Article

Neotropical cats in southeast Arizona and Surrounding areas: past and present status Of jaguars, ocelots and jaguarundis

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Abstract

There are three species of neotropical cats for which the northern limit of their distribution reaches the border region of the U.S. and Mexico: the jaguar (Panthera onca), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi). Due to their low population densities, small total numbers, and secretive habits, all three species are difficult to observe. To ensure long-term survival for neotropical cats in the region, it is imperative to identify current distribution and status in the northern limits of their range. We assessed the status of three rare neotropical felids, the jaguar (Panthera onca), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaruni), in the Chiricahua and Peloncillo Mountains of southeastern Arizona where recent sightings of all three species have taken place. Study techniques included interviews and collection of unpublished and published species-sighting records, which yielded data on all three carnivores. Although jaguars and ocelots historically have occupied southeastern Arizona, we found no recent evidence of a resident, reproducing population. Recommendations are made regarding what measures are necessary to promote neotropical cat conservation in this region.

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... The compounding impacts of the recent expansion of Mexican Federal Highway 2, the growth of agriculture in northwestern Sonora and Chihuahua, and border wall construction has renewed the concern to ensure habitat connectivity of movement corridors for large mammals (e.g., American bison [Bison bison], pronghorn [Antilocapra americana], black bear, Mexican gray wolf [Canis lupus baileyi], etc.) and northernmost populations of Neotropical felids within the Madrean Archipelago (Sanderson et al., 2002;Grigione et al., 2007;Coronel-Arellano et al., 2018;Peters et al., 2018). To better understand mammal movement in the U.S.-Mexico borderland region, we deployed camera-traps (Bushnell HD, Overland Park, Kansas, and HCO Scoutguard, Norcross, Georgia) in washes throughout CLO in Sonora, Mexico. ...
... In recent years, all jaguars recorded in the United States have been males, presumably dispersing from established populations to the south; the last recorded female in Arizona was killed in 1963 in the White Mountains (Brown and Gonzalez, 2001). Several factors are hypothesized to have led to the decline of jaguar in the United States and Northern Mexico, including degradation of riparian areas, reduction in prey populations, and both government and private predator control programs (Grigione et al., 2007). ...
... Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis)-Ocelots were infrequently sighted in Arizona from 1887 up until 2008 with 11 total official records (Culver, 2016). In 2009 an ocelot was recorded on a camera-trap in Cochise County, Arizona (Grigione et al., 2007;United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 2016). In 2011, an ocelot was treed by a hunter and his dogs leading to media coverage on the return of ocelots (United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 2016). ...
... La distribución de esta especie abarca desde el sur de Estados Unidos, en la región de Río Grande, Texas, hasta Paraguay y el norte de Argentina (Caso et al., 2008a). Se sabe que las poblaciones de Texas están aisladas de las poblaciones de Sonora en México (Grigione et al., 2007) ...
... Esta especie habita principalmente en bosques tropicales perennifolios, subcaducifolios, caducifolios, vegetación tropical secundaria, manglares, bosques mesófilos de montaña, bosques de niebla, zonas de vegetación riparia y con menor frecuencia en bosques espinosos y matorrales xerófilos (Murray y Gardner, 1997;Cuarón, 2000;Aranda, 2005a;Grigione et al., 2007). Durante el día evitan lugares abiertos, sin embargo se cree que por las noches los utilizan, aun así la actividad en general de los ocelotes está fuertemente asociada con la presencia coberturas vegetales densas (Sunquist, 1992 en Murray y Gardner, 1997). ...
... Este felino puede encontrarse en una variedad de hábitats que incluyen el bosque tropical perennifolio, subcaducifolio, caducifolio, mesófilo de montaña, espinoso y el matorral xerófilo, chaparral, bosque de coníferas, bosque de encinos y manglares (Cuarón, 2000;Eizirik et al., 2001;Chávez et al., 2005, Grigione et al., 2007. Los jaguares son buenos nadadores por lo que generalmente su presencia se asocia con la existencia de cuerpos de agua permanentes y con áreas de dosel cerrado debajo de los 1200 m.s.n.m. (Grigione et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
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Habitat loss and fragmentation have a marked effect on the spatial configuration of natural landscapes. Populations of several animal species result negatively affected as a consequence of this anthropogenic impact. Among the most vulnerable species are top predators, due to the fact that they need large extents of natural habitat to survive. One of the negative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation is the decrease in abundance of native fauna. Few studies have evaluated the effect of habitat configuration on wild felids. The goal of this study was to analyze the impact of landscape configuration on the abundance of species and richness of wild felid communities based on camera-trapping. The study area consisted of two landscapes located in the region of Marques de Comillas, Chiapas. The two landscapes differed in their degree of fragmentation and habitat connectivity. The other landscape has two isolated forest patches. We found that richness of the wild felid community was negatively affected in the less connected landscape. Five species were found in the landscape with corridor, whereas only two species were found in the landscape without corridor. Shared species (L. pardalis y P. yagouaroundi) had a different relative abundances in each landscape. We also found that habitat loss has reduced by 62.8% the extent of native vegetation in Marques de Comillas. If this trend in habitat loss continues there is a great potential of wild felids communities to be greatly affected. Despite its preliminary nature this study indicates the relevance to implement strategies to stop tropical habitat loss and fragmentation.
... Investigations into the species' distribution within Texas suggest that it once ranged more widely across the Tamaulipan thorn scrub and coastal plains of the state (Taylor & Davis, 1947;Goodwyn, 1970;Tewes & Everett, 1986). Although alleged observations of the species persist today elsewhere in the United States, evidence appears to be lacking (e.g., central and west Texas, southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico) (Grigione, Caso, List, & Lopez-Gonzalez, 2001;Grigione, Scoville, Scoville, & Crooks, 2007). For example, despite historical (Little, 1938) and other recent alleged accounts (Grigione et al., 2007), jaguarundis have never been confirmed as part of the state fauna for Arizona (Lindsay & Tessman, 1974) or New Mexico (Findley, Harris, Wilson, & Jones, 1975). ...
... Although alleged observations of the species persist today elsewhere in the United States, evidence appears to be lacking (e.g., central and west Texas, southeastern Arizona, southern New Mexico) (Grigione, Caso, List, & Lopez-Gonzalez, 2001;Grigione, Scoville, Scoville, & Crooks, 2007). For example, despite historical (Little, 1938) and other recent alleged accounts (Grigione et al., 2007), jaguarundis have never been confirmed as part of the state fauna for Arizona (Lindsay & Tessman, 1974) or New Mexico (Findley, Harris, Wilson, & Jones, 1975). ...
... Our primary objective was to evaluate the validity of jaguarundi sightings in Big Bend National Park (BBNP) by using pre-determined diagnostic criteria and secondarily, witness credibility. Although previous attempts have developed reliability-based classification schemes for jaguarundi observations occurring outside their officially accepted range (Grigione et al., 2007), we are not aware of any attempts to use diagnostic criteria to evaluate the credibility of reports of a species in an area. A second objective was to describe a technique that has potential for wider applications across a range of cryptic, rare, or even endangered species. ...
Article
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Despite its legal protection, the jaguarundi's (Puma yagouaroundi) status in the United States is currently unknown. Historical accounts indicate jaguarundis previously occupied habitats in extreme southern Texas. Although sightings continue to occur in the United States, none have been confirmed, and it is unclear if jaguarundis are still resident. Since the mid-1970s, however, evidence in the form of first-hand observations is suggestive of the presence of jaguarundis in Big Bend National Park. We assessed the credibility of 79 alleged jaguarundi records spanning three decades using a combination of diagnostic criteria and witness credibility. Based on this discriminatory process, we found “strong support” for 40 of these records, and believe a resident, low-density population of jaguarundis may exist in Big Bend. While not as irrefutable as physical evidence, objective reviews of species records may have merit as a tool to help evaluate whether the investment of more rigorous survey techniques is warranted.
... In Texas, Tewes and Everett (1986) postulated the species may have ranged north and west into the Edwards Plateau or along the mid-coastal plain based on then credible class II sightings (i.e., unverified sightings without physical evidence or verified photographs) between 1960 and 1982. Other class II sightings have been reported in Big Bend National Park (Giordano et al., 2011), and Arizona (Giordano, 2015;Grigione et al., 2007Grigione et al., , 2009). In northern México, class I observations exist in Tamaulipas (Caso, 1994(Caso, , 2013Caso & Domínguez, 2018;Carvajal-Villareal, 2016), Nuevo Leon (Carvajal-Villareal et al., 2004;Salinas-Camarena et al., 2016), and most recently Sinaloa and extreme southern Sonora (GBIF, 2021). ...
... In northern México, class I observations exist in Tamaulipas (Caso, 1994(Caso, , 2013Caso & Domínguez, 2018;Carvajal-Villareal, 2016), Nuevo Leon (Carvajal-Villareal et al., 2004;Salinas-Camarena et al., 2016), and most recently Sinaloa and extreme southern Sonora (GBIF, 2021). Other class II sightings have been reported in Durango and throughout Sonora (Brown & Lopez-Gonzalez, 1999;Grigione et al., 2007Grigione et al., , 2009. Jaguarundis occur in a diverse composition of vegetation communities such as tropical and subtropical deciduous forest, swamp and savanna woodland, semi-arid thorn forest, pine-oak forest, and human-altered areas such as cattle pastures (Caso, 2013;Coronado-Quibrera et al., 2019;Giordano, 2015;Sallinas-Camarena et al., 2016). ...
... Similarly, little peer-reviewed or published occurrence data exist for jaguarundi in northeastern México (Carvajal-Villareal et al., 2004;Caso & Domínguez, 2018;Caso et al., 2015;GBIF, 2021;Grigione et al., 2007;Salinas-Camarena et al., 2016). (Ricketts et al., 1999). ...
Article
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The jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) is a small felid with a historical range from central Argentina through southern Texas. Information on the current distribution of this re-clusive species is needed to inform recovery strategies in the United States where its last record was in 1986 in Texas. From 2003 to 2021, we conducted camera-trap surveys across southern Texas and northern Tamaulipas, México to survey for medium-sized wild cats (i.e., ocelots [Leopardus pardalis], bobcats [Lynx rufus], and jaguarundi). After 350,366 trap nights at 685 camera sites, we did not detect jaguarundis at 16 properties or along 2 highways (1050 km 2) in Texas. However, we recorded 126 jag-uarundi photographic detections in 15,784 trap nights on 2 properties (125.3 km 2) in the northern Sierra of Tamaulipas, Tamaulipas, México. On these properties, latency to detection was 72 trap nights, with a 0.05 probability of detection per day and 0.73 photographic event rate every 100 trap nights. Due to a lack of confirmed class I sightings (e.g., specimen, photograph) in the 18 years of this study, and no other class I observations since 1986 in the United States, we conclude that the jaguarundi is likely extirpated from the United States. Based on survey effort and results from México, we would have expected to detect jaguarundis over the course of the study if still extant in Texas. We recommend that state and federal agencies consider jaguarundis as extirpated from the United States and initiate recovery actions as mandated in the federal jaguarundi recovery plan. These recovery actions include identification of suitable habitat in Texas, identification of robust populations in México, and re-introduction of the jaguarundi to Texas.
... Throughout the last 100 years, Mexico has remained a harbor for jaguar populations at the northern end of the range, including in wilder parts of Sonora (Burt 1938, Leopold 1959, Landis 1967, Carmony and Brown 1991, Brown and López-González 2001, Grigione et al. 2009). Numerous summary reviews of the observational history of jaguars in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands over time have been published (Seton 1929, Goldman 1932, Householder 1958, Lange 1960, Brown 1983, Rabinowitz 1999, Brown and López-González 2001, Schmitt and Hayes 2003, Grigione et al. 2007, including a recent attempt to comprehensively document all observations in the NRU in a searchable, relational database Fisher 2011, 2013). The loss of jaguar range in the United States and extreme northern Mexico mirrors losses at the southern end of the range and in other places where human land use has driven out jaguar prey (Swank and Teer 1989, Sanderson et al. 2002, Zeller 2007. ...
... The first scientific survey in the area was associated with the survey of rail routes after the Mexican-American War by Baird (1857), who observed a jaguar in the Santa Cruz Valley. American settlers and ranchers in the Arizona territory in the late 19 th and early 20 th century left numerous accounts of jaguar hunts, summarized by later scientists from press accounts, interviews, and historical records (Schufeldt 1929, Bailey 1931, Cahalane 1939, Halloran 1946, Hock 1955, Brown 1983, Brown and López-González 2001, Grigione et al. 2007, Sanderson and Fisher 2011; similar accounts are also known from adjacent parts of Mexico (Burt 1938, Leopold 1959, Brown and López-González 2001. ...
... In the U.S. portion of the Borderlands Secondary Area, government hunters and trappers working on behalf the United States government killed jaguars in this area in 1917, 1919, 1924, 1926, 1932-1933(Brown and López-González 2001. Jaguars were occasionally taken through the 1950s-1970s, although some of these animals may have been brought to the area as part of "canned hunts" (Brown and López-González 2001, Grigione et al. 2007, Brown and Thompson 2010, Sanderson and Fisher 2011. A jaguar was killed in the Dos Cabezas Mountains of Arizona in 1986 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1994). ...
Technical Report
Team generated recommendations for survey and monitoring techniques for jaguars in the Mexico-United States Northwestern jaguar Recovery Unit (NRU), with descriptions of the NRU, discussions of presence-absence and occupancy, abundance and density, population genetics, demographic parameters and spatial ecology, data capture and curation in the NRU, and recommendations. Focus on NRU - general utility range wide
... En los últimos 100 años, México se ha mantenido como un reservorio de poblaciones de jaguares en el límite norte de su distribución, incluyendo las partes mejor conservadas de Sonora (Burt 1938, Leopold 1959, Landis 1967, Carmony y Brown 1991, Brown y López-González 2001, Grigione et al. 2009). Se han publicado muchas recapitulaciones de las observaciones históricas de los jaguares en la frontera EEUU-México (Seton 1929, Goldman 1932, Householder 1958, Lange 1960, Brown 1983, Rabinowitz 1999, Brown y López-González 2001, Schmitt y Hayes 2003, Grigione et al. 2007, incluyendo un reciente intento de documentar ampliamente todas las observaciones en la NRU en una base de datos accesible al público (Sanderson y Fisher 2011. La reducción en la distribución del jaguar en Estados Unidos y el extremo norte de México es similar a la reducción en el extremo sur de su distribución y en otros lugares donde la mano del hombre ha disminuido los jaguares y sus presas (Swank y Teer 1989, Zeller 2007. ...
... El primer estudio científico en el área estuvo asociado a una investigación de rutas de trenes luego de la guerra entre México y Estados Unidos, realizado por Baird (1875), el cual observó un jaguar en el Valle de Santa Cruz. Los colonos Americanos y los rancheros de Arizona a fines del S. XIX y principios del S. XX dejaron numerosos registros de jaguares cazados, que fueron recopilados luego por varios científicos (Schufeldt 1929, Bailey 1931, Cahalane 1939, Halloran 1946, Hock 1955, Brown 1983, Brown y López-González 2001, Grigione et al. 2007, Sanderson y Fisher 2011; registros similares son conocidos de partes adyacentes de México (Burt 1938, Leopold 1959, Brown y López-González 2001. ...
... En la parte estadounidense del Área Secundaria Fronteriza, los cazadores y tramperos que trabajan para el gobierno mataron jaguares en esta área en 1917, 1919, 1924, 1926, 1932, 1933y 1964(Brown and López-González 2001. Los jaguares fueron ocasionalmente cazados entre los años 50s y 70s, aunque algunos de estos animales pueden haber sido traídos al área como parte de trofeos de otras partes (Brown y López-González 2001, Grigione et al. 2007 Existen numerosas áreas protegidas en el lado estadounidense de la frontera, manejados por una variedad de entidades federales, estatales y tribales que en conjunto protegen 3.674 km 2 (Conservation Biology Institute 2012, CONAP). También existen varias áreas privadas de conservación. ...
Technical Report
Spanish version of team generated recommendations for survey and monitoring techniques for jaguars in the Mexico-United States Northwestern jaguar Recovery Unit (NRU). Includes descriptions of the NRU, discussions of presence-absence-occupancy, abundance and density, population genetics, demographic parameters, and spatial ecology, data capture and curation in the NRU, and recommendations, with focus on the NRU but general utility range wide.
... Prior to extirpation from the United States in the 1960s, the historical range of jaguars included all of the study region, as well as areas further north in Arizona and New Mexico (Grigione et al., 2009;McCain and Childs, 2008;Grigione et al., 2007;Brown and González, 2000). The primary cause of jaguar extirpation in the United States was hunting rather than habitat loss (Grigione et al., 2007;Brown and González, 2000). ...
... Prior to extirpation from the United States in the 1960s, the historical range of jaguars included all of the study region, as well as areas further north in Arizona and New Mexico (Grigione et al., 2009;McCain and Childs, 2008;Grigione et al., 2007;Brown and González, 2000). The primary cause of jaguar extirpation in the United States was hunting rather than habitat loss (Grigione et al., 2007;Brown and González, 2000). In spite of the absence of legal protection for their habitat, jaguars began returning to the region in the 1990s, indicating the continued presence of quality jaguar habitat (McCain and Childs, 2008). ...
... This study area was selected because it includes all of the areas designated as critical habitat for jaguars by the USFWS, along with areas adjacent to jaguar critical habitat. The area also corresponds with the portions of Arizona and New Mexico where jaguars have been seen in recent years (Grigione et al., 2007). This region is predominantly rural; Tucson, Arizona, is the only large city. ...
Article
Endangered species laws seek to prevent extinction by outlawing actions that may cause harm or lead to extinction. In doing so, these laws are sometimes criticized for limiting management flexibility and subjecting landowners to regulatory burdens. One proposed solution to this challenge is development of payment for ecosystem service (PES) programs. These programs provide an economic incentive to conserve endangered species by compensating landowners for the costs of conservation or forgoing other profitable uses of land and resources. To assess the utility of PES as a means of overcoming opposition to endangered species regulations, we surveyed ranch operators in Arizona and New Mexico facing new regulations related to endangered jaguars (Panthera onca). Our findings suggest that PES cannot overcome the perceived burdens of species protection regulations and are unlikely to increase collaboration between landowners and government agencies. PES approaches are only likely to succeed where there is strong fit between institutional design and resource manager preferences. In the context of endangered species, PES proponents must pay particular attention to institutional arrangements that reduce concerns about regulatory risk. To this end, to effectively meet endangered species conservation goals, we recommend: 1) framing PES programs as voluntary conservation incentives, 2) focusing incentives on healthy ecosystems rather than a single species, and 3) using private funding to support incentives. Under these circumstances, PES may be an effective endangered species conservation tool.
... Low jaguar densities in Sonora may be due to high turnover as a result of presence at the range edge (Grigione et al. 2007;Cuyckens et al. 2017;Jędrzejewski et al. 2018;Romero-Muñoz et al. 2019) and human-induced mortality (Rosas-Rosas et al. 2008). Conflicts associated with jaguar depredation of cattle are one the fundamental threats facing jaguars in Mexico, even though jaguar predation accounted for a small percentage (0-1.8%) of confirmed cattle losses in our study area (Rosas-Rosas et al. 2008). ...
... Still, our density estimates were lower than those from studies closer to the equator in more productive habitats (Table 2), such as in the tropical forests of Oaxaca (Pérez-Irineo and Santos-Moreno 2014) and Chiapas (de la Torre et al. 2016), supporting the suggestion that ocelot densities decline further from the equator in areas of decreasing precipitation (Di Bitetti et al. 2008). Given the sparse human population and infrequent poaching of ocelots in Sonora (López-González et al. 2003), densities are likely low due to natural processes associated with unproductive habitat at the edge of the ocelot's range (Grigione et al. 2007;Yackulic et al. 2011). Human activities, such as vehicle collisions, are the greatest risk to ocelots in Texas (Haines et al. 2005), but anthropogenic pressures on ocelots in Sonora appear to be minimal. ...
Article
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Estimates of population density are crucial for wild felid conservation and are commonly conducted using camera trapping. Spatially explicit capture-recapture (SCR) survey designs often use two cameras per station to photograph both flanks of a spotted felid to confirm identities. However, if the sampling grid is inadequate, and detector devices are unable to capture an animal’s complete movements, density may be overestimated. Density analyses incorporating identification inputs from both flanks derived from unpaired camera stations may offer a cost-effective solution by doubling the number of stations available to researchers. During 2008, we surveyed 164 sites for jaguars, ocelots, and bobcats using unpaired camera stations (mean trap nights per camera = 32.66, inter-trap distance = 800 m) on private ranching lands in Sonora, Mexico. We obtained 15, 52, and 229 detections of jaguars, ocelots, and bobcats from 9, 35, and 87 stations, respectively. SCR density estimates (individuals/100 km2) derived from a maximum likelihood multi-session model and a Bayesian spatial partial identity model (SPIM) were similar: 4.61 and 1.54 (jaguar), 4.66 and 4.33 (ocelot), and 15.22 and 15.88 (bobcat), respectively. Due to insufficient recaptures of jaguars, only SPIM provided a credible estimate of jaguar density. Jaguar density was one of the lowest reported across their distribution, which was expected given Sonora’s location at the periphery of the jaguar’s range. However, ocelot and bobcat populations appear to be healthy in Sonora, even within unprotected ranchlands. We recommend the use of SPIM to estimate the density of spotted felids with any dataset containing few recaptures in unpaired camera surveys.
... Historical accounts of jaguars in Arizona and New Mexico for 1900-1998 include 71 adult animals reported dead (or in two cases photographed), including 16 males, 9 females and 46 of uncertain sex. Brown & López-González (2001) listed 61 of these records and Grigione et al. (2007) tallied seven mortalities in Arizona that appear distinct, including a female with young cited by Hoffmeister (1986). Robinson (2006) found records of two additional kills in New Mexico. ...
... Apart from accounts with physical evidence, Lange (1960) and Grigione et al. (2007) tallied 15 sightings of jaguar in Arizona for 1900-1998, including reports of a female and two cubs in the Grand Canyon (Hoffmeister, 1986) that may have been subsequently killed. For New Mexico, Robinson (2006) included eight additional observational records for that time period. ...
Article
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The recovery goal for the jaguar Panthera onca in the USA should be to restore significant presence with some reproduction, consistent with historical records. Nevertheless, the prevailing conservation strategy for the jaguar does not include restoration in peripheral range and merely seeks long-term survival of the jaguar within its existing northern range, which is almost entirely in Mexico. Broader issues are whether recovery programmes should include peripheral populations, range expansion and species representation across ecoregions. Considering jaguar history, habitat, population requirements, wildlife management and other factors in the southwestern USA, efforts to re-establish the species would have a reasonable chance of success. Recovery of the jaguar in the USA would improve prospects for the adaptation and survival of the species within its northern range, given habitat loss, conflicts with humans and climate change.
... En la primera fase del análisis se realizó una matriz de resistencia para el manigordo Grigione et al. 2007). Durante el día evitan lugares abiertos, sin embargo se cree que por las noches los utilizan, aún así la actividad en general de los ocelotes está fuertemente asociada con la presencia de coberturas vegetales densas (Sunquist 1992 en Murray y Gardner 1997). ...
Technical Report
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El Parque Nacional Cahuita (PNC) se ubica en el Caribe Sur de Costa Rica, este posee hábitats terrestres y marinos. A nivel terrestre el PNC se considera un fragmento de bosque debido a su pequeña extensión de 1068 ha. Sin embargo es clave para la conectividad dentro del Corredor Biológico Talamanca-Caribe (CBTC) al que pertenece. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo generar información básica del componente terrestre del PNC y brindar recomendaciones para el manejo y conservación del área. Se realizaron inventarios de vertebrados y flora en diferentes hábitats tales como bosques anegados y áreas de playa. Se encontraron 23 especies de anfibios y 36 de reptiles, de los cuales se reportan tres especies de tortugas marinas amenazadas de extinción, que anidan en las playas del PNC. Para el grupo de las aves se registraron en total 213 especies, 171 de estas observadas en el campo y 42 registradas por otras fuentes. Para el grupo de mamíferos se reportan 42 especies que incluyen 22 especies de murciélagos. Respecto a flora, se reportan 141 especies que incluyen brinzales, latizales y fustales. Además se registraron 18 especies exóticas, como el coco (Cocos nucifera) o el almendro de playa (Terminalia catappa), las cuales se consideran especies ya naturalizadas en los trópicos. A lo largo de toda la línea de costa muestreada (11.735 km) se encontraron un total de 698 individuos de vegetación muerta pertenecientes a 25 especies. Para determinar los sitios de mayor importancia para la biodiversidad dentro del PNC, es decir con mayor riqueza de especies, se realizó un análisis de hot spot con los datos de anfibios y reptiles. Se encontró que para los anfibios los sitios de mayor riqueza se encuentran entre el sector puerto Vargas y el sector punta Cahuita. Para los reptiles fue el sector punta Cahuita y el sector sur del parque. Adicionalmente, se registró la riqueza de especies de fauna para todos los grupos por cuadrantes. El cuadrante con mayor riqueza de especies fue el cuadrante 10. Se realizó un análisis de conectividad para el PNC mediante el método de caminos de menor costo para el ocelote (Leopardus pardalis). Se identificaron cinco rutas, dos de estas rutas fueron dirigidas hacía la Reserva Biológica Hitoy Cerere, dos rutas hacia el territorio indígena Kekoldi y una ruta hacía el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Gandoca-Manzanillo. Debido a que en las playas del PNC ocurren fenómenos de erosión, se evaluó la pérdida de hábitat costero. Se determinó que la tasa de erosión para el litoral del PNC es de 2.08 m/año. viii También se pudo observar que la línea de costa ha tendido a retroceder durante por lo menos los últimos 20 años, lo cual tiene implicaciones ecológicas y económicas. Por último, debido a la alta visitación de turistas en el PNC, se realizó una caracterización de la problemática relacionada con las interacciones entre los turistas y la fauna silvestre. Esta problemática ocurre principalmente con tropas de monos carablanca (Cebus capucinus) que suelen hurtar las pertenencias de los turistas. Se reporta un total de 16 tipos de interacción.
... lacking physical evidence) of the felid in the region, further complicating our under� standing (e.g. Tewes & Everett 1986, Brown & Lopez�Gonzalez 1999, Grigione et al. 2007, 2009, Giordano et al. 2011). ...
... Future surveys that incorporate non-invasive field techniques such as track and camera surveys with methods such as occupancy modeling (MacKenzie et al., 2006), identification of man-made (Mace et al., 1994; Jacobson et al., 1997) or natural (Karanth, 1995; Karanth and Nichols, 1998; Heilbrun et al., 2006 ) marks of photographed animals, or statistical analyses of spatial correlation of visits among stations (Kauffman et al., 2007), would improve estimates of probability of detection and thus presence-absence and population estimates. Although our field surveys did not yield evidence of Neotropical felids, this clearly does not eliminate the possibility that they occur within the Chiricahua or Peloncillo mountains or visit periodically, especially given the low density of these carnivores and our relatively limited sampling effort; indeed, verified sightings of jaguars have occurred recently within the region ( Lopez-Gonzalez, 2000, 2001; Grigione et al., 2007). Finally, our frequent detections of carnivores and other species within deciduous riparian forest emphasize the important role of riparian areas as resident and travel habitat for a variety of wildlife including carnivores (Hilty and Merenlender, 2004), particularly in the arid Southwest, where riparian zones function as linear oases for many organisms (Johnson, 1989; Noss, 2006; A. Martinez and R. Valdez, in litt.). ...
Article
We explored use of non-invasive track and camera surveys to provide baseline information on distribution, activity, and habitat associations of mammalian carnivores within the Chiricahua and Peloncillo mountains of southeastern Arizona. In total, track and camera stations recorded 241 and 149 detections, respectively, of carnivores and other vertebrates in both mountain ranges. In order of frequency of detections, we recorded gray foxes (112 track and camera detections), white-nosed coatis (33), large skunks (25), ringtails ( 13), domestic dogs (13), coyotes (9), cougars (7), bobcats (3), and western spotted skunks (2) in both the Chiricahua and Peloncillo mountains, and one American black bear was photographed in the Chiricahua Mountains. Other vertebrates detected included cattle (12), deer (10), and a variety of small rodents (83), birds (33), lizards (22), and lagomorphs (12). The combination Of track and camera data were effective at detecting a variety of species in a range of habitat types, and emphasized the importance of deciduous riparian habitat for carnivores as well as other vertebrates.
... The second individual was a 7.7-kg subadult killed in April west of Globe, Arizona, USA (hereafter, Arizona ocelot), about 230 km north of recently documented ocelots in Sonora, Mexico (Lopez-Gonzalez et al. 2003). The last confirmed ocelot in Arizona was in September 1964 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1990, Grigione et al. 2007). Necropsy examiners suggested that the Arizona ocelot was of wild origin based on normal claw, footpad, and tooth wear, as well as the presence of subcutaneous porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. ...
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The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a spotted felid that is critically endangered in the United States (U.S.). During spring 2010, 2 ocelots were road-killed in the southwestern U.S. far from known populations; an adult male near Palo Pinto, Texas, and a subadult male near Globe, Arizona. Necropsy results indicated that the Palo Pinto ocelot was likely a captive, whereas the Arizona ocelot was consistent with a wild individual. We used genetic data to determine the geographic origin of the ocelot lineages. A South American assignment would suggest human-mediated transfer of ocelots, whereas an assignment to northern Mexico may indicate natural movements. We acquired reference-sequence data and performed a phyloge-netic analysis. Our results suggested that the Palo Pinto ocelot's lineage was from northern Mexico or southern Texas. The Arizona ocelot's lineage grouped with Mexico and Guatemala; however, sampling constraints prevented any explicit geographic assignments. Collecting additional genetic samples throughout Mexico is essential for future assignment analyses, and to determine whether illegal pet trafficking is occurring. These efforts would also provide necessary data to assist ocelot recovery in the U.S. ß 2011 The Wildlife Society.
... The second individual was a 7.7-kg subadult killed in April west of Globe, Arizona, USA (hereafter, Arizona ocelot), about 230 km north of recently documented ocelots in Sonora, Mexico (Lopez-Gonzalez et al. 2003). The last confirmed ocelot in Arizona was in September 1964 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1990, Grigione et al. 2007). Necropsy examiners suggested that the Arizona ocelot was of wild origin based on normal claw, footpad, and tooth wear, as well as the presence of subcutaneous porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. ...
Article
The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is a spotted felid that is critically endangered in the United States (U.S.). During spring 2010, 2 ocelots were road-killed in the southwestern U.S. far from known populations; an adult male near Palo Pinto, Texas, and a subadult male near Globe, Arizona. Necropsy results indicated that the Palo Pinto ocelot was likely a captive, whereas the Arizona ocelot was consistent with a wild individual. We used genetic data to determine the geographic origin of the ocelot lineages. A South American assignment would suggest human-mediated transfer of ocelots, whereas an assignment to northern Mexico may indicate natural movements. We acquired reference-sequence data and performed a phyloge-netic analysis. Our results suggested that the Palo Pinto ocelot's lineage was from northern Mexico or southern Texas. The Arizona ocelot's lineage grouped with Mexico and Guatemala; however, sampling constraints prevented any explicit geographic assignments. Collecting additional genetic samples throughout Mexico is essential for future assignment analyses, and to determine whether illegal pet trafficking is occurring. These efforts would also provide necessary data to assist ocelot recovery in the U.S. ß 2011 The Wildlife Society.
... The jaguarundi was the least known species and, consequently, the species with the biggest percentage of blank answers regarding perceptions towards it, demonstrating that this species is not well-known by the local people. Jaguarundi are smaller than ocelots but, due to their diurnal habits, are considered one of the most easily sighted felines; leading to a false impression of being common (Maffei et al., 2007), though it is a poorly known species even by researchers (Grigione, Scoville, Scoville, & Crooks, 2007;Oliveira, 1998) and one that occurs in low densities at Amolar Mountain Ridge (Porfirio, 2014). ...
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Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal, where several environmental education activities are supported, felines are a conservation target priority. We present the results of surveys to investigate schoolchildren's knowledge and perceptions of felines. Our results show that larger species are better known than smaller ones, and that negative perceptions are a concern, demonstrating priorities for environmental education.
... those for which the observer was consid-ered knowledgeable and the context was considered credible) collected between 1970and 1982, Everett (1983 and Tewes and Everett (1986) suggested that the jaguarundi may have recently ranged north and west from south Texas across the southern Edwards Plateau, and north along the entire coastal plain of east Texas. Its current existence in this region, its occurrence in the Pecos region of Texas and northern Coahuila, Mexico, and whether or not it occurs or has occurred in parts of southern Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico, remains unresolved (Little 1938, Brown & Lopez-Gonzalez 1999, Grigione et al. 2007, Giordano et al. 2011, and physical evidence is lacking (Fig. 1). Despite the ambiguity, new, confirmed jaguarundi records from additional areas of Mexico, including the first from Mexico's central highlands (1324 m;Charre-Medellin et al. 2012), have occurred recently. ...
Article
The ecology of the jaguarundi is poorly known, so I reviewed the literature for all original data and remarks on jaguarundi observations, ecology, and behaviour, to synthesize what is known about the species. Jaguarundis occupy and use a range of habitats with dense undergrowth from northern Mexico to central Argentina, but may be most abundant in seasonal dry, Atlantic, gallery, and mixed grassland/agricultural forest landscapes. Jaguarundis are principally predators of small (sigmodontine) rodents, although other mammals, birds, and squamate reptiles are taken regularly. The vast majority of jaguarundi camera-trap records occurred during daylight hours (0600h-1800h); jaguaurndis are also predominantly terrestrial, although they appear to be capable tree climbers. Home range sizes for jaguarundis vary greatly, but most are ≤25km2; females' territories may be much smaller than or similar in size to those of males. Males may concentrate movements in one area before shifting to another and, as with other felids, intersexual overlap in habitat use appears to be common. Interference competition may be important in influencing the distribution and ecology of jaguarundis, although their diurnal habits may somewhat mitigate its effect. Conflict between humans and jaguarundis over small livestock may be widespread among rural human communities and is likely to be underreported. Despite this conflict, jaguarundis can persist in agriculturally modified landscapes and small forest fragments. Additional research on local jaguarundi populations from more areas should be a priority to determine the true status of the species.
... Although these two main forms have been known for many years and anecdotally speculated to be associated with different habitats (e.g. Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002;Grassman & Tewes, 2004;Grigione et al., 2007;Maffei et al., 2007), their exact geographical distributions have never been mapped. ...
... In Central America, there are two records of melanistic animals from Belize: Ek Balan and El Rancho Grande River (previously reported as possible by [43]), and one record from Costa Rica [65]. Remaining populations of the species have been recently identified in the northern portion of its distribution, in the southern United States [66,67], but there has been no record of melanism in these areas. The generated models showed high suitability for melanism occurrence in Belize and Costa Rica and low suitability in Mexico. ...
... We classed the combined information from the interview and the images by its reliability using the analytical criterion of Tewes and Everett (1986) following several other studies of cryptic felids (e.g., Shindle & Tewes, 1998;Grigione et al., 2007;Horne et al., 2009;Villordo-Galván et al., 2010;Martínez-Calderas et al., 2011). These criteria classes included: Class I, where observations were made by a reliable and experienced observer and supported by physical evidence; Class II, where a detailed description was provided by a reliable and experienced observer; and Class III, where details provided by the observer were vague and not specific (Tewes & Everett, 1986). ...
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Persistence and recovery of rare species in developing regions with limited protected areas depends upon their adaptability to human-altered habitats. The jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi) is classed as threatened in Mexico, and knowledge of its distribution and environmental correlates is necessary for informed recovery efforts. However, little is known of jaguarundi habitat or distribution in interior Mexico, including the state of San Luis Potosí (SLP). We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews around communities, ejidos, and ranches throughout SLP to obtain records of jaguarundi presence and identify environmental correlates and site attributes associated with its occurrence. We evaluated interviews using analytical criteria of credibility, and collected habitat information from 50 reliable occurrences from three of the four geographic regions of SLP. Compared to the SLP landscape, jaguarundi occurrences were located closer to water, closer to roads, at lower elevation, marginally closer to communities, and in areas with greater total edge, edge density, and number of landscape patches. Jaguarundi showed preference for mosaics of tropical forest, agricultural, grassland, and urban (i.e., any community) cover types. Relatively dense hiding or ambush cover was usually present at occurrence sites. Collectively, maximum entropy modeling and logistic regression modeling predicted similar and high likelihood of jaguarundi presence in regions characterized by mosaics of tropical forest, agriculture, grassland, or urban cover types <500 m in elevation and <2 km from roads. These mosaic landscapes tended to be relatively close to communities of moderate population densities and water, and typically support higher small prey densities than less fragmented areas. Jaguarundi were adaptable to at least light-moderate human-related disturbance, and may be benefitted by it because of increased edge and habitat mosaics.
... Although these two main forms have been known for many years and anecdotally speculated to be associated with different habitats (e.g. Sunquist & Sunquist, 2002;Grassman & Tewes, 2004;Grigione et al., 2007;Maffei et al., 2007), their exact geographical distributions have never been mapped. ...
... Los «avistamientos» no sólo han sido en las selvas secas y en el matorral subtropical, sino también en bosques de encinos y hasta en hábitats desérticos. Hasta el momento tampoco existen registros fósiles o arqueológicos que nos hagan suponer la presencia de esta especie en el estado en tiempos pasados (Brown y López, 1999;Grigione et al., 2007). Analizando la distribución de las especies de posible presencia en el estado (tabla 3), destaca la necesidad de explorar y colectar en la frontera entre Sonora y Chihuahua, particularmente en la región de Yécora y hacia el sur, y en la sierra San Luis en el noreste, donde esperaríamos encontrar hasta 19 especies de mamíferos, principalmente roedores. ...
... He further concludes that there is no indication that habitat in the southwest U.S. is critical for survival of the species. In contrast, both McCain and Childs (2008) and Grigione et al. (2007) report that the number of female jaguars with young historically recorded in Arizona suggests that there was once a breeding population in the state. Brown (1983) reported that when plotted at 10-year intervals, records of jaguars killed in Arizona and New Mexico between 1900 and 1980 show a decline characteristic of an over-exploited resident population. ...
... found in the semi-arid thornscrub and woodlands of Sonora, Chihuahua, and Arizona (López-González et al. 2003, Grigione et al. 2007). Ocelots are not generalists in any of these habitat types and are usually associated with dense vegetation cover (Harveson et al. 2004, Horne et al. 2009. ...
Article
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Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are legally protected in Mexico as an endangered species. The main threats throughout the species’ range are habitat loss and fragmentation. The ocelot population that inhabits Sonora, Mexico, is at the northern limit of the species’ distribution and knowledge about it is still scarce. We used remote camera data from 2010-2012 and SECR models for density estimation and the Barker Robust Design mark-recapture model to estimate the survival, abundance, and density of ocelots in a arid region in northeastern Sonora, Mexico. Average apparent survival was 0.65 for females and 0.63 for males; abundance estimates ranged from 2.02 ± 0.13 to 7.06 ± 0.24 ocelots. Average density was 0.63 ± 0.06 females 100 km⁻² and 0.95 ± 0.08 males 100 km⁻² using the Barker Robust Design and 0.51 ± 0.26 females 100 km⁻² and 0.77 ± 0.25 males 100 km⁻² using the SECR. Our survival and density estimates are the lowest reported. However, due to the low human population density in our study area, we consider that our findings must be associated with natural processes rather than human-caused disturbance, without dismissing an additive factor by the latter. Arid environmental features could have a negative influence over primary productivity and consequently on prey availability, limiting ocelot survival and density in this region. Large tracts of unpopulated wildlands over a non-fragmented landscape favor ocelots in this area, and it is important to maintain current habitat conditions for this Neotropical species to continue thriving in this region of North America.
Technical Report
spanish version of an action oriented literature review of jaguar survey and monitoring techniques and methods with sections on survey designs and statistical analyses, field techniques, population genetics, jaguar capture and handling, and ecological factors in human-jaguar conflicts and co-existance
Technical Report
Action oriented literature review of jaguar survey and monitoring techniques and methods with sections on survey designs and statistical analyses, field techniques, population genetics, jaguar capture and handling, ecological factors in human-jaguar conflicts and co-existence
Article
Mainstream evolutionary biology lacks a mature theory of phenotype. Following from the Modern Synthesis, researchers tend to assume an unrealistically simple mapping of genotype to phenotype, or else trust that the complexities of developmental architecture can be adequately captured by measuring trait variances and covariances. In contrast, the growing field of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) explicitly examines the relationship between developmental architecture and evolutionary change, but lacks a rigorous quantitative and predictive framework. In my dissertation, I strive to integrate quantitative genetics and evo-devo, using both theoretical and empirical studies of plasticity. My first paper explores the effect of realistic development on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity when there is migration between two discrete environments. The model I use reveals that nonadditive developmental interactions can constrain the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in the presence of stabilizing selection. In my second paper, I examine the manner in which the genetically controlled responsiveness of traits to each other is shaped by selection and can in turn shape the phenotypic response to selection. Here, results indicate that developmental entanglement through plasticity can facilitate rapid multivariate adaptation in response to a novel selective pressure. In my final paper, I examine patterns of gene expression underlying ancestral plasticity and adaptive loss of melanin in Daphnia melanica. My results indicate that the developmental mechanism underlying ancestral plasticity has been co-opted to facilitate rapid adaptation to an introduced predator.
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From July 1998 to July 2000 we collected locality information and habitat associations for 36 records of the Endangered ocelot Leopardus pardalis in the Mexican State of Sonora. Twenty-seven (75%) of the records for which we could determine the biotic community association were associated with tropical and subtropical habitats, namely subtropical thornscrub, tropical deciduous forest or tropical thornscrub. Only males (11.1% of the total records) have been recorded in temperate oak and pine-oak woodland, and we conclude that the few ocelots reported from these habitats in the US State of Arizona were probably dispersing individuals. Three models of ocelot distribution in Sonora, based on vegetation types, the GARP modelling system and the Adaptive Kernel home range estimator, all produced similar results, with the ocelot mostly associated with the mountainous Sierra region of eastern Sonora. Large tracts of land with a low human population density make Sonora a stronghold for the northernmost distribution of ocelots.
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Diet and habitat use of jaguar, puma, and ocelot, and populations of their mammalian prey, were studied in an undisturbed rainforest in southeastern Peru. Analysis of scats (feces) showed terrestrial mammals to be the chief prey of all three felids, but reptiles and birds were also numerically important in the diets of ocelot and jaguar. Prey diversity is high and the cats evidently take any readily captured vertebrate. For major terrestrial mammal prey of felids, density, biomass, prey/predator ratios, and annual offtake from the study area are estimated. All three cat species seem to hunt by opportunistic encounter of prey. Most mammalian prey species were taken in about the ratios of occurrence, but peccaries were taken by jaguar more often than expected. Most prey of jaguar have a body weight of >1 kg, those of ocelot, 1 kg. Jaguar often used waterside habitats, where they captured caiman and river turtles. Puma did not use these habitats or resources, although the puma prey sample was too small for much inference. The possible effects of felids on study area prey populations are discussed. Large and small cats partition prey at the body weight region where prey switches from low to high reproductive rates.
Article
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The manner in which terrestrial ecosystems are regulated is controversial. The "top-down" school holds that predators limit herbivores and thereby prevent them from overexploiting vegetation. "Bottom-up" proponents stress the role of plant chemical defenses in limiting plant depredation by herbivores. A set of predator-free islands created by a hydroelectric impoundment in Venezuela allows a test of these competing world views. Limited area restricts the fauna of small (0.25 to 0.9 hectare) islands to predators of invertebrates (birds, lizards, anurans, and spiders), seed predators (rodents), and herbivores (howler monkeys, iguanas, and leaf-cutter ants). Predators of vertebrates are absent, and densities of rodents, howler monkeys, iguanas, and leaf-cutter ants are 10 to 100 times greater than on the nearby mainland, suggesting that predators normally limit their populations. The densities of seedlings and saplings of canopy trees are severely reduced on herbivore-affected islands, providing evidence of a trophic cascade unleashed in the absence of top-down regulation.
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Crackdown on illegal border crossings puts endangered species at further risk.
Prai-rie dogs, cattle, and crops: Diversity and conserva-tion in northern Mexico In: Biodiversity, ecosys-tems, and conservation in northern Mexico
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