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Research on Coaching

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... Denton and Hasbrouck (2009) classified coaching approaches addressing professional learning processes and change purposes including: (1) technical, (2) problem solving, (3) reflective practice, (4) collegial/team building, and (5) reform models. Cornett & Knight (2008) completed a narrative review of the research on coaching, recognizing four major models of coaching including: (1) peer coaching, (2) cognitive coaching, (3) literacy coaching, and (4) instructional coaching. Coaching approaches are not mutually exclusive (Steiner & Kowal, 2007) with overlap in purposes and processes. ...
... (Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009). There are mixed results surrounding coaching outcomes given the varied contexts, purposes, models, roles, duration, and implementation activities of coaching (Cornett & Knight, 2008). Overall, coaching has positively impacted of teacher instruction and curriculum (Showers & Joyce, 1996;Knight, 2007). ...
... Overall, coaching has positively impacted of teacher instruction and curriculum (Showers & Joyce, 1996;Knight, 2007). Teacher effectiveness impacts include improved teacher satisfaction, reported confidence and self-efficacy, and knowledge and implementation of teaching practices when coaching programs are effectively implemented (Cornett & Knight, 2008;Showers & Joyce, 1996;Tschannen-Moran & McMaster, 2009). Most research in coaching is descriptive and efficacy studies are beginning to emerge. ...
Chapter
Significant disparities in educational outcome, opportunity, and achievement endure for students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse groups. A need for effective, responsive, and inclusive practices in schools is imperative. Educators are at the heart of providing the challenging, responsive education that each child and adolescent deserves. Professional development is the lever of change, but can or help or hinder educators in improving instructional and school practices that result in improved outcomes for all students. This chapter examines the evidence base surrounding professional development and inclusive practice. Four approaches to professional development supporting more transformative professional learning and change are featured: inquiry groups (teacher study groups and lesson study); coaching, Professional Learning Communities; and Professional Development Schools. Snapshots to practice are included with each approach to provide integrated descriptive examples of varied inclusive professional development practices.
... While there is no agreed definition of coaching and little research on its efficacy (Bloom, Castagna, Moir, & Warren, 2005, Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009Neufeld & Roper, 2003;Neumerksi, 2013;Woulfin, 2014), there is no questioning the popularity of this teacher development strategy (Desimone & Pak, 2016). Studies confirming the critical role played by coaching to increase the likelihood that teachers transfer newly learned skills to the classroom have fueled interest in this practice (Bush, 1984;Cornett & Knight, 2009;Joyce & Showers, 1982). ...
... These strategies were: daily review of previously learned material, clear statement of goals and expectations, fast pace with high rates of student engagement, fully guided practice with regular checking for understanding, step by step instructions drawn from task analysis, and adherence to a three step lesson structure: I do, we do, you do. Cornett and Knight (2009) note the dearth of rigorous research on the impact of coaching on those being coached and the students they teach. They attribute this deficiency to the variability of methods, the context in which coaching occurs and interpretations of the term 'coaching'. ...
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In this study we measured the impact of a professional development model that included directive coaching on the instructional practices of Western Australian primary school teachers taking up explicit instruction. We developed and validated protocols that enabled us to measure teachers' fidelity to the salient elements of explicit instruction and interviewed participants about the impact of the coaching program on student learning, their feelings of selfefficacy and attitudes to being coached. Numerical scores to indicate teachers' demonstration of explicit instruction lesson design and delivery components changed positively over the five observed lessons and directive coaching had a positive impact on teachers' competence and confidence. The elements of the coaching process that the teachers found valuable were the coach's positive tone, the detailed written feedback, and the specificity, directness and limited number of the suggestions. Implications for schools with reform-based agendas wanting to change teachers' instructional practices through instructional coaching are discussed.
... These principles -equity, choice, voice, reflection, dialogue, praxis and reciprocity -offer a contextual language that allows coaches and those they are working with to describe how they are working together. Research shows collaborative coaching to be an effective model of professional learning (for example, Cornett & Knight, 2009;Hargreaves & Braun, 2012;Joyce & Showers, 1982;Knight, 2011). The school district with which we worked chose to base the classroom teacherresource teacher partnerships on this collaborative coaching model. ...
... The classroom teachers and resource teachers also identified relationships, attitudes, understanding of students and time together as key factors in the success of the coaching model. This research is thus consistent with other research that demonstrates the benefits of coaching as a teaching and learning model (for example, Cornett & Knight, 2009;Hargreaves & Braun, 2012;Joyce & Showers, 1982;Knight, 2011). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine how resource teachers (n = 13) and classroom teachers (n = 12) experience a coaching partnership, in which both teachers work in the regular classroom to support students with special educational needs. The focus of the partnerships was to build classroom teacher capacity around inclusionary practices. Classroom teachers and resource teachers completed questionnaires about the partnerships and their impact. Results indicated that both groups of teachers found the partnerships to be valuable. The partnerships were supported by coaching principles, as well as relationship, attitudes, understanding of students, and time spent together. Benefits of the model included increased support for students; increased learning for students; learning of different approaches, for classroom teachers and resource teachers; shared responsibility for students, between classroom and resource teachers; feeling more valued, for resource teachers; and seeing a model of collaboration, for students, teachers and the community.
... In the last few decades there has been a growing body of scientific research providing supportive evidence that coaching is an efficient approach supporting learning and professional development across the entire education sector: students, teachers, educators, and school leaders (Cornett & Knight, 2009;Green et al., 2007;Kraft et al., 2018;van Nieuwerburgh & Barr, 2016). Coaching has been described as a very powerful approach facilitating personal and professional change and learning through deep level listening, questioning, setting the right challenges and providing support along the process (Griffiths, 2005). ...
... The results obtained in qualitative analysis indicate that educational coaching can help teachers improve their well-being during the pandemic. Scientific research supports coaching as an effective strategy that can be employed for ongoing teacher learning and development (Cornett & Knight, 2009;Joyce & Showers, 1987;Knight, 2009;Kraft et al., 2018). Skiffington & Zeus (2003) describe coaching as 'a holistic multifaceted approach to learning and change'. ...
Article
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The coronavirus pandemic has turned out to be the biggest challenge the modern educational systems across the world have ever faced. Many teachers observed as their well-being plummeted as they started to overwhelmingly worry about the health of their families, as they were facing confusing instruc- tions, unclear expectations or technical difficulties. The purpose of this quali- tative study is to diagnose the role of educational coaching in stimulating the well-being of teachers during the pandemic of COVID-19. The results indicate that educational coaching can help teachers improve their well-being during the pandemic when teachers need to change their role – from classroom to remote – and succeed under a new set of circumstances.
... Currently, there is no international research that examines the different ways teacher coaching is being used in education. However, the findings of this study reflect the work of Cornett and Knight (2009), who completed an extensive literature review of coaching in education. They concluded that coaching in education is being used for a variety of different purposes and uses a number of different approaches. ...
... They concluded that coaching in education is being used for a variety of different purposes and uses a number of different approaches. In this way, the work of Cornett and Knight (2009) suggested that the use of teacher coaching in New Zealand secondary schools reflects international trends. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how teacher coaching is being implemented in New Zealand secondary schools. Design/methodology/approach A pragmatic mixed methods approach was identified as the most suitable. A dominant qualitative approach, using a sequential design, incorporating triangulation of methods and perspectives across time, provided an appropriate research design framework. Findings The findings indicate that teacher coaching is a popular professional development approach that has been enthusiastically implemented throughout New Zealand secondary schools. The four factors of purpose, evaluation, training and funding have been shown to be interrelated factors operating in New Zealand teacher coaching programmes. These factors are perceived to have an influence on teacher coaching programmes achieving their stated objectives. Research limitations/implications A limitation of this study is that it provides a snapshot of teacher coaching in New Zealand secondary schools, and the snapshot presented is constantly changing. A methodological limitation of the study related to the 28 per cent response rate of the questionnaire and the small sample size used for the interview phases. Practical implications This study encourages school leaders to consider if they have defined teacher coaching in the context of their programmes and articulated their objectives. They are persuaded to think about how they could design robust evaluation strategies and targeted training. Social implications The findings show the concept of teacher coaching is a social construct that is influenced not only by unique environmental contexts but also the individual perceptions of all those involved. Originality/value This study provides new knowledge in relation to how and why teacher coaching is being used and the factors that influence whether programme objectives are achieved.
... In other words, having a trusting, friendly relationship between the coach and teacher may serve to improve the efficacy of coaching (Israel et al., 2018;Knight, 2017). Coaching may involve 1-on-1 instructional activities, such as planning, modeling, pedagogical development, troubleshooting, researching, reflections, and/or other forms of collaboration, the support change in teachers' practices (Beglau et al., 2011;Cornett & Knight, 2009). These coaching activities may help remove technology integration barriers by advancing teachers' confidence, knowledge, and skills, while also providing just-in-time instructional support (Kopcha, 2012;Lowther et al., 2008). ...
... In the teachers' interviews and the coaches' reflection notes, we found that many teachers perceived these ongoing coaching activities helpful and encouraging to support changes in how they used technology in their classrooms. These results added evidence to previous research findings that 1-on-1 coaching activities yield teachers' development of instruction planning, modeling, reflection, and technology troubleshooting to support their change in practices (Beglau et al., 2011;Cornett & Knight, 2009). Our results also emulate Knight's (2017) effective instructional coaching cycle, where he described how coaches should implement three steps to address teachers' individual learning needs and support change in teaching practices: (1) Identify goals with teachers; (2) model for teachers; and (3) examine change in practices. ...
Article
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This multiple case study describes a year-long implementation of a research-based coaching model designed to support changes in elementary teachers’ technology integration practices. We examined coaches’ perceptions of the model through the use of coaches’ questionnaires, reflection notes, and meeting notes. Teachers’ coaching experiences were also examined through end-of-year interviews. We identified successes (relationships with teachers, ability to provide personalized support, and teacher change) and challenges (time, technology difficulties, relationships, and collaboration challenges). The primary lessons learned from the coaches’ experiences with the research-based PD focused on (1) the impact of personalized support, (2) the relationships between teachers and coaches, and (3) development of the coaches’ knowledge. Free online copies: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/QUJBKM2KUI3GTFXYTCZQ/full?target=10.1080/21532974.2020.1804494
... Instructional coaching can also increase intentional teaching ability. Research shows that teachers receiving coaching from experienced coaches become more thoughtful and purposeful planners when implementing teacher-child interactions (Cornett & Knight, 2009;Nasser et al., 2015). Specifics to ECE teachers, studies found those receiving coaching from experienced coaches made progress in the intentional teaching of early mathematics, as well as on early language and literacy, which in turn made positive impacts on children's academic learning (Pianta et al., 2021;Whittaker et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Research shows that effective and high-quality instructional coaching that targets teacher-child interactions can improve the classroom quality, increase teacher job satisfaction, reduce attrition, and even improve young children’s development, such as social emotional development, and literacy skills. Coaches likely develop and sharpen their communication, leadership, coaching, and reflective skills, as well as their sense of professional identity over time. Thus, the current study uses data gathered from instructional coaches and their preservice teachers (PSTs) during their internships to explore (1) the dynamic process of how coaches develop their professional competency in an empirically validated coaching program, and (2) the elements of high-quality, effective coaching with PSTs. After analyzing transcriptions of two interviews with 11 instructional coaches, four themes were found that supported the MMCI Coach’s Professional Competency Development: Deepened understanding of the Teaching through Interactions Framework, Increased sense of professional identity, Sharpened coaching skills, and Enhanced mentor–mentee relationships.
... The results, however, were inconclusive as to the effects of instructional coaching on increasing student achievement. One executive summary by the U.S. Department of Education found no significant gains in student achievement at schools with coaches (Correnti & Rowan, 2007;Garet & Cronen, 2008) and there is very little empirical evidence documenting the efficacy of the instructional coaching model (Cornett & Knight, 2009;Walpole & Blamey, 2008;Wren, 2005). ...
Thesis
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School site-based instructional coaching is a form of job-embedded professional development for teachers and an element of school reform. Coaches are hired based upon their pedagogical knowledge, content expertise, prior teaching experience, and "people skills." They are adept at handling a variety of social interactions at school sites, including conflict management and navigating toxic school cultures. Although coaching has been implemented in many schools, a 2008 study conducted by the United States Department of Education found no significant gains in student achievement in schools with coaches. This study attempts to define what constitutes good instructional coaching. In-depth interviews were conducted with four instructional coaches, who were asked to define how they build relationships and work interdependently with teachers. To triangulate the data, additional interviews were conducted with four teachers, each of whom had worked with one of the coaches. The Emotional Intelligence—Holonomy Matrix was used to analyze the data and interpret the complex social skills coaches use to work collaboratively with teachers.
... In addition to the initial training, the research team provided in-person coaching and observation during the intervention. Coaching occurred between 1 and 2 times per month, and included a combination of modeling, observation, and feedback to support high-fidelity implementation (Cornett and Knight 2009). Coaches had extensive experience delivering the intervention with special populations. ...
Article
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This study investigates the effects of an integrated oral language and listening comprehension intervention for early elementary students with ASD. Students (n = 43) were randomly assigned to intervention or control comparison conditions, with intervention students receiving instruction in small groups of 3 or 4. Groups were led by special education classroom teachers 4 days per week across 20 weeks in the school year. Significant group differences were detected on measures of expressive vocabulary, narrative ability, and listening comprehension. This study provides preliminary evidence of the intervention’s feasibility and effectiveness for intervening in language and early reading skills for students with ASD.
... These coaches can serve as an expert "other" who observes teachers from the sidelines, evaluates teachers' strengths and weaknesses, identifies aspects to target for improvement, and develops individualized strategies to promote development (Blazar & Kraft, 2015;Coburn & Woulfin, 2012;Knight, 2007). Coaching models vary, but most highlight the fact that coaches respond to observed teacher needs (Cornett & Knight, 2009;Desimone & Pak, 2017), prompt teachers to critically consider elements of their practice (Teemant, 2014), and, in some cases, provide more directive feedback to leverage improvement (Ippolito, 2010). ...
Article
This article evaluates whether providing coaching between practice sessions in teacher education courses leads to more rapid development of skills and changes in teachers’ beliefs about student behavior, using mixed-reality simulations as a practice space and standardized assessment platform. We randomly assigned 105 prospective teachers to different coaching conditions between simulation sessions integrated into a teacher preparation program. Coached candidates had significant and large improvements on skills relative to those who only reflected on their teaching. We also observe significant coaching effects on candidates’ perceptions of student behavior and ideas about next steps for addressing perceived behavioral issues. Findings suggest that skills with which novices struggle can improve with coaching and do not have to be learned “on the job.”
... Parker, Patton, and Tannehill (2012) found that professional learning communities encouraged teachers to be more confident in sharing their practices. Cornett and Knight (2008) further found that teacher leadership fostered collaboration, partnership and networking among teachers in ways that contributed to school improvement (Killion et al., 2016). In a recent meta-analysis (Cordingley et al., 2015) found that the most effective professional learning is aligned with the participants' aspirations for their students' learning. ...
Article
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This article discusses the impact of a professional learning activity called the Principals as Literacy Leaders (PALL) program on the strategies used by primary school leaders to support teacher professional learning with the view of assisting students to become more able readers. It uses data collected from participants in the PALL program, together with case study data collected from school leaders and teachers in seven schools, to analyze the actions taken by school leaders to improve teaching practices through professional learning. The study showed that school leaders felt more capable in their ability to lead their schools after completing the PALL program and that strategic professional learning activity led to improved teaching practices and higher levels of student engagement and achievement in reading. It showed that leaders used elements of the Leadership for Learning approach as key activities for supporting professional learning.
... Teachers must be supported during the critical process of applying new learning to the classroom. Truesdale (2003), Cornett and Knight (2009), and Atteberry and Bryk (2011) report that during the confusion and frustration that accompanies the implementation of new teaching strategies and routines, coaching can provide teachers with critical support. Active learning involves teachers in a variety of learning approaches to new concepts (Richardson, 1998;Roy & Chi, 2005). ...
Preprint
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This study reports the results of a three-year capacity building effort to improve core reading knowledge and practice in 165 third-grade teachers working in 63 urban schools and its effects on student reading outcomes. Teachers volunteered to participate in one or two years of professional development lasting from 90 to 180 hours. Core reading knowledge among teachers resulted in statically significant growth with generally large effect sizes. Three cohorts of third-grade students taught by participating teachers were assessed on multiple measures of reading at the beginning and end of each school year. Results for within-year improvement showed large effects on all student outcomes. Analysis of the magnitude of student gains between the three years found that for two of the four measures gains in year one were exceeded in years two and three. Implications for professional training to facilitate improved reading outcomes are discussed.
... Teachers must be supported during the critical process of applying new learning to the classroom. Truesdale (2003), Cornett & Knight (2009), and Atteberry & Bryk (2011) report that during the confusion and frustration that accompanies the implementation of new teaching strategies and routines, coaching can provide teachers with critical support. Active learning involves teachers in a variety of learning approaches to new concepts (Richardson, 1998;Roy & Chi, 2005). ...
... These strategies include active learning, provision of multiple learning episodes, opportunities for self-reflections, self-assessment using performance criteria and performance-based feedback (Silberman & Biech, 2015). Ongoing coaching and feedback are the key training components to bring about intervention mastery (Cornett & Knight, 2009). However, training teachers to high fidelity in intervention for children and sustaining their efforts to maintain high fidelity requires extra time and cost, e.g. ...
Conference Paper
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Synopsis: There is a shortage of qualified and effective teachers in special education due to turnover, attrition and burnout. Locally, limited resources and high costs have hindered children with special needs from receiving prompt and timely intervention. Without early intervention, children with autism will suffer significantly with poor long term developmental outcomes. A mobile application, Map4speech, was developed as a training medium to provide a solution to disseminate intervention skills to teachers in an effective and efficient way. During the session, you will hear about how Behavioural Modelling Training based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory was embedded as the instructional design in the mobile app to deliver online teacher training. Findings showed an increase in teacher intervention knowledge and techniques in the classroom settings. It highlights the importance of integrating sound adult learning theories which are fit-for-purpose in technology-enabled learning and training.
... Many other researchers have described several distinct approaches with unique goals and methods like, classroom management coaching (Sprick, 2006), content-focused coaching (West & Staub, 2003) and blended coaching (Bloom et al., 2005). According to Cornett and Knight (2009), coaching approaches that are still common in today's education systems are peer coaching (Joyce & Showers, 1996), literacy coaching (Toll, 2014), cognitive coaching (Costa & Garmston, 1994) and instructional coaching (Knight, 2007). It is critical to recognize that regardless of the form that coaching takes, they have been described with the same goal of having a knowledgeable other (the coach) collaborating with the teacher to provide individualized development which will impact on student learning (Cassidy et al., 2009). ...
Article
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This paper presents a review of teacher coaching and mentoring approach in terms of its development in the educational realm, underpinning concepts and implementation for teachers' Continuous Professional Development (CPD). The aim of the paper is to elucidate the competing notions and issues pertinent to the teacher coaching and mentoring approach. A library research on mainstream journals was carried out to find out recent reviews and meta-analyses of teacher coaching and/or mentoring, empirical studies and complemented by online research on the websites of leading coaching and professional development organizations as well as expert consultants, including researchers and authors of key studies. The review indicates gradual patterns of expansion of teacher coaching and mentoring approach that suit a wide range of educational purposes. The review also discloses that teacher coaching and mentoring approach is proven to be a promising practice for teacher learning, teacher change and ultimate improvement in students' achievement. The outcome of the review has implications on future studies on teacher coaching and mentoring approach and the needs for more validations on the effectiveness of such approach to enhance teachers' skills, reflective practice and professional development as a whole.
... Research into coaching has for some time shown that it is effective in supporting teacher professional growth (Cornett and Knight 2009, Lofthouse 2016, van Nieuwerburgh 2012, van Nieuwerburgh and Barr 2017 and can bring about gains in student outcomes as a consequence of participants examining their practice, spending time in reflection, engaging with generative data and implementing adjustments to achieve negotiated goals Hogan 2018, Kraft andBlazar 2017). Common across the research is the identification of core ingredients of any successful coaching approach; coaching is an organisational priority, coaching has public advocacy, there is a strategic allocation of resources (including time) to offer people equitable opportunities to engage with a trusted and experienced colleague, coaching is a dialogic and action-oriented partnership organised around goals, and there is the gradual creation of a non-judgmental and trust-fostering climate of work and learning. ...
Chapter
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In a performance and accountability climate, education systems scramble to formulate policy and standards that sculpt the practice of teachers to the “describable, calculable and measurable” (Mockler 2015, p. 118). Invariably, this becomes a narrative of continuous improvement that is conflated with growth and development, something that is in reality iterative, sustained and a long-term project. Purposeful opportunities for teachers to critically reflect and engage in dialogue with others about theory, research and practice can all too quickly disappear behind a slipstream of policies of compliance and quality assurance. Ironically, initiatives purporting to raise the status and quality of teachers and teaching can serve to reduce the capacity of teachers to make effective professional practice decisions. An unintended and concerning consequence is the erosion of teacher agency. We propose that coaching provides a process by which respectful, rigorous and analytical work can be undertaken by teachers to explore and refine their practice. We see coaching, like agency, as “a configuration of influences from the past, orientations towards the future and engagement with the present” (Priestley, Biesta and Robinson 2015, p. 23). Here, coaching elevates work out of mere improvement to something generative, fulfilling and culture enhancing.
... Directive or instructional coaching is based upon traditional teaching strategies where the coach shares his or her professional experiences and approaches in order to support the needs of the client. Directive or instructional coaching was developed at the University of Kansas and researched comprehensively by Cornett and Knight (2009). Directive coaching is used in many situations to change a predetermined behavior (Aguilar, 2013, p. 20). ...
Article
PROMOTING GROWTH AND SELF-EFFICACY: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE LIVED EXPERIENCES OF FIRST-YEAR ASSISTANT PRINCIPALS by Debra Murdock Kennesaw State University, 2018 Newly appointed assistant principals face a myriad of challenges. Often, the roles and responsibilities of assistant principals are ambiguous, primarily consisting of managerial and organizational type tasks. The lack of a systemic focus for assistant principals coupled with the assigned menial type jobs can leave new assistant principals with professional learning gaps. In the current model of high-stakes accountability for schools and school districts, educational leaders must redefine the role of assistant principals into a more distinct position that includes a strong emphasis on instructional leadership. Structured and systemic professional learning is necessary in order to build the capacity and self-efficacy of these new leaders. This qualitative research study examined the lived experiences of new assistant principals participating in a leadership professional learning academy in one suburban school district. This phenomenological case study examined the experiences of the new assistant principals and their thoughts and perceptions on the leadership academy in building their leadership capacity and self-efficacy. The assistant principals were provided opportunities to experience multiple structured professional learning opportunities including workshop-style learning experiences conducted by district leaders, individualized and personalized coaching sessions, scenario-based modules, goal-setting, and participation in a cohort of district peers. This study will examine the lived experiences of assistant principals in the program.
... According to Robbins (1991), "peer coaching is a confidential process through which two or more professional colleagues work together to reflect on current practices; expand, refine, and build new skills; share ideas; teach one another; conduct classroom research; or solve problems in the workplace" (p. 1). The contributions of peer coaching have been clearly defined by the literature (Anderson, Caswell, & Hayes, 1994;Bowman & McCormick, 2000;Briggs & Van Nieuwerburgh, 2010;Britton & Anderson, 2010;Buzbee Little, 2005;Cornett & Knight, 2009;Devine, Meyers, & Houssemand, 2013;Duncan & Stock, 2010;Showers & Joyce, 1996). In these studies, it has been found that reciprocal relationships among colleagues can lead to professional growth providing them with opportunities to share and expand their expertise. ...
Article
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Presently, learning a foreign language is an essential academic requirement in several contexts, hence the importance and the need for effective teaching in this field at all educational levels starting with the first years of school. As a consequence, teaching and learning in elementary school is a key issue to success in the learner’s future language learning. However, at some public elementary schools in Colombia there are many factors that hinder this process. One of them is the fact that most of the teachers who are in charge of teaching English in elementary schools are not sufficiently trained to do this job (McNulty & Quinchía, 2007). For this reason, the aim of this study is to strengthen the pedagogical practices of the participating teachers. Guided by the theoretical foundations of peer coaching and reverse mentoring, this mixed-methods study examined strategies for professional development via results of an English test, class observations, questionnaires, focus groups, interviews, and journals. Findings show the effectiveness of the proposal in terms of the professional growth of the participants who exchanged teaching experiences and pedagogical tools within a mutual and trusting atmosphere. This helped them to enhance their knowledge about teaching a foreign language and test new teaching techniques and strategies to favor their students’ language learning.
... Coaching and reflective practice. Coaching is one approach that may be able to provide the type of focused professional development that can support elementary science teachers in developing their knowledge and skills in academic language, as coaching has been shown to impact teacher attitudes, teacher practice, teacher efficacy, and student achievement (Cornett & Knight, 2009). This study used a blend of instructional coaching and reflective practice to do just this, and thus an examination of coaching is warranted. ...
Thesis
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Academic language is the language that students must engage in while participating in the teaching and learning that takes place in school (Schleppegrell, 2012) and science as a content area presents specific challenges and opportunities for students to engage with language (Buxton & Lee, 2014; Gee, 2005). In order for students to engage authentically and fully in the science learning that will take place in their classrooms, it is important that they develop their abilities to use science academic language (National Research Council, 2012). For this to occur, teachers must provide support to their students in developing the science academic language they will encounter in their classrooms. Unfortunately, this type of support remains a challenge for many teachers (Baecher, Farnsworth, & Ediger, 2014; Bigelow, 2010; Fisher & Frey, 2010) and teachers must receive professional development that supports their abilities to provide instruction that supports and scaffolds students’ science academic language use and development. This study investigates an elementary science teacher’s engagement in an instructional coaching partnership to explore how that teacher planned and implemented scaffolds for science academic language. Using a theoretical framework that combines the literature on scaffolding (Bunch, Walqui, & Kibler, 2015; Gibbons, 2015; Sharpe, 2001/2006) and instructional coaching (Knight, 2007/2009), this study sought to understand how an elementary science teacher plans and implements scaffolds for science academic language, and the resources that assisted the teacher in planning those scaffolds. The overarching goal of this work is to understand how elementary science teachers can scaffold language in their classroom, and how they can be supported in that work. Using a classroom teaching experiment methodology (Cobb, 2000) and constructivist grounded theory methods (Charmaz, 2014) for analysis, this study examined coaching conversations and classroom instruction to identify and understand what scaffolds are planned and implemented, and how that planning and implementation occurred through an instructional coaching partnership. Findings from this study showed the elementary science teacher planned and implemented a number of scaffolds for science academic language, focusing primarily on the use of sentence starters as a scaffolding strategy. The findings also indicated that the instructional coaching partnership played a vital role as the main resource that assisted the planning of scaffolds. These findings provide insights into the types of scaffolds that elementary science teachers can implement to scaffold science academic language, and the role that instructional coaching can play in supporting teachers as they work to provide instruction that scaffolds their students’ language use and development.
... Often principal preparation programs fail to dig deeper and help PCs develop the skills for nonevaluative instructional coaching. This form of coaching is a form of teacher professional development that results in improved instruction and student outcomes (Cornett & Knight, 2009). Therefore, PCs needed to know how to be an instructional leader and how to facilitate partnership approaches to professional learning. ...
Article
The purpose of this collaborative action research study was to determine whether practicing instructional coaching with teacher candidates (TCs) improved coaching skills of principal candidates (PCs). Findings indicated that PCs improved their coaching skills. Findings illustrated ways to improve principal preparation in an instructional supervision course and by collaborating with a teacher education program to provide field experiences to practice coaching. This study also determined that there was not a significant difference in practicing coaching with TCs through video lessons or face to face observations.
... These skills are essential for nonevaluative instructional coaching. Coaching is a form of professional development for teachers that can result in improved teaching and learning for students (Cornett & Knight, 2009). Principal candidates need to understand how facilitate professional coaching relationships with teachers. ...
... We agree with Lofthouse, Leat and Towler (2010) that 'perhaps the most important message is that coaching does not offer a quick fix; instead, it provides a vehicle for change through evolution, not revolution'. From here, we encourage a more profound reading of the subject with different references (Cornett & Knight, 2009;Flückiger, Aas, Nicolaidou, Johnson, & Lovett, 2017;Lofthouse, 2010;Hook, McPhail, & Vaas, 2006;Hattie, 2009) that have the following points in common: a) coaching can help educational inclusion, b) coaching has to be supported by the governing educational institution, c) the figure of a leader (trainer) to motivate in any center the carrying out of educational change projects can be enhanced with perspectives such as coaching, d) coaching favors the systemic view that all teachers are leaders, e) coaching invites awareness and constant reflection about education, f) coaching can help to establish a greater connectivity among members of the educational community and g) the importance given by coaching to the evidence and the objectives (to advance one has to clearly understand what is expected and how it is shown). We can find different levels of implication in Educational Coaching (table 2) following the training phases of Gordon (1998): Rodríguez et al., (2011) indicated that in teacher training, coaching defines a collaborative relation to help teachers have professional training in their workplace, improving their real practices in their classrooms and centers. ...
Article
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This work alludes to the research resulting from the development of the Comprehensive Model of Educational Coaching (MICE) (www. EducationalPaths.com/MICE) during two educational courses performed through training, in both individual and team coaching processes, with non-university teachers from Aragon (Spain). Data has been collected through a questionnaire about expectations, a questionnaire about technical competences, a questionnaire about transversal competences, a discussion group and an open questionnaire sent online to explore the repercussion of the training. We conclude with results related to the expectations about Educational Coaching training; its aspects for improvement, developed competences and expectations; and competences related to the managerial and teaching functions. Among highlights of the results, the study reveals that MICE encourages classroom coaching (through tutorials, work groups, attention to language use, etc.). It also fosters, among other things, the establishment of an appropriate classroom environment, respect for the students, regard for student initiatives, decision-making support, empathy and better management of information and positive emotions. The study provides results categorized by gender, connections to management teams, educational level, and characteristics of the education centre (privately administered/ publicly financed and public).
... In archival CPRT projects, the training package included both a full day workshop and ongoing classroom coaching offered locally and in person. While effective at improving and maintaining teacher fidelity and confidence in their ability to use an intervention ( Burns, 2011 ;Cornett & Knight, 2008 ;Suhrheinrich, 2011 ) the local, in-person modality is not feasible on a broader scale. ...
Article
While there are multiple evidence-based practices (EBPs) available for students with autism, ongoing barriers to use in schools include limited access to training for educators and substantial provider modifications that limit fidelity. This suggests a need for further research to support data-informed adaptations and innovative methods for training and coaching teachers. In response to this need, the objectives of this protocol paper are to (1) describe the development of a data-informed adaptation process for an EBP, and (2) compare the effectiveness of two methods (online virtual and a combination of in-person and online virtual) for training teachers to use the adapted EBP. Outcome measures will include teacher implementation and sustainment of the EBP, teacher/coach relationship, and student outcomes.
... Professional learning for MTSS should increase awareness, knowledge, and essential skills needed for effective implementation; furthermore, leaders should provide a consistent professional learning schedule with a clear purpose and desired outcomes (McIntosh & Goodman, 2016). In addition to professional learning, researchers agree that effective instructional coaching has a meaningful impact on teacher effectiveness and student outcomes, which are fundamental elements of a MTSS (Cornett & Knight, 2009;Javius, 2020;Showers, 1984;Stormont et al., 2015). Coaching MTSS implementation supports competency development by prompting, modeling, acknowledging, and giving feedback (McIntosh & Goodman, 2016). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to contribute to the empirical literature concerning leadership role in Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) implementation. MTSS uses an evidence-based model and problem solving to provide academic, behavioral, and social-emotional supports to meet the needs of each student. This study focused on the critical components of MTSS implementation and highlighted leadership as an integral aspect of the success of any school initiative. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to see whether there is a significant relationship between leadership implementation of MTSS and student achievement in reading and mathematics in middle schools in Georgia while controlling for covariates.
... Kretlow and Bartholomew (2010) defined coaching as an opportunity to provide individualized support to teachers following an initial PD opportunity to sustain increased implementation fidelity. Existing literature has supported the effectiveness of coaching models on teachers' implementation fidelity of newly acquired instructional practices (Cornett & Knight, 2009;Fixsen et al., 2005). Researchers also have demonstrated the effectiveness of incorporating multilevel training opportunities into coaching models to enhance PD for teachers (Wood et al., 2016). ...
Article
The study examined the effects of multilevel coaching on three elementary general education teachers’ implementation fidelity of culturally responsive social skill instruction and on three African American students’ classroom behaviors. After receiving initial professional development training on integrating culturally responsive social skill instruction into daily curriculum, the teacher participants received coaching supports based on their performance data. The researchers assessed teachers’ implementation fidelity using an evaluation rubric that addressed both lesson plan development and lesson plan implementation, and evaluated students’ behaviors through classroom observations using a single-case multiple probe across teacher– student dyads design. Results of the study showed that all teachers improved their implementation fidelity during the coaching condition. All students substantially reduced the levels of noncompliance with classroom rules after teachers received coaching supports.
... The early work from Joyce ad Showers (1980) conceptualized the coaching support as a vital component to enable teachers to convert the theoretical knowledge and skills to functioning instructional applications in the classroom, which helped lay out the foundation of teacher coaching theory and practices (Joyce & Showers, 2002). The existing teacher coaching literature centered on the various theories of action with different coaching models and implementation (Cornett & Knight, 2009;Schachter, 2015;Stormont et al.,2015). Nonetheless, the studies' emphases pertained directly to the two major constituents, the soft and hard skills of the coaches to perform their job effectively. ...
Article
Facing the rapidly changing 21st-century education, educational organizations strive for innovative ideas to continuously motivate their teachers to enhance student performance. iLead is a district’s pioneering attempt to incorporate transformational leadership's essential elements, the four I’s, Inspirational Motivation, Idealized Influence, Intellectual Stimulation, and Individualized Consideration, into its program design and implementation to develop a collaborative learning culture through teacher motivation and the focus on improving student achievement. The iLead program has drawn statewide attention by winning the 2020 California Golden Bell Awards recently. The annual awards promote excellence in education and recognize prominent California schools’ and districts’ programs and exemplary practices which respond to the evolving needs to improve student learning. The purpose of the dissertation research is to explore the iLead teachers’ experiences and identify their successes and challenges in becoming transformational leaders to support teaching and learning in 21st-century classrooms. It is an evaluation study using grounded theory methods. The grounded theory approach was utilized in the qualitative study to investigate the interview transcripts of iLead teachers and coaches provided by the district officials. The data analysis indicated the emergence of the four major themes: the impetus of needs, the empowerment of collective autonomy and serendipity, the invincible coaching support, and the focus of progressive learning in the making of 21st-century leaders. An impetus leadership model grounded on the above four themes was emanated through the iLead teachers’ experiences. The VI findings imply successes in continuity and sustainability by adopting a systemic organizational approach based on the four I’s with a meaningful achievement accountability emphasis on progressive learning instead of the achievement outcomes to overcome the challenges in the incessantly accelerating 21st-century education.
... Later, during implementation of the approach in their classrooms, teachers receive expert support and feedback. Coaching is an important component of PD as it refers to support provided by an expert to a learner on a targeted approach and is linked to positive change in instructional implementation (Neuman & Cunningham, 2009;Reinke, Stormont, Herman, & Newcomer, 2014) and to teachers' self-efficacy and satisfaction (Cornett & Knight, 2009). Regarding PD on writing, several strides have been made (see the works of Festas et al., 2015;Harris, Graham, & Atkins, 2015;Harris et al., 2012;McKeown et al., 2016). ...
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The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of a distant-professional development model that supported the implementation of genre-based strategy instruction for procedural writing on second grade teachers’ fidelity of implementation and students’ writing quality. Participants were 84 s graders and four teachers who were randomly assigned to condition. Teachers completed an online workshop module prior to instruction, a survey on their instruction and confidence to teach writing, received coaching feedback during implementation, and were interviewed at pretest and posttest. Students wrote in response to two procedural topics at pretest and posttest, at maintenance, completed transfer tasks in science and in persuasion, were interviewed at posttest, completed a confidence scale, and standardized measures. Results showed that treatment teachers positively evaluated the PD and its components, taught with high fidelity, and positively commented on the instructional approach. Treatment students wrote papers of better quality at posttest and maintenance tasks, while there were no statistically significant differences at the transfer tasks, on students’ confidence, and on standardized measures. Implications for professional development, practice, and research are further discussed.
... While there are variations of coaching throughout education, the coaching model utilised throughout this manuscript most resembles instructional coaching (Desimone & Pak, 2017;Knight, 2008). This work can exist as a singular support or as a component of a multi-faceted or comprehensive induction programme (Cornett & Knight, 2009), and the focus is on personal, professional, and pedagogical support for the novice teacher (Kemmis et al., 2014;Kennedy, 2016). Coaching has been shown to encourage teacher organisational commitment (Hong & Matsko, 2019); political, evaluative, and instructional growth within school systems (Woulfin & Rigby, 2017); pedagogical development (Kardos & Johnson, 2007;Rockoff, 2008); and student achievement (Fletcher et al., 2008;Kraft et al., 2018). ...
Article
This mixed methods study investigates novice teacher and coach survey responses from a two-year induction programme to learn more about what makes a good match. We qualitatively analyse comments from all novice teachers and coaches who were paired across years and find shared themes of structural, professional, and personality similarities as well as the importance of coaching support prominent throughout novice teacher responses. We also use logistic regression to indicate that novice teachers’ ratings of coaching skills and coaches’ beliefs about the induction programme fitting within vertical professional development were positive and significant predictors of perceptions of being well matched. Findings have implications for induction programmes on how to match their coaches with novice teachers to enhance teacher development.
... These characteristics make instructional coaching vital for PD (Eastman, 2019), strengthening the impact of traditional, bounded, pull-out models (Snow et al., 2006). Studies show that it has overall positive effects (Cornett and Knight, 2009), improving teaching in a sustained way (Giamellaro and Siegel, 2018;Reinke et al., 2014), enhancing teacher self-efficacy (Tschannen-Moran and McMaster, 2009), and increasing student learning (Biancarosa et al., 2010;Piper and Zuilkowski, 2015). ...
Article
Purpose The study aimed to understand the effect of instructional coaching on teachers' implementation of a science teaching improvement programme and whether it varies in schools of different socioeconomic statuses. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted an experimental study. A total of 59 seventh-grade classrooms from a representative sample of public schools from the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, were provided with research-based science educative curriculum materials (ECM) as resources to improve their teaching. A randomly selected treatment group received additional instructional coaching. Coaches met one-on-one with teachers on a weekly basis, providing pedagogical support to enact the ECM. After a 12-week intervention, the authors analyzed science teaching practices as evidenced in students' notebooks. The authors used a fidelity framework to understand the programme's implementation (with and without coaching), considering its adherence, dosage and quality, and compared how it varied across schools. Findings While teachers in both groups used the ECM in their science lessons (i.e. with high adherence), instructional coaching almost tripled science teaching time (i.e. the dosage) but did not increase the quality of implementation (i.e. the percentage of inquiry-based science activities taught). In low socioeconomic status schools, the effect of coaching on dosage was even more intense. Originality/value This study provides robust evidence on the impact of instructional coaching on teaching improvement programmes in science in developing countries, an under researched topic. The findings may contribute to developing targeted coaching interventions considering their effectiveness in different school contexts.
... Coaches refrain from sharing their own experiences and giving advice, which is common in mentoring relationships. Although there are many models (Cornett & Knight, 2009), coaching is considered learner-centered, non-directive, non-evaluative, and empowering (Wilson, 2016). ...
Article
In the U.S., general education content teachers remain largely ill prepared to multilingual students. This longitudinal case study explores pedagogical coaching as a reframing process for an elementary content teacher in becoming an effective teacher of multilingual speakers. While educational mentoring focuses on induction to new roles with a master teacher-novice dynamic, coaching focuses on the development of knowledge and practice through a range of possible relational dynamics. By design, pedagogical coaching in this study is grounded in critical sociocultural practices to frame both coach-teacher and teacher-student interactions as mirrored processes. Coaching, teaching, and learning processes are viewed as relational, dialogic, dynamic, moral, reflective, democratic, reciprocally humanizing, and situated in socio-cultural, -historical, and -political understandings. Data include six videotaped cycles of coaching and teaching and an exit interview across a single school year. Findings describe the teacher and her students developing new understandings of self, the interactional space between them, and what learning itself means, revealing the critical sociocultural processes to be transformative rather than merely additive. The teacher comes to embody learning as social, teaching as assisting, and disciplinary knowledge as being mediated dialogically in collaboration with students. The coach, teacher, and students alike develop new ways of thinking and behaving. Implications for mirroring coaching and teaching practices upon critical sociocultural perspectives are explored as a means of coherently linking theory, practice, and research in educator professional learning.
... While large sums of resources have been devoted to PD, broad coverage has not translated into more effective teaching practices or improved student learning outcomes (Center for Public Education 2014). For teachers, Cornett and Knight (2009) found that PD participation rarely translates into classroom implementation. Studies also observe that low satisfaction towards PD is prevalent among teachers, with more than 40% of surveyed teachers, indicating that the PD they receive is not useful and does not address teaching needs (Darling-Hammond et al. 2009;Bill-Melinda Gates Foundation 2014). ...
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Professional Development (PD) is regarded a critical channel through which teacher instructional effectiveness improves. However, research shows that teacher discontent with PD is widespread. Bridging literature in organisational decision and labour economics, this study theorises that variation in how schools collect, process and respond to information on teacher needs can influence the degree of information friction in PD provision. Applying a two-step empirical analysis to the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2013 and 2018 United States sample (n = 4,336), findings reveal that teachers demonstrate high levels of concentrated PD need, yet schools do not meet these reported needs. Regression analysis results show that those schools demonstrating higher degrees of plurality in leadership and school autonomy are more effective in addressing teacher needs, while the effect of principal-staff interaction is more complex. Findings contribute new evidence on information friction in teacher PD provision and identify effective management means in addressing information problems in school settings.
... Many scholars distinguish between the practices of teacher mentoring and coaching (Cornett & Knight, 2008;Hopkins-Thompson, 2000;Kraft & Blazar, 2017). However, the two terms remain intertwined and are often used interchangeably in literature, especially by survey instruments such as the one used by the present study. ...
Article
To understand how preservice teacher preparation and in-service support structures impact the retention of novice teachers, a structural equation model utilizing a large-scale, nationally representative sample was proposed and tested. The model revealed a chain of significant directional relationships between preservice structures and feelings of preparedness and between in-service support structures and feelings of being supported. These feelings were shown to significantly lower teacher feelings of being burned out which then significantly impacted teacher retention. Knowledge about how aspects of teacher preparation and support structures impact retention decisions can help stakeholders make better informed choices regarding what they offer their teachers.
Chapter
The teacher coaching programme is the current millinery positive move in teacher learning. It provides assistance that teachers need to execute new researched-proven methodologies and techniques. Theories are significant in defining and clarifying a phenomenon. Thus, the purpose of this article is to suggest a theoretical framework for researching the teacher coaching programme. It discusses two theories that set the base for teacher coaching as professional growth, namely the Sociocultural Learning Theory and Partnership Approach. The theoretical framework presented in this article provides the lens for interpreting the observation, study, or analysis of teacher coaching programme administered by the School Improvement Specialist Coaches Plus (SISC+) in Malaysia.
Article
One major implication of the Next Generation Science Standards is the need to integrate inquiry and practice and incorporate engineering into science education. To support teachers’ change efforts in a time of heightened science, technology, engineering, and mathematics standards for all students, effective professional development (PD) is critical. However, rural schools face significant challenges in accessing PD. Distance-based instructional coaching (DBIC) has emerged as a potential solution for implementing highly interactive, sustainable models of teacher support in rural areas. The present study was conducted within a larger study that examined the efficacy of a summer PD with follow-up DBIC on rural teachers’ knowledge, self-efficacy, and classroom practice of a guided science inquiry instructional approach. This study drew on empirical data using an in-depth analysis of a single case with a rural middle school science teacher, “Kara,” whose unique teaching schedule allowed for an examination of changes in her science inquiry instructional practice. In the present study, Vygotsky space provided insight into the process of the teacher’s learning as appropriation, transformation, and publication through the events observed. Showing the impact of DBIC on teacher PD and for facilitating improved student outcomes, this study has potential implications for educational policy, pedagogical practice, and meeting nationwide educational standards. In addition, DBIC maintains the integrity of the coaching model while simultaneously enhancing the feasibility of coaching for rural or remote educational systems and schools.
Article
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Background: The Centers for Disease Control (2018) estimates that 1 in 59 children has autism spectrum disorder, and the annual cost of ASD in the U.S. is estimated to be $236 billion. Evidence-based interventions have been developed and demonstrate effectiveness in improving child outcomes. However, research on generalizable methods to scale up these practices in the multiple service systems caring for these children has been limited and is critical to meet this growing public health need. This project includes two, coordinated studies testing the effectiveness of the Translating Evidence-based Interventions (EBI) for ASD: Multi-Level Implementation Strategy (TEAMS) model. TEAMS focuses on improving implementation leadership, organizational climate, and provider attitudes and motivation in order to improve two key implementation outcomes-provider training completion and intervention fidelity and subsequent child outcomes. The TEAMS Leadership Institute applies implementation leadership strategies and TEAMS Individualized Provider Strategies for training applies motivational interviewing strategies to facilitate provider and organizational behavior change. Methods: A cluster randomized implementation/effectiveness Hybrid, type 3, trial with a dismantling design will be used to understand the effectiveness of TEAMS and the mechanisms of change across settings and participants. Study #1 will test the TEAMS model with AIM HI (An Individualized Mental Health Intervention for ASD) in publicly funded mental health services. Study #2 will test TEAMS with CPRT (Classroom Pivotal Response Teaching) in education settings. Thirty-seven mental health programs and 37 school districts will be randomized, stratified by county and study, to one of four groups (Standard Provider Training Only, Standard Provider Training + Leader Training, Enhanced Provider Training, Enhanced Provider Training + Leader Training) to test the effectiveness of combining standard, EBI-specific training with the two TEAMS modules individually and together on multiple implementation outcomes. Implementation outcomes including provider training completion, fidelity (coded by observers blind to group assignment) and child behavior change will be examined for 295 mental health providers, 295 teachers, and 590 children. Discussion: This implementation intervention has the potential to increase quality of care for ASD in publicly funded settings by improving effectiveness of intervention implementation. The process and modules will be generalizable to multiple service systems, providers, and interventions, providing broad impact in community services. Trial registration: This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT03380078 ). Registered 20 December 2017, retrospectively registered.
Article
This study describes and analyzes a field experience that has provided advanced literacy specialist candidates the context for advancing their understanding of professional leadership through the lens of a literacy coach. The field experience described was born out of the ongoing work of teacher educators at a small, independent, liberal arts university and a collaborative effort between the university and a neighboring urban school district. First, we situate our conceptual and pedagogical understandings of literacy coaching in a body of theoretical work on which we have relied to craft the field experience. Then, we analyze the impact of the field experience through the lens of the literacy coaches. Finally, we discuss implications these findings have for our advanced literacy specialist program.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine school-embedded instructional coaching as a social activity situated within a new initiative. The coaches were in their first year of implementing new standards and curriculum policy in a large urban school district in the USA. Design/methodology/approach Using activity theory as a conceptual framework, this study was a qualitative inquiry into the experiences of 20 school-embedded coaches. Data were drawn from multiple interviews over the course of a year, with a total of 49 interviews and an end-of-year questionnaire from all participants. Findings The study found that within the initial year, coaches had to negotiate a variety of relationships that included the overall school context, teachers, principals and their own responsibilities. While negotiating these relationships, coaches utilized a variety of strategies to accomplish their goals. Research limitations/implications All data are self-reported, and there is a limited sample size (n=20). While the sample size may limit generalizability, all coaches in the initiative were participants in the study. By including all coaches, this study had a more complete picture of coaching during its initial year. Practical implications This study offers some suggestions that help inform the professional development of coaches. Originality/value The present study expands upon the literature by exploring the broader relationships of coaching to other stakeholders. Rather than focusing specifically on the approaches or styles of coaching, this paper focuses on the work of coaches as a social endeavor. It resituates the role of coaches within their context and reframes our understanding of the nature of coach work.
Chapter
This chapter begins with an explanation of coaching and a brief overview of the benefits of coaching. Next, the characteristics of adult learners are described through adult learning theories and principles that provide the foundation for successful coaching. Evidence-based components from research of coaching are presented with practical strategies for implementation. For example, activities such as building rapport, developing and monitoring goals, conducting observations through video, and providing reflective feedback are presented. Additionally, real-world scenarios from the field for both pre-service and practicing teachers are included. The goal is to equip teacher educators with the knowledge and skills necessary to implement aspects of coaching into any class or PD to increase teacher success and student learning.
Article
This mixed-methods study explores the experiences and influence of induction on novice teachers. The authors quantitatively analyze survey data from over two thousand novice teachers and a thousand of their coaches through statistical comparisons and multiple linear regression analyses to explore whether structures of induction are associated with how teachers learn and develop in their pedagogy. Qualitative analyses of respondents’ open-ended responses guided by word cluster formations indicate a positive feeling about this induction program but revealed differing areas of focus between novice teachers and their coaches. Results indicate the importance of coaches, curriculum, and the learning management system in creating positive induction experiences. Findings from this study have implications for the influence and structural design of induction programs for novice teacher development.
Chapter
With the appropriate support and experience, iPads and other mobile devices can be used for collaborative scientific inquiry moving beyond individual skill practice and assessment appropriations. The mobility and access the iPad provides opens up the classroom for innovative instructional practices, allowing students to physically explore their world, though the devices themselves are not enough to guarantee student engagement and learning. The Gradual Increase of Responsibility (GIR) model for teacher coaching (Collet, 2008) is used as the instructional coaching model of professional development. Through GIR, coaches model, make recommendations, ask probing questions, and affirm teachers' decisions over the course of several months to increase the teacher's independence in using technology to transform instruction for students. This study aims to examine how middle grades teachers' integration of one-to-one technology moves beyond drill and practice and using apps as extension activities.
Conference Paper
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Abstrak Kajian ini bertujuan mengetengahkan pendekatan kejurulatihan teradun dalam meningkatkan pembangunan kapasiti guru dibimbing oleh SISC+. Pendekatan coaching yang dimaksudkan ialah gabungan kejurulatihan fasilitatif (facilitative coaching),kejurulatihan arahan (directive coaching) dan kejurulatihan dialog (dialogue coaching). Kajian ini dibuat secara kajian kes melibatkan seorang guru. Subjek kajian adalah guru yang mengajar Bahasa Melayu yang dibimbing dari tahun 2018 hingga awal 2019. Pendekatan kejurulatihan teradun didapati telah berjaya meningkatkan pencapaian subjek kajian dalam empat kitaran bimbingan. Data dikumpul menggunakan Instrumen Matriks Bimbingan Guru (TCT) yang digunakan oleh SISC+ sebagai dokumen standard untuk membimbing guru. Dapatan kajian mendapati guru dibimbing telah berjaya meningkatkan kemahiran PdPc di dalam kelas dengan memperoleh skor tiga hingga empat dalam penulisan objektif pembelajaran, pengajaran berasaskan aktiviti, pengetahuan pedagogi kandungan dan aspek kesimpulan PdPc.Para pengkaji seterusnya disarankan membuat kajian tentang keberkesanan amalan kejurulatihan SISC+ dengan jumlah populasi dan sampel yang lebih ramai agar dapat merungkai pelbagai masalah dan isu yang timbul dalam bidang kejurulatihan. Kata kunci : Guru dibimbing (GDB), School Improvement Specialist Coaches+(SISC+), Pembelajaran dan Pemudahcaraan (PdPc) Instrumen Matriks Bimbingan Guru(TCT)
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop representations for teacher coaching sessions that are (1) useful for communicating the session to other coaches or researchers and (2) capture the roles of the coach as convener of dialogue for teacher development as well as facilitator of design for learning. Design/methodology/approach Two coaching sessions with preservice science teachers are analysed using two forms of discourse analysis: (1) the T-SEDA coding scheme (Vrikki et al. , 2019) to analyse the dialogic interaction; and (2) a novel coding scheme to show the development of the design for learning over time. A synthetic representation is developed that combines and communicates the results of both analyses. Findings Results show a novel way of representing coaching sessions with teachers during design for learning. Theoretical claims about the utility of this representation are made with reference to the literature. Practical implications The representations and methods for developing them are useful to researchers in analysing coaching sessions. They have application for helping coaches to communicate their practice with one another. They are a step towards understanding the scalability and transferability of coaching programmes for school improvement. Originality/value The paper highlights shortcomings of existing representations for teacher coaching sessions and produces a novel representation that has value for researchers.
Article
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Echinometra lucunteris relatively abundant in the Venezuelan coasts; however, there are not enough details about his diet. The stomach contents, the Levins index (Ba) and the physiological condition (Kn) of E.lucunter were evaluated in July 2014 and May 2016, on the beaches of Adícora and El Supí, Península de Paraguaná, Falcón state. Twenty fourfood items were identified distributed among: CHLOROPHYTA (9), CYANOBACTERIA (5), ARTHROPODA (4), HETEROKONTOPHYTA (3), OCHOROPHYTA, TRACHEOPHYTA (1) and RIZOPHODA (1). The most abundant items were Cladophora sp. (39.55%), Lyngbya sp. (14.65%), Thalassia sp. (10.52%) and PERACARIDA (10.39%). The Levins index (Ba) was 0.13 for Adícora and 0.16 for El Supí. Kn (mean = 1.00 ± 0.06 EE) suggests a good physiological condition for both populations. 80% of the ingested food is of vegetable origin, mainly filamentous microalgae, however, it also consumes invertebrates, suggesting that it behaves like an facultative omnivore.
Article
Program surveys of over 2,000 novice teachers and 1,000 of their reflective coaches are analyzed to explore the impact of induction, generally, and coaching, specifically, on two program outcomes. Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling, we find that certain induction structures, aspects of coaching activities, and teacher-coach match characteristics can have an impact on professional learning and teacher pedagogical success. Findings have implications for induction program design and the impact teacher coaching can have in professional development.
Article
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The pedagogical beliefs of novice teachers and their coaches throughout a two-year induction program and how those beliefs impact their induction experiences were explored. Mixed methods were used to explore survey responses from novice teachers and their supporting coaches. We used t-tests to identify differences in specific beliefs within groups over time and across groups, and multiple linear regressions to identify how respondent beliefs about different aspects of induction predict novice teachers’ program outcomes. We also qualitatively analyzed comments to learn how Candidates and Coaches viewed their induction experience differently. The study identified differences in how novice teachers and their coaches process induction and, more importantly, the need for greater connection across novice teacher learning environments. That is, there needs to be more-coordinated efforts to create vertical professional development for novice teachers. Findings have implications for induction design and structures to help to promote novice teacher development.
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The instructional coaching program is established in the global education domain to facilitate teachers from the viewpoints of the curriculum, pedagogical and the practical. In every district of Malaysia, the instructional coaching program grants help to teachers through their coaches since 2012. In curriculum perspectives, the purposes of the Instructional Coaches (ICs) are promoted by knowledge and skills as being reported by the District Transformation Programme 3.0 (DTP 3.0). Accordingly, this research intended to recognise ICs' level of competencies in curriculum aspects in Malaysia. In this investigation, a mixed-method explanatory sequential design was employed. Besides, before being analysed utilising SPSS version 23, the data were consolidated from 118 ICs throughout the nation in the form of questionnaires. Next, after manually analysed the meticulous interview, the output was adopted as the qualitative data. In the research, descriptive statistics including frequency, mean score, standard deviation and percentage were utilised. With a mean score of 4.23, sd =0.561 and by extensive interview, the research confirmed that ICs was proficient in the curriculum. Thus, it confirmed that the ICs' competency level in curriculum awareness was at a high standard. Also, it suggested that in the curriculum regards of the subject being taught, ICs was accountable and expert. The conclusions of this research afford comprehension into ICs' capacity to coach teachers in school and their system of quality teaching and learning (T&L). Furthermore, the teachers' process to communicate and establish their struggles were determined by the school and social climate. Consequently, in an attempt to reach its purposes of assisting teachers, the instructional coaching program must be sufficiently appreciated and acknowledged by authorities of schools and education. Besides, in order to intensify what the coaches are trying to accomplish, environmental areas and possibilities for collaboration, certainly perform a vital position. In Malaysia's context, this research's authenticity is being highlighted as it is the pioneer study to examine the coaches' competencies and experiences of who are actively engaging in the instructional coaching program for teachers. Accordingly, the authority must present assistance and collaboration to guarantee that ICs remains to be skillful in rendering quality coaching to teachers.
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Published self-determination programs do not adequately address the needs of autistic adults. We designed a multi-component self-determination program, grounded in the neurodiversity paradigm, to help autistic adults achieve goals to improve their quality of life. The first phase involved 5 days of psychoeducation, practice, and social events; the second phase included 3 months of telecoaching; and the third phase included follow-up. Thirty-four university students coached 31 autistic adults on three evolving goals. On average, participants completed one goal per week. Most participants were satisfied with the program. We found that the program was appropriate, acceptable, and feasible. This program is a promising approach to helping autistic adults gain self-determination skills and improve their quality of life.
Chapter
Mentoring and coaching strategies are among those used to increase knowledge, skills and professionalism among English language teachers (ELTs). Both are concerned with the induction of teachers into the profession, providing broad career guidance and support (mentoring), and targeted support to help the development of new knowledge or skills (coaching). Mentoring usually involves a relationship built over time between an experienced and a novice teacher while coaching tends to be more specific and short term. Both strategies must be seen as relational in nature, reliant upon interpersonal skills, including the establishment of rapport, trust and reciprocity. This chapter identifies key dispositions and actions required for effective mentoring and coaching and discusses how they are impacted by complex and idiosyncratic interactions of intra- and interpersonal, professional, and systemic factors that operate within school cultures and the differing cultural and sociopolitical systems in the global education context.
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Teacher coaching has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional models of professional development. We review the empirical literature on teacher coaching and conduct meta-analyses to estimate the mean effect of coaching programs on teachers’ instructional practice and students’ academic achievement. Combining results across 60 studies that employ causal research designs, we find pooled effect sizes of 0.49 standard deviations (SD) on instruction and 0.18 SD on achievement. Much of this evidence comes from literacy coaching programs for prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in the United States. Although these findings affirm the potential of coaching as a development tool, further analyses illustrate the challenges of taking coaching programs to scale while maintaining effectiveness. Average effects from effectiveness trials of larger programs are only a fraction of the effects found in efficacy trials of smaller programs. We conclude by discussing ways to address scale-up implementation challenges and providing guidance for future causal studies.
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The Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania was contracted by the National Center on Education and the Economy (NCEE) in 1998 to conduct the external evaluation of the America’s Choice school design. CPRE designed and conducted a series of targeted studies on the implementation and impacts of the America’s Choice design. This report coincides with the publication of three separate studies by CPRE on the impact of America’s Choice in a number of districts across the country using a variety of quantitative and analytic approaches. Those impact analyses and a stand-alone piece on classroom observations conducted in Cohort 4 schools can be viewed as separate pieces or as complements to the information presented in this report. Another recent CPRE publication from fall 2001 is a widely distributed report entitled, Instructional Leadership in a Standards-based Reform, a companion piece to both the impact reports and this report.
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The role of the reading specialist in schools where many students struggle with reading is changing. This article discusses the evolution of the reading specialist's role to that of reading coach and research on how reading coaches meet an important need in teachers' professional development.
Article
The literature on teacher training seems to indicate that mastery of teaching skills can be accomplished through the use of a combination of three training elements: the study of the theory underlying the skill, the opportunity to observe multiple demonstrations, and practice and feedback either under simulated conditions or in the classroom. However, transfer of the skills thus acquired into the teacher's active repertoire appears to involve new learning which requires the addition of a further important step in the training sequence: on-site coaching. The thesis is presented that transfer involves substantial new learning beyond the acquisition of the skills themselves, explaining the difficulty of curriculum implementation and the relatively low impact of most inservice education as presently conducted. A proposal extrapolated from the literature on transfer is presented for consideration as a model for inservice training.
Article
We examined the structure and meaning of efficacy for a sample of 182 prospective teachers and related efficacy to beliefs about control and motivation. The two independent dimensions of teaching efficacy (TE) and personal efficacy (PE) usually identified in studies of experienced teachers were also found for these prospective teachers. Both TE and PE were significantly correlated with bureaucratic orientation, but in opposite directions. Neither TE nor PE was related to motivational style; only TE was related to pupil control ideology. Canonical correlations, however, revealed more complex relationships. Personal efficacy was positively related to a control orientation that rejects teacher control of students but accepts the schools' control of teachers. The interaction of TE and PE made unique contributions to the prediction of pupil control ideology and bureaucratic orientation.
Article
We investigated the influence of teacher efficacy and student problem type on teachers' placement and referral decisions. Regular and special educators (N= 192) were randomly assigned a case study describing a student having a learning and/or behavior problem and asked to judge (a) whether the student was appropriately placed in regular education and (b) whether they would refer this student to special education. Analysis of an efficacy scale yielded two factors: personal efficacy and teaching efficacy. Results indicated that regular and special educators were most likely to agree with regular class placement when they were high in both dimensions of efficacy. Regular educators higher in personal efficacy were more likely to agree with regular education placement than those with lower personal efficacy. In addition, students with combined learning and behavior problems were found to be the most susceptible to referral. This study suggests that teachers' sense of efficacy underlies their placement decisions.
Article
The Gibson and Dembo Teacher Efficacy Scale was modified for use in the special education resource-room context. A factor analysis of the modified instrument resulted in a factor structure comparable to one based on regular-education teachers, as reported in prior research. The relation between instructional supervision and teacher efficacy among these teachers was also examined. With sex, age, resource-room tenure, and job satisfaction held constant, the perceived utility—but not frequency—of supervision was significantly related to teacher efficacy. The implications of these findings for both research and practice in the special education context are considered.
Article
This report describes an effort to develop an instrument to assess teacher efficacy for enhancing student social relations (TES). In addition, the psychometric properties of the teacher efficacy scale produced by Gibson and Dembo were examined after translation to Hebrew and administration to 218 Israeli teachers. Results indicated that the TES subscale is independent of the two original subscales and demonstrates good internal and test-retest reliability. Also, the factorial structure of the original teacher efficacy scale was replicated with the Israeli sample, and reliability levels were generally adequate. Some problems with one of the original subscales are noted.
Article
This study examined the structure of a construct generally labeled teacher efficacy. A sample of 342 prospective and experienced teachers was administered an efficacy questionnaire adapted from the research of Gibson and Dembo (1984). Factor analytic procedures with varimax rotation were used to generate a two-factor solution that accounted for 32 % of the variance in scale scores. Contrary to previous research, these factors corresponded not to a personal versus teaching efficacy distinction, but instead to a simpler internal versus external distinction, similar to locus-of-control measures of causal attribution. Implications of these findings for past and future research involving this construct are discussed.
Article
Examines the personal empowerment and efficacy of teachers, and relates these constructs to environmental characteristics in order to provide information for principals to assist teachers in personal growth. Presents multiple regressions for the Vincenz empowerment scale with The School Culture Survey, teacher efficacy scale, learner-centered battery, paragraph vompletion method, as well as for satisfaction and age-related variables. Multiple Rs were low to moderate for all variables except for the paragraph completion method, which were nonsignificant. Significant predictors of personal empowerment were administrator professional treatment of teachers, reflective self-awareness, honoring of student voice, personal teaching efficacy, and satisfaction with teaching as a career. Presents strategies for principals to use in helping teachers increase in empowerment.
Article
Research has shown that with thorough training, most teachers can acquire new skills and strategies to add to their instructional repertoires. However, the literature also identifies a frequent failure to transfer new knowledge to classroom practice among trainees. Building on previous research, the study reported here investigated the effects of peer coaching on the classroom application of new teaching techniques. A mixed design of group and subject comparisons was employed, sampling 21 teachers and 6 peer coaches in two school districts; student data were obtained from one class for each of the participating trainees. Data were gathered from observations, tests, teacher plans, and interviews. Major findings are as follows: (1) Peer coaches can be trained in a relatively brief period to provide follow-up training to other teachers. For peer coaches, continuing access to training and continuing work on content training are important factors. (2) Peer coaching increased the transfer of training rate for coached teachers compared to uncoached teachers. (3) Students of coached teachers performed better on a concept attainment measure than did students of uncoached teachers. Because the integration of strategies with curriculum is still the most difficult element of transfer, training should focus on "thinking" with new models. Design and implementation of effective training systems require determined leadership by administrators. A 38-page training manual, which includes a definition of coaching and examples of problems, is appended. A 36-item reference list is provided. (CJH)
Article
Basic questions about the evaluation of professional development efforts are explored, including the nature and purposes of evaluation, the critical levels of professional development evaluation, and the difference between evidence and proof in evaluation. Evaluation, which is defined as the systematic investigation of merit or worth, can be characterized as planning, formative, or summative evaluation. All three types of evaluation involve the collection and analysis of data. In evaluating professional development, there are five critical levels of information to consider. These are: (1) participants' reactions; (2) participants' learning; (3) organization support and change; (4) participants' use of new knowledge and skills; and (5) student learning outcomes. In the real-world setting of professional development evaluation, it is nearly impossible to obtain proof of the impact of the effort, but it is possible to obtain good evidence. A list of guidelines is included to help improve the quality of professional development evaluations. (Contains 1 figure and 25 references.) (SLD)
Article
Beginning with the observation that educators are faced with rising public expectations, declining resources, and increased public criticism, this paper describes a six-fold model for determining how staff development is operating and how it can be made to operate more effectively, in a self-renewing manner. The six dimensions consist of the following: (1) orientations (services embedded within the school, services to schools focused on curriculum and instruction, services to schools for organizational development, services to individuals for inservice development, or services to individuals for role preparation); (2) school environments (energized, maintenance-oriented, or depressed); (3) initiatives (school-based, agency creating, special populations, curriculum improvement); (4) leadership (the principal as manager, harmonizer, or motivator); (5) growth states of teachers ("omnivores," active consumers, passive consumers, retrenched, or withdrawn); and (6) training (levels of training, objectives). Five levels of training (presentation of theoretical base, modeling, practice in controlled situations, feedback, and coaching) and three objectives (conceptual control, skill, and use or transfer) are identified. Two tables are included: one provides strategies for strengthening the educational leadership of principals and the other lists 10 practical questions for self-assessment of schools. (TE)
Article
This report presents preliminary findings from the Reading First Impact Study, a congressionally mandated evaluation of the federal government initiative to help all children read at or above grade level by the end of third grade. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) established Reading First and mandated its evaluation. This document is the first of two reports: it examines the impact of Reading First funding in 2004-05 and 2005-06 in 18 sites across 12 states. The report examines program impacts on students' reading comprehension and teachers' use of scientifically based reading instruction. Key findings are that: (1) On average, estimated impacts on student reading comprehension test scores were not statistically significant; (2) On average, Reading First increased instructional time spent on the five essential components of reading instruction promoted by the program (phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension); (3) Average impacts on reading comprehension and classroom instruction did not change systematically over time as sites gained experience with Reading First; and (4) Study sites that received their Reading First grants later in the federal funding process experienced positive and statistically significant impacts both on the time first and second grade teachers spent on the five essential components of reading instruction and on first and second grade reading comprehension, in contrast to study sites that received their Reading First grants earlier in the federal funding process, where there were no statistically significant impacts on either time spent on the five components of reading instruction or on reading comprehension scores at any grade level. The final report is due in early 2009, and will provide an additional year of follow-up data, and will examine whether the magnitude of impacts on the use of scientifically based reading instruction is associated with improvements in reading comprehension. Eight appendixes are included: (1) State and Site Award Data; (2) Methods; (3) Measures; (4) Additional Exhibits for Main Impact Analyses; (5) Confidence Intervals for Main Impact Estimates; (6) Graphs of Site-By-Site Impact Estimates; (7) Additional Exhibits for Subgroup Analyses; and (8) Alternative Moderators of Reading First Impacts. (Contains 55 footnotes and 106 exhibits.) [This report was produced by the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. For the Executive Summary of this report, see ED501219.]
Article
This study evaluated differences between persisters and nonpersisters in a 3-year teacher development program. Participants were K-12 teachers from a large school district with both urban and suburban schools. They were part of a grant to help teachers implement state content standards through cognitive coaching, nonverbal classroom management, and monthly dialogue groups. Teachers participated in either treatment or control groups, completing evaluations just before the training began in November 1994 and 10 months after the initial training in September 1995. The assessment measured personal empowerment, teacher efficacy, learner-centered beliefs, conceptual level as psychosocial variables, and school culture. It also examined satisfaction with teaching, satisfaction with current teaching position, and enthusiasm for teaching. Of the 230 treatment group participants, 61.7 percent persisted to project completion. Of the 195 comparison group teachers, 83.1 percent persisted to the final data collection. Few effects were found for personological, background, or school climate variables, with gender and school socioeconomic status being the exceptions. The primary source of differences between persisters and dropouts was in response to the treatment. Participants engaging more actively in the project were more likely to persist. Persistence was also a function of support of the school principal. (Contains 30 references and 10 tables.)
Article
Teachers, like athletes, are more likely to adopt new ways of doing their jobs if they are coached, and they are also likely to get worse before they get better. This article describes the coaching of teachers and includes an interview with a football coach to illustrate parallels with athletics. (PGD)
Article
Teachers in this study participated in a 3-year grant funded by the U.S. Department of Education Fund for Innovation in Education. The purpose of the grant was to provide teachers with support in implementing standards-based education. Both treatment and control groups of teachers received instruction in implementing standards-based education from the school district. Teachers in the treatment group also received training in cognitive coaching and coached each other monthly as they implemented the standards. In addition, they received training in nonverbal classroom management, which is a set of nonverbal techniques designed to help teachers decrease the time spent managing in order to increase time spent helping students achieve the standards. Thirty-six coaches received training to provide teachers with feedback on their classroom management skills. Finally, teachers in the project met in monthly dialogue groups across grade levels with teachers from other schools to discuss their implementation of standards. Teachers in the treatment group compared to teachers in the control group increased significantly in teaching efficacy and attitudes toward school culture. Based on these findings, this model appears to have promise for increasing teacher professionalism and efficacy and helping teachers to implement innovations. (Contains 89 references and 14 tables.) (Author/SM)
Article
This study examined the relationship between training in Cognitive Coaching and a number of qualitative and quantitative components of teacher cognition and behavior hypothesized to be positively impacted by such training. Cognitive Coaching involves a planning conference between coach and teacher, classroom observation, and a reflecting conference. The research was conducted in the context of a quasi-experimental post-test only design with 143 participants in 2 groups, one of which received training one year earlier than the other group. The control group received no training. Results were measured by the Teacher Efficacy Scale and The Vincenz Empowerment Scale (subscales are potency, independence, relatedness, motivation, values, and joy of life). Participants in the experimental group received training in 1991 or 1992. Those trained in 1991 tended to score higher on the empowerment scales than both the group trained in 1992 and the control group, and women tended to score higher than men. On the Efficacy Scale, 11 of 12 comparisons with the control group indicated higher efficacy scores for Cognitive Coaching trainees. Teachers trained in Cognitive Coaching were significantly more satisfied with teaching as a career than those not trained. Those who took Cognitive Coaching training expressed more positive feelings about all aspects of their experience as teachers than those who did not. (Contains 73 references.) (JB)
Article
Examined the factor structure of the Teacher Efficacy Scale developed by S. Gibson and M. H. Dembo (see record 1985-10856-001) and investigated correlations of this scale with the teaching behaviors of 435 student-teacher interns. The 2 resulting factors, Personal Teaching Efficacy (PTE) and Outcome Expectancy, accounted for about 18% of the variance in teaching behaviors. Among 87 additional interns, 3 significant correlations were observed between PTE and lesson presenting, questioning, and classroom management behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Developed an instrument to measure teacher efficacy and examined the relationship between teacher efficacy and observable teacher behaviors. Factor analysis of responses from 208 elementary school teachers to a 30-item Teacher Efficacy Scale yielded 2 substantial factors that corresponded to A. Bandura's (see record 1977-25733-001) 2-factor theoretical model of self-efficacy. A multitrait–multimethod analysis that supported both convergent and discriminant validity analyzed data from 55 teachers on 3 traits (teacher efficacy, verbal ability, and flexibility) across 2 methods of measurement. Finally, classroom observations related to academic focus and teacher feedback behaviors indicated differences between 8 high- and low-efficacy teachers in time spent in whole class and small group instruction, teacher use of criticism, and teacher persistence in failure situations. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We examined the structure and meaning of efficacy for a sample of 182 prospective teachers and related efficacy to beliefs about control and motivation. The two independent dimensions of teaching efficacy (TE) and personal efficacy (PE) usually identified in studies of experienced teachers were also found for these prospective teachers. Both TE and PE were significantly correlated with bureaucratic orientation, but in opposite directions. Neither TE nor PE was related to motivational style; only TE was related to pupil control ideology. Canonical correlations, however, revealed more complex relationships. Personal efficacy was positively related to a control orientation that rejects teacher control of students but accepts the schools' control of teachers. The interaction of TE and PE made unique contributions to the prediction of pupil control ideology and bureaucratic orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
University Microfilms order no. 9905461. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Kansas, 1998. Includes bibliographical references.
Article
Photocopy of original (typescript). Thesis (Ed. D.)--Loyola University of Chicago, 2003. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 146-153).
Article
Includes abstract. Thesis (Ed. D.)--Yeshiva University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 146-153).
Article
Thesis (M.S.)--California State University, Fullerton, 1997. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 124-128). Photocopy of typescript.
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