Article

Strategies That Work: Teaching Comprehension to Enhance Understanding

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Literature, both fiction and nonfiction, is rife with themes. Books and articles rarely promote just one main idea but rather several themes for readers to ponder and infer. When we talk to students about themes, we help them discern the difference between theme and plot. We explain that the plot is simply what happens in the narrative. The themes represent the bigger ideas of the story. The plot carries those ideas along. To demonstrate plot, we choose a simple narrative that everyone is likely to be familiar with. We might recount the plot of Goldilocks and the Three Bears by summarizing the events of the story as follows. A girl named Goldilocks was wandering through the forest and entered an unfamiliar, empty house. She tasted porridge that didn't belong to her, broke a chair, and slept in a bed that wasn't hers. She was caught when the bears returned, and she ran out of the house scared to death. We explain to our students that themes are the underlying ideas, morals, and lessons that give the story its tex-ture, depth, and meaning. The themes are rarely written out in the story. We infer themes. Themes often make us feel angry, sad, guilty, joyful, frightened. We tell kids that we are likely to feel themes in our gut. To help students more clearly understand the difference, we might ask, "What are the bigger ideas in Goldilocks and the Three Bears?" Kids tend to identify taking things that don't belong to you, selfishness, thoughtlessness, and so on. They have experienced these notions and they understand them.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Furthermore, two publications, Strategies That Work: Teaching Comprehension to Enhance Understanding by Harvey and Goudvis (2000) and Reading Practices with Deaf Learners by McAnally, Rose, and Quigley (2007), were used, particularly for practical matters concerning actual reading strategy instruction and the actual content of the individual strategies. The following sections of the paper briefly present selected strategies and describe the actual implementation of interventions with three individual participants. ...
... When readers ask themselves questions related to the content of the text, it helps them differentiate between what they already know and what they want to learn. Harvey and Goudvis (2000) state that making this distinction enables readers to structure and direct the reading process, to determine the aim(s) of further reading, and to check their understanding. Particularly within school environments, where answers seem to be more important than questions as questions are mostly asked to test knowledge, it is important to emphasize that there is no learning without asking questions, that asking questions is just as important as giving answers, and that not all questions need to be or can be answered. ...
... Predictions are made about events and outcomes and can be confirmed or disconfirmed later in the text. In contrast, inferences are made about themes and ideas and are not confirmed by further reading of the text (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000). ...
Full-text available
Book
When teachers or researchers of deaf and hard-of-hearing language learners come together, one of the issues discussed is always their feeling of isolation and the need for coming together more frequently to share ideas and experiences. This is what happened at the 12th Conference of the European Society for the Study of English (ESSE) in Kosice in 2014 as well. The initiative of Ewa Domagala-Zyśk to have a separate section on hearing impaired learners of English within this huge international event received eager support from all contacted colleagues from France to Norway or Serbia. The special seminar entitled English as a Foreign Language for Students with Special Educational Needs – Exceptional English for Exceptional Learners? and convened by Ewa Domagała-Zyśk and Edit H. Kontra was a great success and the enthusiasm of the participants gave birth to the idea of publishing their presented topics as fully-fledged articles in an edited book and making it accessible to the wider community of teachers and researchers working in the field. When teachers tell their stories it soon turns out that the challenges are the same or very similar, and this in itself can give support. Sharing the responses to challenges and the worked-out solutions to the problems leads not only to adding a few new items to each teacher’s individual resource pack, but the process of discussing issues with other professionals may also give birth to further ideas and new initiatives. The feeling of isolation of those involved in teaching foreign languages to hearing impaired language learners and of those who embark on investigating this process comes from the special circumstances of hearing impaired persons and their education. Deaf and severely hard-of-hearing persons are not only special needs learners; they have a special history, they are special linguistically, culturally and socially. They need foreign languages just as their hearing peers if they want to enjoy the same benefits of technical advancement and globalization of our times, yet they cannot take part in the same foreign language (FL) education: the approaches, methods and materials developed and teachers trained for hearing learners are inadequate6. In the past few years, English has undoubtedly become the most frequently learnt and used foreign language in Europe, and not without a reason. According to data published in the 2012 Special Eurobarometer 386 (http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_386_en.pdf), English is the most widely spoken foreign language in most of the member states. What is more, 67% of the people asked in the countries of EU27 consider English the most useful language for their development and career and 79% think their children should learn it. Three quarters of Europeans maintain that improvement in foreign language skills should be a policy priority. It is also important to note that an overwhelming majority, 68% have voted for the school as the best place to learn a foreign language as opposed to taking classes at a language school (15%), from a private tutor (9%) or doing self-study (12%). These figures give strong support to the argument that teaching foreign languages especially English to hearing impaired students at various educational institutions should receive much more attention than before so that deaf and hard-of- hearing children, adolescents and adults can enjoy the same benefits of foreign language skills as their hearing peers. According to the website of the World Federation of the Deaf (www.wfdeaf.org), currently there are approximately 70 million deaf people in the world, who have fought long and hard for equal opportunities in every sphere of life including education. Response to their needs has come from two fundamentally different directions. One tendency has been to close the gap between deaf and hearing learners by reducing the effects of hearing loss with the application of highly developed technical devices and by intensive training in speech thus fostering the integration of hearing impaired people into the majority society. In the past few decades, however, there has been a body of research promoting the cultural view of deafness, according to which Deaf people with a capital D constitute a linguistic and cultural minority whose native or first language is their national sign language: a fully legitimate, natural, visual-gestural language which has its own extensive vocabulary and complex grammar. As a result, today more and more states officially recognize the rights of Deaf and severely hard-of-hearing students to bilingual-bicultural education, which many believe provides a better base for foreign language learning as well. This edited volume includes studies influenced by both traditions. Instead of reconciling the differences or establishing a neutral mean, each author presents their research and methodological suggestions based on the views about deafness that they identify with.
... Harvey & Goudvis, 2000;Al-Zahrani & Al- Bargi, 2017), as a strategy(Harvey & Goudvis, 2000; Fries-Gather, 2008, Davoudi & Sadeghi, 2015, or as a teaching tool (Tofade, 2013; Elsner & Haines, 2013). The fact of assigning different names to refer 2nd International Congress on the Didactics of the English Language. ...
... Harvey & Goudvis, 2000;Al-Zahrani & Al- Bargi, 2017), as a strategy(Harvey & Goudvis, 2000; Fries-Gather, 2008, Davoudi & Sadeghi, 2015, or as a teaching tool (Tofade, 2013; Elsner & Haines, 2013). The fact of assigning different names to refer 2nd International Congress on the Didactics of the English Language. ...
Full-text available
Book
Este libro abarca las memorias del 2do Congreso Internacional de Didáctica de la Lengua Inglesa, convocado por la Escuela de Lingüística Aplicada de la PUCESE. El congreso es una iniciativa importante para mejorar la calidad de la enseñanza del inglés en la provincia de Esmeraldas. En este congreso se han abordado aspectos importantes como el de la motivación para aprender la lengua inglesa, relevante para el desarrollo formativo de los estudiantes, más necesario en la medida que se avanza en el nivel de estudios, en una provincia que se visibiliza a sí misma con gran potencial turístico. Se aborda también la importancia de hacer uso de la tecnología para mejorar la motivación y la didáctica, así como experiencias concretas que permiten subrayar la necesidad de actualización de los docentes. También se ha abordado la inclusión en la enseñanza del inglés en ámbitos de interculturalidad, señalando que las metodologías de aprendizaje tienen que ser adecuadas al contexto cultural y social.
... Goeie lesers gebruik bepaalde leesstrategieë om hulle te help verstaan wat hulle lees en kan dan daardie kennis gebruik om verbindings te maak (Harvey en Goudvis 2007). Sukkelende lesers beweeg dikwels deur 'n teks sonder om te stop en te bepaal of hulle verstaan wat hulle gelees het. ...
... Leerders moet hul eie kennis saam met inligting uit die teks gebruik om tot gevolgtrekkings te kom (Serafini 2012:153). Deur afleidings te maak kan leerders gevolgtrekkings en voorspellings maak, onderliggende temas identifiseer, inligting gebruik om betekenis uit die teks te skep en prente gebruik om betekenis te skep (Harvey en Goudvis 2007). Leerders kan verskeie strategieë aanleer om hulle te help om afleidings te maak, soos om van illustrasies, grafieke, prente, datums, verwante woordeskat en titels uit die teks gebruik te maak. ...
Full-text available
Article
Opsomming In die lig van die swak leessituasie in Suid-Afrika toon verskeie studies dat lees 'n belangrike vaardigheid is om aan die eise van die 21ste eeu te voldoen. Hierdie navorsingsartikel behels eerstens die fasilitering van leesstrategieë aan intermediêrefaseleerders aan die hand van multi-modale koeranttekste (e-koerante ingesluit) ten einde die leerders tot selfgerigte lesers te ontwikkel, en tweedens die voorstel van riglyne aan taalonderwysers vir hoe om dit te doen. 'n Literatuurstudie en dokumentanalise is binne die interpretivistiese navorsingsparadigma onderneem om die sleutelkonsepte van hierdie navorsing te ondersoek. Die Progress in International Reading Literacy (PIRLS)-verslag (Howie, Combrinck, Roux, Tshele, Mokoena en McLeod Palane 2017) en die Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS)-verslag (Jerrim en Sims 2019) is ondersoek. Indien hierdie swak PIRLS-uitslae asook die TALIS-opname in ag geneem word, is dit duidelik dat die leeskultuur in Suid-Afrika, veral onder graad 4-leerders, problematies is en moet verbeter. Die Departement van Onderwys poog wel om 'n leeskultuur in Suid-Afrika te skep. Vervolgens is die Nasionale Kurrikulum-en Assesseringsbeleidsverklaring (DBO 2011), Nasionale Leesstrategie-dokument, Read to Lead-veldtog (DBO 2015 2019) asook Nal'ibali-veldtog (Nal'ibali 2019), wat geloods is in pogings om die leessituasie in Suid-Afrika te verbeter, ondersoek. Vir die doeleindes van hierdie artikel word navorsing, wat in 2020 afgehandel is en die gebruik van die koerant as multimodale hulpmiddel 1 in die intermediêretaalklas 2 ondersoek het, bespreek. Strauss (2020) het binne 'n lesreeks leesstrategieë, aan die hand van multimodale lees-en kyktekste volgens die konstruktivistiese onderrigleerteorie, gefasiliteer. Die doel hiervan was om intermediêrefaseleerders tot selfgerigte lesers te ontwikkel. Die leesmetodes wat in die KABV (DBO 2011) voorgeskryf word, is bestudeer om die verband tussen selfgerigte lees en selfstandige lees duidelik te stel. Om te kon bepaal of intermediêrefaseleerders (Huistaal),
... This strategy helps students to clarify their doubts about what they have read and to monitor their level of reading comprehension. In this context, Harvey and Goudvis (2000) stated that asking questions is a useful strategy that allows readers to construct meaning, to increase their understanding, and to find information and solutions. In addition, questioning can be used to assist the students at any stage of the reading process (before, during, and after reading). ...
Full-text available
Book
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... We had practiced evaluating website content, bias, and word choice to determine if a site was appropriate for a fifth grader. We also had practiced reading to sift through and sort information from various sources, both print and digital (Harvey and Goudvis, 2007). We had discussed how to take one bit of information and confirm it or connect it with other ideas or with our own background knowledge. ...
... In the SBI classroom, the learners were encouraged to relate their newly gained textual knowledge to their relevant schemata, draw inferences, skim and scan the text, ignore irrelevant parts, and regard signal words to grasp the author's intentions. Similarly, it has been asserted that accomplished readers decide which parts to read and which to ignore (Poole, 2014), relate the text to what they already know (Duke & Pearson, 2002), regard what is important and what is stated implicitly (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007), understand the gist, draw inferences, identify the author's purpose, and bridge the gap between the text and their background knowledge (Shanahan, 2012). ...
... Many studies have characterized a common set of strategies that promote reading achievement: activating background knowledge, summarizing, making a prediction, monitoring and clarifying, asking questions, thinking, problem-solving and monitoring understanding, finding out answers, visualizing or imaging, and making connections (Harvey & Goudvis, 2000). To illustrate, strategical reading is higher-order thinking as information and ideas are required to transform like summarizing needs evaluating and synthesizing information; making predictions engages connecting facts and ideas and making inferences to create a kind of assumption; making connection involves making generalization; and clarifying initiates problem-finding and problem-solving (Trabasso & Bouchard, 2002). ...
Full-text available
Article
The research aimed to develop the reading process and comprehension through extensive reading of 30 English major freshmen students conducted at Lampang Rajabhat University, Thailand, in the academic year of 2018. Data was collected by using pre-and post-test. Several follow-up activities and guidelines, including formative and summative assessments, were also conducted. Moreover, the study also surveyed the coursework book at the end of the semester, which promotes learning strategies through comprehension questions of pre-and post-activities in class throughout the whole semester. All comprehension tests were valued in descriptive statistics, and the paired sample t-test was analyzed by SPSS Statistics in the study. Based on the statistical data, the overall results revealed that pre-and post-test had significant differences in scores at the level 0.01, which means that the post-test scores were significantly higher than the pre-test scores. Further results were evaluated through qualitative measures including further discussion and conclusion.
... Reading strategies are thus employed by the readers who deliberately attempt to monitor and alter their initiatives in decoding the text, comprehending words, and understanding the meaning of the text (Afflerbach et al., 2008). These strategies enable readers to identify the text's main point from the explicit and implicit information and synthesize the content effectively (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007). Readers who read critically can draw conclusions, find solutions, form justifications, compare concepts, hypothesize, and evaluate different ideas and circumstances (Tran, 2015). ...
Full-text available
Article
Reading strategies are essential for teachers and students, especially in an EFL classroom. However, reading comprehension strategies and effective adoption of the strategies have been challenging for both teachers and students in Malaysia. This study aimed to identify the reading strategies used and not used by students and teachers when answering and teaching reading comprehension questions and explore the discord between the responses using an explanatory sequential mixed methods research design. The participants were 91 students and five teachers from a private university in Malaysia recruited using census sampling methods. A questionnaire consisting of literal, reorganization, and inferential reading comprehension questions was administered to the students, whereas interviews and observation were used to examine the strategies targeted by teachers based on Barrett's reading taxonomy (1972). The findings revealed that EFL teachers used a vast repertoire of strategies in teaching reading, whereas students only used a small number of strategies when answering reading comprehension questions. This study underscores the importance of the accord between the strategies taught and those utilized by L2 readers. Students' awareness plays a key role in filling in this gap.
... Interestingly, the comprehension section of this evaluation referred only to how well the students illustrated that they had understood the questions posed. However, literature on the importance of comprehension in extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with the written language infers that it is a complex, cognitive process that is required in a higher level of education (Hannon, 2012;Harvey & Goudvis, 2007;Ness, 2009). Therefore, in light of the strong literacy/ success correlation, it seems there is scope for inclusion of more vigorous testing of comprehension. ...
Full-text available
Article
CQUniversity The Skills for Tertiary Education Preparatory Studies (STEPS) enabling program has always used an entrance testing program to identify prospective students' competence in writing, mathematics and computing, alongside a statement describing their perceived readiness for university. The rationale behind the current testing process is that it allows staff to identify those students who appear ready and able to undertake, and complete the STEPS program successfully. It sits in contrast to an open entry system used by other enabling programs. The researchers in this project explore whether the current testing process is actually an accurate indicator of students' capacity and state of readiness for study and whether it is a true indication of future success in the program. Anecdotally, some students attain a high score on the testing and yet struggle to complete the program; others students may produce lower scores but successfully complete the program. This research project collected students' testing results over a two year period and through various forms of data extraction, subsequently analysed and collated the results. The research demonstrates that, within the present testing process, the literacy element is a highly significant indicator to whether students are likely to complete the program, and subsequently, other elements of the testing proved to be of less importance in their predictive value.
... This strategy helps students to clarify their doubts about what they have read and to monitor their level of reading comprehension. In this context, Harvey and Goudvis (2000) stated that asking questions is a useful strategy that allows readers to construct meaning, to increase their understanding, and to find information and solutions. In addition, questioning can be used to assist the students at any stage of the reading process (before, during, and after reading). ...
Article
The aim of the present descriptive research study is to determine the students’ reading and writing achievement level according to their learning styles, as well as their preferences regarding the reading and writing strategies in English, as a Foreign-Language (EFL) course. This work is a contribution to the debate on the controversial issue about the influence of learning styles on EFL reading and writing skills. The sample for this research was a group of 120 distance-university students (45 males and 75 females) enrolled in an English program. The data-collection instruments used comprised a perceptual learning-style preference questionnaire, reading and writing of online tasks, and a preference questionnaire related to reading and writing strategies, which were planned for the course. The data from the questionnaires and the students’ scores were analyzed statistically. The findings revealed that there is a minimal difference in the EFL students’ reading and writing achievement across four learning styles. In addition, students prefer reading strategies, such as multiple-choice questions, matching exercises, filling the blanks, and answering open questions. As for writing, the learners preferred strategies that include brainstorming, answering multiple-choice questions, matching, filling in the blanks, and answering open questions.
... The resemiotisation of textual material into the image or semiotic ensemble seen in the annotation in Figure 5 provides further data for gleaning insight into how students are reading and what feedback can be given, so that the practice is seen as useful. In broaching this topic, a content instructor may well refer to scholarship similar to Harvey and Goudvis (2007), which suggests that the creation of (mental) images makes it possible, among other things, to fill in missing information, to understand dimensions of space/size or of the sequence of activities, and to attend very closely to the text. These are all claimed to strengthen the reader's relationship to the text, enhance recall, and heighten reading pleasure. ...
Full-text available
Article
Text annotations are literacy practices that are not uncommon in the reading experience of university students. Annotations may be multilingual, monolingual, or multimodal. Despite their enormous diagnostic potentials, annotations have not been widely investigated for what they can reveal about the cognitive processes that are involved in academic reading. In other words, there has been limited exploration of the insights that signs (verbal and non-verbal) inscribed by students on texts offer for understanding and intervening in their academic reading practices. The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the diagnostic assessment potentials of student-annotated texts. On the basis of text annotations obtained from teacher trainee students (n = 7) enrolled at a German university, we seek to understand what different students attend to while reading, what their problem-solving strategies are, what languages and other semiotic systems they deploy, what their level of engagement with text is, and, critically, how the foregoing provide a basis for intervening to validate, reinforce, correct, or teach certain reading skills and practices. Theoretically, the study is undergirded by the notion of text movability. Data suggestive of how students journey through text are argued to have implications for understanding and teaching how they manage attention, use dictionaries, own text meaning, and appraise text.
... In this study, constructionist theory was utilised to foster new ideas and active participation of students using external simulations, which would encourage the students to be directly involved in problem solving and in providing feedback to help rectify misconceptions. The AR application was used to develop the students' basic skills in learning of physics problems by giving students assignments and simulation to enhance their critical thinking skills [48]. In summary, the constructivist pedagogy selected that focused on students' active learning is relevant to the goal of the AR application which was to make the learning sessions more active in the process of overcoming students' misunderstandings [49]. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly disrupted education and has instantaneously shifted education from being conducted predominately ‘face to face’ to being totally ‘online’. For most teachers, this unexpected teaching approach has impelled them into finding ways to provide the same quality of education to their students. One way of doing this is by adopting educational technologies in learning and teaching, including the use of augmented reality (AR) technology. AR technology has been integrated into the field of physics education. In this study, the effects of AR technology on understanding of the concepts of electricity in an online learning environment for 11th-grade students was investigated. Pretest and posttest were carried out in the control group and the experimental group. The results showed that AR technology improved understanding of electrical concepts for the students in the experimental group compared to the control group, with a very significant difference between both groups. This research contributes to the development of AR technology in education, especially in relation to the teaching and learning of abstract physics concepts.
... Ñeå phaâ n tích taà m quan troï ng cuû a nhöõ ng thaø nh toá naø y, taù c giaû cuû a nghieâ n cöù u naø y höôù ng daã n sinh vieâ n cuø ng ñoï c moä t caâ u chuyeä n taï i lôù p. Thoaï t tieâ n, caâ u chuyeä n ñöôï c giôù i thieä u vaé n taé t, cuø ng vôù i giaû i nghóa moä t soá töø vöï ng quan troï ng. Sau ñoù taù c giaû trình baø y baø i ñoï c vôù i kyõ thuaä t "nghó thaø nh tieá ng" ("think aloud") [15], [36], söû duï ng chieá n löôï c hình dung (visualizing) vaø döï ñoaù n (predicting) tình tieá t. Trong khi ñoï c, taù c giaû coá gaé ng cho sinh vieâ n thaá y choã thuù vò trong caâ u chuyeä n. ...
... The four that inspired the ideas for the innovation strategies in this book are Bloom's (1956) taxonomy, the Innovation Model (Project GEMS, 2011), design thinking (Stanford d.school, n.d.), and Sheffield's (2003) heuristic for creative and innovative mathematicians. The strategies in this book were also influenced by the ideas and beliefs found in Mindsets in the Classroom (Ricci, 2017), Strategies That Work (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007), and Creating Innovators (Wagner, 2012). ...
... Tis involves making annotations, using text-dependent questions, and holding discussions about texts. Harvey and Goudvis (2007) have promoted the use of text coding and annotating as methods for students to deepen comprehension. In order to focus students' attention on specifc elements of text in multiple readings, researchers have emphasized the need for teachers to provide textdependent questions (Fisher & Frey, 2012;Lapp, Grant, Moss, & Johnson, 2013;Santori & Belfatti, 2017). ...
... However, teachers may want to use this model with other lessons. When students read the text for the first time, they should annotate it or use text coding ( Harvey & Goudvis, 2007 ) as a metacognitive strategy to aid in comprehension. Once this marking of the text has occurred, the student should use the Literature Analysis Model and engage in a discussion about it (or selected portions) before progressing to other lesson activities. ...
... For several of the activities in this book, it is recommended that the teacher have students complete the Literature Analysis Model (see Figure 1) as part of their first encounter with the text. When students read the text for the first time, they should annotate it or use text coding ( Harvey & Goudvis, 2007 ) as a metacognitive strategy to aid in comprehension. Once this marking of the text has occurred, the student should use the Literature Analysis Model and engage in a discussion about it (or selected portions) before progressing to other lesson activities. ...
... Altun (2015) suggests that drawing activity in language learning helps students develop imagination and visualize their minds for quicker learning, encourage them to develop focus towards lessons and increases teacher attractiveness. Harvey and Goudvis (2000) points out that the readers who create images through visualizing are able to make the reading experience more pleasurable and engaging, like movies in the mind. ...
Full-text available
Article
It is critical to provide students with a meaningful experience in learning language and foster their creativity. Therefore, the inclusion of art in foreign language classroom setting will benefit to some extent. It helps students develop imagination and visualize their minds for better learning. This paper explores the use of mind painting as a strategy for promoting EFL students’ reading comprehension skill and students’ perception about mind painting. Two questions were addressed: (1) to what extent does mind painting promote reading comprehension? (2) how do students perceive about the use of mind painting in promoting reading comprehension. For the purpose of this study, five students in 10th grade of Sekolah Putri Darul Istiqamah were taught by using mind painting strategy. Students were given a pre-test and post-test which were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and implication of mind painting on students’ reading comprehension. Furthermore, an interview was conducted at the end. Upon testing the hypotheses, results indicated that there was no significance difference between students’ pretest and post-test after mind painting implemented. The writers believe that there were other influential factors such as students’ background knowledge and reading ability. However, students stated that mind painting helped them to comprehend the story, increase their creativity and motivation.
... Teachers may want to use this model with other lessons. When students read the text for the first time, they should annotate it or use text coding (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007) as a metacognitive strategy to aid in comprehension. Once this marking of the text has occurred, the student should use the Literature Analysis Model and engage in a discussion about it (or selected portions) before progressing to other lesson activities. ...
... They also need more time to understand difficult word problems because they must pay attention and visualize information to help them remember and understand what they read. This is in line with the study findings of Harvey and Goudvis (2007). They claimed that awareness of reading comprehension is an ongoing process and continues to develop in accordance with what the reader thinks. ...
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">Problem-solving is considered one of the thinking skills that must be possessed in 21<sup>st</sup>-century education because problem-solving skills are required to solve all problems that arise. The problem-solving stages that can be used are Polya's four steps, namely, understanding the problem, devising a plan, carrying out the plan, and looking back. Problem-solving skills are essential for solving word problems. Word problems based on arithmetic operations are divided into three types: one-step, two-step, and multistep. This qualitative research aimed to see problem-solving skills viewed from the type of word questions and elementary school students’ third, fourth, and fifth grades. A purposive sampling technique with 22 third-grade students, 28 fourth-grade students, and 21 fifth-grade students was used. The data were collected using documentation, testing, and interview methods. The findings of the study showed that fourth-grade students’ problem-solving skills are better than those of third-grade students, and the problem-solving skills of fifth-grade students are better than those of fourth-grade students. The percentage of Polya's steps always decreases because not all students master problem-solving. Based on the types of questions, the percentage of the one-step word problem is better than that of the two-step while the percentage of the two-step word problems is higher than that of the multistep.</p
... According to Harvey and Goudvis (2007), visualising word problems refers to learners' ability to create pictures in their heads based on the text they read or the words they hear. These authors claim that visualisation reinforces reading comprehension skills, as learners gain a more thorough understanding of the text they are reading by consciously using the words to create mental images. ...
... Self-monitoring, which consists of self-assessment and self-recording, is a critical self-directing process, as it affects both behavior and academic performance (Harris, 1982). Self-monitoring refers to students' ability to observe their progress by looking at how well they understand what they are learning (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007). Self-monitoring skills help learners to learn independently and thus develop their independent performance level (Hagaman & Reid, 2008). ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the influence of higher education students’ motivation, learning self-efficacy, and self-monitoring on learning engagement in online learning environments. Inviting participants from Taiwan’s higher education institutions, a total of 354 students (144 male and 210 female) from different years and fields completed an online survey. After conducting SEM analysis, results of the study showed that motivation had a positive relationship with learning self-efficacy, self-monitoring, and learning engagement. The study showed that motivation had a direct influence on learning engagement and an indirect influence through learning self-efficacy and self-monitoring. However, the direct influence of motivation on learning engagement was not strong. Learning self-efficacy also had a direct effect on self-monitoring and learning engagement. In this study, the findings showed that learning self-efficacy and self-monitoring partially mediated the influence of motivation on learning engagement in online learning environments. Finally, we constructed a model comprising four variables (motivation, self-efficacy, self-monitoring, and learning engagement), and found that it explained 76-78% of the variance in learning engagement.
... Tis involves making annotations, using text-dependent questions, and holding discussions about texts. Harvey and Goudvis (2007) have promoted the use of text coding and annotating as methods for students to deepen comprehension. In order to focus students' attention on specifc elements of text in multiple readings, researchers have emphasized the need for teachers to provide textdependent questions (Fisher & Frey, 2012;Lapp, Grant, Moss, & Johnson, 2013;Santori & Belfatti, 2017). ...
... However, teachers may want to use this model with other lessons. When students read the text for the first time, they should annotate it or use text coding (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007) as a metacognitive strategy to aid in comprehension. Once this marking of the text has occurred, the student should use the Literature Analysis Model and engage in a discussion about it (or selected portions) before progressing to other lesson activities. ...
... This involves making annotations, using text-dependent questions, and holding discussions about texts. Harvey and Goudvis (2007) have promoted the use of text coding and annotating as methods for students to deepen comprehension. In gifted education, the use of literary analysis and interpretation of single or multiple sources have been major tools for enhancing higher level thinking (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2017 ). ...
... The five curiosity catchphrases used in this book are specific strategies designed to model and encourage innovative thinking for young students. The catchphrases were influenced by the ideas and beliefs found in Mindsets in the Classroom ( Ricci, 2017 ), Strategies That Work ( Harvey & Goudvis, 2007 ), and Creating Innovators ( Wagner, 2012 ). The following models of higher order thinking and innovation in education also impacted this book: Bloom's taxonomy (1956), the Innovation Model ( Project GEMS, 2011 ), Design Thinking (Stanford d.school, n.d.), and Sheffield's (2003) heuristic for creative and innovative mathematicians. ...
... Tis involves making annotations, using text-dependent questions, and holding discussions about texts. Harvey and Goudvis (2007) have promoted the use of text coding and annotating as methods for students to deepen comprehension. At the early primary level, this process may be simplifed by question-asking, read alouds, and one-on-one discussion. ...
... This involves making anno tations, using text-dependent questions, and holding discussions about texts. Harvey and Goudvis (2007) have promoted the use of text coding and annotating as methods for students to deepen comprehension. In order to focus students' attention on specific elements of text in multiple read Jacob's Ladder Reading Comprehension Program: Grade 5 ings, researchers have emphasized the need for teachers to provide textdependent questions (Fisher & Frey, 2012;Lapp, Grant, Moss, & Johnson, 2013;Santori & Belfatti, 2017). ...
... However, teachers may want to use this model with other lessons. When students read the text for the first time, they should annotate it or use text coding (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007) as a metacognitive strategy to aid in comprehension. Once this marking of the text has occurred, the student should use the Literature Analysis Model and engage in a discussion about it (or selected portions) before progressing to other lesson activities. ...
... For the majority of the activities in this book, it is recommended that the teacher have students complete the Literature Analysis Model (see Figure 1 ) as part of their first encounter with the text. When students read the text for the first time, they should annotate it or use text coding (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007) as a metacognitive strategy to aid in comprehension. Once this marking of the text has occurred, the student should use the Literature Analysis Model and engage in a discussion about it (or selected portions) before progressing to other lesson activities. ...
... Tis involves making annota-tions, using text-dependent questions, and holding discussions about texts. Harvey and Goudvis (2007) have promoted the use of text coding and annotating as methods for students to deepen comprehension. At the early primary level, this process may be simplifed by question-asking, read alouds, and one-on-one discussion. ...
... This involves making annotations, using text-dependent questions, and holding discussions about texts. Harvey and Goudvis (2007) have promoted the use of text coding and annotating as methods for students to deepen comprehension. In gifted education, the use of literary analysis and interpretation of single or multiple sources have been major tools for enhancing higher level thinking (VanTassel-Baska & Little, 2017). ...
Article
We had the idea of this research, when we learned, that the children’s book about special needs: R.J. Palacio “Wonder” was translated into Armenian for the first time. Books on this topic have not been written yet by Armenian authors. The point is that during Soviet years the working assumption was that all the people were “like each other”, perfect, beautiful, without problems, without disorders; all those, who did not meet those criteria (who had visual, auditory, physical, mental, even speech and communication limitations), grew up and spent their lives in special boarding institutions, segregated from their families and society. Being ashamed of their children, who were not ideal, the parents kept them at home, hidden from acquaintances, neighbours, sometimes even from relatives. Attitudes have begun to change since then, and inclusive education has been a goal in Armenia since 2001. Despite the 15-year history of efforts at inclusive education, acceptance of people with special needs is still not evident in all corners of Armenian society. One of the most prevalent shortcomings is the stereotyping of people with special needs. We decided to use the reading of the book R.J. Palacio “Wonder” for the purpose of helping people confront their attitudes and stereotypes about disabilities as they explored the lives in this unique book.
Full-text available
Article
This study aims to find out how is the students’ and lecturer’s voices on the utilization of E-learning in teaching writing at Universitas Muhammadiyah Parepare. E-learning can be a solution to various educational problems. In particular, the use of technology and information is actually believed to be able to improve the quality of learning, develop student skills, expand access to education and much more. The researchers intended to know how the utilization of e-learning specially in writing subject on pandemic era. It applied qualitative approach as a research design. The participants in this research are students of English education study program at Universitas Muhammadiyah Parepare. The selected samples were interviewed to get deep information about implementation of e-Learning in teaching writing. The result showed there was negative and positive responses of the students and lecturer about the implementation of e-learning specially in writing subject. The researchers concluded that the implementation of e-learning in learning writing should be considered and adapt with the lecturer, students and the environment. The lecturers have to master and has a quality before conducting an e-learning for the students specially for the content and delivering the materials so, it would make the students would not faced a difficulties thing when they learn by e-learning. Other side is the big problem of the students was bad network.
Full-text available
Article
One of the most vital skills needed by postgraduate students to excel in their tertiary education is the ability to read effectively. Reading skill is viewed as a necessity for postgraduate students as they are needed to effectively indulge in in-depth academic reading to pursue their research topics. Thus, this study was aimed to identify the language learning strategies employed by TESL postgraduates, especially in curating and enhancing their reading skills. 50 postgraduates from a public university in Malaysia were chosen to participate in the study via convenience sampling. This study employed a quantitative approach with a survey research design whereby the data collection was done by employing an online questionnaire which was adapted from the (Young Learner's Language Strategy Use Survey, 2002; Language Strategy Use Survey, 2005). The adapted online questionnaire consisted of 24 items on a 4-point scale. The data obtained from the online questionnaire was analysed quantitatively using descriptive analysis focussing on frequency, percentage and mean using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The findings revealed that Malaysian TESL postgraduates' tend to employ all of the language learning strategies in order to enhance their reading skills. Additionally, the study also found that the most employed language learning strategies were memory strategies with a mean value of 3.64 while the least employed language learning strategies were social strategies with a mean value of 2.85. These findings provide useful information for stakeholders to use as a basis to employ necessary steps to improve the reading skills among postgraduate students in Malaysia.
Full-text available
Article
This study examined whether content schemata activation facilitate reading comprehension or not. It is motivated by two research questions: (1) does content familiarity facilitate reading comprehension? And (2) do teachers activate learners background knowledge? To examine these questions, the study used both qualitative and quantitative research methods to collect and analyse data. It was hypothesized that content schema activation facilitates reading comprehension. This article has two goals: (1) to identify the effects of pre-reading activities on Moroccan EFL students’ reading comprehension through content schema activation, and (2) to translate the research findings into suggestions and guidance for textbook designers, teachers, and policy makers. Previous research has shown that providing learners background knowledge enhances their comprehension. Our most important contribution is to provide useful guidelines for actions and practice implications related to schema activation at the pre-reading stage in Moroccan EFL context. An experimental research study was conducted to test our hypothesis using students test score data to measure and compare the performance of the treatment group and the control group. The findings from the research show that the impact of content schema activation on reading comprehension is positive as assumed. The results, implications for teachers, and future research were discussed.
Article
In this global era, technological development gives an impact on every aspect of human life. The growth of technology improves the way people connect. It causes much growth up of social media that allows us to communicate with a much broader group of people in long-distanceOne of the most popular social media which are used by Indonesian people is WhatsApp. WhatsApp is one of the effective applications that used to online interact with other people. It is so simple and easy to use, we can use WhatsApp wherever and whenever just by mobile phones. Besides sending text messages, WhatsApp also allows the users to share various files, such as images, sound, video files, and location, and it can make a group chat. It is so easy to be used as a learning medium in online learning. The aim of this study was to find out about the effectiveness of use WhatsApp by the teacher in teaching reading skills in junior high school. This research was qualitative. The subjects of this research were students of eighth grade A and B at SMP Muhammadiyah Purwareja Klampok. In collecting the data, the researcher was interviewing the teacher about the use of WhatsApp media in teaching reading, and students were given a questionnaire to report their experience about the effectiveness of WhatsApp in developing their reading skills. Findings from interviews result, the teacher stated that 80% of students’ score of tasks and tests are correct, and students’ responses to the questionnaire revealed that WhatsApp media was very effective in developing their reading skills. It can be inferred that using WhatsApp as a medium in teaching reading comprehension in eighth grade at SMP Muhammadiyah Purwareja Klampok is very effective to improve students reading skills because WhatsApp is very easy and affordable for students to use.
Full-text available
Article
The present study aimed at developing story reading comprehension (SRC) skills by using mental imagery strategy. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design employing two groups (one experimental group and one control group). The two instruments used were a story reading comprehension test and a motivation scale. The sample consisted of 60 pupils from sixth grade primary school of Salem Madian Official Language school, in Dakahlia Governorate, where 30 pupils represented the first experimental group, and the other 30 pupils represented the control group. The mental imagery strategy was administered to the experimental group for six weeks. Results of the study revealed that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental group and the control group in the post-test of the SRC. In addition, there is a statistically significant difference between the mean scores of the pre-test and post-test of the experimental group in the overall SRC in favor of the post-test. These results showed that mental imagery strategy had a positive effect on the pupils' story reading comprehension and their motivation towards reading. finally, a number of recommendations related to the use of mental imagery strategy, reading comprehension of a story, and course design were presented .
Chapter
This chapter reflects how the author's students and children shaped her journey as an educator, how becoming a mother has informed her teaching, and how these experiences have continually inspired her to refine her craft as a teacher educator. Through a series of vignettes, the author reveals her evolving philosophy of education and her multifaceted journey from an elementary teacher to a teacher educator who has learned to thrive by balancing the ever-changing demands of motherhood, academia, and life itself.
Article
Background: The urgent problem of nowadays confronted by Ukrainian higher educational institutions is to prepare high-proficiency specialists with a good knowledge of professional English for different branches of economy. According to the cognitive approach, learning a foreign language is a conscious process that enables students to under­stand, learn and retain information in the long-term memory. Teaching professional terms to the students of economics with the help of cognitive methods is very important in studying English for professional purposes. Purpose: The aim of thearticle is to analyze the most effective methods of teaching new vocabulary, based on cognitive approach, and use them as a basis for the original system of exercises for teaching economic terms. Results: Cognitive approach to vocabulary teaching emphasizes explicit teaching of not only new words meanings but also developing metacognitive strategies that will help students work with unfamiliar words. Classroom vocabulary teaching activities are explicit in nature. The most effective vocabulary teaching strategies encom­pass building a large sight vocabulary, integrating new words with the old, providing a number of encounters with the new vo­cabulary, promoting a deep level of processing, using a variety of techniques and encouraging independent learner strategies. Implicit vocabulary teaching emphasizes the development of independent learner strategies for identifying, understanding and retaining new words in the long-term memory. One of the most effective methods of teaching economic terms is qualia structure that reveals the protean properties of the concept. Discussion: Explicit together with implicit methods of teaching vocabulary as the elements of cognitive approach could be used as a basis for the system of exercises for teaching students economic terms. We plan to develop a model of an edu­cational process for teaching economic terms based on the principles of cognitive approach.
Article
p class="05IsiAbstrak">The purpose of the research was to find out the improvement of student’s reading comprehension on narrative text through directed reading and think pair share at madrasa Aliyah of Manahijul Huda Ngagel in academic years 2019/2020. This research was done by applying Classroom Action Research which carried out through four steps. They were planning, action, observation, and reflection, in cycle 1 and cycle 2. The subject of research was the grade X-MIA, they are consisted of 30 students. Based on the result of the data analysis showed that mean of the score has increased in the cycle 2, the mean in the pre-test was 63,33%, the mean of cycle 1 was 74,33%. Then the mean of cycle 2 was 84,17%. The students who got up 75 also grew up. In the pre-test, students who got up 75 were only 5 of 30 students (16,67%). In the post test of cycle 1, students who got up 75 were only 17 of 30 students (56,67%). It means that there was improvement about 40%. In the post test of cycle 2, students who got up 75 were 24 of 30 students (80%). The improvement was about 23,33%. The total improvement of the student’s score from the pre-test to post test of cycle 2 was 63,33%. So, the result of the research showed that Directed-reading and Think Pair Share (TPS) strategy significantly improved student’s reading comprehension on narrative text.</p
Full-text available
Article
This research was aimed to improve students' reading comprehension through visualization strategy of draw and label at the seventh grade of SMP 17.1 Gedongtataaan. The subjects of this research consisted of twenty three which consisted of 19 males and 4 females. This research was conducted by using classroom action research. The model of action research stated by Kemmis and Taggart, it consisted of two cycles. There were four steps in each cycle of the research; planning, action, observing, and reflecting. Before going to the first cycle, the writer did pre-cycle to know the students' reading comprehension and the students' difficulties in comprehend reading text. In the research, the writer collaborated with the English teacher at the seventh grade of SMP 17.1 Gedongtataan to carry out the data of the students. This research was focused to improve the students' learning activities and the students' reading comprehension. The improvement of the students' learning activities could be seen from the average score of the students' learning activities of cycle 1 were 7.10 with the criteria was quite active, while the second cycle was 7.85 with the criteria was active. So the improvement of the students' learning activities during the first cycle to the second cycle got 0.75 point. The improvement of the students' reading comprehension could be seen from the average score of pre-cycle was 63.65 there was 8 students who passed the Minimum Mastery Criterion. The average score of cycle 1 was 65.97, there were 7 students or 30.43% who passed the Minimum Mastery Criterion and the average score of cycle 2 was 71.07 there were 15 students who passed the Minimum Mastery Criterion or 65.21%. From the result of analyzing the data, it could be said that the Classroom Action Research by applying visualization strategy of draw and label can improve the students' learning activities and the students' reading comprehension.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.