004). ...
... Episodic changes are planned changes with discernable starting and ending points, while continuous changes are on-going processes without such temporal boundaries (Pettigrew et al., 2001; Martins, 2008). To date, most of the literature has focused on episodic change, and most definitions of organizational change state that changes are planned episodes (Beckhard, 2006; Porras & Robertson, 1992). Such an episode-based definition of change is consistent with the distinction between change leadership and transformational leadership in this study. ...
... However, there are several distinctions between change leadership and these general leadership behaviors. First, organizational changes are defined as " planned episodes, " (Tsoukas & Chia, 2002; Weick & Quinn, 1999; Beckhard, 2006; Porras & Roberson, 1992), and the influence of change leadership is episodic, rather than enduring and cross-situational. Whereas change leadership behaviors target at the specific change, transformational and transactional leadership behaviors are general and trans-situational influences on followers' attitudes and behaviors and often have no clear boundaries or timeframes. ...
Article
Recent research has urged more comprehensive theoretical development and empirical validation in the field of organizational change. This study is aimed at further developing the change leadership construct and investigating its effect on employees¡¯ commitment to a particular change, along with investigating the moderating roles of leaders¡¯ general transformational leadership styles and subordinates¡¯ affective commitment to the larger organization. The results for the change leadership measure suggest that change leadership behaviors encompass two factors¡ªleaders¡¯ change-selling behavior and change- implementing behavior. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicate that the two aspects of change leadership have different effects on employees¡¯ affective commitment to change. Results on the three-way interaction also provided a more comprehensive view of organizational change situations. Additional theoretical and empirical implications are discussed.
... Depending on the circumstances, the same agents may function as order forces or disorder forces. The dominance of one of the groups of agents mentioned above can cause the growth of organization's entropy since in this case: (1) the use of its energy may be dysfunctional (Beckhard, 2006), (2) its resources may be used irrationally (Kondalkar, 2009), (3) its communication problems (Ford & Ford, 1995;Morrison & Milliken, 2000;Brown & Harvey, 2006;Harris & Nelson, 2008) may result in increasing uncertainty (Clampitt & Williams, 2004;Hargie et al., 2004;Mowles, 2015). Lack of attention of the organization's management to these circumstances can cause an ever-growing entropy and, thus, steadily increasing uncertainty, disorder, the inability of the organization to change. ...
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Purpose/Goal : The article focuses on organization development process based on functioning of change motors; therefore, the author focuses on accomplishing three objectives. The first objective involves adding to the four change motors described by A. H. Van de Ven & M. S. Poole the fifth one, actually the balancing development motor. The second objective deals with devising a five change motor model based on motor interaction during the life cycle of an organization. The model represents the stages of change motor functioning, description of their interaction and combination of different stages of this functioning. The third objective implies developing and describing the method of the analysis of change motor interaction. Method : Lewin’s field theory, punctuated equilibrium theory, and complexity theory common aspects were identified using the method of comparative analysis and the method of synthesis, which allowed describing balancing development as a change motor. Results : The five change motor model was developed using the method of metaphors and the method of conceptual modeling. Conclusion : The results presented in the article can provide more thorough understanding of the development process of an organization since they contribute to the explanation of how an organization declines in its life cycle due to the functioning of its change motors and how this decline can be overcome by implementing a transformational change. The use of the five change motor model presented in this article will provide insight into the development process of an organization as well as contribute to its further theoretical and empirical research.
... Faculty motivations to adopt service-learning include individual variables, such as a positive perception of service-learning's scholastic merit or a personal affinity for community advocacy, and institutional characteristics, such as institutional mission and reward systems (Blackburn & Lawrence, 1995;Creamer, 1998;Gappa, Austin, & Trice, 2007;McKay & Rozee, 2004;O'Meara, 2013). Motivations are both individual and environmental, with these motivations reciprocally influencing each other (Beckhard, 2006). Therefore, faculty members' perceptions of service-learning simultaneously affect and are affected by the institutional value placed upon service-learning. ...
Article
Service-learning is an educational strategy that aligns with the mission of Christian higher education, yet requires the support of multiple constituencies in order to become institutionalized and fully sustained. Faculty members are central to the implementation of service-learning, and they are influential in the institutionalization process. However, individual commitments to engage in service-learning are also reciprocally influenced by the institutional environment and the value placed on the practice by those in leadership. This qualitative study therefore sought to explore the motivations and perceptions of nine faculty members at three faith-based universities who engage in service-learning. Each participant indicated motivations to engage in service-learning based on a Christian value of service and a positive perception of service-learning as a meaningful educational strategy that reflects the faith-based context of the institution. Therefore, faculty members who commit to service-learning may present a faith integrationalist perspective in which faith influences their work and perceptions of institutional priorities. The participants asserted a need for increased institutional support for service-learning by ensuring that service-learning is rewarded during promotion and tenure processes and establishing a central coordinating structure that could provide faculty development and logistical assistance. Consequently, the findings indicate that greater intentionality is needed from administrators to capitalize on faculty motivations to engage. Recommendations for practice and future research are provided in order to support administrators and faculty members attempting to advance service-learning at faith-based institutions.
... Historically, the field of organisation development focuses on improving organisational effectiveness and employee wellbeing through planned change (e.g. Beer and Walton, 1987;Goodstein and Burke, 1991;Cummings and Worley, 1997;French and Bell, 1999;Beckhard, 2006). Although studies based on a planned change approach offer valuable insights, they largely ignore the ad hoc, unpredictable aspects of organisational change. ...
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This research uses UTAUT model which purpose is to know the effect of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence to attitude toward using smartphone, and also perfomance expectancy, facilitating condition, and attitude toward using smartphone to acceptance to use smartphone variable. This research was conducted on the user of smartphone in Bandung. This research uses non-probability sampling method with convenience sampling type. This research uses structural equation model (SEM) using ordinal scale with 20 questions. The variables that are not mutually influential are performance expectancy against attitude toward using smartphone and facilitating condition against acceptance to use smartphone. This research is expected to be useful for smartphone company in order to see what factors that have an impact into smartphone user intention.
... Bartunek and Louis, 1988). Transformation is viewed as an all-pervading, holistic, and complex process within a specific business context and presents major challenges to any system (Beckhard, 2006). From a managerial perspective, the literature emphasizes three key managerial drivers relating to planned transformations: communicating, mobilizing, and evaluating (e.g. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to address a specific gap in the literature that centers on individual perspective of leadership within the context of organizational transformation. It explores synergies between leadership, analyzed as a combination of individual and plural perspectives, and managerial drivers relating to organizational transformation (communicating, mobilizing, and evaluating). Design/methodology/approach The study examines a complex organizational transformation initiative faced by an Italian, family-owned fashion design company through an action research project. Findings The results illustrate that context may play a role in accelerating the implementation of plural forms of leadership and their effectiveness during some phases of transformation. Specific emerging manifestations of leadership and synergies with transformation drivers are identified. Research limitations/implications This is a single case study derived from an action research project. Although the approach is congruent with the nature of the phenomenon and the purpose of the study, it does not aim for generalizability, and as such further empirical investigation is advocated. Originality/value The paper offers an original perspective on leadership of organizational transformation, discussing in particular the co-existence of individual and plural leadership and the role of context.
... This study limits the scope to the organization itself (i.e. the internal stakeholders) to develop using the theory of business psychology as the intervention. The definitions of organizational development (OD) according to the Organization Development Network is "an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organizations processes, using behavioral-science knowledge" (Beckhard, 1969). ...
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Penetrating the era of the ASEAN Economic Community, the requisite of national business environment to prevail the competitionwas more exorbitant and formidable. A corporation could implement a program of Green Industry from the government to improve the effectiveness and efficiency.In enhancing the efficiency of Green Industry implementation, a corporate attempted to apply the theories in business psychology as an alternative of intervention.The objective of this study was to give the alternative intervention to the manufacturing business in implementing the Green Industry program. This study used the literature study as a method and limited the scope to develop the organization using the theory of business psychology as the intervention. The change management as part of the business psychology is the result of study after comparing the theories in the literature study method.
... Organization development is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organization effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization's 'processes' using behavioural-science knowledge (Beckhard, 2006: 3). ...
Article
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Against the backdrop of a concern that traditional notions of 'training' continue to influence workplace learning and development practice in many organizations, this paper contributes an alternative perspective as a means of engendering change and enhanced performance amongst individuals and across organizations. In discussing the relationships between organizational effectiveness, organization development and learning and development it constructs a 'foundation for improvement' based on three elements: knowledge, connections and conversation. Drawing on illustrative accounts of current L&D practice from one NHS Trust in the UK, the paper develops what this altered practice of development in a workplace context might look like. Thus, both a vision and a practice agenda, in terms of working differently with people in organizations, are outlined and provide a basis for how fellow practitioners might question and rethink their own L&D practice.
... The concepts of organizational development are widely acknowledged, but we should bring the light to definitions and scope of it. The interpretation of Richard Beckhard deserves attention: "Organization development is an effort (1) planned, (2) organization-wide, and (3) managed from the top, to (4) increase organizational effectiveness and health through (5) planned interventions in the organization's "processes", using behavior-science knowledge" [3]. The definition offered by Gary McLean is also substantial as he considers organization development as "any process or activity, based on the behavioral sciences, that, either initially or over the long term, has the potential to develop in an organizational setting enhanced knowledge, expertise, productivity, satisfaction, income, interpersonal relationships, and other desired outcomes, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organization, community, nation, region, or, ultimately, the whole of humanity" [14, p.9]. ...
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The research on organizational and social changes theories is done in the paper. Traditional assumptions and new theories of social development and organizational development were united into classification offered by author through the dichotomy principle of classification. This article combines the existing classification principles and presents new ones. The contribution of the author is the assumption that the characteristics of development theories can be distinguished by the following contrast groups: Evolution – Revolution, Cycle – Wave, Equilibrium – Punctuated Equilibrium, Standard – Paradox. Meanwhile the first three groups are presented and analyzed, the fourth group is left as hypothesis for the next research.
... Illinois planner Joseph Heikoff summarized: "planning is only a method of getting us to face up to reality, decide what our communities need, and then see that the necessary steps are taken to meet those needs" (1962,57). The trend in government organization reflected the dominant thinking, involving the consolidation of planning with other departments involved in the physical environment to achieve "broad-scale" management of city problems (Massell 1963). ...
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Many scholars have voiced frustration with planning theory’s marginalization. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the relevance of theory to practice by exploring what practitioners have theorized. It reviews the development of procedural theories of city planning from 1959 until 1983, and juxtaposes this review with a survey of theory-articulating literature in U.S. trade journals. The article concludes that practitioners value theorizing, that practitioners’ theories mirror academics’ theories, and that practitioners maintained diverse theories of planning rather than pursuing a single theory of planning. These findings can remind the reader of how planning theory speaks to professional experience.
... Transformation is an integral part of any living system. As Bartunek and Louis (1988), and Beckhard (2006) have pointed out, transformation raises a major set of challenges for any system. The focus on creating sustainable work systems in the context of global economic turbulence adds an additional layer of complexity to the transformation of any social system. ...
Article
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The increasing volatility of the global economy, coupled with the pace of technological innovation, presents new challenges for family-owned businesses. The complex business dynamics and business inertia of family-owned business require a comprehensive perspective when developing the capability to manage transformations in the face of a business context such as this. This article draws on literature from the field of organisational change and development, organisational behaviour and family business, and proposes an integrative framework. The study is embedded in a collaborative research project with an Italian fashion design company, and portrays a five-year transformation process, starting with the family's decision to hire an external CEO for the first time in its hundred-year history. What has been learned from the case serves as the foundation for a further advancement of the proposed process-model for the management of a transformation in a family-owned business. The implications for research and practice are discussed.
... Since its inception in the late 1950s, the field of organization development has evolved dramatically, yet it has maintained its conceptual core, which generally involves the extensive change efforts that are managed within organizations to increase their process effectiveness (Beckhard, 2006). However, there is a plethora of alternative ways of accomplishing these changes, and some uncertainty about their real usefulness (Beer, 2011). ...
Chapter
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Drawing on the experience of the Observatories, a set of interconnected research centers in Italy, this chapter explains why academics are in one of the best positions to orchestrate interorganizational initiatives of change and development, and highlights two prerequisites that appear necessary to render salient this orchestrator role of academics: (i) the extensive use of multiple approaches of collaborative research and (ii) the creation and maintenance of a platform allowing the management and diffusion of the network-based learning mechanisms underlying each change and development effort. The contributions extend existing knowledge on organization development and collaborative research.
... Historically, the field of organisation development focuses on improving organisational effectiveness and employee wellbeing through planned change (e.g. Beer and Walton, 1987;Goodstein and Burke, 1991;Cummings and Worley, 1997;French and Bell, 1999;Beckhard, 2006). Although studies based on a planned change approach offer valuable insights, they largely ignore the ad hoc, unpredictable aspects of organisational change. ...
Article
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Purpose – This paper seeks to improve the understanding of implementation processes that achieve corporate sustainability by providing explanatory knowledge about the role of change agents from a sensemaking perspective. The paper also aims to focus on the sustainability efforts of change agents in a multinational carpet tile manufacturer. Design/methodology/approach – The theoretical perspective of the paper is based on the concepts of sensemaking and emergent change. The paper examines sustainability sensemaking in the Dutch subsidiary of the US-based carpet tile manufacturer Interface over a period of ten years (2000-2010). Findings – The findings show that embedding sustainability by change agents is typically an emergent change process that consists of small steps and is not predictable. Research limitations/implications – This paper focuses on the emergent, unpredictable aspects of change. More research is needed on processes of adapting the general concept of sustainability to local organisational contexts. Originality/value – The paper examines sustainability sensemaking by change agents in one organisation.
... Moreover, all policy decisions were made by a family board. Some members of the families strongly felt the need for changing from a family-owned, family-controlled organization to a family controlled, professionally-managed organization (Beckhard 2007). The Dynamics of the Group must be changed due to changes in technology, the way of people living and working conditions. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to develop new strategies for sustainable development of a group and to establish a holding from several companies by considering the regulations in the World Trade, recent developments in textile sector and raising conflicts among stakeholders. In this study, internal analysis of the group was carried out with interviews, observations and surveys. To prepare external analysis, the economical situation of Turkey and the World was researched and categorized under standard PEST (Political – Economic – Sociocultural – Technological) categories. Later, SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis of the group was prepared and most significant factors were chosen. Important problems were identified and the purposes and objectives of the firm were determined by focusing on opportunities. In the light of these factors, TOWS (Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths) matrix was prepared to combine external and internal factors of the enterprise in order to deploy strategies. A new organization structure of the group was determined and presented based on these strategies. Santrauka Šio straipsnio tikslas – pateikti Turkijos Kipas grupės, veikiančios tekstilės ir aprangos pramonėje, darnaus vystymosi strategijas, reorganizuojant grupę į holdingą. Tokiam organizacijos apsisprendimui įtakos turėjo pasaulio prekybos reguliavimo tekstilės sektoriaus pokyčiai, auganti Kinijos tekstilės produkcijos pasiūla ir vidinių konfliktų tarp suinteresuotų asmenų grupės viduje augimas. Šiame tyrime pristatoma vidinė Kipas grupės aplinkos analizė. Ji atlikta remiantis interviu, stebėjimo ir apklausos rezultatais. Išorinė aplinkos analizė ir Turkijos bei pasaulio ekonominė situacija analizuota remiantis PEST analize. Vėliau parengta SSGG (stiprybių, silpnybių, galimybių, grėsmių) grupės analizė ir išskirti reikšmingiausi veiksniai, darantys poveikį. Orientuojantis į išskirtas galimybes, buvo nustatyti strateginiai organizacijos tikslai ir uždaviniai. Kitu žingsniu, remiantis atlikta analize, buvo atlikta dar viena – šį kartą GGSS (galimybių, grėsmių, silpnybių, stiprybių) analizė. Ji sujungė išanalizuotus išorinius ir vidinius organizacijos aplinkos veiksnius, siekiant sudaryti darnaus vystymosi strategijas. Dėl to Kipas grupei buvo pasiūlyta nauja organizacinė struktūra. Reikšminiai žodžiai: strateginis valdymas, GGSS, PEST, reorganizacija, pokyčių valdymas, organi-zacinė struktūra
... In the core of the OD literature, there is very little focus on changing how people think and more on changing what people do-how they work together, communicate, solve problems, manage conflicts, and learn. For example, Beckhard (1969) defines OD as "planned interventions in the organization's processes" (p. 9). ...
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Twenty cases of the use of appreciative inquiry (AI) for changing social systems published before 2003 were examined to look for the presence or absence of transformational change and the use of seven principles and practices culled from a review of the theoretical literature on AI. Although all cases began by collecting stories of the positive, followed the 4-D model, and adhered to five principles of AI articulated by Cooperrider and Whitney, only seven (35%) showed transformational outcomes. Highly consistent differences between the transformational cases and the others led the authors to conclude that two qualities of appreciative inquiry that are different from conventional organizational development and change management prescriptions are key to AI's transformative potential: (a) a focus on changing how people think instead of what people do and (b) a focus on supporting self-organizing change processes that flow from new ideas.
... From its inception more than 50 years ago, OD has promoted democratic and humanistic values by developing leaders and combining individual development processes with organization development efforts (Pasmore and Fagans, 1992;Beckhard, 2006;Burke, 2008). However, basic philosophical assumptions with regard to the organizational reality that is the subject of OD interventions are less clear. ...
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A great deal of commentary and controversy about the state of organization development (OD) has to do with a lack of clarity regarding what it is about organizations that can be affected by an OD effort. Recent initiatives suggest that a new set of OD practices are emerging, based on a social constructionist orientation. With this in mind, this article aims to contribute to a theoretical understanding of what it is about organizations that can change, based on Berger and Luckmann's (1966) social constructionist framework. It describes three distinct change processes that take place as a consequence of OD interventions. The article ends with a discussion of some of the implications for OD practice, specifically with regard to 'programming' dialogue as the main vehicle for change. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Change Management is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
... According to Beckhard (1969), organizational development involves a systematic diagnosis of the organization, the development of a plan for improvement, and the mobilization of resources to meet planned objectives. This conception of learning as a rational systematic process intended to meet specific objectives is somewhat limiting. ...
Article
In a world in which social, economic, and environmental circumstances are continuously evolving and increasingly complex, leaders face the challenging prospect of navigating their organizations through unpredictable operating conditions. Finding a way to tap into the learning capacity of the people who comprise their organizations may be the answer to adapt and to survive. This qualitative research study explored the role of leaders in building this organizational learning capacity. The literature identified three domains of personal, interpersonal, and organizational capacity for learning in an organizational setting. Interviews with three senior leaders who had successfully built learning capacity in their respective organizations revealed four elements of leader commitment: (a) to the process of building learning capacity, (b) to organizational objectives and results, (c) to personal actions and behaviours, and (d) to the people of the organization. Each of the four elements of leader commitment spans the three domains of learning capacity that can guide leaders as they build organizational learning capacity.
... Effective organizations and inter-organizational networks respond to both internal and external environments to build collectivities that are consciously constructed to realize purposeful joint action (Hanf & O'Toole, 1992; Lewin & Minton, 1986). Organizational development or the approach organizations utilize to develop a top-down, organizational-wide plan to improve their effectiveness (Beckhard, 2006) leads to opportunities in public health to improve health outcomes of the most vulnerable populations. ...
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This study seeks to examine the process of building the capacity to address health disparities in several urban African American neighborhoods. An inter-organizational network consisting of a research university, community members, community organizations, media partners, and foundations was formed to develop a community-based intervention designed to provide health promotion and disease prevention strategies for type 2 diabetes and hypertension. In-depth qualitative interviews (n = 18) with foundation executives and project directors, civic organization leadership, community leaders, county epidemiologist, and university partners were conducted. Our study contextualizes a process to build a public health partnership using cultural, community, organizational, and societal factors necessary to address health disparities. Results showed 5 important factors to build organizational capacity: leadership, institutional commitment, trust, credibility, and inter-organizational networks. These factors reflected other important organizational and community capacity indicators such as: community context, organizational policies, practices and structures, and the establishment of new commitments and partnerships important to comprehensively address urban health disparities. Understanding these factors to address African American health disparities will provide lessons learned for health educators, researchers, practitioners, foundations, and communities interested in building and sustaining capacity efforts through the design, implementation, and maintenance of a community-based health promotion intervention.
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Perusahaan yang berhasil adalah perusahaan yang melakukanbisnisnya dengan tidak meninggalkan sumber daya manusia. Penelitian inibertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh antara keadilan organisasi dankepuasan kerja terhadap intensi turnover karyawan CV IKT. Hal ini sangatdiperlukan dan faktor yang mempengaruhi kinerja perusahaan sehinggamanajemen harus mampu menekan angka intensi turnover.Analisa dari penelitian ini berdasarkan teori adalah keadilanorganisasi memiliki efek positif terhadap kepuasan kerja, semakin tinggikeadilan organisasi yang dirasakan karyawan maka semakin tinggi pulakepuasan kerja. Dan keadilan organisasi memiliki efek negatif terhadapintensi turnover, jadi apabila karyawan merasakan tingginya keadilanorganisasi maka akan menurunkan intensi turnover. Sedangkan kepuasankerja memiliki efek negatif terhadap intensi turnover, artinya apabilakaryawan merasakan kepuasan kerja maka intensi turnover akan turun.Populasi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah para tenagakerja atau karyawan CV IKT sejumlah 41 orang. Metode analisis yangdigunakan adalah analisis jalur (path analysis ) Hasil penelitianmendapatkan bahwa persamaan yang terbentuk Y = - 0.280X1+ - 0.130X2+0,880 ε. dengan semua variabel independen yaitu Keadilan organisasidan Kepuasan Kerja berpengaruh signifikan terhadap Kinerja Karyawanbaik secara simultan maupun parsialKeywords :Keadilan Organisasi, Kepuasan Kerja, and Intensi Turnover
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We have tried to make this the most comprehensive bibliography of Revans’ publications to date. Its foundation is the work of Lucinda Gibson-Myers and Verna J. Willis, who electronically catalogued the publications from the Revans collection and went to considerable effort to ensure its accuracy. We have also tried to integrate other sources such as the Revans Archive and the International Foundation for Action Learning listing.
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Describes an action research project to improve quality in three hospital departments including operating theatres, X-ray, and medical records. The approach combined quality assurance (QA) or audit methods with those of continuous quality improvement (CQI) or TQM. The intention was to bring about improved organizational performance through an emphasis on bottom-up rather than top-down methodology, and to assess the relative effectiveness of different quality strategies being used within the hospital. Baseline studies of organizational climate and of patient perceptions enabled evaluation of effectiveness. Provides a description of the background to various health-care quality strategies, and argues that several perspectives are required if all stakeholders (e.g. policy makers, professionals, patients, and managers) are to be satisfied. Describes the responses of staff, superiors and professionals and recommendations offered for more effective quality strategy implementation.
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