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The use of essential oils as a complementary treatment for anxiety

Authors:

Abstract

Mental disorders occur in people in all countries, societies and in all ethnic groups, regardless socio-economic order with more frequent anxiety disorders. Through the process of time many treatment have been applied in order to address this complex mental issue. People with anxiety disorders can benefit from a variety of treatments and services. Following an accurate diagnosis, possible treatments include psychological treatments and mediation. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) plays a significant role in health care systems. Patients with chronic pain conditions, including arthritis, chronic neck and backache, headache, digestive problems and mental health conditions (including insomnia, depression, and anxiety) were high users of CAM therapies. Aromatherapy is a holistic method of treatment, using essential oils. There are several essential oils that can help in reducing anxiety disorders and as a result the embodied events that they may cause.
American Journal of Nursing Science
2015; 4(1): 1-5
Published online September 20, 2014 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajns)
doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.s.20150401.11
ISSN: 2328-5745 (Print); ISSN: 2328-5753 (Online)
The use of essential oils as a complementary treatment for
anxiety
Fradelos E.
1
, Komini A.
2
1
State Mental Hospital of Attica “Daphne”, Greece
2
Athens, Greece
Email address:
evagelosfradelos@hotmail.com (E. Fradelos), minakom2003@hotmail.com (A. Komini)
To cite this article:
Fradelos E., Komini A.. The Use of Essential Oils as a Complementary Treatment for Anxiety. American Journal of Nursing Science. Special
Issue: Mental Health Care: Aspects, Challenges and Perspectives. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2015, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.11648/j.ajns.s.20150401.11
Abstract:
Mental disorders occur in people in all countries, societies and in all ethnic groups, regardless socio-economic
order with more frequent anxiety disorders. Through the process of time many treatment have been applied in order to address
this complex mental issue. People with anxiety disorders can benefit from a variety of treatments and services. Following an
accurate diagnosis, possible treatments include psychological treatments and mediation. Complementary and alternative
medicine (CAM) plays a significant role in health care systems. Patients with chronic pain conditions, including arthritis,
chronic neck and backache, headache, digestive problems and mental health conditions (including insomnia, depression, and
anxiety) were high users of CAM therapies. Aromatherapy is a holistic method of treatment, using essential oils. There are
several essential oils that can help in reducing anxiety disorders and as a result the embodied events that they may cause.
Keywords:
Essential Oils, Anxiety, Treatment
1. Introduction
Mental disorders occur in people in all countries, societies
and in all ethnic groups regardless socio-economic order. The
prevalence is estimated to be 10% for adults, and it is
estimated that about 20%-25% percent of the population will
suffer by a mental disorders at least once in their lifetime [1].
In Greece, mental disorders are frequent. Epidemiological
studies that have been carried out in the general population
show that 14%-16% of Greeks suffer from a psychiatric
disorder, with more frequent anxiety disorders. In a study that
was conducted by the World Health Organization, in which
Greece participated, it was found that 22% of those visiting
primary health care are suffering from a psychiatric disorder
during the last month and the importance of prevention of
them is given by the psychiatric community [2, 3]. There are
many explanations of the etymology of the word anxiety
some of them claim that the word anxiety derives from Indo-
Germanic root Angh, which means to constrict, to narrow, or
to strangulate others from the Greek word anchein which
means to strangle, to suffocate, or to press shut [4]. All this
indicates that anxiety isn’t a problem of our time. In a matter
of fact there are several literary reports and antiquity myths
demonstrate that symptoms of what we name anxiety
disorders nowadays were observed long ago. Maybe one of
the oldest examples lies in Greek mythology - the god Pan.
He was responsible for anxiety and was the origin of the term
"panic"[5]. Through the process of time many treatments
have been applied in an effort to address this complex health
problem. Aromatherapy and essentials’ oils have been
applied too and have been demonstrating remarkable results
in the treatment of anxiety.
The aim of the present study is to present the use of
essential oils and aromatherapy as a complementary
treatment for anxiety. Moreover this study aims to present in
which cases and how essential oils can be effective in order
to address this complex issue of anxiety.
2. Materials and Methods
The material of study consists of articles and publications
concerning the effect that aromatherapy and essential oils can
have in the reduction of anxiety. Literature reviews as well as
research articles that were found mainly in the Medline
electronic database, the Hellenic Academic Libraries Link
(HEAL-Link) and in the Google Scholar search engine were
used. The literature review was conducted between April and
August of 2014. The search was conducted using the key
words: essential oils, anxiety and treatment.
2 Fradelos E. and Komini A.: The Use of Essential Oils as a Complementary Treatment for Anxiety
3. Anxiety Disorders
The term “anxiety disorders” includes disorders that share
features of excessive fear and anxiety and related behavioral
disturbances. Fear is the emotional response to real or
perceived imminent threat, whereas anxiety is anticipation of
future threat. Obviously, these two states overlap, but they
also differ, with fear more often associated with surges of
autonomic arousal necessary for fight or flight, thoughts of
immediate danger, and escape behaviors, and anxiety more
often associated with muscle tension and vigilance in
preparation for future danger and cautious or avoidant
behaviors [6]. Generally speaking, anxiety disorders are the
most common mental disorders globally and it seems that
women tend to be more affected by them than men are [7].
The term of anxiety disorders encloses various categories
included in it, such as panic attacks, generalized anxiety
disorder, social phobia [6-8]. The anxiety disorders differ
from one another in the types of objects or situations that
induce fear, anxiety, or avoidance behavior, and the
associated cognitive ideation. Thus, while the anxiety
disorders tend to be highly comorbid with each other, they
can be differentiated by close examination of the types of
situations that are feared or avoided and the content of the
associated thoughts or beliefs [6].
Regardless the classification and the various subtypes we
should consider anxiety as a continuous line, which is
inversely proportional to the perception, meaning the highest
levels that one has the less awareness on the surrounding.
Anxiety is a multidimensional phenomenon that affects one’s
life in various ways. The effects that anxiety has can affect
the body, cognitive functioning, behavior as well as the
emotional and social state of the person that is experiencing
that [9].
Paradoxically, anxiety is a complex and useful mental
function. It generates a range of behaviors that occur in
response to any threat. During the last years, research into the
phenomenology, pathophysiology, and neurobiology of
anxiety disorders has grown so much, that results translatable
into clinical practice may offer hope and help to people with
anxiety disorders [5].
Through the process of time, several treatments have been
applied in order to address this complex mental issue. The
therapy selection has been under the same reformation as the
perception of health and human body in general. People with
anxiety disorders can benefit from a variety of treatments and
services. Following an accurate diagnosis, possible
treatments include psychological treatments and mediation
[10,11].
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) plays a
significant role in health care systems. CAM therapies have
increasingly attracted the attention of medical doctors and
researchers as well as the public, the government and the
media. Patients with chronic pain conditions, including
arthritis, chronic neck and backache, headache, digestive
problems and mental health conditions (including insomnia,
depression, and anxiety) were high users of CAM therapies.
These disorders are not easily treated with conventional
medical therapies. Of the reported cases of anxiety, more
than 40% patients use CAM [11-14]. In an effort to address
the anxiety disorders and the promotion of mental health
various alternative and complementary methods are recruited.
Nowadays we can come across to pets, yoga and meditation
in the effort to reduce the anxiety levels that one’s
experiencing [10]. Among these treatments we can find
aromatherapy and essential oils and their application to
reduce anxiety.
4. Aromatherapy
Aromatherapy is an holistic method of treatment, using
essential oils. Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma
compounds form natural sources, usually plants[15]. There is
not a standardized definition for what aromatherapy is. The
term “aromatherapy” first coined by Rene-Maurice
Gateffosse in 1928, who was the first to explore the chemical
composition of essential oils in relation to their therapeutic
properties. It is a complementary/ alternative form of
treatment that uses essential oils in order to improve physical
and mental wellbeing, balance and mood. Essentials oils we
can say that include the vital force and energy of a plant or
herb, thus can say that are a pure and natural form of energy
[16]. Due to the abilities that essential oils have they can also
be used for beautifying and therapeutic purposes [15].
Aromatherapy can be applied in a combination with various
traditional and complementary treatments [16].
Aromatherapy is wholly dependent on the notion of
chemotypes. This is used to define the biochemically-active
molecule(s) on any number of clinical pathologies. The
combination of this notion with that of the rigor of Latin
denominations, results in a near-perfect knowledge of the
mode of action of essential oils [3-17]. Chemotype indicates
visually identical plants but having different, chemical
components, resulting in different therapeutic properties [18].
Nervousness, tension and stress, call for the sedative qualities
of aldehydes, the diverse action of ester components on the
central nervous system, and the sympatholytic effects
(calming, dilation of blood vessels, lowering blood pressure)
of some phenylporpanes [19].
No one can say for sure whether extraction and use of
aromatic material began in India or Egypt. In India the use of
plants and plant extracts as medicines has been continuous
from at least 5000 years ago up to the present day. On the other
hand Egyptians used plants in the same era for many purposes,
from hygienic use to embalming. Greeks, about four or five
hundred years before Christ, made a vital contribution to the
future study of plant medicine by classifying and indexing the
knowledge they had gained from the Egyptians [20]. Despite
the antiquity of essential oils usage, aromatherapy started to
achieve a certain level of acceptance by conventional doctors
in France and insurance companies even paid for treatments,
after Paul Belaiche published in 1978 his study on clinical uses
of aromatherapy for treating a wide range of infectious and
degenerative illnesses [19].
American Journal of Nursing Science 2015; 4(1): 1-5 3
Essential oils may be found in different parts of the plant.
Common techniques used for the extraction of essential oils
are: hydrodistillation, hydrodiffusion, effleurage, cold
pressing, steam distillation, solvent extraction, microwave
assisted process, carbondioxide extraction. The adopted
techniques depend on the part of the plants where the oil is to
be extracted, the stability of the oil to heat and susceptibility
of the oil constituents to chemical reactions [15].
The essential oils have internal or external use. There are
few ways in which essential oils are administrated for use in
aromatherapy. Its way has a specific root by which the
essential oil comes through in the body, differs depending the
reason we using it and has different outcomes [21].
Those ways are: Inhalation: The essential oil enters the
body through breathing. A method recommended for
improving mood and mental wellness and for problem of the
respiratory system. Pads: Pads (compresses) with essential
oils can soothe pain, sprain or swelling and reduce
inflammation. Mouthwashes: Gargling mixtures by essential
oil seems to have the ability to relieve the irritated mucosa of
the mouth. Baths with essential oils provide relaxation, stress
reduction and hydration level of the skin. Hippocrates, the
father of medicine, wrote that the best way to be healthy is
one to enjoy a daily massage with scented bath. Its worth to
be mention that baths and hydrotherapy are applied upon
mental illness from antiquity until about the first half of the
20
th
century [21,22]. Perfuming the area: The evaporation of
essential oils is applied to clean the space of germs,
disinfection and antisepsis, Moreover in that way a pleasant
fragrance is filling the place and eliminates the unpleasant
odors in addition to the improvement of the mood. Massage:
The essence of aromatherapy lies upon the transfer of
essential oils into the body through the skin. Some essential
oils are not allowed to come into direct contact with the skin
in their original form, due to toxicity. We therefore need a
substance that will be mixed with the essential oil and will
penetrate inside the body through massage. [21].
In order to describe better the use of essential oils, we
categorize it in two groups: in these that affect physically the
human body and these that affect human’s psychology. The
first group is further categorized in essential oils that: 1)
affect human body through nervous system 2) affect directly
an organ or tissue. The second group is more difficult to be
defined before the use, as it depends on each human body’s
reaction [23].
5. Aromatherapies Applications in
Anxiety
In holistic health all parts of the person, cells, organs, body
systems and emotions affect each other as well as the whole
person [23]. No part or system can be diseased or damaged
without affecting, or causing disease or damage to, the
remaining whole. For example, stress tension can cause
protein to be released from cells. These proteins, elements of
the immune system, cause allergic reaction that result in
symptoms of atopic dermatitis. A connection also exists
between dermatitis and a deficiency of essential dietary fats.
This fat deficiency is also thought to produce anxiety. The
body is quite complex, so holistic analysis rarely is a simple
task. Essential oils have holistic, multi-therapeutic functions:
they work by correcting or regulating many imbalances
simultaneously [16].
Essential oils can affect a person psychology and regulate
emotions. The molecules of essential oils when inhaled,
directed to the sensory cells of the olfactory scheme. Since
each sensor cell flowing minutes setae, which record
information on perfumes, and transferring it into the center of
the brain through the olfactory valve. These cause the release
of neurochemical substances, which may be soothing,
relaxing, and excitatory or cause euphoria. Furthermore,
aromatic particles enter the nervous system resulting in the
relaxation, tranquility, and relieve nerves and hence of nerve
centers in the brain. Due this anxiety, affective disorders,
headaches, migraines can be addressed in some way [19].
According to literature and research articles, there are
several essential oils that can help in reducing anxiety
disorders and as a result the embodied events that they may
cause. Reported data claim that Piper Methysticum and
Bacopa Monniera are associated with anxiolytic activity in
humans. In another trial on generalized anxiety disorder in
hospital based clinical set up, Ocimumn sanctum
significantly attenuated generalized anxiety disorders and
also attenuated its correlated stress and depression [11].
As we move on to the literature review more and more
research indicating the positive effects that aromatherapy can
have in the reduction of anxiety. Results from a pilot study
conducted by Jennifer Edge an occupational Therapist back
in 2003 where essential oils applied by a massage session
was shown to have a positive effect on both levels of anxiety
and relaxation over a short term period. Each client was seen
for six aromatherapy massage sessions of 1 hr duration and
an initial consultation session. The massage was performed at
the same time of day and day of the week for each client in a
specific room was allocated for aromatherapy use. Each
client received the same standardized massage technique
from the same therapist although the essential oils were
selected and blended specifically for each session/ individual
client [24].
In a recent research contacted by Cho and associates,
between August 1, 2010, and November 20, 2010, at the Eulji
University Hospital in Daejeon, Korea, aromatherapy
essential oils were blended with lavender, roman chamomile,
and neroli with a 6 : 2 : 0.5 ratio. Lavender suppresses heart
stimulation and lowers blood pressure; therefore, it is useful
in the treatment of heart acceleration and high blood pressure.
Chamomile has a calming effect and is effective in relieving
anxiety and stress, and neroli has a calming effect and is
effective in treating insomnia. Participants received 10 times
treatment before PCI, and the same essential oils were
inhaled another 10 times after PCI. The results, in summary,
were that aromatherapy reduced anxiety, increased sleep, and
stabilized the BP of patients undergoing cardiac stent
4 Fradelos E. and Komini A.: The Use of Essential Oils as a Complementary Treatment for Anxiety
insertion. Furthermore the anxiety level of the aromatherapy
group was significantly lower than that of the control
group[ 26 ].
According to Dominique Baudoux, essential oils that can
be used to reduce anxiety ans stress are: Citrus Bergamia,
Citrus Aurantium, Chamaemulum nobile, Pelargonium
asperum, Laurus nobilis, Lavandula burnatii, Lavandula
angustifolia, Citrus reticulata, citrus sinensis, Ravensara
aromatic and Canaga Odorata [17]. Moreover according to
Schnaubelt K. a great aroma therapist, among others, anxiety
can be reduced by using neroli, levandula, citrus reticulate,
rosemarinus officinalis and lemon verbena essential oils[18].
In addition other essential oils referred by Battaglia S., to
front stress are basil, bergamot, roman chamomile, german
chamomile, virgian cedarwood, atlas cedarwood, clary sage,
frankincense, geranium, jasmine absolute, lavender, lemon,
sweet marjoram, may chang, neroli, Melissa, sweet orange,
petitgrain, rose otto, rose absolute, rosemary, rosewood,
sandalwood, tangerine, vetiver, ylang ylang [21]. Shirley
Price, one of the most well know aroma therapist, in one of
her books anxiety may be reduced be using the following
essential oils: basil, bergamot, cedrawood, chamomile, roman,
clary, geranium, levander, lemon, marjoram, Melissa, myrrh,
neroli, sweet orange, patchouli, petitgrain, rose otto,
rosewood, thyme, valerian, vetiver and ylang ylang[4]. In
another book of the same writer, the following essential oils
are referred as balancing, calming, and uplifting:
chamaemelum nobile, citurs aurantium, citrus bergamia,
lavandula angustifolia, lavandula intermedia, origanum
marjorana, pelargonium graveolens [27].
In fact levanter essential oil has been applied in various
populations. Results from a study showed that aromatherapy
inhalation (a mixture of Lavender and Rose essences) has a
noticeable effect on the decreasing of symptoms of anxiety
among female students who are living in the dorm. The
aromatherapy led to reduction of students’ anxiety after
applying it in the second and fourth week [28].
Despite the fact that sometimes complementary treatments
such us aromatherapy are addressed with criticism didn’t stop
researchers to applied them in various group of patients. For
example anxiety symptoms could be found in cancer patients
as a psychological effect of their severe illness in many cases
in which a complementary treatment could be used to address
those symptoms. According to a study in 2007 a four weekly
sessions of aromatherapy massage improves clinical anxiety
and/or depression experienced by cancer patients up to 2
weeks after the end of the intervention. Although
improvement in self-reported anxiety was evident up to 6
weeks post intervention, no evidence of benefit for
aromatherapy massage on pain, insomnia, nausea and
vomiting, or global quality of life at either assessment point
were found [29].
As we see, according to bibliography and scientific essays,
essential oils can be used individually or combined according
to their chemo type, in aromatherapy massage treatments or
in sessions of inhalation, in order to reduce stress and anxiety
as an effective complementary therapy.
6. Conclusions
Aromatherapy is not a new age therapeutic technique, its
origin can be traced back in ancient time and as all
complementary treatments its use has been increased over
the years. There are different ways and many in number
essential oils that can be applied depending on the condition.
Literature review and most of the researches have shown
that aromatotherapy causes various actions favorable for
patients such as relaxation, reductions in anxiety,
depression and fatigue, and improvements in quality of life
via nervous, endocrine, immune, and circulatory systems,
there for could be applied as a complementary therapy for
people with anxiety symptoms. However, as all the
complementary treatments, it should not overlap the
doctor ’s instructions, especially in severe cases. Finally it
should be noted that aromatherapy must be applied only
according to the instructions of qualified aromatherpists and
that strictly the essential oils that are used should not be
adulterated
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... Cancer is a frightening disease in the world especially in women as a cause of death, namely cancer of the cervix and breast cancer and many women who have low knowledge how to cancer prevention [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Breast cancer is one of the diseases that until now has not known for certain, the cause [5,[12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. ...
... which was very helpful to reduce or eliminate feelings of anxiety experienced by the patient mastectomy [2,4,7]. ...
... One of the widely used methods to overcome anxiety is by using aromatherapy, as like by using the extract of lavender flowers. Aroma therapy which is produced by flowers lavender is known to have the smell and benefits that are typical with a variety of benefits that is produced, one of which is to provide a calming sensation [4]. One of the therapy non-pharmacological which can be used is a complementary therapy. ...
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Breast cancer is a group of abnormal cells in the breast that continue to grow multiply. Mastectomy is one of the options for surgical action in breast cancer. In patients who will undergo mastectomy, all breast tissue and axillary lymph nodes are suspected. Surgery will cause psychological disorders in the form of anxiety that can lead to complications during surgery. One way to reduce anxiety is through the provision of aromatherapy, especially aromatherapy lavender, which is known to be sedative. This quantitative study aims to determine the effect of aromatherapy on the scale of anxiety in pre-mastectomy patients in the surgical room of the Murni Teguh Memorial Hospital. The design in this study was to use a quasi-experimental research design with the method of one group pre and posttest without control. Determination of the sample size in this study using purposive sampling with 15 respondents. The instrument used to assess anxiety is the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS). Data from the research results were analyzed by statistical tests, namely the Wilcoxon test. The results showed that there was an effect of lavender flower aromatherapy on the decrease in anxiety scale in pre-mastectomy patients with a value (p=0,001) <0.05, which means that after intervention the patient pre mastectomy experienced a decrease in anxiety scale than before intervention. The results of this study are expected to be used as an option for intervention by health workers especially the nursing profession to deal with patients' anxieties, especially in pre-mastectomy patients.
... Sense of smell activates the limbic system and hormones, which may decrease depression, stress, and chronic fatigue by increasing emotional response. [15][16][17] It is suggested that lavender oil, which is commonly used in aromatherapy, is effective on amygdale, has a relieving and sedative effect, relaxes smooth muscles, positively influences the quality of sleep due to these characteristics, has antibacterial, antifungal, antidepressant, and anxiety and stress-reducing characteristics, and is also the least toxic and allergic among the all aromatic oils. 18,19 In the study conducted by Muz and Taşçı 20 on patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment, they stated that aromatherapy with lavender oil applied through inhalation decreased the level and severity of fatigue. ...
... It was decided to use lavender oil in the light of literature information stating that it is the least toxic and allergic among all aromatic oils, provides effective relaxation, and has positive effects on fatigue and anxiety via activation of the limbic system. 11,16,18 Through a review of relevant literature, the application route of lavender oil (inhalation), 11,22,23 concentration (2-mL lavender +98-mL water [2%]), 18,24,25 intervention time (20 min), and the number of drops (2 drops) 23,24 were decided. Hundred percent pure lavender oil was produced by the Awe-Cemre Company (Izmir, Turkey). ...
... There are numerous studies in the literature in which aromatherapy was applied with different sample groups. 15,16,21,22 However the number of studies evaluating the effect of aromatherapy on fatigue and anxiety levels of patients undergoing hemodialysis in Turkey is not sufficient. ...
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the application of lavender oil on fatigue and anxiety levels in patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment. This randomized controlled study was conducted with 60 patients (30 patients in intervention group, 30 patients in control group) in a province located in southeastern Turkey. After the patients in both groups were informed about the study, a questionnaire, the Fatigue Severity Scale, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were applied to the patients. In the intervention group, a statistically significant difference was found between pretest and posttest scores of the Fatigue Severity Scale (t = 7.177, P = .001) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (t = 10.371, P = .001). Mean scores of fatigue and anxiety decreased significantly following aromatherapy and also fatigue and anxiety levels declined. Lavender aromatherapy can be applied as an effective nursing intervention to reduce fatigue and anxiety of patients with chronic renal failure and undergoing hemodialysis treatment.
... [9] Essential oils are volatile, liquid, aromatic compounds derived from natural sources, particularly plants. [10,11] Jasmine flower (genus: Jasminum, family: Oleaceae) and its extract has been long used for medicinal purposes. The flower has a strong and pleasant aroma with hypnotic, mood-enhancing and calming properties that can improve physiologic parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate. ...
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Context: Anxiety is an unpleasant emotion and inhaling Jasmine Essential Oil (JEO) may decrease anxiety before laparotomy. Aims: Determining effects of inhaling JEO on anxiety and blood cortisol levels in patients undergoing laparotomy. Setting and Design: The setting was 5th Azar Hospital in Gorgan (Iran) and the study was a single blind parallel, randomized, controlled clinical trial that was conducted in 2016. Materials and Methods: The subjects (84 patients) were randomly allocated in two intervention and control groups. The intervention and control group inhaled two drops of JEO and two drops of distilled water respectively for 60 min. Blood cortisol and anxiety levels were measured immediately after intervention by ELISA kit, and the Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The data were described with mean, Median, Interquartile Range (IQR) and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square, Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann–Whitney U and correlation coefficient tests. Results: The mean score of anxiety in JEO group before and after intervention was 50.90 ± 7.71 and 36.42 ± 6.62 (P = 0.001), respectively and median (IQR) of the cortisol was 160.7 (60.88) and 93.15 (52.38), respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, cortisol (IQR) level increased (124.1 (67.42) to 127.9 (62.42), P = 0.02) and the mean anxiety score decreased slightly (P = 0.43). Median and IQR of difference cortisol level before and after in the intervention and control group were significant (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that aromatherapy with JEO may have beneficial effects on preoperative anxiety in patients undergoing laparotomy.
... The use of scented massage oil in the foot re lexology procedure can help stimulate the relaxation response and improve the mood research respondents moods. Another inding was revealed by (Fradelos and komini, 2015) that the use of scented oil could improve physical and mental wellbeing and improve mood . The use of aromatic oils can be combined with various complementary and traditional treatments, one of which is foot re lexology (Harrison, 2008). ...
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Patients with cancer will experience limitations in meeting their daily needs, including psychological problems such as stress. Stress can be assessed through cortisol saliva as a biomarker of stress. Foot Reflexology will help restore the body's energy balance, stimulate relaxation and endorphins, and reduce stress. To determine the effect of foot reflexology to reduce salivary cortisol levels as a biomarker of anxiety for patients with cancer. Adult patients with cancer in stage II and III hospitalized in a Public hospital in Central Java, Indonesia, were invited. Foot reflexology was given once (40 minutes) a day. Saliva collection was carried out two times a day (30 minutes before intervention) and 15 minutes after intervention. Salivary cortisol levels at baseline and post-intervention were measured and compared to determine the effect of foot reflexology. Data were analyzed using the Wilcox on signed-rank and effect size (ES) test. Fifty-five patients (93.2%) participated in this study. We found that the effect size of foot reflexology was 0.82 (ρ = 0.001) with a mean and standard deviation of salivary cortisol levels at baseline and post-intervention were (9.31 ± 5.45 and 6.17 ± 4.55) respectively. These findings indicated the significant effect of giving Foot Reflexology Massage in reducing salivary cortisol levels. Foot Reflexology massage is proven to have a substantial impact on reducing the Salivary cortisol level as a stress biomarker.
... As current pharmacotherapy is not effective for all patients, the search for better anxiolytic drugs with fewer side effects is needed [3]. Currently, more attention has been paid to plant-derived drugs, especially from essential oils, which demonstrate efficacy by reducing the symptoms of anxiety and, compared to traditional medicines, essential oils have fewer side effects [4,5]. ...
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The high prevalence of anxiety disorders associated with pharmacotherapy side effects have motivated the search for new pharmacological agents. Species from Citrus genus, such as Citrus limon (sicilian lemon), have been used in folk medicine as a potential therapy to minimize emotional disorders. In order to searching for new effective treatments with fewer side effects, the present study evaluated the anxiolytic mechanism of action and the hypnotic-sedative activity from the Citrus limon fruit's peels essential oil (CLEO). Adults male Swiss mice were submitted to barbiturate-induced sleep test; elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light-dark box (LDB) (evaluation of the mechanism of action); rotarod; and catalepsy tests. CLEO oral treatment decreased latency and increased the sleep total time; moreover it induced in animals an increased the number of entries and percentage of time spent into open arms of the EPM; an increased the number of transitions and the percentage of time into light compartment in the LDB; which were only antagonized by flumazenil pretreatment, with no injury at motor function. Thus, results suggest that CLEO treatment induced an anxiolytic behavior suggestively modulated by the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor or by an increase of GABAergic neurotransmission, without cause impairment in the motor coordination.
... Inhaling the aroma of neroli essential oil is thought to transmit messages to the part of brain (limbic system) that controls emotions, which in turn influences the nervous system thereby causing stress alleviation and enhanced mood. 9 On inhalation of scented oils, the volatile molecules bind to olfactory receptors, creating an electrophysiological response that reaches the brain. Neocortex activation is expected to occur by this response, which has an effect on perception of odors and reaches the limbic system including amygdale and hypothalamus, the areas where levels of hormone and emotions are controlled. ...
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Mothers of children with thalassemia are often confronted with stressful life associated with the illness of the child as well as other related stressors. Consequently, these mothers' quality of life is impacted. Previous researches have shown that perceived social support is a part of coping strategies that can help mothers to cope with their stressful life and increase their health status. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between quality of life and social support among mothers of children with thalassemia. Design: A descriptive co relational design was utilized. Setting: The study was conducted at pediatric department in University units at the Menoufia University Hospital at Shebin El-kom city, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. Sample: A Convenient sample of 87 mothers of children with thalassemia who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected: Three instruments were used to collect data: Structured Interview Questionnaire to assess socio demographic characteristics of the studied subjects, a structured interview questionnaire, Quality of life Scale and Perceived social support scale. Results: The findings of this study revealed that less than half of studied mothers (42.4) have average and bad quality of life and more than one third of mothers (37.60%) have moderate social support. There was a positive correlation between total quality of life and total social support among the studied mothers. The study concluded that there was a positive correlation between total quality of life and total social support among the studied mothers. It was recommended that, an educational program should be given for the mothers of children with thalassemia to maintain their psychological and physical health, as well as improve their quality of life as a whole.
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ABSTRAK Latar Belakang: Coronavirus yang saat ini sedang berlangsung menimbulkan efek yang kurang baik pada proses perkuliahan karena menyebabkan kecemasan yang mengakibatkan penurunan prestasi belajar mahasiswa. beberapa strategi yang dapat dilakukan untuk menurunkan tingkat kecemasan, yaitu dengan terapi komplementer antara lain: relaksasi, distraksi, terapi spiritual, aromaterapi, terapi yang disarankan disini ialah aromaterapi karena dapat menurunkan rasa cemas. Tujuan: untuk mengetahui pengaruh sebelum dan sesudah pemberian aromaterapi terhadap tingkat kecemasan selama masa pandemi COVID-19 pada mahasiswa keperawatan STIKes Surya Global Yogyakarta. Metode Penelitian: Jenis penelitian pra-experimen dengan rancangan One Group Pretest-Posttest. Populasi penelitian mahasiswa keperawatan semester V yang berjumlah 147 orang. Sampel yang digunakan 20 responden yang mengalami kecemasan selama masa pandemi COVID-19 menggunakan Zung-Salf Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS) untuk menggali kecemasan. Data penelitian dianalisis dengan uji statistik paired t test dengan tingkat kemaknaan 0.05. Hasil Penelitian: Berdasarkan hasil statistik Uji T-Test, dari 20 responden, didapatkan hasil p value 0,000 < α (0,05) dengan nilai rata-rata tingkat kecemasan sebelum diberikan terapi peppermint sebesar 52,75 sedangkan sesudah diberikan terapi peppermint mengalami penurunan menjadi 40,30 yang artinya ada pengaruh arumaterapi pappermint terhadap tingkat kecemasan selama masa pandemi COVID-19 pada mahasiswa keperawatan STIKes Surya Global Yogyakarta. Kesimpulan: Terdapat pengaruh pemberian aromaterapi terhadap tingkat kecemasan selama masa pandemi COVID-19 pada mahasiswa keperawatan STIKes Surya Global Yogyakarta. ABSTRACT Background: The current ongoing Coronavirus has an unfavorable effect on the lecture process because it causes anxiety which results in a decrease in student achievement. several strategies that can be done to reduce anxiety levels, namely with complementary therapies, among others: relaxation, distraction, spiritual therapy, aromatherapy, the recommended therapy here is aromatherapy because it can reduce anxiety. Purpose: To determine the effect before and after giving aromatherapy to anxiety levels during the COVID-19 pandemic in nursing students at STIKes Surya Global Yogyakarta. Research Methods: This type of research is pre-experimental with the design of One Group Pretest-Posttest. The research population of the fifth semester nursing students was 147 people. The sample used was 20 respondents
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Mothers of children with thalassemia are often confronted with stressful life associated with the illness of the child as well as other related stressors. Consequently, these mothers' quality of life is impacted. Previous researches have shown that perceived social support is a part of coping strategies that can help mothers to cope with their stressful life and increase their health status. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between quality of life and social support among mothers of children with thalassemia. Design: A descriptive co relational design was utilized. Setting: The study was conducted at pediatric department in University units at the Menoufia University Hospital at Shebin El-kom city, Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. Sample: A Convenient sample of 87 mothers of children with thalassemia who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected: Three instruments were used to collect data: Structured Interview Questionnaire to assess socio demographic characteristics of the studied subjects, a structured interview questionnaire, Quality of life Scale and Perceived social support scale. Results: The findings of this study revealed that less than half of studied mothers (42.4) have average and bad quality of life and more than one third of mothers (37.60%) have moderate social support. There was a positive correlation between total quality of life and total social support among the studied mothers. The study concluded that there was a positive correlation between total quality of life and total social support among the studied mothers. It was recommended that, an educational program should be given for the mothers of children with thalassemia to maintain their psychological and physical health, as well as improve their quality of life as a whole.
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Purpose To examine the effect of education on nursing personnel's knowledge and attitudes regarding the use of hand massage, breathing techniques, and essential oils with hospice and palliative care patients. Background Unrelieved, end of life pain is common among hospitalized patients on hospice and palliative care units. Integrative care techniques such as hand massage, breathing techniques, and essential oils can be available to use with these individuals. Nursing personnel are often unaware of other techniques that are not a traditional pharmacology approach to pain. Methods A quasi‐experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention on nursing personnel's knowledge and attitudes regarding the use of three integrative care techniques (hand massage, breathing techniques, and essential oils) with hospice and palliative care patients in an acute care setting. Data on knowledge and attitudes were collected pre‐ and postintervention. Results Following the intervention, improvements in nursing personnel's attitudes and knowledge toward the use of the three techniques were found. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that education of nursing personnel may positively influence knowledge and attitudes toward providing hand massage, breathing techniques, and essential oil for end of life patients.
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Anxiety disorders affect one-eighth of the total population worldwide, and have become a very important area of research interest in psychopharmacology. People with anxiety disorders can benefit from psychological treatments, pharmacotherapy or a combination of the two. Common limitations of conventional antianxiety therapy include co-morbid psychiatric disorders and increase in dose of drugs leading to intolerable side effects. These limitations have prompted the use of traditional and alternative systems of medicine. This paper reviews the causes, and the effective and safe therapy for anxiety disorders. The environment we are living in is physically, mentally, emotionally, socially and morally dynamic and challenging. We possess effective mechanisms to meet every day stress. Sometimes, normal adaptive mechanisms can be over-activated and, thus, become maladaptive. A common outcome of such over-activation is anxiety and insomnia (Spinella, 2001). Anxiety is a subjective feeling of unease, discomfort, apprehension or fearful concern accompanied by a host of autonomic and somatic manifestations. Anxiety is a normal, emotional, reasonable and expected response to real or potential danger. However, if the symptoms of anxiety are prolonged, irrational, disproportionate and/or severe; occur in the absence of stressful events or stimuli; or interfere with everyday activities, then, these are called Anxiety Disorders (DSM IV-TR, 2000).
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