Article

Coral Reefs: Their Functions, Threats and Economic Value

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Abstract

Coral reef ecosystems provide many functions, services and goods to coastal populations, especially in the developing world. A variety of anthropogenic practices threatens reef health and therefore jeopardises the benefits flowing from these services and goods. These threats range from local pollution, sedimentation, destructive fishing practices and coral mining to global issues like coral bleaching. Economic valuation can help to shed light to the importance of the services and goods by 'getting some of the numbers on the table'. Valuation tech-niques are discussed and a summary of economic studies on coral reefs is presented. The concepts of Total Economic Value and Cost Benefit Analysis are used to illustrate the valuation of marine protected areas (national parks, etc.) and of threats.

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... This is despite the high ecological and societal values of organisms from this phylum, e.g., scleractinian corals (Birkeland 1997;Cesar 2000;Hoegh-Guldberg, Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2009), and the high sensitivity of many species to contaminants (e.g. Baker, Glynn et al. 2008;Fabricius 2005;Negri, Vollhardt et al. 2005;Reichelt-Brushett and Harrison 2005). Scleractinian corals create the three dimensional structures which provide habitat for a multitude of marine species, and are thus responsible for the exceptionally high productivity and biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems. ...
... Hence, mass coral mortality generates dramatic ecological changes (Schaffelke, Mellors et al. 2005). The unrivalled biodiversity of coral reef ecosystems holds enormous potential for pharmaceutical discoveries (Birkeland 1997) and biotechnical applications (Birkeland 1997;Khalesi 2008), and a major incentive for coral reef protection is their economic value (Binney 2010;Cesar 2000;Stoeckl, Hicks et al. 2011). ...
... The current global degradation of coral reef ecosystems is unprecedented in human history (e.g. Brodie, Waterhouse et al. 2013;Bryant, Burke et al. 1998;Cesar 2000;Donner and Potere 2007;Fitt, Brown et al. 2001;Hoegh-Guldberg, Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2009). ...
... This atomistic approach looks into all value components separately then combines them to obtain the Total Economic Value of the good or service in question. The TEV framework provided in Fig. 2 shows an application to coral reefs (Cesar, 2000), where values are firstly categorised into use and non-use values, and then distinguished further into Direct Use, Indirect Use and different components of non-use values. Under this approach, the TEV for the GBR would be the sum of direct extractive uses (e.g. ...
... The option value of The depiction of biodiversity is purely theoretical and not intending to provide an accurate representation of the entire biophysical structure or process. Cesar, 2000). biodiversity relates to its capacity to meet future demand for ES. ...
Article
The Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is a World-known, iconic environmental asset whose complex functioning is largely ascribed to its outstanding biodiversity, ranging from genes to plants, animals and entire ecosystems. Biodiversity has been key to its resilience over the past millennia. However, the combined effects of climate change, water quality degradation and coastal development are threatening the GBR’s resilience. There is a crucial need to better understand the value of biodiversity in that region to encourage sustainable policy-making. Different approaches have been suggested in the literature to value biodiversity. First, we review the use of a Total Economic Value framework to look into all dimensions of biodiversity values. Second, we describe an approach relying on ecosystem services. The suitability of these two approaches to value biodiversity in the GBR is assessed. Next, we review 23 finance mechanisms and discuss the possibility to use them to alleviate pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity in the GBR. We conclude by stressing the importance of biodiversity valuation in the GBR, highlight some of the remaining challenges and provide recommendations for future research avenues.
... These benefits include the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment's provisioning services (fishing and fishing-related activities and marine aquaculture), cultural services (tourism and education and research related to the marine environment), supporting services (primary production, nutrient, and water cycling), and regulating services (habitat provision for fisheries and other species, storm protection and beach erosion control, and many key environmental processes). Given the climate threats to coral reefs, an appropriate analytical framework for these threats requires the integration of natural science, economics, conservation, and public policies (Beaumont et al., 2008;Brander et al., 2007;Cesar, 2000;Chen et al., 2015). ...
... A number of studies have quantified the economic value of coral reefs (Cesar, 2000;Brander et al., 2007;Griffen and Drake, 2008;Laurans et al., 2013) however, most of studies focus on a handful of coral reef ecosystems services such as provisioning services (Christina et al., 2014;Joelle et al., 2015), regulating services (coastal protection) (Zanten et al., 2014;Nalini et al., 2015;Pascal et al., 2016), cultural services (tourism and recreation) (van Beukering et al., 2015;Diane et al., 2017;Mark et al., 2017;Subade and Francisco, 2014), and the management aspect (Johnson and Saunders, 2014;Kelly, 2015;Ngoc, 2017Ngoc, , 2018. Only a limited number evaluate the impacts of climate change on coral reefs. ...
Article
Coral reef ecosystems provide many important services to society. Their importance is not only proved by their beauty but also because they provide food and livelihood for millions of people in communities around the world, especially in developing countries. This paper estimates the economic value of coral ecosystems and potential impacts of climate change and fishing activities on the loss of coral reefs in Nha Trang Bay, Vietnam. Economic valuation and bioeconomic approaches are applied to combine socioeconomic data and projections of coral reef cover based on the quantitative scenarios of sea surface temperature and fishing activity to articulate the potential economic consequences of future change in the coral reef. The loss in economic value of coral under climate change and fishing effort scenarios is estimated which ranges from US$27.78 to US$31.72 million annually. This result is useful for policy makers to draw conclusions for climate policy, biodiversity conservation, sustainable development, and priorities for further work.
... This trend is expected to continue as sea surface temperatures warm, oceans acidify, and the world's tropical coastlines are developed in response to population growth (Pandolfi et al. 2003(Pandolfi et al. , 2005Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007;Carpenter et al. 2008;Maynard et al. 2015). Shallow coral reefs provide a myriad of goods and services to human societies (Moberg and Folke 1999;Cesar 2000;Moberg and Rönnbäck 2003;Cesar and van Beukering 2004;Cesar and Chong 2004;Adger et al. 2005;Brander et al. 2007;Liquete et al. 2013), and the benefits to humans tendered from these ecosystems are similarly at risk. The ecological characteristics, processes, and functions of ecosystems that either directly or indirectly benefit humans are collectively referred to as ecosystem services (ESs) (Costanza et al. 1997(Costanza et al. , 2017Daily et al. 1997;MEA 2005). ...
... As MCEs can be considered as extensions of betterunderstood shallower ecosystems (Puglise et al. 2009), we examined previous work by Moberg and Folke (1999), Cesar (2000), and Nuttle and Fletcher (2013) that addresses ESs for SCEs. Although SCEs and MCEs share some characteristics, they have important differences as well (e.g., depth and distance from shore), and thus MCEs may not equally support the ESs of SCEs. ...
Chapter
Accounting of the goods and services provided by ecosystems to human communities provides a basis for informed sustainable development, policy, and conservation decision-making. Coral reefs provide a myriad of such goods and services to coastal communities through direct provisioning (e.g., calories and natural products), environmental supporting and regulating services (e.g., nutrient or trophic cycling and stock support), and cultural products (e.g., tourism and culturally important ecosystems). Mid-depth coral communities (30–150 m), or mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs), are not generally addressed in ecosystem services accounting for coral reefs; however, they may share many of the services associated with shallow coral reefs, as well as provide unique ecosystem services of their own. The growing understanding that MCEs occupy large areas of previously uncharacterized insular and continental shelves suggests coral reef valuations need to account for these ecosystems. As shallower resources continue to decline due to anthropogenic pressures, it is crucial that we understand how MCEs support coastal ecosystems and human communities. Here, we explore the development of an ecosystem services framework for MCEs in the context of those provided by shallow coral reefs and present a baseline for further development as new data and information about MCEs become available. We recommend future research properly account for and valuate MCE ecosystem services, both individually and as they relate to ecosystem services for shallow-water reefs.
... A variety of benefits can be explicitly classified as ecosystem services such as use and non-use values including existence and bequest values [3,20,23]. Table 1 indicates the classification of the main coastal and marine ecosystem services modified from [20,23]. Direct use values refer to the ecosystem services that can be directly used and associated with human well-being. ...
... A variety of benefits can be explicitly classified as ecosystem services such as use and non-use values including existence and bequest values [3,20,23]. Table 1 indicates the classification of the main coastal and marine ecosystem services modified from [20,23]. Direct use values refer to the ecosystem services that can be directly used and associated with human well-being. ...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity of quantifying ecosystem services in monetary terms has long been a challenging issue for economists and ecologists. Many case specific valuation studies have been carried out in various parts of the World. Yet, a coherent review on the valuation of coastal ecosystem services (CES), which systematically describes fundamental concepts, analyzes reported applications, and addresses the issue of climate change (CC) impacts on the monetary value of CES is still lacking. Here, we take a step towards addressing this knowledge gap by pursuing a coherent review that aims to provide policy makers and researchers in multidisciplinary teams with a summary of the state-of-the-art and a guideline on the process of economic valuation of CES and potential changes in these values due to CC impacts. The article highlights the main concepts of CES valuation studies and offers a systematic analysis of the best practices by analyzing two global scale and 30 selected local and regional case studies, in which different CES have been valued. Our analysis shows that coral reefs and mangroves are among the most frequently valued ecosystems, while sea-grass beds are the least considered ones. Currently, tourism and recreation services as well as storm protection are two of the most considered services representing higher estimated value than other CES. In terms of the valuation techniques used, avoided damage, replacement and substitute cost method as well as stated preference method are among the most commonly used valuation techniques. Following the above analysis, we propose a methodological framework that provides step-wise guidance and better insight into the linkages between climate change impacts and the monetary value of CES. This highlights two main types of CC impacts on CES: one being the climate regulation services of coastal ecosystems, and the other being the monetary value of services, which is subject to substantial uncertainty. Finally, a systematic four-step approach is proposed to effectively monetize potential CC driven variations in the value of CES.
... Leur extrême biodiversité contribue au développement économique de ces pays, grâce aux activités de pêche, au tourisme et à leurs apports en matériaux de construction. Ils assurent également un rôle de protection des côtes contre l'érosion, les tempêtes et les cyclones (Cesar 2002). Au total, plus de 500 millions de vie humaines sont directement liées aux services rendus par les récifs coralliens (Wilkinson and Souter 2008). ...
... Plus récemment, certains organismes des récifs se sont révélés d'intérêt pour les entreprises de (UNEP-WCMC 2006). Les bénéfices nets apportés par les récifs coralliens (en prenant en compte la pêche, la protection des côtes et la biodiversité) varient selon les estimations de 30 milliards de dollars par an (Cesar 2002) à 375 milliards de dollars par an (Costanza et al. 1997). ...
Thesis
Les coraux Scléractiniaires se développent généralement dans la zone photique peu profonde, exposée au rayonnement ultraviolet (UVs), la composante la plus dangereuse du rayonnement solaire. Le rayonnement UVs augmente avec le réchauffement climatique et s’ajoute à l’ensemble des pressions auxquelles sont soumis les coraux. Les enjeux de cette thèse ont été 1) de mieux comprendre les effets des UVs sur la réponse physiologique des coraux, les flux de matière organique et les bactéries associées au mucus et au corail; et 2) de caractériser l’effet combiné des UVs et d’une augmentation de température, et/ou d’un changement de disponibilité en sels nutritifs. Les résultats obtenus montrent tout d’abord que l’exposition des coraux aux UVs amplifie l’effet négatif de la température sur leur physiologie. Il en est de même pour l’absence en sels nutritifs, essentiels pour la physiologie corallienne. Nos résultats indiquent également que la sensibilité des coraux à un stress UV dépend de l’espèce étudiée et de la densité de symbiontes présents dans les tissus. L’effet négatif des UVs augmente avec la densité de symbiontes, vraisemblablement dû à la formation d’espèces réactives de l’oxygène (ROS) qui provoquent des dommages à l’organisme. Dans cette thèse, nous avons montré que la voie de signalisation JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), hautement conservée au sein des êtres vivants, est impliquée dans la gestion de ces espèces réactives et que son inhibition entraine un blanchissement très rapide des coraux sous UVs et forte température. Finalement, l’excrétion de matière organique ainsi que les bactéries associées sont également impactés par les UVs ce qui pourrait contribuer à d’importants changements biochimiques dans l’eau des récifs coralliens. Les travaux de cette thèse apportent de nouvelles connaissances sur les effets des UVs sur les coraux et soulignent l’importance de les prendre en considération lors de nos prédictions sur le devenir des récifs coralliens face au réchauffement climatique.
... Indirect use values of the GBR include ecological function values such as the following (National Oceans Office, 2005;PDP Australia, 2003;Spurgeon, 1992;Cesar, 2000): ...
... Non-use values of the GBR include the following (National Oceans Office, 2005, PDP Australia, 2003, Spurgeon, 1992, Cesar, 2000: ...
Article
Assessing the economic value of improved protection of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is important to demonstrate the consequences of loss and to evaluate the public benefits of programs to reduce pressures and address degradation. However, those values are not easy to measure, in part because of the diversity and complexity of the GBR, and because there are very different types of benefits involved. Since 1985, there have been over 40 major studies that have assessed values for these components at the whole GBR level, and many more for components at smaller scales. This study synthesises estimates from the major valuation studies in the GBR since 1985, generating estimates of average values across different benefit categories. We observe mixed results. While values are often reasonably consistent within sub-categories, there is mixed evidence about temporal trends and the small number of available studies makes it difficult to draw definitive outcomes.
... Bisa dilihat dari sebelah sini sampai ke ujung desa sana sudah tidak ada yang menggunakan rumah panggung."P2 Peranan terumbu karang dari sebagai rumah ikan sesuai dengan fungsinya yang sebagian diungkapkan oleh masyarakat yaitu sebagai area untuk menghasilkan banyak biota laut, habitat karang, rekreasi, penghalang gelombang, pelindung pantai, bahan/kontruksi bangunan sesuai yang dikatakan oleh Cesar (2000), dan Bengen, Eidman dan Boer (2001). ...
... Berkat hasil laut yang diperoleh nelayan, hampir seluruh masyarakat setempat dapat memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya. Menunjang hasil penelitian tersebut, dikatakan oleh Cesar (2000) bahwa ekosistem terumbu karang banyak menyumbangkan berbagai biota laut seperti ikan karang, mollusca, crustacea bagi masyarakat yang hidup di kawasan pesisir. Selain itu bersama dengan ekosistem pesisir lainnya menyediakan makanan dan merupakan tempat berpijah bagi berbagai jenis biota laut yang mempunyai nilai ekonomis tinggi. ...
... Shallow-water coral reefs occupy a very small part of the ocean (b0.015%) but the biodiversity they offer make them a very important ecosystem in terms of ecological and economical values as well as in term of natural heritage (Moberg and Folke, 1999;Cesar, 2002). Because of multiple factors such as global warming, ocean acidification, sea level rise or erosion of seabed, N60% of the world's reefs are considered under immediate threat (Burke et al., 2011). ...
... Known as the "oasis of tropical marine deserts", it is considered a relatively rare and unique ecosystem (Wells and Ravilious, 2006). Other than contributing tremendous biodiversity for the global ecosystem, the coral reef also has other functions, such as climate regulation, coastline protection, water purification and providing resources for human, such as fisheries, medicine, mineral and energy, as well as tourism (Cesar, 2000). However, in recent decades, it has been seriously damaged due to deteriorated marine environment with reasons including rising surface temperatures, acidification, overexploitation, coastal development and pollution, which are mostly because of human activities (Carilli et al., 2012). ...
Article
Coral embryos are a critical and sensitive period for the early growth and development of coral. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is widely distributed in the ocean and has strong toxicity, but there is little information on the toxic effects to coral embryos exposed to BaP. Thus, in this study, we utilized the Illumina HiseqTM 4000 platform to explore the gene response of Acropora hyacinthus embryos under the BaP stress. A total of 130,042 Unigenes were obtained and analyzed, and within such there were approximately 37.67% of the Unigenes matched with sequences from four top-hit species. In total, 2,606 Unigenes were up-regulated, and 3,872 Unigenes were down-regulated. After Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the results show that the “cellular process” and “metabolic process” were leading in the category of biological processes, which the “binding” and “catalytic activity” were the most abundant subcategories in molecular function. Based on the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, the most differentially expressed genes were enriched, as well as down-regulated in the pathways of oxidative phosphorylation, metabolism of xenobiotics, immune-related genes, apoptosis and human disease genes. At the same time, 388,197 of Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and 6,164 of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were obtained, which can be served as the richer and more valuable SSRs molecular markers in the future. This study can help to better understand the toxicological mechanism of coral embryo exposed to BaP, and it is also essential for the protection and restoration of coral reef ecosystem in the future.
... It is well-known that the coral reefs are highly regarded as a tourist attraction 33,34 . As their condition diminishes, the reef loses value, both ecologically and economically. ...
Article
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The Caribbean coral reef ecosystem has experienced a long history of deterioration due to various stressors. For instance, over-fishing of parrotfish - an important grazer of macroalgae that can prevent destructive overgrowth of macroalgae - has threatened reef ecosystems in recent decades and stimulated conservation efforts such as the formation of marine protected areas. Here we develop a mathematical model of coupled socio-ecological interactions between reef dynamics and conservation opinion dynamics to better understand how natural and human factors interact individually and in combination to determine coral reef cover. We find that the coupling opinion and reef systems generates complex dynamics that are difficult to anticipate without use of a model. For instance, instead of converging to a stable state of constant coral cover and conservationist opinion, the system can oscillate between low and high live coral cover as human opinion oscillates in a boom-bust cycle between complacency and concern. Out of various possible parameter manipulations, we also find that raising awareness of coral reef endangerment best avoids counter-productive nonlinear feedbacks and always increases and stabilizes live coral reef cover. In conclusion, an improved understanding of coupled opinion-reef dynamics under anthrogenic stressors is possible using coupled socio-ecological models, and such models should be further researched.
... where TEL 1994-2014 is the TEL from 1994 to 2014 and r is the discount factor. In this case, this study was set the discount rate to 10% (White et al. 2000;Cesar 2000) to obtain the current value of coral reef damage or economic loss. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reef ecosystems possess tangible and intangible economic benefits to human society that are still underestimated and not fully understood. This study aims: to determine 1) economic benefits and economic losses due to coral reef damage, 2) compensation values as replacement costs for damaged coral reefs as well as references to sustainable coral reef management. Based on the calculation, the TEV of coral reef ecosystems was estimated to be USD 11.96 billion or 2.82 million USD/ha. The economic losses due to coral reef destruction over the 20-year period from 1994 to 2014 were USD 1 billion or 50.18 million USD/yr. We anticipate that the economic loss of coral reefs will continue to rise due to the intensification of destructive fishing practices. Therefore, an effective management policy should be established to prevent further destruction of coral reefs in this area in the future. This study suggests that tangible procedures for compensation for coral damage and law enforcement for destroyers are required to be implemented to reduce the economic losses of coral reefs, and the economic values estimated in this study can be a quantitative reference for various stakeholders to build a concensus for designing coral reef recovery programs in the future.
... These structures not only harbor some of the world's most diverse ecosystems but also provide valuable services and goods such as shoreline protection, habitat maintenance, seafood products, recreation, and tourism. Furthermore, due to their immobility, corals have developed an arsenal of chemical substances that hold great medicinal potential (Cesar, 2000;Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2007;Moberg & Folke, 1999;Reaka-Kudla, 1997). ...
Article
Robotic advances and developments in sensors and acquisition systems facilitate the collection of survey data in remote and challenging scenarios. Semantic segmentation, which attempts to provide per‐pixel semantic labels, is an essential task when processing such data. Recent advances in deep learning approaches have boosted this task's performance. Unfortunately, these methods need large amounts of labeled data, which is usually a challenge in many domains. In many environmental monitoring instances, such as the coral reef example studied here, data labeling demands expert knowledge and is costly. Therefore, many data sets often present scarce and sparse image annotations or remain untouched in image libraries. This study proposes and validates an effective approach for learning semantic segmentation models from sparsely labeled data. Based on augmenting sparse annotations with the proposed adaptive superpixel segmentation propagation, we obtain similar results as if training with dense annotations, significantly reducing the labeling effort. We perform an in‐depth analysis of our labeling augmentation method as well as of different neural network architectures and loss functions for semantic segmentation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on publicly available data sets of different real domains, with the emphasis on underwater scenarios—specifically, coral reef semantic segmentation. We release new labeled data as well as an encoder trained on half a million coral reef images, which is shown to facilitate the generalization to new coral scenarios.
... It also functions in coastal protection, sediment retention, nitrogen fixation, feeding places, nursery and spawning grounds for marine organisms. It has aesthetic values, provides artistic inspiration, sustains the livelihood of coastal communities, and supports cultural, religious, and spiritual values (Cesar, 2000). ...
... Reef-building corals are prime candidates for the application of ecological epigenetics. They are exceptional both in their socioecological value, and sensitivity to anthropogenic change (Cesar 2000;Foden et al. 2013). As they are long-lived and sessile, they cannot migrate in response to suboptimal conditions, and must instead depend upon plasticity. ...
Preprint
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Interrogation of chromatin modifications, such as DNA methylation, has potential to improve forecasting and conservation of marine ecosystems. The standard method for assaying DNA methylation (Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing), however, is too costly to apply at the scales required for ecological research. Here we evaluate different methods for measuring DNA methylation for ecological epigenetics. We compare Whole Genome Bisulfite Sequencing (WGBS) with Methylated CpG Binding Domain Sequencing (MBD-seq), and a modified version of MethylRAD we term methylation-dependent Restriction site-Associated DNA sequencing (mdRAD). We evaluate these three assays in measuring variation in methylation across the genome, between genotypes, and between polyp types in the reef-building coral Acropora millepora. We find that all three assays measure absolute methylation levels similarly, with tight correlations for methylation of gene bodies (gbM), as well as exons and 1Kb windows. Correlations for differential gbM between genotypes were weaker, but still concurrent across assays. We detected little to no reproducible differences in gbM between polyp types. We conclude that MBD-seq and mdRAD are reliable cost-effective alternatives to WGBS. Moreover, the considerably lower sequencing effort required for mdRAD to produce comparable methylation estimates makes it particularly useful for ecological epigenetics.
... Indeed, the intensive exploitation of marine ecosystems and other effects of human usages (e.g., Burke et al., 2011; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2013) are largely responsible for the alarming degradation and loss of marine ecosystems (e.g., Gibson, 2006;Duke et al., 2007;Waycott et al., 2009;Beck et al., 2011;Burke et al., 2011). Such environmental degradation results in drastic declines in the value of marine ecosystem services and, subsequently, costs to society (Cesar, 2000;Barbier, 2012;Tadaki et al., 2017). Thus, active restoration of marine systems (marine restoration for short) has been identified as a possible way forward to counteract some of these negative repercussions (Abelson et al., 2016). ...
Article
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In order to advance ongoing efforts in the (still emerging) field of marine restoration, different forms of knowledge must be combined: not only the biological and technical aspects, but also the social and cultural dimensions of marine restoration efforts. This calls for a newly combined array of methods that allows for a bridging of these different knowledge dimensions. Drawing on our experiences from the ongoing knowledge transfer processes of the INTERNAS project (Scientific Transfer of the results of INTERNational Assessments in the field of Earth and Environmental Research into the German policy context), we provide an overview of methods that were used to link global recommendations with localized marine restoration schemes and policy options. Using a mixed methods approach, we were able to capture and understand the pathways of knowledge transfer from globally synthesized scientific knowledge to local realities related to protecting and enhancing marine biodiversity in Germany. With this structured knowledge transfer approach, actionable solutions for marine conservation and restoration activities could be tailored to the specific national and regional circumstances. Using participatory methods, framework conditions like ecological, social, legal, and sectoral value judgment dimensions can be identified. This allows for the development of concerted solutions and creates a common ground for good governance towards marine restoration. When scientists engage not only as experts but also as reflexive facilitators in such participatory processes, it is ensured that more inclusive forms of knowledge are fostered that are necessary to better anticipate the potentials and likely pitfalls that marine restoration efforts may encounter. We conclude that existing knowledge on ecosystems, their goods and services as well as societal expectations need to be understood from the onset in any kind of marine restoration effort.
... The existence of coral reefs is much dependent on symbiosis between reef-building corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium (Cesar 2000; 6 Page 2 of 9 Hughes et al. 2003;Pandolfi et al. 2003). Symbiodinium are found in endosymbiotic association with several metazoan and protist phyla, including Cnidaria, Mollusca, Porifera, Acoelomorpha, Foraminifera and Ciliophora (Stat et al. 2006; Barneah et al. 2007;Venn et al. 2008). ...
Article
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Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems relying on the presence of dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium), that are found in symbiotic association with multiple phyla and performing the majority of primary production. However, coral reefs are currently threatened by climate change and the increase in seawater temperature, which causes the bleaching phenomenon. While bleaching has been well documented for adult host organisms, it is still poorly understood in larval stages. We offered Symbiodinium types within clades A–F to the larvae of Mussismilia hispida (scleractinian coral), Berghia stephanieae (nudibranch) and Tridacna crocea (giant clam) and manipulated the temperature to 26, 29 or 32 °C. Samples were taken at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post-temperature increase, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) was extracted and its content measured in a fluorometer. Symbiodinium type, temperature and time all influenced chl-a content. M. hispida larvae displayed a bleaching threshold at 29 °C; larvae containing Symbiodinium A–F all bleached at 32 °C, but with significantly lower bleaching in larvae associated with type A1. B. stephanieae digested the symbionts; while chl-a content decreased over time equally for all clades, it is not possible to determine if it is related to bleaching. T. crocea larvae at 29 °C bleached for all symbiont types, except for A1. At 32 °C, all types were bleached, but type A1 bleached significantly less. These findings show that type A1 seems to be more thermo-tolerant in larvae of the tested species. This may be related to the fact that strains within this clade are homologous to both M. hispida and T. crocea, as they are found within these adult host’ tissues. Therefore, symbiont type may have an important role in invertebrate larvae development and present relevant implications for recruitment.
... Muchos organismos arrecifales depositan el carbono en estructuras de carbonato de calcio, con lo que contribuyen a atrapar parte del CO 2 emitido a la atmósfera, mitigando así el calentamiento global. El depósito de carbonato de calcio en los arrecifes de coral constituye un registro climático que puede almacenar información de periodos tan amplios de hasta miles de años (Cesar, 2000). Otras especies -desde bacterias hasta invertebrados asociados a simbiontes unicelulares-fijan importantes cantidades de nitrógeno, nitrógeno, haciéndolo disponible en los niveles tróficos superiores. ...
Chapter
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El territorio marítimo mexicano está definido por la Ley Federal del Mar de 1986. Abarca el mar territorial de 12 millas náuticas, la zona contigua que termina a 24 millas de la costa, y la zona económica exclusiva, que se extiende hasta las 200 millas más allá de la costa (Lara et al., 2008). El litoral mexicano se extiende por alrededor de 11 122 km de línea de costa, de los cuales 70% está rodeado por el Océano Pacífico y 30 corresponde al Golfo de México y el Mar Caribe (Inegi, 2003). El ecosistema marino no se encuentra aislado del terrestre, pues mantiene una interacción estrecha con el continente y la atmósfera. Algunos ambientes con estas características son las lagunas, esteros, marismas, bahías, caletas, ensenadas, cenotes, aguadas y sartenejas. Existen diferencias muy marcadas entre los sistemas costeros del Golfo de México y los del Pacífico, e incluso entre los del Golfo de California y los del lado occidental de la península, resultado de las diferencias de clima, los aportes fluviales y los continentales (Lara et al., 2008).
... The swift decay of natural ecosystems, their biodiversity, and services to humans presents a global challenge (Dobson et al., 2006;Dirzo et al., 2014;Hautier et al., 2015). Coastal marine ecosystems are immensely important for human well-being (Barbier, 2012;Duarte et al., 2013), and they are among those facing the most rapid ecological degradation (Lotze et al., 2006;Duke et al., 2007;Waycott et al., 2009;Beck et al., 2011;Burke et al., 2011;Bugnot et al., 2020), resulting in declines in the goods and services that they provide to society (Cesar, 2000;Barbier, 2012;Costanza et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Coastal marine ecosystems provide critical goods and services to humanity but many are experiencing rapid degradation. The need for effective restoration tools capable of promoting large-scale recovery of coastal ecosystems in the face of intensifying climatic stress has never been greater. We identify four major challenges for more effective implementation of coastal marine ecosystem restoration (MER): (1) development of effective, scalable restoration methods, (2) incorporation of innovative tools that promote climate adaptation, (3) integration of social and ecological restoration priorities, and (4) promotion of the perception and use of coastal MER as a scientifically credible management approach. Tackling these challenges should improve restoration success rates, heighten their recognition, and accelerate investment in and promotion of coastal MER. To reverse the accelerating decline of marine ecosystems, we discuss potential directions for meeting these challenges by applying coastal MER tools that are science-based and actionable. For coastal restoration to have a global impact, it must incorporate social science, technological and conceptual advances, and plan for future climate scenarios.
... Coral reef ecosystem itself facing multiple threats such as unsustainable fishing method, sedimentation, pollution, mining, tourism, and climate change that led to the increasing sea surface level and sea temperature (Cesar 2000). ...
Research
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ABSTRAK Riset ini dilakukan di situs biorock Perairan Pulau Sepa, Kepulauan Seribu sepanjang bulan Februari 2018. Tujuan Riset ini untuk mengidentifikasi kelompok rekrutmen karang yang paling mampu bertahan hidup beserta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidup rekrutmen karang pada struktur biorock di perairan Pulau Sepa, Kepulauan Seribu. Metode yang digunakan dalam riset ini adalah metode survey dan observasi terhadap rekrutmen karang. Parameter yang diamati adalah ukuran, jumlah, dan genus rekrutmen karang sebagai data primer, sedangkan jumlah individu dan family ikan karang serta biota lainnya, sebagai data penunjang. Hasil riset menunjukkan bahwa rekrutmen karang yang paling mampu bertahan hidup di struktur biorock di perairan Pulau Sepa, Kepulauan Seribu berasal dari genus Pocillopora. Total rekrutmen karang yang ditemukan di situs biorock Pulau Sepa sebanyak 216 individu yang berasal dari 13 genus karang, ABSTRACT This research was conducted on biorock site in Sepa Island, Kepulauan Seribu during February 2018. This research aims to identify the most capable of coral recruitment group that settle at biorock structure, along with factors that influence coral recruitment survivability. The method used in this research was survey and observation of coral recruitment. The parameters observed were size, number, and genus of coral recruitment as primary data, while the number and families of reef fishes and other biota as supporting data. This research shows that the most capable coral recruitment on biorock structure is from genus Pocillopora. The coral recruitment found on the P. Sepa biorock site was 216 individuals from 13 genus, Tubastrea. Coral recruitment in biorock structure have space competition with sponge, macroalgae, turf algae, and tunicate.
... Coral reefs are the flowers of the sea, surrounded by fascinatingly coloured fish with remarkable diversity (Cesar, 2000). Coral reefs and their associated seagrass beds are among the most productive coastal ecosystems (White et al., 2000). ...
... They protect coasts from erosion, provide nursery habitat for fish recruits, filter some pollutants from marine waters, and play globally important roles in nitrogen fixation and calcium precipitation (Moberg and Folke 1999). They support commercial and artisanal fishing, tourism, the aquarium trade and many other biodiversity-based human industries (Moberg and Folke 1999;Cesar 2000). ...
Thesis
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The success of the symbiosis of scleractinian corals with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is highly dependent on the availability of sufficient, but not excess, light for photosynthesis. After decades of fundamental research into the effect of light on the coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis, an important practical application is emerging in remote monitoring of bleaching at coral reefs. Coral bleaching that originates with the dysfunction of photosynthesis can be either photoacclimatory, a controlled adjustment in response to environmental change, or it can be associated with photodamage, an uncontrolled response to environmental change. It is the latter that tends to lead to severe bleaching events that decrease the rate of carbon fixation, generate excessive oxygen radicals and may ultimately lead to coral death if unfavourable conditions persist. Current best practice methods for the prediction of coral bleaching use water temperature as detected via satellite, and predict the onset of coral bleaching accurately, but not the percent of corals bleached at a reef or the extent of the ensuing mortality. Due to its central role in causing photodamage, the use of light level (in addition to temperature) as a predictive variable may improve the accuracy of predictions of coral bleaching severity. The rate of photoacclimation affects the duration of elevated stress following an increase or decrease in incident light level and so it is potentially important for predicting the severity of coral bleaching. As coral reef management practitioners aim to predict bleaching and bleaching-induced mortality at entire reef locales, which are typically composed of a multi-species coral community, differences in coral physiological responses are of importance in designing accurate prediction methods. The interaction of high light and high temperature with a third stressor, ocean acidification, may influence coral bleaching, as ocean acidification changes oceanic chemical parameters that are key to cellular mechanisms of homeostasis and to dinoflagellate photosynthesis. Using multiple-stressor aquarium experiments, I investigated the photoacclimation rate in corals, differences in response to light and temperature stress among coral species, and the interaction of light, temperature and ocean acidification on coral bleaching onset and severity (at the colony scale). My investigation of photoacclimation (via 24 days of exposure to a large increase, a moderate increase, and a large decrease in light) in Acropora muricata and mounding Porites spp. indicated that the direction of light change and the water temperature influenced photoacclimation duration. However, the exact patterns were specific to the variable used to measure photoacclimation (for instance, changes in net areal photosynthesis, or changes in quantum efficiency of photosystem II), with important ramifications for the development of a combined light and temperature bleaching prediction method. I investigated species-specific physiological responses in A. muricata, mounding Porites spp. and Montipora monasteriata to four water temperatures (25, 27, 29, and 31°C; the latter two exceeding the average temperature of the warmest month) combined with five light levels (µmol quanta·m-2s-1: two below (91, 165), one at (226) and two exceeding (307, 371) the average in situ reef light level). Whilst the combinations of temperature and light change that were required to cause statistically significant symbiont cell loss differed among species, I identified aspects of the bleaching response that were shared between taxa, facilitating the development of bleaching prediction that takes into account biological differences. For instance, mounding Porites spp. and M. monasteriata experienced decreased symbiont densities under high light exposure, whilst symbiont densities in A. muricata did not vary with light when light change was the sole stressor. The suggestion of these results that groups of species with similar responses can be found may save the arduous task of calibrating prediction methods for each individual species at a location. I performed an experimental exposure of Pocillopora acuta to present day or future ocean acidification combined with average or high light (compared to local in situ reef values) and with optimal or above-optimal temperature (the average of the warmest month minus 2.5°C or plus 2°C). Symbiodinium photosynthetic and population size responses were measured following 39 days of exposure. Ocean acidification (slightly in excess of an RCP8.5 scenario) did not affect Symbiodinium areal densities or areal net photosynthesis nor the severity of thermal bleaching or light change-induced cell loss, but did enhance the increase in dark respiration at elevated temperature. The increase in dark respiration rates might suggest that ocean acidification places increased energy demands on the P. acuta holobiont, with potential long-term ramifications for coral health. A synthesis of results from the literature found that, generally, very high levels of ocean acidification caused statistically-significant symbiont loss in corals. Prediction of coral bleaching under future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions, an important scientific tool for modelling coral reef futures, may need to take the effect of ocean acidification on bleaching into account.
... Coral reef ecosystems provide many important IEGS and FEGS, such as recreational opportunities for snorkeling and diving, kayaking, sail-or motor-boating, and recreational and subsistence fishing in both developed and developing nations (Moberg and Folke 1999, Yee et al. 2014. Non-residents and residents alike benefit from tourism opportunities, since the commercialization of SCUBA, millions of divers have paid billions of dollars that sustain local, state, and territorial economies often in developing countries and island nations globally (Cesar 2000, CI 2008, Pendleton 2008, van Beukering et al. 2011, Spalding et al. 2017. Coral reefs also provide food products, aquarium fish, jewelry and curios, personal use products, unique pharmaceutical drugs, and a sense of place, tradition, and culture for local and indigenous peoples (Moberg and Folke 1999, MEA 2005, Principe et al. 2012, Yee et al. 2014. ...
Article
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There is an astonishing diversity of ways in which people benefit from coral reefs. They provide recreation, resource extraction, inspirational, and educational opportunities, among many others as well as being valued just for their existence. As the condition of coral reef ecosystems decline, so do their ability to provide these benefits. Prudent management of coral reefs and the benefits they provide are important as some predict most coral reefs globally will be lost by the mid‐21st century. Meanwhile, coral reef managers have limited tools and relevant data to design and implement effective environmental management practices that will enable coral reefs to provide benefits demanded by society. We demonstrate an approach to identify and measure environmental components of coral reefs that directly benefit human well‐being. The approach views ecosystems through the lens of a specific set of beneficiaries and the biophysical features directly relevant to each. We call these biophysical features Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS). In our demonstration, we (1) identify a range of beneficiaries of coral reefs; (2) identify metrics of FEGS for those beneficiaries; and (3) describe how data quantifying those biophysical metrics might be used to facilitate greater economic and social understanding.
... While marine protected areas have been created to stem further reef degradation and allow natural recovery (Selig and Bruno 2010;Mellin et al. 2016), they are often inadequate as the slow growth of corals can be overwhelmed by concurrent human disturbances (Nyström et al. 2000;Birkeland 2004;Knowlton and Jackson 2008). These include unsustainable fishing practices and coastal activities, which can hasten reef degradation and negate natural recovery of ecosystem functioning (Cesar 2000;Johnson and Jackson 2015). Targeted management approaches such as coral reef restoration may yield better results, and such efforts have grown across the world in the past three decades (Rinkevich 2005;Yeemin et al. 2006;Shaish et al. 2010;Omori 2011;Young et al. 2012;Ng et al. 2016;Ladd et al. 2018). ...
Article
Coral transplantation helps to reinstate coral cover in degraded reefs, but the general success of this approach is hampered by limited understanding of how coral-fragment size affects growth and survival of transplants of non-branching species. In this study, we compared the effects of three size classes of coral fragments (small: 2–4 cm, medium: 5–7 cm and large: 9–11 cm) on the post-transplantation survivorship and growth of Favites complanata (n = 51), Favites pentagona (n = 54) and Platygyra sinensis (n = 60) attached to granite rocks on a subtidal seawall in Singapore. After 18 months, transplants of all species showed high survivorship (all >64%) and up to 6.3-fold increase in live tissue area. Survivorship was not significantly different among the size classes of each species. Mean linear extension rates were fastest only for small F. complanata transplants compared to medium-sized ones. Our findings also suggested that the transplantation of only small fragments could generate better yield in live coral cover and present the most optimal use of the original amount of coral source material. Such information is critical for formulating management and conservation strategies in urbanized reef systems typically dominated by non-branching corals.
... La capacité combinée de la photosynthèse et de l'alimentation hétérotrophique est à l'origine de la forte productivité des écosystèmes coralliens dans les zones tropicales (Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2017). Les coraux jouent un rôle important dans les cycles biochimiques mondiaux, en particulier dans le cycle du carbone (Hallock 1997), mais ils fournissent également de nombreux services écosystémiques aux communautés côtières (Cesar 2000). Les bénéfices des récifs coralliens pour les communautés humaines incluent la nourriture, les revenus, les loisirs, la protection côtière, les valeurs culturelles et de nombreux autres biens et services écologiques (Cinner et al. 2009;Costanza et al. 2014). ...
Thesis
Les algues corallines encroûtantes (CCA) sont communément associées à des récifs sains et jouent un rôle important dans les systèmes benthiques en guidant la colonisation de nombreux organismes, comme les coraux. Cependant, la capacité des CCA à induire l’implantation des coraux ne fonctionne pas pour toutes les espèces de CCA. Les larves de coraux sélectionnent certaines espèces d’algues, ce qui pose la question des mécanismes sous-jacents. Malgré l’énorme variété d’espèces de CCA dans les récifs, on en sait peu sur leur diversité chimique et microbienne et sur le rôle écologique de ces deux composants pour le recrutement des coraux. Le chapitre 2 étudie la composition microbienne et chimique de 6 espèces de CCA sur les récifs coralliens de Moorea, et comment ces deux compartiments sont liés au succès d’implantation des larves d’Acropora cytherea. Les résultats ont révélé que le taux d’implantation était le plus élevé sur l’espèce cryptique Titanoderma prototypum. Alors que toutes les espèces de CCA avaient des empreintes métaboliques distinctes et contenaient une grande diversité métabolomique, la diversité et la richesse métabolomiques de T. prototypum étaient plus élevées que celles des autres espèces. T. prototypum hébergeait également une diversité bactérienne plus élevée, et contenait une plus grande abondance de bactéries susceptibles de produire des composés antibactériens. Ces bactéries pourraient inhiber les agents pathogènes des coraux, ce qui pourrait à son tour améliorer la survie des larves. Ainsi, le recrutement corallien est un processus complexe de communications biochimiques entre les CCA, leurs communautés de surface microbiennes associées et les larves de coraux. Malgré la large acceptation que certaines espèces de CCA influencent positivement le recrutement corallien, il n’y a pas de données expérimentales sur les effets des espèces de CCA sur la survie et la croissance post-implantation tardive des coraux. Le chapitre 3 teste l’impact de 4 espèces de CCA, de deux types d’habitats (exposés et subcryptiques), sur la survie et la croissance des recrues de Pocillopora. Les CCA ont eu un effet contrasté sur la survie des recrues coralliennes suivant l’habitat et de la taille des recrues. Dans les habitats subcryptiques, les CCA réduisaient la survie et/ou la croissance des recrues coralliennes via la compétition directe, tandis que, dans les habitats exposés, elles amélioraient le recrutement des coraux en atténuant la concurrence avec le gazon algal. Cette étude a démontré que toutes les espèces de CCA ne sont pas bénéfiques à la survie et à la croissance des recrues coralliennes et qu’il existe une variabilité considérable dans l’issue et le processus de compétition entre les CCA et les coraux. Chapitres 4 et 5 déterminent si deux facteurs de stress environnementaux, respectivement l’acidification des océans (AO) et l’hypoxie, affectent l’association corail-CCA en perturbant le comportement et l’implantation des larves des deux espèces de coraux (A. cythera et A. pulchra), ainsi que leur recrutement, sur une espèce de CCA appropriée. Les larves des deux espèces évitaient l’exploration et l’implantation dans des environnements à faible pH ou à oxygène réduit. Ces résultats indiquent que les zones à faible teneur en oxygène et pH peuvent influencer négativement le succès d’implantation des larves de coraux et que l’oxygène et le pH peuvent être des signaux chimiques pour l’orientation et l’implantation des larves de coraux. Cette thèse aide à mieux comprendre le rôle des CCA, des micro-organismes et des composés chimiques dans la dynamique à petite échelle du recrutement des coraux maintenant et dans les conditions océaniques futures. Les résultats soulignent que les interactions CCA-corail sont des processus complexes qui sont probablement médiés par des composés chimiques et microbiens et que ces interactions peuvent être affectées par des environnements changeants.
... Economic valuations of marine resources clearly show intact, protected resources have far greater value and revenue-generating potential than degraded and/or exploited ones (Polunin and Roberts 1993;Cesar et al. 1997;Pet-Soede et al. 1999;Cesar 2000;Subade 2008). In Indonesia, for example, the destruction of corals from blast fishing was shown to cause a net loss after 20 years of US$306,800 per km 2 of reef (Pet-Soede et al. 1999), highlighting the value of reef protection and loss from ineffective management action. ...
... Coral reefs are marine coastal environments found in tropical areas, noted for their remarkable biodiversity [1]. This diversity is supported by the complexity of habitats created by the CaCO 3 structure produced by reef-building corals [2] and by the high primary production performed by symbiotic dinoflagellates, also called zooxanthellae [3][4][5]. These dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) are found in an endosymbiotic association with multiple metazoan and protist phyla [6], being harboured inside the host tissues at high densities, typically 10 10 cells per m 2 of coral reef [7]. ...
Article
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Symbiodinium are responsible for the majority of primary production in coral reefs and found in a mutualistic symbiosis with multiple animal phyla. However, little is known about the molecular signals involved in the establishment of this symbiosis and whether it initiates during host larval development. To address this question, we monitored the expression of a putative symbiosis-specific gene (H+-ATPase) in Symbiodinium A1 ex hospite and in association with larvae of a scleractinian coral (Mussismilia hispida), a nudibranch (Berghia stephanieae) and a giant clam (Tridacna crocea). We acquired broodstock for each host, induced spawning and cultured the larvae. Symbiodinium cells were offered and larval samples taken for each host during the first 72 h after symbiont addition. In addition, control samples including free-living Symbiodinium and broodstock tissue containing symbionts for each host were collected. RNA extraction and RT-PCR were performed and amplified products cloned and sequenced. Our results show that H+-ATPase was expressed in Symbiodinium associated with coral and giant clam larvae, but not with nudibranch larvae, which digested the symbionts. Broodstock tissue for coral and giant clam also expressed H+-ATPase, but not the nudibranch tissue sample. Our results of the expression of H+-ATPase as a marker gene suggest that symbiosis between Symbiodinium and M. hispida and T. crocea is established during host larval development. Conversely, in the case of B. stephanieae larvae, evidence does not support a mutualistic relationship. Our study supports the utilization of H+-ATPase expression as a marker for assessing Symbiodinium–invertebrate relationships with applications for the differentiation of symbiotic and non-symbiotic associations. At the same time, insights from a single marker gene approach are limited and future studies should direct the identification of additional symbiosis-specific genes, ideally from both symbiont and host.
... It is of great significance to the research of coastal areas and marine engineering construction, and provides important information for maritime transportation and shipping. Detailed knowledge of shallow water depths also contributes to the management and monitoring of coral reefs and the conservation of ecosystems [1,2]. Timely and accurate bathymetry data is essential to help develop effective resource policy and management in coastal areas and ensure a safe and comfortable environment for humans [3]. ...
Article
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Retrieving the water depth by satellite is a rapid and effective method for obtaining underwater terrain. In the optical shallow waters, the bottom signal has a great impact on the radiation from the water which related to water depth. In the optical shallow waters, the spatial distribution characteristic of water quality parameters derived by the updated quasi analysis algorithm (UQAA) is highly correlated with the bottom brightness. Because the bottom reflection signal is strongly correlated with the spatial distribution of water depth, the derived water quality parameters may helpful and applicable for optical remote sensing based satellite derived bathymetry. Therefore, the influence on bathymetry retrieval of the UQAA IOPs is worth discussing. In this article, different machine learning algorithms using a UQAA were tested and remote sensing reflectance at water depth in situ points and their detection accuracy were evaluated by using Worldwiew-2 multispectral remote sensing images and laser measurement data. A backpropagation (BP) neural network, extreme value learning machine (ELM), random forest (RF), Adaboost, and support vector regression (SVR) machine models were utilized to compute the water depth retrieval of Ganquan Island in the South China Sea. According to the obtained results, bathymetry using the UQAA and remote sensing reflectance is better than that computed using only remote sensing reflectance, in which the overall improvements in the root mean square error (RMSE) were 1 cm to 5 cm and the overall improvement in the mean relative error (MRE) was 1% to 5%. The results showed that the results of the UQAA could be used as a main water depth estimation eigenvalue to increase water depth estimation accuracy.
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Coral reefs are degrading to algae-dominated reefs worldwide, with alterations of coral microbiomes commonly co-occurring with reef demise. The severe thermal anomaly during the 2016 El Niño event in the South Pacific killed many corals and stressed others. We examined the microbiome of turf algae and of the coral Porites sp. in contact with turf during this thermal event to investigate algal turf effects on the coral microbiome during a period of environmental stress. The microbial composition of turf did not differ between coral-contacted and non-contacted turfs. However, microbiomes of corals in direct contact with turf were similar to those of the turf microbiome, but differed significantly from coral portions 5 cm from the point of turf/coral contact and from portions of the coral that looked most healthy, regardless of location. Although the majority of significant differences occurred in coral samples at the point of contact, a small subset of microbial taxa was enriched in coral tissues taken 5 cm from turf contact compared to all other sample types, including samples from areas of the coral that appeared most healthy. These results suggest that the coral microbiome is susceptible to colonization by microbes from turf, but not vice versa. Results also suggest that algal contact elicits a subtle shift in the coral microbiome just beyond the contact site. The combination of turf microbiome stability and coral microbiome vulnerability at areas of contact may contribute to the continued decline in coral cover and increase in algal cover associated with coral–algae phase shifts.
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Marine ecosystems provide many services and benefits that directly or indirectly affect human welfare, and designating an marine protected area (MPA) is one of the management strategies for conserving marine ecosystem services. In Taiwan, 28 fishery resource conservation zones (FRCZs, one type of Taiwanese MPA) have been established since 1976, and two FRCZs in Yilan were selected as case studies for this research. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect primary data, and then we employed factor analysis to determine what elements influence the perception of ecosystem services, and we also evaluated the respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP). The empirical results indicated that supporting services are the most important to the people in the study sites, followed by provisioning services. Ecosystem services can be divided into four major categories including ecological and educational services, provisioning services, regulating services and recreational services, and in this study, ecological and educational services accounted for the largest proportion of the perceived benefits. The perception of and WTP for ecosystem services are significantly different across socio-economic backgrounds. According to the findings of this research, government agencies need to adopt the ecosystem service concept; invest in improving the efficiency of management measures, such as ecological and environmental monitoring; develop eco-tourism and conduct environmental education and outreach; and establish an FRCZ fund to enhance financial sustainability.
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Fish communities associated with coral reefs worldwide are threatened by habitat degradation and overexploitation. We assessed coral reefs, mangrove fringes, and seagrass meadows on the Caribbean coast of Panama to explore the influences of their proximity to one another, habitat cover, and environmental characteristics in sustaining biomass, species richness and trophic structure of fish communities in a degraded tropical ecosystem. We found 94% of all fish across all habitat types were of small body size (≤10 cm), with communities dominated by fishes that usually live in habitats of low complexity, such as Pomacentridae (damselfishes) and Gobiidae (gobies). Total fish biomass was very low, with the trend of small fishes from low trophic levels over-represented, and top predators under-represented, relative to coral reefs elsewhere in the Caribbean. For example, herbivorous fishes comprised 27% of total fish biomass in Panama relative to 10% in the wider Caribbean, and the small parrotfish Scarus iseri comprised 72% of the parrotfish biomass. We found evidence that non-coral biogenic habitats support reef-associated fish communities. In particular, the abundance of sponges on a given reef and proximity of mangroves were found to be important positive correlates of reef fish species richness, biomass, abundance and trophic structure. Our study indicates that a diverse fish community can persist on degraded coral reefs, and that the availability and arrangement within the seascape of other habitat-forming organisms, including sponges and mangroves, is critical to the maintenance of functional processes in such ecosystems.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on how coral reef deterioration impacts the well-being of the affected coastal communities. In a macro-level perspective, the chapter discusses 1) how coral reefs socioeconomically benefit humans and 2) how coral reef deterioration impacts humans. This part of the discussion sheds light on several adverse effects of coral reef degradation ranging from reductions in food availability and income to losses of jobs and built capital. In a micro-level perspective, the socioeconomic impact of coral reef degradation on vulnerable coastal communities is illustrated through a case study of the 1998 coral bleaching in Indonesia. The households affected by this bleaching event experienced a large income shock, which translated into reduced protein consumption and impeded child development. The chapter then concludes with two broad policy recommendations drawn from both the macro- and micro-level discussions. First, reef conservation and restoration are economically viable investments due to the immense socioeconomic values of coral reefs. Second, policy interventions are required to mitigate impacts of coral reef degradation on the vulnerable groups and to facilitate the adaptation process.
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Background: The aim of the study was to describe the coral reef condition in Bangka Belitung Islands, particularly from Gaspar Strait. This research location is well known for its underwater archaeological discovery and shipwreck sites. Recent increases in mining, fishing and tourism activities in the surrounding islands might have affected the condition of the coral reef. Methods: Nine islands inside the strait were visited (i.e. Langer, Kembung, Piling, Aur, Salma, Pongok, Celagen, Kelapan, and Lepar Island), and a line transect was used to observed coral reef conditions. Results: Coral cover was found to be predominantly in fair conditions (25-50%). Coral mortality index also tended to be high, which indicated that the coral reef ecosystem was in threatened conditions. Previous and recent reports also reported the same condition as found by this study. Conclusion: Degradation of the coral community in Bangka Belitung Islands is likely caused by human activities. This suggests that increasing human activities significantly affects the coral reef condition. Protection of coral reefs with sustainable management for mining activity, tourism and fishing practices are needed.
Thesis
Les nombreuses pressions naturelles et anthropiques qui pèsent sur les écosystèmes coralliens font craindre leur disparition pour les années futures. Parmi les mesures de conservation, la cryoconservation permet de maintenir en sécurité les échantillons sur le long terme et à coût réduit. Les premiers travaux sur la cryoconservation des Anthozoaires incitent à développer davantage la méthode de vitrification plutôt que la congélation lente. Dans ce contexte, cette thèse propose d'expérimenter la technique de vitrification sur plusieurs formes pluricellulaires dont les apex, les planulae, les polypes primaires, les polypes isolés et les balles tissulaires (TB), toutes issues du Scléractiniaire Pocillopora damicornis. Les meilleurs résultats ont été produits avec les TB obtenues après exposition à une solution de KSW puis traitées selon la méthode V Cryo-plate. L'éthylène glycol (EG) s'est avéré le cryoprotecteur (CPA) le mieux toléré jusqu'à 4.0 M pendant 20 min à température ambiante (RT). Les mélanges binaires et ternaires de CPA ont cependant permis d'obtenir de meilleures tolérances des TB qu'avec les solutions individuelles. L'utilisation de solutions successives a permis d'obtenir des survies jusqu'à 4.5 M selon le protocole : 1.5 M EG + 0.5 M Glycérol (Gly) (5 min, RT) puis 1.5 M DMSO + 1.5 M EG + 1.5 M Gly (10 min, 0°C) et enfin 1.5 M EG + 0.5 M Gly (5 min, RT). L'intégrité des cellules épithéliales de l'ectoderme apparaît essentielle au maintien des TB durant et après les traitements. Si le protocole de vitrification n'a pu être mis au point, en revanche, l'utilisation des TB à des fins de cryoconservation apparaît très intéressante pour de futures investigations.
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Bali provides many potential coral-reef ecosystems as part of the coral triangle, such as the one in the Buleleng Regency. Coral reefs are essential ecosystems for the development of both regions and countries. However, without appropriate conservation efforts, their economic value will be decreased. This paper aims to assess coral-reef ecosystem services in the West Buleleng Conservation Zone (WBCZ), Bali, Indonesia. This research employs the travel cost method, effects on production, replacement cost, benefit transfer methods, and the contingency valuation method. The result of the study is the estimation of the total economic value of the coral-reef ecosystem services in WBCZ that consist of use values (direct, indirect, option) and non-use values (existence, bequest) with a total estimate of approximately US$ 12,114,408/year for the reef area or US$ 18,602/ha/year. This study can raise awareness and encourage people to sustainably manage and conserve coral-reef ecosystems.
Chapter
Protests at the activities of Chinese fishermen, initially referring to the conservation of marine resources, increasingly relied on considerations of biodiversity. Marine biodiversity is extremely important for the Philippines, for both ecological and economic reasons. These may be illustrated with the example of one endangered species, sea turtles, and of one fragile ecosystem, coral reefs. Sea turtles maintain habitat, maintain a balanced food web, cycle nutrients and provide habitat. The collection of their eggs and to a lesser extent, the consumption of meat is vital for marginalized and indigenous communities. Coral reefs provide physical structure services, biotic services, biogeochemical services, and information services. They are sources of living resources and mining materials as well as major tourist attractions. Coral reefs sustain the livelihood of many coastal communities. Hence it is crucial for the Philippines to preserve this fragile ecosystem. Philippine efforts to conserve sea turtles and coral reefs are undermined by the activities of Chinese fishermen and of China itself.
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The Tribunal, agreeing with the Philippines, interpreted Article 192 in such a way as to encompass the protection and preservation of endangered species and fragile ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. In examining Philippine Submissions No. 11 and 12(b), the Tribunal drew on other provisions of Part XII, notably Article 194(5), and on the CBD and CITES. It concluded that China had failed to comply with its due diligence obligation to prevent the harvesting of endangered species, but not that China had failed to prevent dynamite and cyanide fishing. The Tribunal, after examining the reports of independent experts, concluded that China’s construction activities in the Spratly Islands caused devastating and irreversible damage to the marine environment and that China had breached Article 192. China had also breached the obligation to cooperate with other States bordering the South China Sea under Articles 197 and 123 by ignoring their protests at China’s construction activities. The Tribunal, unable to ascertain whether China had carried out an EIA, under Article 206, concluded that China had breached Article 205 by failing to communicate the results of any such assessment.
Article
Due to global climate change, very large areas of reef are susceptible to warming-induced coral bleaching, leaving coral reef stakeholders reliant upon remote sensing forecasts of coral bleaching for estimates of when and where bleaching will occur. Coral bleaching prediction methods, to date based on satellite sensed sea surface temperature, are being developed further to improve the accuracy of predictions. This review examines the coral physiological and bleaching forecasting literature to identify biological and geophysical parameters that explain variance in coral bleaching and knowledge gaps related to the application of this knowledge to bleaching prediction. Identified areas for the advancement of prediction methods include improvements in sea surface temperature product resolution and past datasets, incorporating the influence of UV irradiance on coral bleaching, and locally-varying thermal bleaching thresholds. More empirical data is necessary for some aspects of bleaching prediction development, though the potential exists for gains in predictive skill to be achieved through the implementation of current physiological and remote sensing knowledge.
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Global climate change is leading to damage and loss of coral reef ecosystems. On subtropical Okinawa Island in southwestern Japan, the prefectural government is working on coral reef restoration by outplanting coral colonies from family Acroporidae back to reefs after initially farming colonies inside protected nurseries. In order to establish a baseline for future comparisons, in this study we documented the current status of reefs undergoing outplanting at Okinawa Island, and nearby locations where no human manipulation has occurred. We examined three sites on the coast of Onna Village on the west coast of the island; each site included an outplanted and control location. We used (1) coral rubble sampling to measure and compare abundance and diversity of rubble cryptofauna; and (2) coral reef monitoring using Line Intercept Transects to track live coral coverage. Results showed that rubble shape had a positive correlation with the numbers of animals found within rubble themselves and may therefore constitute a reliable abundance predictor. Each outplanted location did not show differences with the corresponding control location in terms of rubble cryptofauna abundance, but outplanted locations had significantly lower coral coverage. Overall, differences between sites (Maeganeku1, Maeganeku2 and Manza, each including both outplanted and control locations) were significant, for both rubble cryptofauna and coral coverage. We recommend (1) to outplant colonies from more stress-resistant genera in place of Acropora, and (2) to conduct regular surveys to monitor the situation closely. With a lack of baseline data preceding impacts, rigorous monitoring over time can highlight trends towards increases or decreases in evaluated variables, allowing to obtain a clearer idea of the effects of transplants and on the trajectory of impacts due to climate change and local stressors. Finally, we also recommend (3) to establish conservation and sustainable practices that could aid the ongoing restoration efforts such as installing anchoring buoys to reduce impacts from anchoring, which could reduce coral mortality of both outplanted and native coral colonies.
Conference Paper
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Deep learning (DL) is a powerful state-of-the-art technique for image processing techniques include Remote Sensing (RS) images. In this study, we investigated the basic use of Convolutional Neural Network (CNNs) for coral reef (i.e., Acropora spp) classification in high-resolution (i.e., UAV) remote sensing imagery. The coral reef image was accompanied by their ground truth annotations. Coastal ecosystems are complex scenes and hence quite difficult to tackle from a computer vision perspective. This study shows the potential of solving this problem efficiently by yielding the target accuracies more than 91%.
Technical Report
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Volume 9 (2021) of the Universal Journal of Hydraulics by the EU Academy of Sciences (EUAS)
Thesis
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Spatial assessments and mapping of ecosystem service values has become a widely addressed research issue. It is more and more used to consult land-use and conservation policies as well as landscape planning. Nevertheless, a variety of methods is used for ecosystem service value mapping, which lead to maps with a broad range of quality and accuracy. Still, little consensus has been reached on what method to use best for specific applications. This thesis provides guidelines and recommendations for future applications and research in monetary ecosystem service value mapping. Therefore, a broad literature review is presented that identifies current practices and developments in the mapping of EES values. Based on the findings, a best-practice approach for ESS value mapping is proposed that separates between the mapping of ESS supply in biophysical units and the mapping of the economic value per biophysical unit of ESS supply. The proposed approach is implemented and illustrated for recreational ecosystem services of non-urban ecosystems at European scale. Therefore, geostatistical models are developed and applied to predict recreational visitor numbers. In a second step, a spatial meta-analytic-value transfer function is developed and applied to map the monetary value per recreational visit. For both steps, primary data is combined with GIS explanatory variable layers in geostatistical regression analysis (general linear models, mixed models, spatial auto-correlation) to identify the spatial drivers of recreational use and its values. The collection of primary data, the development of spatial GIS predictor layers and the geo-statistical models are elaborated. Recommendations for future applications are given. For primary data of recreational visitor counts the collected data is presented in a geo-database and the relevant literature on visitor counting is reviewed to give recommendations in this domain. The results exemplify how to best map ESS values by incorporating the spatial dimensions of ESS supply and demand.
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The objective of the study is to describe the recent conditions of reef fishes in Ratatotok Peninsula, Southeast Minahasa, North Sulawesi, after the artificial reef (reef ball TM) deployment in 1999. Coral fish colonization has been observed since 2000 in six localities of the reef ball TM deployment. Sixteen years after the deployment, those sites were studied to observe the community structure of the coral fishes. The fish observations were focused in Sicod, Teluk Buyat, Tanjung Buyat, St. III, Segara, and Selat Besar and used SCUBA survey. Coral fishes observed are target fish, major fish, and indicator fish. This study found that all localities showed high diversity of fish genera, and nearly all sites showed low evenness. No genera have dominated the area with high richness in genera. The coral fish community structure in the reef ball has resulted in a new fish community after 16 years of the deployment with increasing coral fish population. Therefore, the use of the artificial reef in the form of reef ball could be a positive way to improve the reef fish condition, particularly in Ratatotok Peninsula.
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The bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus has been implicated in mass mortalities of corals and shellfish larvae. However, using corals for manipulative infection experiments can be logistically difficult compared to other model organisms, so we aimed to establish oyster larvae infections as a proxy model. Therefore, this study assessed the virulence of six wild-type V. coralliilyticus strains, and mutants of one strain with deletions of known virulence factors, between Pacific oyster larvae ( Crassostrea gigas ) and Hawaiian rice coral ( Montipora capitata ) infection systems. The wild-type strains tested displayed variable virulence in each system, but virulence levels between hosts were not necessarily comparable. Strains RE98 and OCN008 maintained a medium to high level of virulence across hosts and appeared to be more generalist pathogens. Strain H1, in contrast, was avirulent towards coral but displayed a medium level of virulence towards oyster larvae. Interestingly, the BAA-450 type strain had a medium level of virulence towards coral and was the least virulent to oyster larvae. A comparison of known virulence factors determined that the flagellum, motility or chemotaxis, all of which play a significant role in coral infections, were not crucial for oyster infections with strain OCN008. A genomic comparison of the newly sequenced strain H1 with the other strains tested identified 16 genes potentially specific to coral pathogens that were absent in H1. This is both the first comparison of various V. coralliilyticus strains across infection systems and the first investigation of a strain that is non-virulent to coral. Our results indicate that the virulence of V. coralliilyticus strains in coral is not necessarily indicative of virulence in oyster larvae, and that the set of genes tested are not required for virulence in both model systems. This study increases our understanding of the virulence between V. coralliilyticus strains and helps assess their potential threat to marine environments and shellfish industries.
Chapter
Throughout the world coral reefs are being degraded at unprecedented rates. Locally, reefs are damaged by pollution, nutrient overload and sedimentation from out-dated land-use, fishing and mining practices. Globally, increased greenhouse gases are warming and acidifying oceans, making corals more susceptible to stress, bleaching and newly emerging diseases. The coupling of climate change impacts and local anthropogenic stressors has caused a widespread and well-recognized reef crisis. While the establishment and enforcement of marine protected areas and preventing the acceleration of climate change are essential to management of these stressors, the inexorable impacts of climate change will continue to cause declines in genetic diversity and population viability. Gamete cryopreservation has already acted as an effective insurance policy to maintain the genetic diversity of many wildlife species, and has now begun to be explored and applied to coral conservation. Cryopreservation can act to preserve reef biodiversity and genetic diversity. To date, we have had a great deal of success with cryopreserving sperm from ~30 coral species of coral species. Moreover, we are creating the basic science to freeze and thaw coral larvae that can soon be used to help secure and restore reefs. Building on these successes, we have established genetic banks using frozen samples and use those samples to help mitigate threats to the Great Barrier Reef and other areas.
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Land development ranks among the most significant human threats to coral reefs, causing damage by promoting the erosion and transport of soil - called sediment once suspended in water. We studied the impacts of sediment on the coral communities of St. Lucia following a tropical storm. We found more sediment and coral damage on reefs closest to the mouths of large rivers. Coral mortality exceeded 50% at some sites, and the degree of coral mortality and bleaching depended on the amount of sediment at the site. Despite exemplary efforts by engineers to reduce erosion rates, we found more sediment at sites near a road under construction at the time of the storm. Collectively, our data demonstrated a major negative impact of land development on coral reefs, a problem likely to grow in scale given the growing demands for developed land and the recent frequency of large storms in the tropical Atlantic.
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The year 1998, was the warmest year since the start of temperature recordings some 150 years ago. Similarly, the 1990s have been the warmest decade recorded. In addition, 1998 saw the strongest El Nino ever recorded. As a consequence of this, very high water temperatures were observed in many parts of the oceans, particularly in the tropical Indian Ocean, often with temperatures of 3°to 5°C above normal. Many corals in this region bleached and subsequently died, probably due to the high water temperatures in combination with meteorological and climatic factors. Massive mortality occurred on the reefs of Sri Lanka, Maldives, India, Kenya, Tanzania, and Seychelles with mortalities of up to 90% in many shallow areas. Reefs in other parts of the Indian Ocean, or in waters below 20 m, coral mortality was typically 50%. Hence, coral death during 1998 was unprecedented in severity. The secondary socioeconomic effects of coral bleaching for coastal communities of the Indian Ocean are likely to be long lasting and severe. In addition to potential decreases in fish stocks and negative effects on tourism, erosion may become an acute problem, particularly in the Maldives and Seychelles. If the observed global trends in temperature rises continue, there will be an increased probability of a recurrence of the phenomenon observed in 1998 on the coral reefs of the Indian Ocean, as well as in other parts of the tropical oceans in coming years. Coral reefs of the Indian Ocean may prove to be an important signal of the potential effects of global climate change, and we should heed that warning.
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Marine parks are increasingly being established to protect endangered marine ecosystems and the biological diversity that they support. Trade-offs exist between protection and use, and ways must be found to produce economic benefits from marine areas while still yielding protection benefits, a question of particular importance to poorer countries that can ill afford to forego development benefits by enforcing strict protection measures. This paper examines these issues in the context of Caribbean marine parks. A number of countries that have established marine protected areas also rely on ocean-based tourism as an important, sometimes central, component of their economy. Can protection and direct use be compatible? Bonaire Marine Park is examined in some detail and monetary estimates are presented. Initial results indicate that proper management can yield both protection and development benefits but questions of ecosystem carrying capacity and national retention of revenues raise important issues for longer term sustainability. -Authors
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This paper critiques the process and motives for the establishment of the Mafia isnald Marine Park (MIMP). The paper explores conservation advantages and disadvantages of the establishment of the Park and the use of the World Conservation Union/Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (IUCN/GBRMP) paradigm for its management. The premise that the project was a model of community participation and represents a new approach is challenged. The management of two key environmental threats (dynamite fishing and coral mining) are used to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of transposing conservation and management paradigms from developed countries to developing countries.
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1. This study investigated the effects of trampling by scuba divers and snorkellers on reef-flats of coral reefs near Sharm-el-Sheikh, a popular resort in Egypt. 2. There were significantly more damaged coral colonies and loose fragments of live coral in heavily-trampled than in little-trampled areas. Percentage cover of bare rock and rubble was also significantly greater; conversely, numbers of hard coral colonies and total percentage live coral cover were lower. 3. Coral colonies were smaller in trampled compared to control areas, with average height and diameter significantly less in heavily-trampled areas. An area regularly visited by snorkellers exhibited intermediate effects. 4. Coral species composition and the relative abundances of different coral growth forms did not appear to be affected by trampling. 5. Several of the effects detected differed between outer and middle zones of the reef-flat, suggesting that some communities were more vulnerable to trampling than others. 6. In addition to causing biological damage, trampling reduced the aesthetic appeal of the reef-flat for tourists. An effecttive management strategy might therefore be to contain trampling within narrow areas rather than allowing free access by divers.
Chapter
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Because fisheries management involves the regulation of human activities, it should properly be considered a social science. Unfortunately, social aspects of management have been largely neglected compared with natural science investigations of the population biology of harvested organisms. Tropical reef fisheries suffer from the ‘tragedy of the commons’ wherein individuals stand to gain by exceeding equitable levels of use of a common resource. This effect is exacerbated in areas subject to escalating popula tion pressures, an increasingly large proportion of the developing world, where alternative livelihoods are unavailable or are economically un attractive. In many areas, population expansion and poverty have led to Malthusian overfishing, where fishers initiate wholesale resource destruc tion in order to maintain their livelihoods in the face of declining stocks. The behaviour of fishers under these circumstances often follows the pre dictions of a simple bioeconomic fixed-price model. In this model, profit from catch follows a parabola with increasing fishing effort and is inter sected by a cost curve which rises linearly. The point at which the curves intersect is the bionomic equilibrium point, and occurs at the level of fishing effort at which no net profit is possible, a level at which the stock is seriously overfished. In areas with abundant unemployed labour, new entrants are attracted to a fishery until the bionomic equilibrium is reached. At a societal level, the greatest net profit from a fishery can be obtained when fishing is restricted to the level wherein the difference between the gross profit and cost curves is the greatest. This point is termed the maximum economic yield (MEY) and generally lies well to the left of the maximum gross profit point. The latter point corresponds to the maximum sustainable yield of the Schaefer model. Numerous studies of reef fisheries suggest that the MEY lies at approximately 40% of the fishing effort level of the bionomic equilibrium point. Many intensively exploited reef fisheries could thus benefit from a 60% reduction in effort, usually through a reduction in numbers of fishers. Implementing effective management is difficult and must be based on a thorough understanding of the interacting ecological, sociocultural and economic systems. This generally requires one or more years of intensive study prior to the formulation of a strategy, and should include the affected community in a close and substantive way. I summarize some guidelines for the effective acquisition of economic and sociological data in coral reef settings. Management will rarely be effective without community participation but most management strategies will need to mix both ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ elements. Devising effective management strategies in the future will require the collaborative efforts of social and natural sci entists, each aware of the basics of the others’ specialities, and each con tributing to assist human communities dependent on reefs to ensure the sustainability of their resources.
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The Spratly Islands encompass a dense system of several hundred coral reefs in the most biodiverse of the world's seas. They serve as breeding grounds for a wide variety of organisms. A study of pelagic larval survival times and current patterns indicates that they may supply recruiting organisms for marine ecosystems throughout the South China Sea. Strategic concerns and vague possibilities of hydrocarbon deposits have led to military build-up in the area, resulting in violent confrontations and environmental stress. Future oil drilling could have widespread impacts. A more sustainable-use strategy would be to freeze current claims on the islands and establish an international marine park. Such a park could generate on the order of USD 1B annually from tourism. Carefully managed, the park would safeguard substantially-sized populations of tens of thousands of species, and help to ensure a steady supply of recruits to regional fisheries. -from Author
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A literature review of the use of underwater explosives indicated that the largest lethal zone for swimbladder fishes is located near the surface of the water. Mortality in this zone is due to rupture of the swimbladder from negative pressure induced by cavitation of the near-surface water volume from a subsurface explosion. Observational studies of blast fishing in the Philippines indicated that valuable pelagic species rather than typical coral reef species were the primary targets. Empirical data on the extent of various destructive fishing practices (blast fishing, anchor damage, and use of poisons), as well as coral regrowth estimates, provided inputs to a nomographic model of the reef ecosystem. The model provided time graphs of fish diversity and the amount of coral regrowth under various conditions. The results of the simulation model studies indicated that the sum of all current destructive practices was sufficient to continue loss of diversity and loss of live coral cover for about 25 yr before any recovery was expected. On the other hand a reduction in the rate of destructive fishing to about 30% of the current level would permit continuing slow recovery of both diversity and live coral cover. Available observational information suggests that this might best be accomplished by attempting to eliminate the use of poisons (such as cyanide) in reef areas and reducing anchor damage in addition to reducing blast fishing in coral areas. The probable effects of the latter may have been overemphasized in the past.
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In 1986-1987 an intertidal reef flat at Phuket, Thailand was subject to increased sedimen-tation from a 9 mo dredging operation. Reef corals showed as much as a 30 YO reduction in living coral cover 1 yr after the start of dredging. Species diversity (measured as the Shannon Weaver indices H'c and H'n) also showed a significant decline at this time. In particular the dominant coral species on the reef, Porites lutea, suffered considerable mortality as a result of increased sedimentation. After the event, the reef recovered rapidly with coral cover values and diversity indices restored to former levels ca 22 mo after dredging began. No significant change in the linear growth rate, skeletal density and calcification of P lutea was detected by the methods adopted in this study. Our results indicate that caution should be adopted in the use of retrospective coral growth rate analysis to diagnose the demise of a reef.
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MARINE BIODIVERS1TY is increasingly threatened by habitat destruction, environmental changes, and overexploitation. Preventing reductions in biodi-versity and promoting sustainable resource use re-quires new management strategies, more effective education, and strong research. There is a need to switch to less destructive and wasteful fishing methods to protect critical and sensitive habitats from development and overexploitation. Marine reserves, areas permanently protected from all ex-tractive uses, are gaining widespread attention as an innovative tool for conserving biodiversity while maintaining healthy sustainable fisheries. Ef-fective use of marine reserves requires the integra-tion of scientific disciplines in fisheries, oceanog-raphy, computer science, system analysis, ecology, genetics, social science, and conservation. Marine reserves are an essential element of the draft man-agement plan for the Florida Keys National Ma-rine Sanctuary. The Sanctuary presents a unique opportunity to elucidate the relative impacts of fisheries exploitation and oceanographic processes in determining the biodiversity and abundance of reef organisms. Cooperative academic and govern-mental research will test critical scientific hypothe-ses in order to improve the state-of-the-art in ma-rine resource management.
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The Marine Conservation Project for San Salvador Island, Zambales (MCPSS) was initiated in 1988. The primary goal was to organize a community‐based marine resource management scheme for the island community. This paper provides an overview of the MCPSS, a profile of the site, the means of implementation, and results from the first 2 years of work with lessons for similar programs. The MCPSS has succeeded in establishing a municipal marine park with a 125‐ha nonfishing sanctuary and a traditional fishing reserve surrounding the island. These zones have been established through a process of community education, organization, and participatory decision making which resulted in a municipal ordinance and community support. The MCPSS, although encountering various obstacles of local island politics, technical deficiencies, and limited funding, has shown that it is possible to engage island communities of fisherfolk in coral reef protection and management that may be sustainable. It has abo been shown that the use of destructive fishing techniques such as blast, sodium cyanide, and others particular to the site can be stopped by community action.
Article
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Coastal areas in the tropics are increasingly being developed for tourism. The combined natural features of beaches, coral reefs, warm marine waters and often a friendly culture of people, offer desirable destinations for many travelers. Although coastal tourism generates substantial economic benefits to local and national economies, the trade-off of such development is usually degradation of coastal environment. Poor environmental planning and lack of consideration of social-cultural issues are usual causes. This article examines the case of Hikkaduwa town and marine sanctuary, Sri Lanka, where tourism development has nearly ruined the coastal environment. Integrated coastal management in Sri Lanka through a community-based 'Special Area Management' (SAM) plan for Hikkaduwa is examined. The ongoing and proposed management actions required to solve the environmental and social problems are analyzed in a cost-benefit framework. Financial, social-economic and environmental economic analyses for a 20-year project life all strongly support investment in SAM plan implementation. Untapped consumer surplus of visitors to Hikkaduwa has a large potential to contribute to costs. To ensure sustainability of tourism and resources, policies on how to finance plan implementation through profit sharing and locally collected fees are suggested.
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Indonesia's coral reefs are currently undergoing rapid destruction from human activities including: poison fishing; blast fishing; coral mining; sedimentation; pollution and overfishing. In this paper, these destructive activities are described and the private gains from these activities accruing to individuals are compared with the associated costs to society. It is shown that the social costs by far outweigh the short-term private gains. Yet, powerful forces have a clear interest in maintaining the status quo of destruction. These forces vary from high risk, high payoff poison fishing to poverty-trap activities such as coral mining. The paper concludes with a discussion on designing appropriate policy responses such as: local threat-based approach; national threat-based approach; integrated coastal zone management; and the use of marine protected areas.
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Increasing use of marine protected areas for pursuits such as recreational scuba diving may lead to biological damage and reduced amenity values in popular locations. The relationships between biological and amenity values are discussed and the work of Dixonet al. (1993, Meeting ecological and economic goals: marine parks in the Caribbean.Ambio22, 117–125) on allocating divers between sites is extended. It is concluded that the carrying capacity concept and the critical thresholds approach are constrained by a number of limitations on their effectiveness as resource management tools. The optimal allocation of users between recreational dive sites is, subsequently, examined and the potential application of economic instruments to achieve such an allocation is assessed. It is concluded that a judicious blend of regulation and the use of economic instruments will be required to overcome open access and boundary problems, and will provide for better overall management of popular marine recreational sites than is presently the case. Education will also have a significant role to play by increasing environmental awareness and reducing the damaging impacts caused by users of those popular sites.
Article
The Houtman Abrolhos reefs of Western Australia are the southernmost coral reef platforms in the Indian Ocean. Until recently, the sustained yield of the lucrative fishery for the Western rock lobster was the primary goal of management. Increasing pressure from conservation groups has led to the consideration of more equitable management goals, which acknowledge the non-commercial values of the entire reef ecosystems. Using a combined ecological and anthropological approach to management-oriented research, structure was classified at spatial scales determined by patterns of human use of the reefs' resources. The unusual oceanographic conditions and juxtaposition of marine communities at the Abrolhos results in a dynamic and diverse biotic mosaic which is highly productive, educational, attractive, and in the case of coral communities, fragile. By overlapping maps of ecological units and fishing effort intensity, specific areas of potential conflict between user groups were identified, providing managers with information relevant to zoning decisions. This study, which was sensitive to the human component of the ecosystem, can provide a basis for equitable management of the Abrolhos reefs, at least partially defusing the confrontation between two major interest groups. -from Authors
Article
A 12-month study was conducted on recruitment patterns in two locations on Taa Reef, northern Tanzania. Since one of the sites had been severely damaged by dynamite fishing, the central aim was to examine any impact that this might have had on coral recruitment. Results showed a strong seasonality in recruitment with peak recruitment occurring in April at both sites. The peak in recruitment coincided with the peak in water temperature, and low sedimentation rate. A significant difference was observed between sites experiencing different degrees of coral damage, with higher recruitment occurring at the least disturbed site suggesting that recruitment rate was influenced by coral cover. Significant differences were also observed in the distribution of recruits between the upper and lower surfaces of the settling tiles used in the study, with coral larvae preferring to settle on the lower surfaces. Overall, dynamite fishing at Taa Reef appears to have had a major impact due to the removal of viable seed populations of corals. This has decreased the supply of recruits for recolonization of the damaged areas. In addition to recruitment levels, other factors such as sedimentation rates and competition for space with other organisms were also examined, but these did not appear to play a major role in determining recruitment levels at the study sites.
Article
From an extensive survey of the marine resource users in the area it was possible to examine the perception and expectations of the various communities. The study also demonstrated that local involvement can be of great value in finding viable solutions with regard to issues such as economic incentives, alternatives to destructive activities, education and compensation. -from Authors
Article
Some features of underdevelopment in Third World countries are reviewed with emphasis on their impact on fisheries and fisheries management. Poverty in rural communities is highlighted as the key issue preventing rational management of tropical inshore fisheries and shown to be - along with (misguided) export-oriented development strategies - the root cause for destructive fishing techniques and environmental degradation. Some implications for modelling are outlined. A reorientation of investments towards job creation in fish-erfolk and other rural communities is advocated as the key aspect of any solution of fisheries problems in Third World countries.
Article
Reviews the effects of long-term protective management on fish abundances at coral-reef reserves and nonreserves and on fish yields at nonreserves at four small islands in the central Philippines. Factors influencing fish yields and management problems affecting Philippine marine reserves are briefly discussed. The data revealed that protection at the ten-year site was responsible for maintaining high fish yields; it was also shown that the reserve exported biomass to the nonreserve (fishing) area. The effects of less than five years' protection at two other reefs were not evident; although some species increased in abundance. -from Author
Article
Fisheries on coral reefs are highly complex, can be very productive, but typically have little or no management. Use of marine reserves has been suggested as an approach. Protective management potentially has several important benefits including protection of spawning stocks; provision of recruits to replenish fishing grounds; enhancement of catches in adjacent unprotected areas through emigration; minimal requirement for information on biology of stocks; and ease of enforcement. We evaluate the evidence available to test whether reserves function as predicted on theoretical grounds. In general, field studies from widespread sites around the globe support predictions of increases in abundance and average size of fishes in protected areas. However, evidence for enhanced catches in adjacent areas is more limited. Protective management appears to hold much promise for low-cost management of reef fisheries. -from Authors
Article
Recreational scuba diving has generally been perceived as an activity with low environmental impact. With the rapid growth in popularity of diving, concerns have arisen that some heavily-dived sites may have diver visitation rates approaching the limit of ecological sustainability. The potential impacts of divers were assessed in underwater surveys at four major dive-sites in Eastern Australia. Recreational divers were followed for 30 minutes, and all contacts with and damage to the substratum or biota were recorded. Information on diver qualifications and experience was collected. The mean number of contacts with the substratum per 30 minute dive at each site ranged from 35 to 121, with a maximum of 304 in a single dive. The majority of contacts were made with fins. Breakage of coral ranged from an average of 0.6 per dive to 1.9 per dive. Most divers damaged no coral, but a small minority of divers broke between 10 and 15 corals each per 30 minute dive. The level of damage to the sites studied appeared to be sustainable at present levels of use by divers. However, at intensively dived, coral-dominated sites, the potential exists for considerable environmental impact as the number of recreational divers increases beyond present levels.
Article
A brief review of marine fishery development in Southeast Asia is given, with emphasis on the phase of rapid growth of catches that prevailed in the 1960s-1970s, and on the high expectations this phase generated, especially in the six countries that make up ASEAN. The problems of the 1980s are related to stagnating or even declining catches and serious environmental problems in coastal zones, aggravated by above-average growth of coastal populations. Environmental interventions are proposed as necessary complements to any fishery-management or pollution-control scheme. -from Authors
Article
This article identifies ecological goods and services of coral reef ecosystems, with special emphasis on how they are generated. Goods are divided into renewable resources and reef mining. Ecological services are classified into physical structure services, biotic services, biogeochemical services, information services, and social/cultural services. A review of economic valuation studies reveals that only a few of the goods and services of reefs have been captured. We synthesize current understanding of the relationships between ecological services and functional groups of species and biological communities of coral reefs in different regions of the world. The consequences of human impacts on coral reefs are also discussed, including loss of resilience, or buffer capacity. Such loss may impair the capacity for recovery of coral reefs and as a consequence the quality and quantity of their delivery of ecological goods and services. Conserving the capacity of reefs to generate essential services requires that they are managed as components of a larger seascape-landscape of which human activities are seen as integrated parts.
Article
The application of no-take marine-reserve status to an area is expected to increase spawning-stock biomass of species targeted by fisheries, and to help sustain fish- eries external to the reserve. However, empirical evidence on rates and patterns of increase of density and biomass of target species following closures to fishing, and of decrease when reserve status is removed, remains rare. We have monitored density and biomass of large predatory coral-reef fish (Serranidae (Epinephelinae), Lutjanidae, Lethrinidae, and Car- angidae, as a group) visually in two small no-take marine reserves and at two control (open to fishing) sites in the Philippines from 1983 to 2000. At Sumilon reserve a complex history of management allowed 13 measurements of density and biomass at durations of reserve protection of 23 yr (i.e., fished for 3 years after reserve status removed) to 9 yr. At Apo reserve 13 measurements were taken at durations of protection of 1-18 yr. We recorded 11 significant (P , 0.05) changes in density at the four sites over the 17 years, three declines and eight increases. All three significant declines occurred when reserve protection was removed. Four of the eight significant increases occurred when reserve status was applied. This represents some of the best evidence currently available that application of marine-reserve status causes increases in abundance of target species. Three of the four significant increases in density required 4-6 yr of protection. Significant positive linear correlations of mean density of large predators against years of reserve protection were observed at both reserves. The pattern of increase of mean biomass against years of reserve protection was exponential, with biomass initially increasing more slowly than density. Density and biomass increased by factors of 12.2 and 17.3, respectively, during 18 yr of continuous protection in Apo reserve. At Sumilon Island three bouts of unregulated fishing of 1.5-3 yr duration eliminated density and biomass gains accumulated over 5-9 yr of marine reserve protection.
Article
High population densities of larger fish within reserves could result in emigration of fish to surrounding non-reserve areas, producing a gradient of abundance and mean size across the reserve boundaries. The difference in fish abundance and size between reserve and non-reserve should be higher for sedentary than for mobile species and for highly catchable than for less catchable species. To test these hypotheses we estimated the abundance and size of fishes by trapping and visual census on fringing reefs in Barbados: 5 reefs within the 2.2 km of the Barbados Marine Reserve (BMR) and 8 reefs in the non-reserve (NR) area within 4 km of the reserve boundaries. The abundance of large, trappable size fish of all species combined was higher in the BMR than in the NR, but abundance of small, nontrappable fish did not differ between BMR and NR. Trap catches decreased gradually with distance from the BMR center, but this gradient of abundance was less evident in visual census counts of trappable size fishes of all species combined, and not apparent in trap or visual census estimates of abundance for individual species. Mean size was larger in the BMR than in the NR for 18 out of 24 species. The relative differences in both abundance and size between BMR and NR did not differ between mobile and sedentary fish taxa. However, for sedentary taxa, the relative differences in abundance and size increased with trappability (the vulnerability to traps, which are the most common fishing method). These patterns suggest that the BMR does protect the fish community from fishing mortality and that emigration rates are generally low. Trappability and mobility depend on complex behavioral characteristics of fishes and are potentially important for the functioning of marine reserves.
Article
Despite a vast body of traditional knowledge on management of marine resources in the tropics there are few direct tests, utilizing manipulative or natural experiments, of the effect of protective management on the abundance of marine resources and, more importantly, their yield. This paper reports on a natural experiment which makes such a direct test. Approximately 25% of the sub-tidal coral reef of Sumilon Island in the central Philippines was protected from all forms of exploitation from 1974 until May 1984. Cessation of protective management led to fishing of the entire coral reef. This resulted in a significant reduction in abundance within the previously protected area of the fishes which constituted the majority of the yield from the reef. There was a decline of 54% in the total yield of reef fishes from Sumilon Island reef between 1983/1984 and 1985/1986 despite the fact that only 75% of the reef was fished in 1983/1984. Protective management maintained high abundances of fishes in the reserve and significantly higher yields to fishermen from areas adjacent to the reserve. -from Authors
Article
The value of coral reefs has been established on the basis of their high diversity, valuable resources, and recreational and aesthetic amenities. Coral reef ecosystems are being destroyed by a plethora of events including coastal development, overfishing, and the exploitation of biological products. The selection of coral reef preserves can be made on the basis of location, size, optimal yield and linkage. Areas to be considered can be assessed by biological, economic and sociological research. The economic value of each preserve can be estimated. User conflicts can be identified and a series of priorities can be established. Alternative sites can be compared using a powerful decisionmaking process (multi-attribute utility analysis). The selected preserves can be treated as a multiple-use resource and can be divided into user habitats for total preservation, exploitation, recreation, and research and education. Permits and fees, research, monitoring, enforcement, and public information and awareness play an important role in the success of the establishment of coral reef preserves.