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African philanthropy, pan-Africanism, and Africa's development

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Abstract

Reflective and theoretical, this article explores the foundations and principles of African philanthropy and juxtaposes them with pan-African-led development. It pays particular attention to new continental initiatives, such as Agenda 2063. It points out that African philanthropy, by its definition and practice, is the foundation for development. This is because the identity of an African is premised on philanthropic notions of solidarity, interconnectedness, interdependencies, reciprocity, mutuality, and a continuum of relationships. No one embodies these better than Nelson Mandela in his demonstration of the link that exists between pan-Africanism and African philanthropy in the development process.

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... (cited in Smith, 2014, pp. 180-181, Italics, my emphasis)9 In African worldviews, philanthropic acts can be towards extended family, and also include self-help and mutual aid types of giving and donations (Devlieger, 1995;Moyo, 2005;Moyo and Ramsamy, 2014). This blurs the line between obligatory and non-obligatory helping and giving. ...
... The classical definition and indeed the very historical trajectory of philanthropy from the American and perhaps European understanding are not fully encompassing of the nature and character of what in Africa can be likened to "philanthropy". (See also Moyo, 2009b;Aina and Moyo, 2013;Moyo and Ramsamy, 2014). ...
... A study by the VOSESA in South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Malawi, for instance, found that volunteering was largely the domain of those from underprivileged backgrounds (See also Everatt and Solanki, 2004;Everatt et al., 2005;Kunljian, 2005 While some of the existing studies of philanthropy in Africa include various forms and manifestations of giving (including volunteering), there are also many that offer qualifiers, caveats, and disclaimers in their usage of the term philanthropy in the African context. Despite these disclaimers and qualifiers, Moyo (2009a;2009b;, among others, argues that in Africa, "there is something that can be called 'philanthropy' and it takes primarily two dimensions: indigenous-usually informal; and institutional" and expressions of and acts of philanthropy are found among both the rich and the poor alike (Atibil, 2014;Copeland-Carson, 2005;Everatt and Solanki, 2004;Everatt et al., 2005;Julien, Mahomed, and Samuels, 2014;Mati and Russell, 2013;Mombeshora, 2004;Moyo, 2005;Moyo and Ramsamy, 2014;Ngcoya and Mottiar, 2016a;Nkopane, 2016;Wilkinson-Maposa et al., 2005;Wilkinson-Maposa and Fowler, 2009). Indeed, as Moyo (2005, p. 53) argues: ...
... (cited in Smith, 2014, pp. 180-181, Italics, my emphasis)9 In African worldviews, philanthropic acts can be towards extended family, and also include self-help and mutual aid types of giving and donations (Devlieger, 1995;Moyo, 2005;Moyo and Ramsamy, 2014). This blurs the line between obligatory and non-obligatory helping and giving. ...
... The classical definition and indeed the very historical trajectory of philanthropy from the American and perhaps European understanding are not fully encompassing of the nature and character of what in Africa can be likened to "philanthropy". (See also Moyo, 2009b;Aina and Moyo, 2013;Moyo and Ramsamy, 2014). ...
... A study by the VOSESA in South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Malawi, for instance, found that volunteering was largely the domain of those from underprivileged backgrounds (See also Everatt and Solanki, 2004;Everatt et al., 2005;Kunljian, 2005 While some of the existing studies of philanthropy in Africa include various forms and manifestations of giving (including volunteering), there are also many that offer qualifiers, caveats, and disclaimers in their usage of the term philanthropy in the African context. Despite these disclaimers and qualifiers, Moyo (2009a;2009b;, among others, argues that in Africa, "there is something that can be called 'philanthropy' and it takes primarily two dimensions: indigenous-usually informal; and institutional" and expressions of and acts of philanthropy are found among both the rich and the poor alike (Atibil, 2014;Copeland-Carson, 2005;Everatt and Solanki, 2004;Everatt et al., 2005;Julien, Mahomed, and Samuels, 2014;Mati and Russell, 2013;Mombeshora, 2004;Moyo, 2005;Moyo and Ramsamy, 2014;Ngcoya and Mottiar, 2016a;Nkopane, 2016;Wilkinson-Maposa et al., 2005;Wilkinson-Maposa and Fowler, 2009). Indeed, as Moyo (2005, p. 53) argues: ...
Article
Despite the availability of a wide range of literature on what can be construed as philanthropic behavior in Africa, there is limited conceptual discussion on what constitutes philanthropy in African context(s). Yet, philanthropic behavior is a culturally rooted phenomenon manifesting in diverse forms, expressions, and models. This review contributes to a growing body of literature on conceptions and manifestations of African philanthropy. The review illustrates a complex plurality of actions that fall under cultures and practices of giving in Africa. These include the giving of money, time, knowledge, influence, and visibility in support of a cause, valuable goods, and body parts/organs from the living and the dead. While some of these actions conform to dominant Western notions of philanthropy, others do not. From an analysis of these practices, this paper proposes that African philanthropy can be conceptually structured on the basis of spheres of philanthropic practice, and the underlying bases and motivations for philanthropy. On spheres of philanthropic practice, at least three forms of philanthropy exist: institutional (formal); non-institutional (non-formal/informal/direct); and a hybrid form that blends practices from the formal and informal spheres. On motivations for giving, the predominant forms are based on mutuality, solidarity, and counter-obligation inherent in collectivist and humanistic African philosophies of life. Further, motivations are drawn from religious obligations, institutional requirements on corporate bodies, and institutional arrangements in the development process. There are, nonetheless, significant overlaps between spheres of practice and motivations in contemporary philanthropic practices in Africa. For instance, philanthropic culture in Africa manifests as religious giving, donations to individuals or institutions, mutual aid, reciprocity, self-help revolving fund organizations, corporate social responsibility activities, and individual/family donations to public benefit organizations. These practices highlight a rich tapestry of spheres of practice and motivations for giving, where the wealthy and the poor are equally involved. The review concentrates (by choice) on the giving of money and time (volunteering, especially informal volunteering) due to a dearth of academic literature on other forms of giving as philanthropy in Africa.
... The implication is that, while national emergencies provide unique circumstances for philanthropic expressions, citizens' giving is however diminished by their lived experiences of how gifts given to address previous emergencies are (mis)managed. Trust is therefore central to citizen's philanthropic responses during emergencies, and it appears to be enhanced between parties when it is localised, as they get to experience the impacts within a framework of mutual accountability (Moyo, 2013;Moyo and Ramsamy, 2014;Conteh, 2016). This is unlike national emergencies when accountability is seen as distant, opaque, technocratic and designed to conform to certain legal and policy requirements, and not necessarily the interests of those whose lives are made worse by emergencies (Interview, Lecturer, University of Sierra Leone, 2 July 2021, Freetown). ...
... The community further attracted material support from notable local businesses and politiciansincluding President Julius Maada Bio and Samura Kamara, former presidential candidate of the main opposition, All People's Congress, who are reported to have donated 1600 bags of rice and 50 bundles of roofing sheets and 200 bags of rice, respectively (Interview, Chief, Susan's Bay, 10 June 2021, Freetown). The two politicians who are expected to be the leading contenders in the 2023 presidential election have been accused of engaging in "politicised philanthropy" (Interview, Lecturer, University of Sierra Leone, 2 July 2021, Freetown), an idea that is nonetheless different from traditional conceptions of political philanthropy, related to giving as a basis of influencing public policies or programmes (Bertrand et al., 2020;Moyo, 2013). At the time of writing, most of the burnt-out houses had not been rebuilt "despite large donations of building materials", which respondents feared had been rendered unusable (Interview, Chief, Susan's Bay, 10 June 2021, Freetown; FGD, youths, 10, June 2021, Freetown). ...
Technical Report
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Sierra Leone has a long history of community philanthropy. However, not much is known about citizens’ pattern of giving, the recipients of gifts and the sociopolitical and economic factors that shape the trajectories of community philanthropy in the country. Drawing on field-based research undertaken in Bo district in the South, Bombali district in the North, Freetown in the Western Area and secondary data, this report analyses Sierra Leone’s community philanthropy landscape. It identifies two broad and enduring patterns of community philanthropy – associational philanthropy and individual philanthropy. The report argues that while the different forms that community philanthropy assumes at any given time are embedded in sociocultural expressions of kindness and mutual dependence, they are also fundamental adaptation strategies to evolving socioeconomic shocks and structures that shape people’s lives and resilience, whether in the colonial or postcolonial era. These shocks have included adjusting to colonial rule’s policy of “divide and rule” and post-independence state failure – leading to underdevelopment, civil war and complex emergencies. The report reveals striking patterns of continuity and change in Sierra Leone’s philanthropic landscape, with a progressive decline in public trust in state-led philanthropic schemes, especially during national emergences or crises.
... Admittedly, the studies that have helped to shed light on African social organisation rarely describe these discrete networks of solidarity and the different forms of agency as part of philanthropy. Moyo (2014Moyo ( , 2016 argued that perhaps the problem is with the term philanthropy, which suggests a conscious form of stepping aside to help, while in the African contexts discussed above, everyday forms of giving are a natural instinct and in-built into cultural practices. These practices often meet their constituents' needs, in terms of relationships between equals and peers. ...
... Based on the above, the dominant thread of African philanthropy is that it is mostly horizontal, peer-to-peer, solidarity-based, and codified in Ubuntu (I am because you are) or in collective formations such as Harambee (East Africa), susu, or Vukuzenzele in some parts of Southern Africa. Moyo and Ramsamy (2014) cite the self-reliance of Harambee (let us pull together) as successfully contributing to the building of more than 50% of the secondary schools in Kenya. Wilkinson-Maphosa et al (2005) wrote about Africa's poor philanthropists, based on the horizontal forms of giving, in an age where philanthropy has mostly been dominated by the super-rich. ...
Article
The role and place of horizontally based forms of philanthropy has not been adequately understood or unexplored. There is very limited information on how ordinary Zimbabweans engage in acts of philanthropy. Is solidarity a part of philanthropy? There are many reasons to suggest that the solidarity evident in associational forms, which entail giving either of time, labour, or financial resources, is a vital dimension of philanthropy. The detailed discussion, through thick case study descriptions, explored the emergence of solidarity-focused associational forms within the newly resettled areas of Zimbabwe.
... African philanthropy is founded on pan-African thinking, and it is the foundation for transformational development taking place on the continent (Moyo and Ramsamy 2014). Moyo (2011) argued that philanthropy is embedded in the lifecycle of most Africans from birth right up until death, with death also being a philanthropic event. ...
Article
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Disaster response by philanthropy has faced numerous challenges flagged in the literature, including duplication of efforts, inefficiencies, waste, and inadequate goal achievements. However, there is little literature on how to organise philanthropic acts in the face of disasters. This paper assesses the influence of lean thinking in improving disaster response processes and sustainability. The paper further proposes a framework for applying lean thinking by philanthropic organisations. A mixed research methods strategy was employed with 212 staff surveys in Southern Africa. Twenty‐three in‐depth key informant interviews were also conducted. The results revealed that lean thinking succeeds with philanthropic organisations if a high level of management commitment, teamwork, and adaptability to change the organisation's setup exists. A framework is presented through Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), tailor‐made for philanthropic organisations in Southern Africa. External and internal determinants were found to equally contribute to lean thinking's success in reducing waste and increasing value. Despite being limited to developing economies, this paper extends prior research on the lean application and integrates lean thinking in a philanthropic setting. Findings drawn from diverse countries imply that results may be reasonably generalised.
... A further limitation is that data on African gifting's ecosystem are highly uneven in terms of geography (Charities Aid Foundation [CAF], 2020; Mahomed, 2014). Such a situation is also complicated by different conceptualizations of philanthropy in francophone and anglophone countries (Moyo & Ramsamy, 2014). ...
Article
This article explores the prospect that alteration in the profile of resources relied on by African civil society will affect citizen’s relationships with their states. Description and analysis advance an ontological narrative of Africa’s pre- to postcolonial gift-giving, or “gifting” rapidly diverging in this century. Gifting processes exhibit both non-agonistic “horizontal” and agonistic “vertical” dimensions, connecting Ekeh’s “two moral publics” that characterize the continent’s neo-patrimonial political systems. The unfolding context exhibits pluralization, localization, and privatization of financing that a historically determined, multilayered African civil society can access and self-provide. The notion of “civic space” guides analysis of intersections between gifting and African civil society, in relation to governance, resourcing, and equity. A conclusion is that gains in scale and diversity of domestication in gifting to and by civil society are unlikely to bring significant change to Africa’s politics: more likely is a governance future resembling the past.
... Additionally, several informational interviewees specifically studied generosity in Africa. In particular, Bhekinkosi Moyo-Director of the African Centre on Philanthropy and Social Investment and Adjunct Professor at the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa-has published extensively about African philanthropy (e.g., Moyo 2010Moyo , 2011aMoyo , 2011bAina and Moyo 2013;Moyo 2013;Moyo and Ramsamy 2014). In these publications, Moyo asserts that the term "philanthropy" is generally not preferred in Africa because it is not perceived to be inclusive in its scope or reach. ...
Article
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This paper provides a meta-analysis of the intersection of (a) religiosity and spirituality with (b) generosity, philanthropy, nonprofits, and prosociality. The study is informed by three informational sources, chronologically: (1) informational interviews with scholars and practitioners based within and studying regions outside of the U.S. and Western Europe; (2) discovery search of purposefully selected extant publications, especially focusing on the last decade of contemporary scholarship; and (3) systematic search of relevant peer-reviewed publication outlets since 2010. Reviewed publications are categorized by level of analysis into macro, meso, and micro approaches. Across each level and source, publications are also geo-tagged for their geographic scope. Particular attention is paid to the under-studied world regions of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East. The results reveal that Asia is the most studied and Latin America the least studied, and that meso-level approaches are the most common while micro-level are the least common. Additionally, a map of publication counts reveals within-region inequalities by country. Implications of the analysis are drawn for future studies, particularly ways to advance this interdisciplinary field.
... 3 Despite the increasing attention given to African philanthropy in the literature in recent years (e.g. Moyo and Ramsamy 2014;Aina and Moyo 2013;Fowler 2016c), empirical research on African philanthropy at the country-level in Ghana remains limited. To this end, the central research question of this article is: what are the different typologies of philanthropic institutions existing in Ghana that serve as alternative funding routes for NGDOs? ...
... New academic centres and teaching programmes in multiple countries testify to the growing international interest in this area of study. However, 'African philanthropy' as opposed to 'philanthropy in Africa' remains seriously under-researched and often prejudicially understood as 'traditional', anti-modern and under-appreciated as an agent for the continent's development (Mahomed 2012;Moyo and Ramsamy 2014). This situation is reinforced by subordination of Africans' philanthropy to external vocabularies and meanings. ...
Article
This article adds to conceptualisations of philanthropy. Applying an ontological approach within an evolutionary perspective, it advances an analogous African narrative of pro-social transactions of gift-giving, or gifting, associated with Marcel Mauss. Originating on the continent, this relational behaviour is subject to indeterminate complex processes which co-determine any society’s institutional design. Analysing gifting’s sociopolitical influence on the continent pays attention to the (non-)agonistic as well as the ‘vertical’ and ‘horizontal’ features of gifting across pre- to post-colonial eras, examining their role in establishing patrimonial systems of governance. When gifting is set against (institutionalised) philanthropy’s dominant discourse, issues for its critique are identified. Suggestions for further inquiry and implications for improving development on the continent are provided
... The Ghanaian philanthropic landscape is therefore more inclusive and larger in scope and reach including institutionalised foundations and trusts, HNWIs, faith-based giving, ordinary individual giving, diaspora, corporate and community philanthropy. It is important to clarify that while some elements of the Ghanaian philanthropic landscape such as traditional giving and the involvement of chieftaincy institutions is unique to Ghana, other aspects including faith-based philanthropy, corporate philanthropy and social enterprise reflect the nature of philanthropy in many countries (see Fowler, 2016;Fowler and Mati, 2019;Moyo and Ramsamy, 2014;Wilkinson-Maposa et al., 2005). ...
Article
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In September 2015, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly as the cardinal agenda for guiding future global development. In financing the SDGs, there has been an increasing call on stakeholder diversification by leveraging on other non-state actors and private finance including philanthropic institutions in influencing, delivering and advancing the SDGs. Drawing on insights from the Ghanaian philanthropic sector, I show that philanthropic institutions play complementary roles in service delivery, support civil society organisations to engage in active action and advocacy, and enhance paradigm shifts in development thinking around the SDGs. I argue for the need in embracing complexity thinking that recognises that the attainment of the SDGs is dependent on the creation of an enabling environment and effective multi-stakeholder consultation.
... African philanthropy is therefore mainly informal. 11 However, new formal or institutionalized philanthropies have emerged and rapidly spreading across African societies and making immense contribution to development. Philanthropy in Africa is beyond money. ...
Research
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International Society for Third-Sector Research (ISTR), African Regional Network 2017 Working Series Papers. ISTR Africa(African Civil Society Research Network)
... 3 Despite the increasing attention given to African philanthropy in the literature in recent years (e.g. Moyo and Ramsamy 2014;Aina and Moyo 2013;Fowler 2016c), empirical research on African philanthropy at the country-level in Ghana remains limited. To this end, the central research question of this article is: what are the different typologies of philanthropic institutions existing in Ghana that serve as alternative funding routes for NGDOs? ...
Article
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In recent years, there has been an increasing concern about non-governmental development organisations' (NGDOs) sustainability especially in countries including Ghana that have transitioned into a lower-middle-income status. The effect has been donor withdrawal and funding cuts for NGDOs. This presents opportunities and challenges for NGDOs in their attempt to mobilise alternative funding in ensuring their sustainability. Drawing on secondary literature and semi-structured interviews with fiftyseven respondents from national NGDOs, government, donors and corporate organisations, this article documents and expands our understanding of the different typologies of philanthropic institutions in Ghana as potential alternative funding routes for NGDOs. It finds that a weak enabling environment including the absence of a regulatory framework and fiscal incentives for domestic resource mobilisation stands to affect the potential of philanthropic institutions as alternative funding routes for NGDOs sustainability.
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How funding is distributed is an important question in philanthropy. But limited work has asked this question about philanthropy originating on the continent of Africa. This article explores the effective distribution of grants by a community-based South African non-profit organisation through the lens of transaction cost economics. Instead of needs-based indicators, this study finds that internet access is the main indicator of funding, with areas with lower internet access receiving fewer funds than those with higher internet access. This indicates that funding by community-based non-profits may not always be reaching the areas with the highest amount of need, but areas with lower search costs. Overall, community-based organisations may deal with issues similar to international organisations in reaching local non-profit organisations and disenfranchised communities. Targeted outreach, specifically to areas with lower access to the internet, can help to ameliorate these differences.
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The definition of philanthropy is contested with variations across time and global context. The article will centre on the Caribbean with its numerous identities to highlight inclusive philanthropic practices. Through an analysis of Caribbean history, theoretical foundations, and contemporary analysis, three social classes or ideal types are identified. These include 1) the colonial dominant, 2) the Black or creole middle class and 3) the resisters or grassroots/marginalized populations. Drawing on these ideal types, the analyzes three categories of philanthropic practice developing within and through the Caribbean, including 1) the philanthropy of colonial dominance, 2) philanthropy of cultural mediation and 3) philanthropy of anticolonial resistance. The Caribbean offers an ideal context for understanding traditional forms of philanthropic action and 'philanthropy from below,' highlighting issues of power, oppression, and social transformation that impact the region's ongoing development.
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This research explores philanthropic transfers and exchanges between and among the North and the South, namely, through grassroots international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), which tend to fall outside of the aid industry. The broad research question that frames this study is as follows: How do these organizations, grassroots INGOs in the global North and their partner organizations in the global South, represent and legitimize their work within the larger realm of development aid in Africa? The research conducts a comparative case study through the analysis of the narratives via organizational stories and artifacts produced and used by grassroots INGOs in the United States and partner organizations in Kenya. The findings show how grassroots INGOs distinguish themselves from what are the traditional images of global philanthropic exchanges and development aid, producing disassociative claims. The research derives a set of properties of grassroots INGOs to explain these perceived distinctions.
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This research examines everyday people as grassroots philanthropic leaders in development aid in Africa. The article balances two objectives. First is to provide a counter narrative to the broad frames that traditionally drive research on nonprofit organizations and development aid, which have tended to center more on the professionalized nongovernmental organization and traditional North–South aid models. Second, I situate grassroots philanthropic leaders within the broader landscape of people engaging in development aid. I use life‐history narratives of leaders to illuminate the diminishing barriers to being a philanthropist, capture motivating and relational dimensions in grassroots philanthropic leadership, as well as provide evidence of African philanthropy and further engagement of diaspora through small voluntary organizations. The findings espouse the everyday, relational practices of grassroots philanthropic leaders in development aid but do not entirely divorce these leaders and their initiatives from the overarching goals of development.
Technical Report
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This paper will consider the interrelationship between illicit financial flows (IFFs) and philanthropy in the South African and African economies. The objective of this paper is to explore ways in which African philanthropy can support efforts to improve economic governance and reduce IFFs. Illicit flows have been estimated at over US$1.2 trillion globally in 2012, with particularly harmful effects in vulnerable economies and in African extractive economies in particular (Global Integrity Foundation, 2013; UNECA, 2014). The issue is multi-faceted and involves philanthropic organisations at several different levels: firstly as organisations themselves, secondly with regard to the organisations and individuals with which they work, and thirdly, at a broader scale, in terms of their influence, advocacy and campaign efforts aimed at structural change in the macro economy for the benefit and wellbeing of the poor and excluded. The third is important since the scale of funds that philanthropy can provide to ameliorate poverty, inequality, social exclusion and clean environments is currently considerably offset by the amount of resources directed away from the vulnerable due to IFFs and the consequences of the way the global economy is designed and regulated more generally. Ameliorating IFFs requires building cross-issue networks and platforms for advocacy and campaigning; moving to an African philanthropy narrative and funding base; improving internal transparency; while continuously acting to reduce opacity in the giving sector and beyond, in order to build economic justice.
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Scholars have been puzzled by the high level of support for democracy, as well as the high level of support for the authoritarian regime, in China, as revealed in numerous surveys. In this paper, Shi and Lu argue that people in different societies may understand democracy in distinct ways. Confucian culture defines democracy in terms of Minben, which is different from the procedural understanding of democracy following the liberal tradition. These two definitions generate different expectations for the government, provide varying standards for assessing political legitimacy, and define distinct functions of participation. Their findings suggest that meaningful comparative studies of support for democracy require scholars to be sensitive to culturally embedded understandings of democracy in different societies.
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The fact that this new nation has succeeded in fostering economic growth and democracy under the aegis of equalitarian values holds out hope for the rest of the world. For prosperity, freedom, and equality cannot be for white men only. If they are, then they will prove to have been as illusory and impermanent as the slave-based democracies of ancient Greece.
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