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The Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland, 2: Linyphiidae

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The Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland, 2: Linyphiidae

... However, this is also true for the many other taxa where local phylogenetic trees have proven to be of tremendous value. I would, moreover, argue that nobody doubts the value of checklists of the local spider fauna; for British spiders, such checklists are published regularly, with geographic scales ranging from individual nature reserves, to single counties and the entire country (see, e.g., Ashmole 1979;Carpenter 1898;Dobson 1987Dobson , 1988Fowles 1994;Harvey 1988;Helsdingen 1996;Lavery 2019;Leighton 1975;McFerran & Ross 1993;Merrett & Millidge 1992;Merrett & Murphy 2000;Merrett et al. 1985Merrett et al. , 2014Milner 1987aMilner ,b, 2006Philp 2005;Pickard-Cambridge 1874, 1877, 1900and Slawson 1988, in addition to checklists included in general works such as Bristowe 1939;Locket et al. 1987;and Roberts 1987). Knowing which species are present in a local area provides the necessary context for any observations on individual groups on the list. ...
... The British Linyphiidae were comprehensively analysed in terms of pedipalp morphology by Merrett (1963) and Millidge (1977), and less comprehensively in terms of their female genitalia by Millidge (1984Millidge ( , 1993. This information was complemented by the phylogenetic assessments implicitly (and rarely explicitly) contained in the works of Wiehle (1956Wiehle ( , 1960 and Roberts (1987), as well as a thorough assessment of the morphological data encoded in the interactive key of linyphiid species by Anna Stäubli (Stäubli 2020, http://www.araneae.nmbe.ch). The barcode analyses presented in Breitling (2019b) provided additional information, but were mostly used for determining the relationships within genera. ...
... Collinsia is treated as a junior synonym of Halorates, following Buckle et al. (2001), Millidge (1977), Roberts (1987), and Tanasevitch (2009). As the proposed tree shows, it would be impossible to maintain C. inerrans in the same genus as C. holmgreni / C. distinctus, if H. reprobus is excluded. ...
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The recent accumulation of increasingly densely sampled phylogenetic analyses of spiders has greatly advanced our understanding of evolutionary relationships within this group. Here, this diverse literature is reviewed and combined with earlier morphological analyses in an attempt to reconstruct the first fully resolved phylogeny for the spider fauna of the British Isles. The resulting tree highlights parts of the group where data are still too limited for a confident assessment of relationships, proposes a number of deviations from previously suggested phylogenetic hypotheses, and can serve as a framework for evolutionary and ecological interpretations of the biology of British spiders, as well as a starting point for future studies on a larger geographical scale.
... Invertebrates were found via manual searching, collected via aspirator, and placed in microcentrifuge tubes of 100% ethanol. These were identified at 20-50X magnification using a light stereomicroscope and taxonomic keys (Goulet & Huber, 1993;Roberts, 1993;Unwin, 2001;Ball, 2008;Barber, 2008;Duff, 2012;Dallimore & Shaw, 2013). Additional invertebrates and DNA were taken from existing archived collections within Cardiff University. ...
... In total, 66 spiders were screened (Table S2), unevenly split across the 20 corresponding prey sampling sites. Spiders were washed in and transferred to fresh 100% ethanol to reduce external contaminants prior to identification using Roberts (1993) morphological key. Abdomens were removed from spiders and washed again in fresh 100% ethanol. ...
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1. Money spiders (Linyphiidae) are an important component of conservation biological control in cereal crops, but they rely on alternative prey when pests are not abundant, such as between cropping cycles. To optimally benefit from these generalist predators, prey choice dynamics must first be understood. 2. Money spiders and their locally available prey were collected from cereal crops two weeks pre- and post-harvest. Spider gut DNA was amplified with two novel metabarcoding primer pairs designed for spider dietary analysis, and sequenced. 3. The combined general and spider-exclusion primers successfully identified prey from 15 families in the guts of the 46 linyphiid spiders screened, whilst avoiding amplification of Erigone spp. The primers show promise for application to the diets of other spider families such as Agelenidae and Pholcidae. 4. Distinct invertebrate communities were identified pre- and post-harvest, and changes in spider diet and, to a lesser extent, prey choice reflected this. Spiders were found to consume one another more than expected, indicating their propensity toward intraguild predation, but also consumed common pest families. 5. Changes in spider prey choice may redress prey community changes to maintain a consistent dietary intake. Consistent provision of alternative prey via permanent refugia should be considered to sustain effective conservation biocontrol.
... Remarks. Species occurring in open lands (Guttmann 1979), where it spins an orb web with stabilimenta, usually in tall grass and trees (Roberts 1985). An Asiatic-European element (WSC 2020), widespread in continental Greece, recorded also for Lesbos, Rhodes, and Crete (Chatzaki et al. 2020 (Bellman 2010). ...
... Remarks. On vegetation, often concealed amongst flowers (Roberts 1985). An Asiatic-European species (WSC 2020), recorded in continental Greece and several islands, including Cephalonia (De Carlini 1901;Reimoser 1930). ...
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A first checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of the Ionian islands of Cephalonia and Ithaka (Greece) is provided. Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772), Metellina merianae (Scopoli, 1763), Frontinellina frutetorum (C.L. Koch, 1835), Leptorchestes berolinensis (C.L. Koch, 1846), and Menemerus semilimbatus (Hahn, 1827) are recorded for the first time for Cephalonia island, and Philaeus chrysops (Poda, 1761) for Ithaka island.
... We specifically sought females, but a few male by-catches were kept in low-density patches during the final visit, to potentially add genetic diversity in our crosses. We then identified spiders to species level under a binocular microscope (by placing them in between a petri dish and some plastic foam, so they were stuck and epigyne/pedipalps visible) following Roberts (1993). Female E. longipalpis have a characteristic epigyne (Roberts 1993) that makes them relatively easy to distinguish from all other linyphiids found in these salt marshes (based on Leroy et al. 2014), including other Erigone species. ...
... We then identified spiders to species level under a binocular microscope (by placing them in between a petri dish and some plastic foam, so they were stuck and epigyne/pedipalps visible) following Roberts (1993). Female E. longipalpis have a characteristic epigyne (Roberts 1993) that makes them relatively easy to distinguish from all other linyphiids found in these salt marshes (based on Leroy et al. 2014), including other Erigone species. Although spiders were caught in all visited sites, E. longipalpis were only found in the patches where P. maritima was dominant (i.e., with >50% cover; 5/6 of western and 3/7 of eastern patches sampled). ...
Article
Dispersal and its evolution play a key role for population persistence in fragmented landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation increase the cost of between-habitat movements. In such contexts, it is important to know how variation in dispersal and other traits is structured, and whether responses to landscape fragmentation are aligned with underlying dispersal-trait correlations, or dispersal syndromes. We therefore studied trait variation in Erigone longipalpis, a European spider species specialist of (often patchy) salt marshes. We collected spiders in two salt-marsh landscapes differing in habitat availability. We then reared lab-born spiders for two generations in controlled conditions, and measured dispersal and its association with various key traits. E. longipalpis population densities were lower in the more fragmented landscape. Despite this, we found no evidence of differences in dispersal, or any other trait we studied, between the two landscapes. While a dispersal syndrome was present at the among-individual level (dispersers were more fecund and faster growing, among others), there was no indication it was genetically driven: among-family differences in dispersal were not correlated with differences in other traits. Instead, we showed that the observed phenotypic covariations were mostly due to within-family correlations. We hypothesize that the dispersal syndrome is the result of asymmetric food access among siblings, leading to variation in development rates and carrying over to adult traits. Our results show we need to better understand the sources of dispersal variation and syndromes, especially when dispersal may evolve rapidly in response to environmental change.
... Among the 402 linyphiid genera currently belonging to erigonines (Tanasevitch, 2019), sexually dimorphic features are present in at least 223 genera (estimated by Lin from discriptions in previous studies; e.g. Simon, 1884;Roberts, 1987;Chamberlin, 1949;Holm, 1962;Millidge, 1991;Eskov & Marusik, 1994;Hormiga, 2000;Paquin & Dupérré, 2003;Miller & Hormiga, 2004;Miller, 2007;Ono et al., 2009;Frick et al., 2010;Zhao & Li, 2014). Also, the diversity of the prosomal structures in males strongly differs among genera [e.g. ...
... Nevertheless, the unique prosomal modification of the gibbosus morph described in the original description makes the identification of specimens in this study unequivocal. Subsequently, the identical palpal morphology confirmed the conspecificity of examined tuberosus morph with the gibbosus morph (Roberts, 1987). ...
Article
Sexual selection has been shown to drive speciation. In dwarf spiders (erigonines), males possess diverse, sexually selected prosomal structures with nuptial-gift-producing glands. The genus Oedothorax is suitable for investigating the evolution of these features due to high structural variation. We have re-delimited this genus based on a phylogenetic analysis. Ten species are Oedothorax s.s.; five are transferred back to their original generic placement; 25 remain unplaced as ‘Oedothorax’. Four junior synonymies are proposed: Callitrichia simplex to Ca. holmi comb. nov.; Gongylidioides kougianensis to G. insulanus comb. nov.; Ummeliata ziaowutai to U. esyunini comb. nov.; Oe. kathmandu to Mitrager unicolor comb. nov. Oedothorax seminolus is a junior synonym of Soulgas corticarius and the transfer of Oe. alascensis to Halorates is confirmed. The replacement name Ca. hirsuta is proposed for Ca. pilosa. The male of Callitrichia longiducta comb. nov. and the female of ‘Oedothorax’ nazareti are newly described. Thirty-eight Oedothorax species are transferred to other genera. Callitrichia spinosa is transferred to Holmelgonia. Three genera are erected: Cornitibia, Emertongone and Jilinus. Ophrynia and Toschia are synonymized with Callitrichia. Character optimization suggests multiple origins of different prosomal modification types. Convergent evolution in these traits suggests that sexual selection has played an important role in erigonine diversification.
... Sites were chosen based on accessibility as granted by local landowners. After sorting, spiders were stored in 70% ethanol until species identification using taxonomic keys (Roberts, 1987(Roberts, , 1995Nentwig et al., 2020). ...
Article
Agricultural intensification is one of the most important drivers of biodiversity loss. To preserve taxonomic diversity in agricultural landscapes, there is an increasing need for refuge areas within agroecosystems, but best practices for providing such sites are debated. Here, we compared the taxonomic diversity and trait composition of spiders, being important terrestrial predators, among cereal fields, grassy field margins, set aside fields sown with wildflowers, and semi-natural sites within an agricultural landscape in western Germany. Spider taxonomic diversity was similarly high in all non-crop habitats, indicating a surprisingly high value of field margins and set-aside fields. Cereal fields, in contrast, were dominated by a few, mainly euryecious species. Moreover, community mean body size was smallest on cereal fields but highest on semi-natural sites, suggesting that spider body size may serve as a valuable indicator of the level of anthropogenic disturbance. Spider communities differed partly among non-crop habitats, stressing the need for combining different conservation measures to maximize taxonomic biodiversity and trait composition. These should also include remnants of natural vegetation, which were especially important for large and red list species and therefore for reaching the aims of nature conservation.
... Wire nets (mesh size: 31 mm) in the cups prevented unintended by-catch, i.e. of small vertebrates. Pitfall traps were emptied three times (every four weeks) and individuals were stored in 70% ethanol before species identification following Besuchet (1974) and Assing and Schülke (2012) for Staphylinidae (within subfamily Aleocharinae only the genera Aleochara, Autalia and Callicerus), Müller-Motzfeld (2004) for Carabidae and Roberts (1996Roberts ( , 1987, Almquist (2006Almquist ( , 2005 and Nentwig et al. (2018) for spiders. Beetle larvae were identified to family level (Klausnitzer, 2011). ...
Article
Wildflower areas are a popular agri-environment scheme to counteract the biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. While benefits for flower-visiting and predatory insects during the vegetation period were frequently shown, few studies addressed the suitability of wildflower areas as overwintering habitats. Here, we studied the significance of wildflower areas as overwintering habitats and whether their benefits vary with landscape context, i.e. the proportions of permanent semi-natural habitats such as hedges. We selected ten landscapes that encompassed independent gradients of proportions of permanent semi-natural habitats (e.g. hedgerows, ditches) and transient wildflower areas. The centres of the landscapes were pairs of wildflower areas and arable fields on which we sampled overwintering ground-dwelling arthropods by emergence traps. In total, we recorded 2838 overwintering individuals from 115 species of rove and carabid beetles as well as spiders. Abundance of rove beetle larvae, as well as species richness of adult rove beetles and spiders was significantly higher in wildflower areas than in arable fields. With respect to landscape context, abundance and species richness of adult rove beetles showed a hump-shaped relationship with the proportion of permanent semi-natural habitats. The abundance of adult carabid beetles showed a hump-shaped relationship with the proportion of transient wildflower areas, while the abundance of carabid beetle larvae showed a hump-shaped pattern with permanent semi-natural habitats. For the first time we showed that, similar to the vegetation period, benefits of wildflower areas as overwintering habitats for ground-dwelling arthropods depend on both local habitat characteristics as well as landscape context. Benefits of wildflower areas for overwintering were highest in simple landscapes with an intermediate proportion of either permanent semi-natural habitats or transient wildflower areas. Our results suggest that in order to sustainably maintain the functional guild of ground-dwelling arthropods, agricultural landscapes should provide both sown wildflower areas and permanent semi-natural habitats. Our results also support the general claim that semi-natural habitats should at least contribute 10–15% to agricultural landscapes in order to maintain the characteristic biodiversity in modern agro-ecosystems.
... The collected Araneae and Opiliones were identified and counted. The taxonomic keys of valid spiders and Opiliones (Nentwig et al., 2020;Roberts, 1985;Rozwałka, 2017) were used to identify the species. F I G U R E 1 Locality of the study area (in the context of Poland and Białowieża Forest) ...
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Bracket fungi are seen mainly as the cause of economic losses in forestry, and their role as creators of biodiversity is relatively poorly understood. The aim of the study was defining the manner in which the degree of decay (DD) of the fruiting bodies determines the character of the invertebrate assemblages colonising them. The effect of this group of fungi on the modification of biodiversity of invertebrates (Aranae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpionida, two groups of mites—Mesostigmata and Oribatida, and Collembola and Insecta) was investigated by analyzing 100 fruiting bodies of 10 species of bracket fungi divided into four DD classes. The material was collected at Białowieża National Park, which is considered to be the largest area of natural forests in the North European Plain. 16 068 invertebrate individuals classified into 224 species were obtained. Oribatid mites (12 543 individuals) constituted the largest group of individuals, which were classified into 115 species with the most numerous Carabodes femoralis (8,811 individuals). Representatives of this group of mites have been reported previously in the publications on bracket fungi; however, the contributions of Oribatida and other groups of invertebrates were not broadly compared. Moreover, the species such as Hoploseius mariae and H. oblongus, which were predominantly found in fruiting bodies of bracket fungi, have also been discerned. The invertebrate fauna differs depending on DD of the samples: In the more decayed samples, a higher number of both individuals and species were recorded compared to the samples with lower DDs; however, this trend proved to be nonlinear. The DCA and cluster analysis revealed a similarity of the invertebrate assemblages from the 2 DD and 4 DD samples. They also indicated that the group 3 DD differed the most from all the other samples. The indicator species analysis identified species characteristic to individual DDs: For group 1 DD, it was, for example, Hoploseius oblongus; for 2 DD—Orchesella bifasciata; and for 3 DD—Chernes cimicoides, while for 4 DD—Dinychus perforatus. From the viewpoint of forest management, wood‐decaying fungi are mainly perceived in terms of financial losses resulting from the deteriorating timber value. Nevertheless, these fungi create a unique microhabitat of decaying wood; hence, their fruiting bodies play a significant role in promoting biodiversity of many groups of invertebrates.
... The identifications were made with a Leica S8APO microscope and pictures were taken by means of a Leica DC 160 camera. Identification references are: Heimer & Nentwig (1991), Roberts (1985Roberts ( , 1987, and Tyschchenko (1971). Collected and examined specimens are deposited in the collection of the Zoological Museum of Kastamonu University (KUZM). ...
Article
In this short paper, the characteristic features and photographs of Minicia marginella (Wider, 1834) and Trichoncus hackmani Millidge, 1955 of family Linyphiidae and Tuberta maerens (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1863) of family Cybaeidae are presented as new records of both genera and species from Turkey. This increases the total number of Linyphiidae recorded in Turkey to 119 species in 70 genera and Cybaeidae to 5 species in 4 genera.
... In Germany, the species is classified as critically endangered in the Red List of species. Determination: Wiehle 1960, Roberts 1987. Global distribution: Palaearctic. ...
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Good environmental management needs evidence-based conservation measures, and those measures need both faunistical and ecological information. Following this path, for the first time in Serbia, a faunistical research of spiders at Subotica Sandland was organised in 2014 as a base for ecological arguments in landscape management of the area. The spiders were collected at ten different habitats on sandy soil, in the period from 27th April till 30th October by pitfall trapping and sweep netting. A total of 16304 adult and 7246 juvenile individuals were captured, and 225 species from 27 families were determined. Thirty species represent new records for Serbia. Diversity and species compositions provided an insight into the quality of the habitats and the influence of the conservation and development measures that were already applied. The main endangerment factors are outlined. Conclusions and suggestions according to the analysis of the spider fauna, are mostly in correlation with those made earlier based on other groups of organisms. Within the scope of nature protection, wet and sandy meadows are prioritised over the woods. For future monitoring, two flagship and umbrella species are suggested: Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772) for the sandy area and Dolomedes plantarius (Clerck, 1757) for the wetlands.
... Spiders of the family Liocranidae Simon, 1897 are small to medium-sized (3-8 mm long) and live freely in diverse habitats such as heathland, dry and rocky areas, and sometimes in loose leaf litter or woody debris in shady forests (Roberts 1985;Deeleman-Reinhold 2001;Lecigne 2016;Platnick 2020). The family currently contains 33 genera and 290 species worldwide (WSC 2021;Li 2020). ...
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Three new species of the genus Toxoniella Warui & Jocqué, 2002 of the family Liocranidae Simon, 1897 are described from Kenya: T. tharaka Oketch & Li, sp. nov., T. waruii Oketch & Li, sp. nov., and T. nyeri Oketch & Li, sp. nov. Types are deposited in the National Museums of Kenya (NMK), Nairobi, Kenya.
... Voucher specimens are deposited at the Museum of Natural Sciences in Tirana. The main literature used for identification was griMM (1985), HeiMer & nentWig (1991), Metzner (1999), Muster et al. (2007), nentWig et al. (2012), roBerts (1987, 1995 and tongiorgi (1966). ...
... A ce jour, seule la femelle est décrite, cependant des mâles ont été capturés (Blick & kreuels, 2002 ;Staudt et al., 2013). La femelle de cette araignée microphtalme ( fig. 2 a, b) est morphologiquement proche de Mioxena blanda (Simon, 1884) dont elle se distingue par son épigyne ( fig. 2 c, d) (SaariSto, 1971 ;roBertS, 1993). Suisse (nentwig et al., 2015). ...
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La mise en place d’un protocole d’aspiration dans le Jardin des Plantes de Paris a permis de détecter la présence en France de deux nouvelles espèces d’araignées : Cryptachaea blattea (Urquhart, 1886), une Theridiidae cosmopolite, et Pseudomaro aenigmaticus (Denis, 1966), une Linyphiidae endogée très peu connue.
... The specimens were taken from leaf litter by means of a sifter. Well-known identification keys were used for identification (Heimer and Nentwig, 1991;Roberts, 1987;Roberts, 1995). Specimens were preserved in 70 % ethanol. ...
Article
In this study, Abacoproeces topcui Türkeş et. al. 2015 is shown to be an inappropriate generic assignment. The male and hitherto unknown female are redescribed and the species is transferred to Pelecopsis comb.n.
... Carabids were identified to species level, except for Amara spp. (Bonelli, 1810), which were determined to genus level because of identification uncertainties (Roger et al. 2012) Adult spiders were identified to genus level (Roberts 1993(Roberts , 2014. Since the aim of the study was not to analyze the temporal dynamics of arthropods, we pooled, for each trap, the data from the two sampling dates (May and June) in the same year. ...
Article
In arable agroecosystems, arthropod communities often have a reduced abundance and diversity, which represents a challenge for sampling techniques needed to detect small differences among these simplified communities. We evaluated the suitability of pitfall traps for comparing the effects of cropping systems on arthropod communities. In a field experiment, we compared the effects of two pitfall trap diameters, the type of preserving fluid and the sampling effort on three metrics (activity density, taxonomic richness, and community weighted mean [CWM] of body size) for carabids and spiders. Trap size affected the observed composition of communities, with large traps yielding a higher proportion of spiders, and a higher richness and CWM body size for both taxa. The type of preserving fluid had a weaker effect. Simulations with various sampling efforts showed that only very different communities could be distinguished with less than 10 traps per field or less than 30 field replicates. Fewer traps were required to find differences between cropping systems for body size than for other metrics. Carabid activity density and body size, and spider genus richness, were the variables better distinguishing between cropping systems with the smallest sampling effort. A high sampling effort was required for comparing activity density and richness across cropping systems. Selection of the most appropriate trap design, metrics, and crops are the main factors for optimizing the trade-off between sampling effort and the ability to detect arthropod community responses to habitat management.
... Für die Bestimmung der Spinnen und Weberknechte mittels Binokular (SM Technival 2) fand außer der Literatur (Grimm 1985, 1986, Heimer & Nentwig 1991, Martens 1978, Nentwig et al. 2020, Roberts 1985, 1987, 1993, 1995, Wiehle 1960 (Spanien 2016, Portugal 2018. In diesem Zusammenhang ist erwähnenswert, dass der Nachweis aus Oslo möglicherweise auf Importe der Firma "Luers Pflanzenhandel" in Westerstede nordwestlich von Bremen zurückzuführen ist (Oger 2020). ...
... The identification was made with a Leica S8APO microscope and pictures were taken by means of a Leica DC 160 camera. Identification depended on descriptions and drawings of: Tyschchenko (1971), Roberts (1987), Heimer & Nentwig (1991), Jäger (2006, and Bellvert Bantí (2016). Collected and examined specimens are deposited in the collection of the Zoological Museum of Kastamonu University (KUZM). ...
Article
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In this short paper, the characteristic features and photographs of Hypomma cornutum (Blackwall, 1833) from Turkey are presented. It is a new record from Turkey. This increases the total number of Linyphiidae recorded in Turkey to 117 species.
... Spiders were mostly identified by the author; part of the spiders sampled in 2010 were identified by Marco Isaia while spiders of uncertain identity collected during the QuESSA project of 2013 were identified by Paolo Pantini. Spiders were identified using Italian and European keys (Roberts 1987, Trotta 2005, the online keys of Nentwig et al. (2019), and comparison with genital images by Oger (2019). Names follow current nomenclature in the World Spider Catalog (2020). ...
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In the Monte Pisano area (Tuscany, central Italy), spiders were collected within two research projects during three years (2010, 2013, 2014). Olive groves and adjacent semi-natural habitats (wood and Mediterranean garrigue) were investigated with three sampling methods (pitfall trapping, beating at branches and hand collection in the canopy). A total of 148 species was identified. The ground spider (Gnaphosidae) Zelotes fulvaster (Simon, 1878) was recorded for the first time in Italy.
... Tegenaria parietina (Fourcroy, 1785), originally described as Aranea parietina Fourcroy, 1785, is arguably the largest species of the known Tegenaria Latreille, 1804, as evidenced by the body and leg measurements given in taxonomic works (e.g. Roberts 1985). Tegenaria parietina is distributed throughout Europe (Bolzern, Burckhardt & Hänggi 2013) but within the UK is restricted to England, predominately in the south (Spider Recording Scheme 2020;pers. ...
... Carabids were identified to species level, except for Amara spp., which were determined to genus level because of identification uncertainties (Roger et al. 2012), and adult spiders, which were identified to genus level (Roberts 1993;Roberts 2014). The amount of individuals in each trap reflects both their density and their activity, and was therefore called "activity-density". ...
Article
Ground dwelling arthropods are affected by agricultural practices, and analyses of their responses to different crop management are required. The sampling efficiency of pitfall traps has been widely studied in natural ecosystems. In arable agroecosystems, arthropod communities are more simplified than in natural ones and sampling techniques need to be adjusted to these specific conditions. In particular, the ability to distinguish between simplified communities and the sampling effort required have been little investigated. We evaluated the suitability of pitfall traps for characterizing the effects of arable cropping systems on the taxonomic and functional composition of spider and carabid communities. In a field experiment comparing three cropping systems, we compared the effects of two pitfall trap diameters, the type of preserving fluid used in pitfall traps and the sampling effort on six metrics describing communities: activity-density, richness and community weighted mean (CWM) of body size, each one for carabid and spiders. Trap size affected the observed composition of carabid and spider communities, with large traps yielding a higher relative proportion of spiders, and a higher species richness and CWM body size for both taxa. The type of preserving fluid had no marked effect on any of the metrics considered. For this experiment in arable crops, simulations with various sampling efforts showed that only very different communities could be significantly distinguished
... The identification was made with a Leica S8APO microscope and pictures were taken by means of a Leica DC 160 camera. Identification depended on descriptions and drawings of: Tyschchenko (1971), Roberts (1987), Heimer & Nentwig (1991), Jäger (2006, and Bellvert Bantí (2016). Collected and examined specimens are deposited in the collection of the Zoological Museum of Kastamonu University (KUZM). ...
Article
In this short paper, the characteristic features and photographs of Hypomma cornutum (Blackwall, 1833) from Turkey are presented. It is a new record from Turkey. This increases the total number of Linyphiidae recorded in Turkey to 117 species.
... Samples were transferred to plastic bags, frozen at − 18 °C, and then stored in 70% ethanol. All adult spiders captured were identified to the species level using taxonomic keys (Roberts 1987(Roberts , 1995Nentwig et al. 2020). ...
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Agricultural intensification and the concomitant landscape homogenization is leading to a worldwide decline in farmland biodiversity. Non-crop habitats in agroecosystems may counteract the loss of arthropods such as spiders and thus contribute to sustainable agriculture. However, the effectiveness of field margins and set-aside wildflower-sown patches in maintaining spider diversity is not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of three different non-crop habitats, namely field margins, set-aside wildflower-sown patches under power poles (‘power pole islands’), and grassland fallows on spider diversity as compared to wheat fields in an agricultural landscape in western Germany. Using pitfall trapping and suction sampling, we show that species richness and overall conservation value were higher in non-crop habitats than in wheat fields. Interestingly, field margins and power pole islands differed from long-term grassland fallows only in conservation value, which was significantly higher in grassland fallows. Species assemblages differed considerably between grassland fallows, field margins and power pole islands, and wheat fields, documenting the added value of using different conservation strategies. Implications for insect conservation Small-scale non-crop habitats adjacent to wheat fields were surprisingly effective in promoting spider diversity in an agricultural landscape, with field margins and power pole islands being equally effective. To maximize overall diversity in agricultural landscapes, we propose a combination of larger long-term fallows and smaller non-crop habitats such as field margins or set-aside wildflower-sown patches.
... Given their prevalence in field collections, dietary analysis was carried out for the linyphiid genera Erigone, Tenuiphantes, Bathyphantes and Microlinyphia (Araneae: Linyphiidae), and the Lycosidae genus Pardosa. Spiders were transferred to and washed in fresh 100% ethanol to reduce external contaminants prior to identification via morphological key (Roberts, 1993). Abdomens were removed from spiders and again washed in and transferred to fresh 100% ethanol. ...
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Spiders are among the dominant invertebrate predators in agricultural systems and are significant regulators of insect pests. The precise dynamics of biocontrol of pests in the field are, however, poorly understood. This study investigates how density-independent prey choice, taxonomy, life stage, sex, and web characteristics affect spider diet and biocontrol. We collected spiders in four genera of Linyphiidae (i.e., Bathyphantes, Erigone, Tenuiphantes, and Microlinyphia), and individuals from the Lycosidae genus Pardosa, and their proximate prey communities from barley fields in Wales, UK between April and September 2018. We analyzed the gut contents of 300 individual spiders using DNA metabarcoding. From the 300 spiders screened, 89 prey taxa were identified from 45 families, including a wide range of pests and predators. Thrips were the dominant prey, present in over a third of the spiders sampled , but a type IV functional response appears to reduce their predation at peak abundances. Spider diets significantly differed based on web characteristics, but this depended on the genus and sex of the spider and it was not the principal separating factor in the trophic niches of linyphiids and lycosids. Diets significantly differed between spider genera and life stages, reflected in different propensities for intragu-ild predation and pest predation. Adult spiders predated a greater diversity of other predators, and juveniles predated a greater diversity of pests. Overall, Tenuiphantes spp. and Bathyphantes spp. exhibited the greatest individual potential for biocontrol of the greatest diversity of pest genera. The greater trophic niche complementarity of Pardosa spp. and Erigone spp., however, suggests that their complementary predation of different pests might be of greater overall benefit to biocontrol. Sustainable agriculture should aim to optimize conditions throughout the cropping cycle for effective biocontrol, prioritizing provision for a diversity of spiders which predate a complementary diversity of pest species.
... All target arthropods were recorded to family either in the field, or in the lab following storage in 70% ethanol. Spiders were identified to family (Roberts, 1985a, b;1987) from year two. ...
Article
Modern fruit production has successfully increased yields and fruit quality to meet market demands mainly through intensification and the use of Plant Protection Products (PPPs). Due to the associated environmental impacts and consumers increasingly demanding food produced more sustainably, the tree fruit sector is seeking to reduce its reliance on PPPs. Despite intensification, apple production is still highly dependent on ecosystem services, including pest regulation and pollination. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of natural enemies and pollinators in commercial apple orchards to the provision of a wildflower habitat. It was hypothesised that the abundance and diversity of beneficial invertebrate species would be enhanced leading to an increased control of apple pests and enhanced pollination of apple blossom. We also investigated the effect of orchard pesticide toxicity on natural enemies and pest regulation services and how responses varied between apple cultivars (Jazz and Braeburn). The study was carried out in five orchards of each apple variety across Kent (UK), using a split-plot experimental design. At each site, a one-hectare orchard plot was established with wildflower strips in alleyways between rows of trees and compared with a one-hectare control plot where alleyways were managed conventionally with regular cutting. Responses of natural enemies and pollinators were recorded over a period of three and four years, respectively. The presence of wildflower strips did not contribute significantly towards the delivery of natural pest regulation or pollination services. However, hoverfly diversity and species richness were greater in orchards with wildflower strips, and whilst this was not associated with increased rates of pest regulation, such a response could potentially provide more resilient pest regulation and pollination services. Braeburn orchards had higher bee abundance, and pest predation rates, which were associated with a greater abundance of earwigs, compared to Jazz orchards. Of key significance for growers is that high values of cumulative pesticide toxicity negatively affected natural enemy populations, especially earwigs. If growers want to support natural enemies and wild pollinators in modern apple orchards following the principles of ecological intensification, they need to consider both the types and frequency of pesticide sprays used, in conjunction with interventions aimed at promoting beneficial invertebrates.
... También presenta un tegumento similar a A. grossus (Nentwig et al., 2021), sin embargo, el epigino en visión posterior se caracteriza por presentar el esclerito basal medio reducido a una hendidura, a causa del gran desarrollo de los escleritos basales laterales que prácticamente lo envuelven casi completamente, como se ilustra en Simon (1929Simon ( ) y Šestáková et al. (2009. Por último, existe un representante del género Gibbaranea Archer, 1951, G. gibbosa (Walckenaer, 1802, común en las copas de las encinas, que también podría despistar por presentar dos tubérculos y una coloración semejante, aunque es fácil de separar por su pequeño tamaño (♀ ≤ 5 mm) y la configuración y estructura de su epigino (Roberts, 1985). ...
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Resumen: Se presentan las primeras observaciones de Araneus grossus (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Araneae; Araneidae) en Extremadu-ra y se compara con otras especies próximas. Abstract: The first records of Araneus grossus (C. L. Koch, 1844) (Araneae; Araneidae) in Extremadura (Spain) are provided and it is compared with other nearby species.
... Se han realizado muestreos en diversos ambientes presentes en el área de estudio: zonas de vegetación de ribera (puntos de muestreo 4, 7, 14 y 70), bosque de encinas con claros (punto de muestreo 15), maquia (puntos de muestreo 17, 18, 28, 33 y 55) y prados (puntos de muestreo 11 y 43) (ver Tabla 1). Los trabajos consultados para su identificación son los siguientes (en orden alfabético): Alicata y Cantarella (1994), Barrientos (1984), Bellmann (2011), Bosmans (1994), Efimik (1999), Hubert (1979), Jager et al. (2011), Jones (1985, Le Peru (2011), Levy (1973), Logunov (1996, 2015, Loksa (1972), Lugetti y Tongiorgi (1969, Metzner (1999), Miller (1971), Oger (2020), Platnick (1975, Prószynski (2003), Roberts (1993Roberts ( , 1998Roberts ( , 2014, Sauer y Wunderlich (1997) ...
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Resumen: Se presenta una lista preliminar de las arañas (Araneae) de la Sierra de Marina que incluye 60 especies, pertene-cientes a 20 familias. Palabras clave: Araneae, Sierra de Marina, Barcelona, España, catálogo. Laburpena Marina Mendizerrako (Bartzelona) behin-behineko Araneae zerrenda Marina Mendizerrako (Bartzelona) armiarmen (Araneae) behin-behineko zerrenda aurkezten da, 20 familiatako 60 espezie dituena. Gako-hitzak: Araneae, Marina Mendizerra, Bartzelona, Espainia, katalogoa. Abstract A preliminary list of the Araneae of the Marina mountain chain (Barcelona) A preliminary list of the spiders (Araneae) of the Marina mountain chain is presented, including 60 species, belonging to 20 families.
... Morphological features of epigynes used by Roberts (1987) to recognize E. erythropus are not relevant for Ukrainian specimens and relate more to E. omissa. It is noteworthy that E. erythropus is found in lowlands or in lower mountains while E. media, which is morphologically close, is an arctic-alpine element (Thaler 1976;Deltshev 1985) and is recorded on the ground or under stones in high mountains (Wunderlich 2011). ...
Article
Six species of Entelecara Simon, 1884 are known in Ukraine: E. acuminata (Wider, 1834), E. congenera (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879), E. erythropus (Westring, 1851), E. flavipes (Blackwall, 1834), E. media Kulczyski, 1887 (needs confirmation), and E. omissa O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1903. Entelecara errata O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1913 was excluded from the earlier list (erroneous identification) and E. forsslundi Tullgren, 1955 was synonymized with E. flavipes (Blackwall, 1834). Information on distinctive features of the copulatory organs and their shape variation is presented, as well as data on ecology and distribution in Ukraine. Drawings of the male palp, carapace, epigyne, and vulva of each of the five species which undoubtedly occurs in Ukraine are provided.
... Bestimmung. Millidge (1985), Roberts (1987), Wiehle (1960) Erstnachweis CH. Benz et al. (1983) Bei Ostearius melanopygius handelt es sich um eine heute kosmopolitisch verbreitete Art, die erstmals aus Neuseeland beschrieben wurde. ...
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On the value of old collections by amateurs – four spider species new to Switzerland in the Ketterer collection. During the 1960s to 1980s Charles-Emanuel Ketterer collected and identified spiders mostly from Wallis (Switzerland) without almost any contacts to other arachnologists. His collection is documented accurately by a datasheet per sample. Considering the possibilities at that time, the identifications were highly accurate. The 836 samples re-determined cover 249 species. Four of them represent first records for Switzerland: Altella lucida (Simon, 1874), Agyneta suecica Holm, 1950, Neon rayi (Simon, 1875), and Hyptiotes flavidus (Blackwall, 1862). A further nine species would have been first records if Ketterer had published his data at that time.
... All collected specimens were labelled and transferred to 70% ethanol. Spiders were identified using classic literature (Simon 1914-1937, Locket & Millidge 1951, 1953, Locket et al. 1974, Roberts 1985, 1987, 1995, Nentwig et al. 2020. For preparing the drawings, an ocular reticulum has been used. ...
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Hollows in mature trees provide a variety of habitats for high species richness and diversity of different arthropod groups. The scarcity of samplings carried out in tree hollows, especially on spiders and on mature oaks, predict the existence of taxonomic novelties in these rich microenvironments. A total of 18 Linyphiidae species, including one species new to science, were sampled with 49 tree hol- low emergence traps set in deciduous Quercus forests in the Western Iberian Peninsula. Both sexes of Scotinotylus vettonicus Barrientos & Hernández-Corral sp. nov. and the female of the endemic Iberian Pelecopsis monsantensis Bosmans & Crespo, 2010 are described and both sexes of these two species and of Centromerus succinus (Simon, 1884) are illustrated. In addition, the spatial and temporal distribu- tion of P. monsantensis, C. succinus, Midia midas (Simon, 1884) and Lepthyphantes minutus (Blackwall, 1833) is figured. Furthermore, the checklist of Linyphiidae species recorded in Salamanca province (Spain) is updated to a total of 40 species, representing 13% of all thelinyphiids occurring in the Iberian Peninsula.
... The identifications were made with a Leica S8APO microscope and pictures were taken by means of a Leica DC 160 camera. Identification references are: Heimer & Nentwig (1991), Roberts (1985Roberts ( , 1987, and Tyschchenko (1971). Collected and examined specimens are deposited in the collection of the Zoological Museum of Kastamonu University (KUZM). ...
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In this short paper, the characteristic features and photographs of Minicia marginella (Wider, 1834) and Trichoncus hackmani Millidge, 1955 of family Linyphiidae and Tuberta maerens (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1863) of family Cybaeidae are presented as new records of both genera and species from Turkey. This increases the total number of Linyphiidae recorded in Turkey to 119 species in 70 genera and Cybaeidae to 5 species in 4 genera.
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Aim We analysed the role of species interactions in wildlife community responses to urbanization. Specifically, we investigated non‐trophic associations within a bird community and the role of trophic interactions in the responses of bird species to the urbanization gradient. Location City‐state of Berlin, Central Europe. Methods Arthropod and bird abundances were sampled across the study area and analysed using hierarchical joint species distribution models (JSDMs). Urbanization gradient was defined by environmental predictors reflecting anthropogenic disturbances, for example noise level and human population density, as well as nature‐like features, for example tree cover and open green area. Relevant environmental predictors for each group and relevant spatial resolution were selected a priori using AICc. Arthropod abundances were modelled for the bird sampling transects and included as additional predictor variable in the bird community model. In this model, we used abundances and traits of 66 breeding bird species as response variables. Results Bird species responses to urbanization were captured by the interaction between invertebrate abundance and environmental predictors. We identified three groups of birds: the urban group (12 species) showed no decrease in abundance along the urbanization gradient and were not related to arthropods abundance; the woodland group (18 species) were positively related to tree cover and arthropod abundance, also in areas with high anthropogenic disturbance; and the nature group (36 species) were positively related to arthropod abundance, but the species abundance decreased sharply with increasing anthropogenic disturbance. All the non‐trophic associations found within the bird community were positive. Main conclusions Arthropod abundance clearly modulated birds’ responses to the urbanization gradient for most species. Especially at moderate levels of anthropogenic disturbance, the abundance of arthropods is key for the occurrence and abundance of bird species in urban areas. To maintain bird diversity in urban green areas, management measures should focus on maintaining and increasing invertebrate abundance.
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The dwarf spider Mermessus trilobatus (Araneae: Linyphiidae), native to North America, has expanded its range over large parts of Europe within less than fifty years. It is notable for occurring in a wide range of mostly agricultural habitats, while most other invasive spiders in Europe are associated with human buildings. As in other invasive invertebrates and plants, the tremendous colonisation success of Mermessus trilobatus might be related to anthropogenic habitat disturbance. Here we aim to test if the invasion success of Mermessus trilobatus in Europe is associated with high tolerance towards soil disturbance. We sampled spiders from eight grasslands experimentally disturbed with superficial soil tillage and eight undisturbed grasslands without tillage. Opposite to our expectation, Mermessus trilobatus densities decrease sharply with soil disturbance. This is in contrast to several native species such as Oedothorax apicatus, which becomes more abundant in the fields after superficial soil tillage. Our study suggests that invasion success of Mermessus trilobatus is not connected to a ruderal strategy. The ecological and evolutionary processes behind colonisation success of Mermessus trilobatus need to be further investigated.
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Four new species of the genus Cheiracanthium C.L. Koch, 1839 from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China are described: C. daofeng Yu & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), C. duanbi Yu & Li, sp. nov. (♂♀), C. gou Yu & Li, sp. nov. (♂), and C. wuquan Yu & Li, sp. nov. (♀). In addition, Sinocanthium Yu & Li, gen. nov. , is described with the type species S. shuangqiu Yu & Li, sp. nov. A key to cheiracanthiid genera distributed in East and Southeast Asia is provided.
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Three new species of the genus Centromerus from Italy, C. tongiorgii sp. nov., C. hanseni sp. nov., and C. gatoi sp. nov., are described for the first time on the basis of both male and female specimens. Their relationships with other congeneric species, as well as their diagnoses, are discussed using morphological characters. New records of poorly known species of Centromerus from Italy are furthermore reported. Among them, C. desmeti Bosmans, 1986 is reported for the first time for the Italian fauna and for continental Europe.
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Taxonomy is the discipline responsible for charting the world’s organismic diversity, understanding ancestor/descendant relationships, and organizing all species according to a unified taxonomic classification system. Taxonomists document the attributes (characters) of organisms, with emphasis on those can be used to distinguish species from each other. Character information is compiled in the scientific literature as text, tables, and images. The information is presented according to conventions that vary among taxonomic domains; such conventions facilitate comparison among similar species, even when descriptions are published by different authors. There is considerable uncertainty within the taxonomic community as to how to re-use images that were included in taxonomic publications, especially in regard to whether copyright applies. This article deals with the principles and application of copyright law, database protection, and protection against unfair competition, as applied to images. We conclude that copyright does not apply to most images in taxonomic literature because they are presented in a standardized way and lack the creativity that is required to qualify as 'copyrightable works'. There are exceptions, such as wildlife photographs, drawings and artwork produced in a distinctive individual form and intended for other than comparative purposes (such as visual art). Further exceptions may apply to collections of images that qualify as a database in the sense of European database protection law. In a few European countries, there is legal protection for photographs that do not qualify as works in the usual sense of copyright. It follows that most images found in taxonomic literature can be re-used for research or many other purposes without seeking permission, regardless of any copyright declaration. In observance of ethical and scholarly standards, re-users are expected to cite the author and original source of any image that they use.
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Resumen: El análisis taxonómico de un muestreo realizado con trampas de emergencia en oquedades arbóreas del Parque Na-cional de Cabañeros ha aportado 65 especies, 55 géneros y 26 familias de arañas. Se describe la hembra de Scotophaeus do-lanskyi Lissner, 2017. Se discuten las afinidades de Eratigena serrana (Barrientos & Sánchez-Corral, 2013) n. status. Se destaca la mención de 22 especies como primera cita para el P. N. de Cabañeros; de ellas, 17 lo son también para la provincia de Ciudad Real. Se vincula con el hábitat estudiado la importancia relativa de algunas especies como Drassodes luteomicans (Simon, 1878), Scotophaeus validus (Lucas, 1846) e Icius subinermis Simon, 1937. Abstract: The taxonomic analysis of an emergence trap sampling carried out in tree hollows of the Cabañeros National Park has produced 65 species, 55 genera and 26 families of spiders. The female of Scotophaeus dolanskyi Lissner, 2017 is described. The affinities of Eratigena serrana (Barrientos & Sánchez-Corral, 2013) n. status are discussed. The mention of 22 species stands out as the first record from Cabañeros N. P.; of these, 17 are also new to Ciudad Real province. The relative importance of some species such as Drassodes luteomicans (Simon, 1878), Scotophaeus validus (Lucas, 1846) and Icius subinermis Simon, 1937 is seen as linked to the studied habitat.
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In animals, behavioural responses may play an important role in determining population persistence in the face of environmental changes. Body size is a key trait central to many life history traits and behaviours. While behaviours are typically assumed to be highly plastic, size correlations may impose constraints on their adaptive value when size itself is subject to environmental changes. Urbanization is an important human-induced rapid environmental change that imposes multiple selection pressures on both body size and (size-constrained) behaviour. How these combine to shape behavioural responses of urban-dwelling species is unclear. Using web-building, an easily quantifiable behaviour linked to body size, and the garden spider Araneus diadematus as a model, we disentangle direct behavioural responses to urbanization and body size constraints across a network of 63 selected populations differing in urbanization intensity at two spatial scales. Spiders were smaller in highly urbanized sites (local scale only), in line with expectations based on reduced prey biomass availability and the Urban Heat Island effect. The use of multivariate mixed modelling reveals that although web traits and body size are correlated within populations, behavioural responses to urbanization do not appear to be constrained by size: there is no evidence of size-web correlations among populations or among landscapes. Spiders thus altered different components of their web-building behaviours independently in response to urbanization: mesh width and web surface decreased independently with urbanization at the local scale, while web surface also increased with urbanization at the landscape scale. These responses are expected to compensate, at least in part, for reduced prey biomass availability. Our results demonstrate that responses in typically size-dependent behaviours may be decoupled from size changes, thereby allowing fitness maximisation in novel environments. The spatial scale of the behavioural responses to urbanization suggest contributions of both genetic adaptation and plasticity. Although fecundity decreased with local-scale urbanization, Araneus diadematus abundances were remarkably similar across urbanization gradients; behavioural responses thus appear overall successful at the population level.
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• Tree hollows are keystone structures that promote forest biodiversity. This study analyses the spatio‐temporal diversity of spiders in these microhabitats. • Forty‐eight emergence traps were installed in tree cavities of Quercus pyrenaica forests in the Iberian Peninsula. Traps were collected monthly during a complete year. • Generalised linear models and canonical correspondence analysis were used to evaluate the effect of two physical (hollow volume and height above ground) and three biotic variables (beetle richness and abundance and isopod abundance) on the spider diversity and composition of the entire assemblage and of the foraging guilds. Moreover, we examined the temporal segregation of the species using beta diversity metrics. • Tree hollows hosted a rich spider assemblage (87 species) including 10 endemic and one vulnerable species. We registered four tree‐bark obligate and one hollow‐dependent species. • Hollow height and beetle richness were the variables that better explained richness, while all variables analysed influenced spider abundances. However, contrary to the observed effect for other taxa (i.e. beetles), bigger cavities did not host more spider species. • Temporal beta diversity throughout the year was very high and primarily explained by species turnover suggesting a temporal species segregation. • We conclude that tree hollows constitute a key habitat for forest spiders and that special attention must be paid to the preservation of this microhabitat in forest ecosystems.
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The purpose of this paper is a celebration of Michael J. Roberts's illustrative genius. It provides details about the illustrations comprising the Michael J. Roberts archive at the NHM, explains how they can be accessed by scholars, discusses how they are housed and their conservation issues, and touches upon Roberts's illustrative techniques with examples from the archive. It also showcases several plates from each of his major publications to further exemplify Roberts's considerable talents. For the future, a potential collaborative project between the NHM and the British Arachnological Society is considered, to enable scholars to view more easily the illustrations online via a portal. This paper is of interest to anyone who is interested in spiders, who uses Roberts's illustrations for identification purposes and for scientific illustrators and artists.
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Resumen: Un muestreo realizado en el Parque Natural de la Sierra de Espadán ha aportado 50 especies, 42 géneros y 15 famili-as de arañas. Se citan por primera vez para la Comunidad Valenciana el género Iberattus Prószyński, 2018 y 13 especies. La familia Liocranidae, 14 géneros y 17 especies son primera cita para la provincia de Castellón. El 16% de las especies encontradas son endemismos ibéricos. Cinco familias resultaron dominantes durante el periodo de mayo a julio: Agelenidae, Gnaphosidae, Lycosidae, Scytodidae y Zodariidae. Se comentan las diferencias encontradas, tanto en la riqueza de especies como en la abundan-cia de las mismas, entre dos zonas con diferencias tanto altitudinales como de temperatura y humedad relativa. Abstract: Sampling carried out in the Sierra de Espadán Natural Park, mainly with pitfall traps, has produced 50 species, 42 gene-ra and 15 families of spiders. The genus Iberattus Prószyński, 2018 and 13 species are here recorded for the first time from the Comunidad Valenciana administrative region. The family Liocranidae, 14 genera and 17 species are recorded for the first time from Castellón province. 16% of the species are Iberian endemics. Five families were found to be dominant from May to July: Agelenidae, Gnaphosidae, Lycosidae, Scytodidae and Zodariidae. Differences have been found both in the richness and in the composition of the spider fauna between two sampled areas in connection with differences in altitude, temperature and relative humidity.
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Many species-rich ecosystems are threatened by the abandonment or change of commonly-used agricultural practices. Steep slope viticulture, a traditional land use type of important cultural landscapes in Germany, declined strongly in recent decades due to insufficient profitability. The change of cultivation type from vertically planted to modern terraced vineyards may help to reduce the further abandonment of viticulture in these exceptionally species-rich landscapes by keeping management economically viable. However, little is known about the effects of a change of vineyard management type on biodiversity. We determined the effects of vineyard management types (terraced vs. vertically planted) in contrast to vineyard fallows, local habitat characteristics and the surrounding landscape on ground-dwelling spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in 45 study sites along the Upper Middle Rhine Valley in Germany. A diverse landscape mosaic of vineyard fallows, forests and vineyards created heterogeneity and contributed to a high species diversity irrespective of the vineyard type. Vineyard fallows supported highly distinct spider communities, including some late-successional species, whereas on managed sites and on terraced vineyards in particular, many xerophilic species, which are adapted to open habitat structures, prevailed. We conclude that management in steep slope viticulture is crucial to maintain open habitat structures and conserve associated spider species. Likewise, preserving vineyard fallows and overall landscape heterogeneity remains important to maintaining beta diversity and a large species pool.
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A biosemiotic approach of interpreting morphological data is apt to reveal morphological traits whose key role in intraspecific communication processes, such as specific mate recognition, has been overlooked so far. Certain genital structures of the haplogyne spider Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) serve as an example. In Dysdera erythrina the semi-circular sclerite at the tip of the male’s bulb fits exactly into the anterior diverticulum of the female’s endogyne. From the viewpoint of biosemiotics, which studies the production and interpretation of signs and codes in living systems, these structures are considered the morphological zones of an intraspecific communication process which forms one of the necessary prerequisites for sperm transfer and achievement of fertilisation. Thus, a biosemiotics-based species delimitation approach with its peculiar form of evaluation of morphological structures yields new insights for the multidisciplinary undertaking of modern integrative taxonomy.
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A short note on the first documented records of courtship behaviour for the genus Heligmomerus and only the second published observation in idiopids, expanding the known behaviours for the family Mygalomorphae.
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Although functional and phylogenetic diversities are increasingly used in ecology for a variety of purposes, their relationship remains unclear, and this relationship likely differs among taxa, yet most recent studies focused on plants. We hypothesize that communities may be diverse in functional traits due to presence of: many phylogenetic lineages, trait divergence within lineages, many species and random functional variation among species, weak filtering of traits in favorable environments, or strong trait divergence in unfavorable environments. We tested these predictions for taxa showing higher (ants), or lower (spiders, ground beetles) degrees of competition and niche construction, both of which might decouple functional traits from phylogenetic position or from the environment. Studying > 11,000 individuals and 216 species from coastal heathlands, we estimated functional as minimum spanning trees using traits related to the morphology, feeding habits and dispersal, respectively. Relationships between functional and phylogenetic diversities were overall positive and strong. In ants, this relationship disappeared after accounting for taxonomic diversities and environments, whereas in beetles and spiders taxonomic diversity is related to functional diversity only via increasing phylogenetic diversity. Environmental constraints reduced functional diversity in ants, but affected functional diversity only indirectly via phylogenetic diversity (ground beetles) and taxonomic and then phylogenetic diversity (spiders and ground beetles). Results are consistent with phylogenetic conservatism in traits in spiders and ground beetles. In ants, in contrast, traits appear more phylogenetically neutral with any new species potentially representing a new trait state, tentatively suggesting that competition or niche construction might decouple phylogenetics from trait diversity.
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At the end of 2019, the Conservatoire d’espaces naturels des Hauts-de-France (Anthropofens LIFE project) launched an assessment of the quality of the environment, particularly in the marsh of Saint-Josse-sur-Mer, with the aim of evaluating restoration or management actions. The results of captures by Malaise traps and several surveys have enabled us to draw up a preliminary list of spider species in the Villiers marsh. To date, this list contains 96 species, including Larinia jeskovi Marusik, 1987, a new species for the French fauna, as well as Satilatlas britteni (Jackson, 1913), a new species for the Nord - Pas-de-Calais. Several other species of hygrophilic affinity, rare and with threatened status are also discussed.
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Deux espèces de Scotinotylus sont ajoutées à la faune de France. Le premier S. evansi (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894) sur une seule femelle capturée par notre défunt collègue Jean-Claude Ledoux en 2009 et le deuxième, S. vettonicus Barrientos & Hernández-Corral, 2020, suite à la description récente de nos collègues espagnols. Two species of Scotinotylus are added to the french fauna. The first, S. evansi (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1894), is documented by a single female captured by our late colleague Jean-Claude Ledoux and the second, S. vettonicus Barrientos & Hernández-Corral, 2020, following the recent description by our Spanish colleagues.
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On a pu lire dans la première partie de ce document comment ce long travail d’inventaire a débuté et comment, peu à peu, grâce à la participation de naturalistes qui m’ont apporté leur concours, et qui sont cités plus loin, nous sommes parvenus à un degré appréciable dans la connaissance de la présence et de la répartition des araignées en Limousin. L’ensemble des espèces d’araignées répertoriées dans notre région à la date du 31/12/2013 a fait l’objet d’une série de publications successives où elles ont été présentées par famille et par ordre alphabétique. Ce travail est ici repris, incluant les nouveautés jusqu’au 31/12/2014. Pour la majorité des espèces on pourra lire un commentaire de quelques lignes sur leurs mœurs et leur répartition connue dans les trois départements de notre Région ainsi que la mention des auteurs des citations les concernant, et, pour certaines, quelques indications seront ajoutées sur leur aspect, leur taille, leur phénologie ou, plus rarement, leurs relations avec l’homme.
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We review the development of field guides (in a broad sense) to British spiders from 1678 to the present day, and note features which made, or make, them more or less suitable for use in the field. The review concludes by exploring the future of paper field guides to this group of organisms in the era of electronic devices.
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Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of dry grasslands in the urban area of Berlin: Dry grasslands are highly endangered and it is well known that anthropogenic environments can harbour a number of habitat analogues. In summer 2011, the epigeic spider fauna of seven dry grasslands within the urban area of Berlin was sampled by pitfall traps. In all, 48 species comprised eight endangered and highly endangered species, respectively. Furthermore, five species are in danger of becoming extinct: Alopecosa schmidti (HAHN, 1835), Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. KOCH, 1866), Pellenes nigrociliatus (L. KOCH, 1875), Sitticus distinguendus (SIMON, 1868) und Sitticus zimmermanni (SIMON, 1877). The investigated sites – especially the Grunewald dry grasslands – thus provide very suitable habitat conditions for many rare and xerothermic spiders.
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