Article

Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social Structures

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Abstract

This article analyzes the increasing spread of male-to-female har-assment on the streets of Cairo. The aim is to first describe, define and contextualize street harassment as a social phenomenon and secondly to suggest some main social factors that provoked the de-velopment of the problem in the first place. This analysis takes a particular look at the correlation between street harassment and decades of structural and institutional changes which have had an impact on patriarchy as a defining system for the relationship be-tween men and women. Historically in Egypt, patriarchy was not only fundamental for spa-tial and gendered organization within the private family sphere, but also for demarcating movement and participation in the public domain. In recent decades, high unemployment rates among men have undermined the conditions for upholding the patriarchal struc-ture. This article argues that street harassment is symptomatic of high unemployment rates and of a consequentially weakening pa-triarchal system. It identifies the everyday spectacle of male-to-fe-male street harassment as indicative of the frustration and difficul-ties in adhering to cultural ideals in a time of immense structural transformations. These transformations have impaired Egyptian males' ability to fulfil their traditional role as economic providers, something which has resulted in their lack of achievement and de-masculinization.

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... This makes it difficult for those affected to report such incidents and name the perpetrator, whereas sexual harassment occurs from people known to the victim. Lastly, sexual harassment is understood in terms of verbal and physical intrusions of sexual nature, but street harassment can include acts such as suggestive staring (Peoples, 2008). While these points raised by Peoples (2008) are useful in understanding the nature of street harassment, I suggest that they are not enough to distinguish street harassment as a separate category outside the larger conceptualization of sexual violence. ...
... Lastly, sexual harassment is understood in terms of verbal and physical intrusions of sexual nature, but street harassment can include acts such as suggestive staring (Peoples, 2008). While these points raised by Peoples (2008) are useful in understanding the nature of street harassment, I suggest that they are not enough to distinguish street harassment as a separate category outside the larger conceptualization of sexual violence. I shall present my argument by addressing each of the three distinctions raised by Peoples (2008). ...
... While these points raised by Peoples (2008) are useful in understanding the nature of street harassment, I suggest that they are not enough to distinguish street harassment as a separate category outside the larger conceptualization of sexual violence. I shall present my argument by addressing each of the three distinctions raised by Peoples (2008). Firstly, for instance, workplace sexual harassment is not always carried out privately. ...
Thesis
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In this thesis, I employ a feminist poststructuralist approach to study the perspectives and experiences of young migrant women living in a hostel in Chennai as they navigate competing discourses on womanhood in neoliberal India. Based on 10 months of ethnographic fieldwork done across two stages, this thesis delves on the experiences of young women, particularly around four themes of contemporary significance, namely safety and street harassment; dowry; relationships, sex and marriage; and practices and ideals of beauty. Rather than positioning women with respect to binaristic categories such as traditional vs modern this thesis strives to situate women within the complexities and contradictions of their daily lives.
... Few have attempted to explore why sexual harassment exists in the Egyptian context, and why Egypt is unique in the developing world for the prevalence of public sexual violence. Peoples (2008) argues that it began with the liberalization of the Egyptian economy (infitah) in the early 1980s which led to a deterioration of economic conditions for many Egyptians. Economic shifts affected traditional social structures that defined men as breadwinners, husbands and fathers. ...
... In recent years, a number of events have occurred that have helped to spread awareness of the sexual harassment problem in Egypt. The Eid al-Fitr mob harassment in 2006 was one of the major events to bring sexual harassment to the attention of the Egyptian media (Amar, 2011;Ebaid, 2013;Ilahi, 2008;Peoples, 2008). The impetus for the Eid attacks, as discussed by Rizzo et al (2012), was the selling out of a movie at a theatre in downtown Cairo. ...
... This assumption questions the constructed image of men as "being strong and in control" and of women as "being emotional and vulnerable", which are the reasons widely cited in justifications of practices such as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and early marriage. Peoples (2008) made the argument that unemployment challenges the traditional conceptualisation of masculinity where, within traditional family structures, men are the main bread-winners and women are child bearers. This has been challenged by the current economic situation that impedes men's ability to find jobs and bring money home. ...
Article
This paper argues that the community-based work of anti-sexual harassment initiatives represents a political process toward ending sexual harassment in Egypt. Since the Egyptian Revolution, community-based initiatives have employed strategies to transform social perceptions and behaviors regarding public sexual harassment. The strategies of these new initiatives, like HarassMap, include conducting street outreach campaigns and employing technological platforms to reframe the nature of social responsibility and to disrupt gendered stereotypes. Yet, a number of scholars have challenged this community-based anti-harassment work, particularly the early work of the Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights (ECWR), for avoiding political engagement and failing to address structural gender inequalities. Drawing on Finnemore and Sikkink’s (1998) argument regarding norm emergence, this paper maintains that anti-sexual harassment initiatives, like HarassMap, employ an approach to social change that aims to build a critical mass around new social norms. By undermining patriarchal norms that blame victims and encouraging people to intervene against public sexual harassment, HarassMap is creating a new vision of social responsibility. When a tipping point is reached, HarassMap activists believe that public outcry will then force political and legal reform from the state to protect women in public space. Such community-based approaches are political but the reform entities like HarassMap seek results only when there is enough public will for change.
... Many studies have been come out during the last decades about the underlying causes of sexual violence/ assault against women in India. Few of these underlying factors are a culture that approves violence, the experience of abuse as a child, alcohol, poverty and rapid socioeconomic changes (Feld, 2001;Peoples, 2008;Simister & Mehta, 2010). ...
... Women are fearful of sexual assault because of the size and power differences between men and women; some respondents accepted that inability to defend her against a male strange who is trying to hurt them is the principal cause of their fear. Size and status difference is evident in the roles women play as a victim (Peoples, 2008;Simister & Mehta, 2010). For example, a 23-years-old woman stated: ...
Article
Confidence (fearlessness) of women in the city is associated with freedom, equality, and a sense of control over, and possession of social space. Rapid urbanisation in Indian cities caused a transition in the societies and tended to uproot and challenge traditional values to provide equal opportunity to use spaces irrespective of gender. Adversely, it can be seen in women’s lives as ‘breakings’ that is continuously trying to break the courage of women in the process of socialisation. Therefore, it becomes essential to explore how and why the fear of being victimised and real victimisation of sexual assault undermines some women’s confidence, restricting their access to, and activity within, social space. The study is based on primary data of Varanasi City. It is further corroborated by the phenomenological approach for exploring the harsh victimisation experience of respondents in their own words. The study revealed that majority of the survivors received ‘negative reactions’ and ‘lack of support’ for the assault. These survivors were blamed for bringing themselves in vulnerable positions and were frequently told that they should have known better. Some survivors discussed a ‘lack of options’ as a reason for not continuing to disclose the assault. The study suggests that combating sexual assault myths, educating about the assault to avoid adverse reactions may help to reduce the trauma and increase the likelihood that victims receive the support.
... [32][33][34] An anthropological work has argued that due to the transformation of social and economic structures, men's masculinity is in crisis, which is a major reason for street harassment of women in Egypt. 35 Values and norms relating to sexuality play a dominant role too. Pre-marital sex is traditionally taboo in Bangladesh. ...
Article
Full-text available
Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.
... Si bien esta acepción de la expresión Me too había sido acuñada una década antes por la activista de derechos civiles Tarana Burke, el tuit de Milano viralizó el hashtag #MeToo, que animó a mujeres de todo el mundo a compartir sus historias como víctimas 1 de abuso y acoso (Khomami, 2017). El uso del hashtag #YoTambién en el mundo hispano (Respers France, 2017), así como el #MosqueMeToo entre mujeres musulmanas (Sykes, 2018), entre otros, demostraron la ubicuidad de un problema que afecta a mujeres de todo el mundo en sus trabajos, en la calle y en ambientes educativos (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2018;Leach & Sitaram, 2007;Navarro-Guzmán, Ferrer-Pérez, & Bosch-Fiol, 2016;Oliver, 2011;Peoples, 2008). En Latinoamérica en particular, distintos estudios han demostrado la prevalencia del acoso laboral, callejero y en ámbitos educativos, así como otras formas de violencia basada en el género (Contreras, Bott, Guedes, & Dartnall, 2010;Gherardi, 2016), que han sido ampliamente denunciadas en los últimos años por el activismo feminista de movimientos como el Ni Una Menos 2 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Can journalistic coverage of gender issues affect the opinions of its readers and thus promote social change? In this process, are male and female journalists equally influential? To answer this, an experiment was conducted in which the perceived gender of a journalist who talks about sexual harassment was manipulated to measure its effect on the readers’ opinions about the severity of this social problem. The results indicate that men are more influential, a result that remains statistically significant among female participants, who also feel more compassion for victims of sexual harassment.
... 12 In particular, the infiltration of the informal community of Imbaba by the militant Islamist group al-Gamāʿa al-Islāmiyya in the 8 Scholarly research published in the late 2000s presented public sexual harassment in Egypt as a social phenomenon linked to economic and social transformations. In particular, Peoples (2008) explained the pervasiveness of street sexual harassment in Cairo as a result of the structural rise in unemployment, especially among young men, and the breakdown of the patriarchal family. Similarly, Ilahi (2009: 64) reflected widespread considerations of sexual harassment as the only outlet for increasing numbers of 'unmarriageable' young Egyptian men against frustration and sexual repression. ...
Article
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In the aftermath of the January 25 Revolution, self-defense tactics became popular against the fear of disorder and the increase of public sexual violence in Cairo. In this article, I examine a number of examples of self-defense invoked by public and private actors after the 2011 Revolution, and differentiate between two types of practices. The first, articulated around the right of legitimate self-defense recognized in the Egyptian penal code, aim to maintain or to restore the established order through the identification of an Other that embodies a threat to the self, property or community. In contrast to this, radical modes of self-defense endeavor to subvert the given order by disrupting the gendered logic of masculinist and state protection and promoting horizontal relations of care and solidarity. Drawing on data generated through interviews with members of the initiative OpAntiSH and the collective WenDo, this article explores the importance of strategies and communities of autonomous self-defense in Egypt in relation to legal and policy measures adopted against sexual harassment by El-Sisi’s regime since 2014.
... Ainda que haja uma maior utilização desses termos, outros termos podem ser encontrados na literatura, tais como "assédio público", "assédio público baseado em gênero", ou "assédio de estranho". 3 Action Aid International, 2011;Abdelmonem, 2015;Armstrong, 2016;Akhter, 2013;Asian Development Bank, 2015;Bezerra & Medeiros, 2016;Chubin, 2014;Chaudoir, & Quinn, 2010;Chockalingam & Vijaya, 2008;Crouch, 2009;Daniels, 2009;Darnell, Doyanne & Cook, 2009;Davidson, Gervais & Sherd, 2015;Dhilon & Bakaya, 2014;Dimond et al., 2013;Dudas, Hartman, & Day-Sully, 2015;Fahmy et al., 2014;Fairchild, 2007;Fairchild, 2010;Fairchild & Rudman, 2008;Fileborn, 2014;Fileborn, 2013;Fogg-Davis, 2006;Graham, et al., 2016;Hashemianfar & Golestan, 2015;Hollaback & Worker Institute At Cornell, 2012;Hollaback Boston, 2013;Hollaback Croatia, 2012;Hollaback Istanbul, 2012;Hollaback Ottawa, 2013;Hollaback Poland, 2012;Ilahi, 2010;Joseph, 2016;Kearl, 2015;Kearl, 2013;Kearl, 2010;Kelly & Wesselmann, 2010;Instituto De Opinión Pública, 2013;Lahsaeizadeh & Yousefinejad, 2012;Leite & Nepomuceno, 2016;Logan, 2015;Lord, 2009;Madan & Nallan, 2016;Magalhães, Dieminger & Bertoldo, 2015;Neupane & Chesney-Lind, 2014;Ocac Chile, 2015a;Ocac Chile, 2015b;Ocac Chile, 2014a;Ocac Chile, 2014b;Ocac Nicaragua, 2015;O'Neill, 2013;Olga, 2014;Peoples, 2008;Rawlins, 2012;Santos, 2015;Segrave, 2014;Sernam, 2011;Shoukry, Hassan & Komasan, 2008;Stringer, 2007;Sulivan, Lord & McHugh, 2010;Truluck, 2015;Vallejo, 2011;Vera-Gray, 2016a;Vera-Gray, 2016b estranhos dentro de espaços públicos, com o potencial de causar mal-estar." 4 (OCAC Chile, 2015b) Segundo a mesma organização (OCAC Chile, 2015b), as formas de assédio sexual em espaços públicos são: 1) verbal e não verbal: olhares persistentes, sons e comentários com conotação sexual implícita ou explícita; 2) física: esfregar partes não íntimas (ombros, mãos, cintura, etc.) ou íntimas do corpo (nádegas, pênis, vulva, seios, etc.) e fazer pressão contra o corpo de outra pessoa; 3) registo audiovisual: tirar fotografias ou gravar uma pessoa ou partes do seu corpo sem o seu consentimento; 4) de caráter grave: encurralamento e aproximações intimidantes, perseguição (a pé ou em meios de transporte), exibicionismo e masturbação pública. ...
Conference Paper
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Atualmente, dois conceitos são centrais quando se fala de cidades e planejamento urbano: desenvolvimento sustentável e direito à cidade. Nesse contexto, estão as políticas de erradicação do assédio sexual em espaços públicos e de promoção da mobilidade sustentável. No entanto, o desenho de políticas e ações para ambos temas são segmentados e não consideram a inter-relação dos problemas. Igualmente, há falta de dados territorializados e desagregados. Para ajudar a suprir essa lacuna, está sendo desenvolvida no Brasil uma metodologia chamada "Auditoria de segurança de gênero e caminhabilidade", a qual, por meio da de geo-participação, busca promover reflexões sistêmicas e gerar dados que contribuam tanto à sensibilização e participação social, quanto ao planejamento e gestão de cidades.
... In any case, while socio-economic and political vicissitudes in Egypt such as growing unemployment and delayed age of marriage might not escape blame for giving rise to more violence against women (Peoples, 2008), sexual harassment can in no small measure be attributed to configurational variables of street networks. Based on the research results, we argue that spatial configuration can be a considerable factor in the distribution of anti-social behaviour, at least for sexual harassment. ...
Article
While demographic and social determinants of sexual harassment have been intensively and extensively investigated, attention to the role of the spatial configuration of the built environment remains limited. With a special focus on the Greater Cairo region, this study examines the occurrence of improper touching in public streets through a comprehensive review of the literature, space syntax analysis, band analysis and field survey. The results show that incidents’ locations are associated with spatially accessible street segments and that men dominate public spaces of the Cairo central business district (CBD), especially after dark. Busy routes have a dual effect: they give some sense of safety as a result of informal surveillance, people being ‘eyes on the street’, but may assist potential harassers to perpetrate, hide and escape swiftly. Unsafe space usually lacks a balanced and ‘civilised co-presence’ among inhabitants and strangers where strangers outnumber local residents. Accordingly, understanding human movement patterns and the spatial context of the most vulnerable types of urban spaces are an invaluable step to design out sexual harassment.
... In Egypt, although touching women in public may carry the same punishment as sodomy 25 , the present work revealed a high prevalence of different forms of physical harassment which was also revealed from the ECWR's study 12 . As regards the prevalence of inappropriate touch (34.2%) as a form of physical harassment, it is consistent with that revealed from a study issued by the National Council for Women, where 31.8% of women nationwide were subjected to it. ...
Article
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Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess university student’s awareness and experience of different forms of sexual harassment. Material and Methods: Multistage cluster sampling methodology was done, and a cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of university students in Monufia governorate. A total sample of 968 university students was surveyed between the first of March 2012 till the end of May 2012. The study tool was a pre-designed questionnaire containing questions on knowledge and past exposure to 20 items covering three forms of sexual harassment (physical, verbal and visual). Questions on appearance of the victim, occupation and age of the harasser, place and time of harassment, and who to blame for harassment were added. Results: The female participants had better knowledge about different forms of sexual harassment than males. All of females were exposed to different forms of harassment even though 95.5% of them were wearing the “hijab”. Most of harassment cases took place in streets, at all times, and most of the harassers were university students with an age ranging from 19-24 years. For males, 38.3% committed the harassing behavior before. Conclusion: the study calls for holding antiharassment awareness campaigns to raise the awareness of females on definition, forms and laws of sexual harassment in Egypt.
... First, reporting sexual harassment was possibly biased by foreigners and upper-middle-class Egyptian females since nearly 50% of all reports were in English. Second, while considering only the effect of configurational variables of street networks, the current research did not examine the role of other determinants of crime occurrence such as commercial land use (Summers & Johnson, 2017) and other socio-economic vicissitudes (Peoples, 2008) due to data unavailability. Third, the issue of small sample size applies (i.e., small number of harassment reports and observed gates). ...
Article
Sexual harassment is a common experience for women in urban spaces. While many studies have shown the types of urban environments that are hostile to women, limited research has examined the empirical relationship between sexual harassment and the configuration of the street network. This study uses crowdsourced data and space syntax analysis to investigate the relationship of the frequency of sexual harassment to the proximity of such incidents to main streets in the central business district of Cairo, Egypt. The results show that harassment incidents are associated with street segments with high volumes of foot traffic. Unsafe space usually lacks a balanced co-presence of males and females where the former outnumber the latter. The article advances our knowledge of visibility and spatial accessibility characteristics of sexual harassment incidents and the potential impacts of urban design and planning policies on women's power and fragility.
... [32][33][34] An anthropological work has argued that due to the transformation of social and economic structures, men's masculinity is in crisis, which is a major reason for street harassment of women in Egypt. 35 Values and norms relating to sexuality play a dominant role too. Pre-marital sex is traditionally taboo in Bangladesh. ...
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Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely “eve teasing”, experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12–18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. “Eve teasing” was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, “eve teasing” is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.
... The well-known factors of domestic violence against women are early marriage, women's employment, unemployment, experience of abuse as a child, rapid socio economic changes, and justification for wife beating and others There are lots of socio-cultural, economic, legal and political factors which are very complex and interconnected institutionalized factors those are concealed and women are specifically vulnerable to the violence directed on to them. In general, the major factors of domestic violence against women in India are harmful gender norms and traditions, working as a labour or agent outside home and others, unequal balance of power in relationship of man and woman, dowry, desire for a male child and alcoholism of the spouse, poverty, dislike of husband and/or family members, infertility, husband's extra-marital relations , and suspicion of infidelity are the main causes irrespective of educational level (Chhabra, 2005;Peoples, 2008;Mehta & Simister, 2010). ...
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ملخص هدفت الدراسة إلى التعرف على العوامل المؤدية إلى ظاهرة التحرش الجنسي ضد الفتاة وعالقتها ببعض المتغيرات، كالعمر والسكن والحالة االجتماعية والمستوى الدراسي، باستخدام أداة الدراسة التي صممت خصيصا ألغراض جمع البيانات الميدانية ولإلجابة على تساؤالت الدراسة، وأجريت على عينة قوامها )2875 )طالبة تم اختيارهن بطريقة العينة العشوائية البسيطة. وأظهرت النتائج وجود عدة أشكال للتحرش الجنسي وكان أبرزها قيام الشباب بلمس جسد األنثى، و عرض صور إباحية على الفتاه، يليها محاولة نزع مالبس الفتاة، وأن األماكن المزدحمة هى أكثر االمواقع التي يحدث بها التحرش، كما وبينت النتائج أبرز العوامل التي تؤدي إلى التحرش هي: العوامل التي ترجع إلى الفتاة ذاتها، والعوامل األسرية، ووسائل اإلعالم والعوامل الدينية. الكلمات الدالة: العوامل المؤدية للتحرش، التحرش، التحرش الجنسي.
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This paper explores the everyday transport and mobility challenges faced by young women living in one poor peripheral neighborhood of a North African city, Tunis. Discussion spans a two-year period covering conditions prior to and within the COVID-19 pandemic. Using an innovative participatory methodology, young women from the study neighborhood were trained to work as peer researchers in collaboration with the academic team. We examine women’s everyday mobility experiences, with particular reference to safety and the risk-avoidance practices they employ. In the context of the pandemic we then consider the impact of measures such as social distancing, lockdowns, and curfews on women’s travel safety. In the early phases of the pandemic women’s concerns around harassment seem to have been over-ridden by stronger concerns regarding disease contagion but also reflect reduced incidence of harassment due to limits imposed on transport usage and over-crowding. We conclude with reflections regarding the interventions needed for more positive post-pandemic travel scenarios, including priority seating, and boarding for women; expanded transport services into low-income areas; also improved surveillance on transport, at transport hubs and on the streets.
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The book has challenged many unsubstantiated claims about veil, dress, space, women and society in the Arab and Islamic East. Discourse on these topics shifted since the publication of this book in 1999. Uploaded here are two segments from Part 2, Chapter 4, entitled The Anthropology of Dress (49-76). Anthropologist author is the first to subject primary Islamic sources to sociological analysis in the context of primary ethnography. These two segments address the etymological origin of Qur'anic text regarding original beginnings of humankind and the gender issue. Analysis connects conceptualizations in Islam of creation beginnings to ethnographic contexts of dress. Notions of zawj, libas, hijab, saw'at, haram, rahma, etc. all brought into the anthropological analysis.
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Cairo is a mirror of Egyptian society, the product of the local management of powerful social contradictions and inequalities through the speculative real estate market, highly centralized authority, modern urban planning and a population that routinely resists official designs for the organization of the city.
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This article argues that systematic comparative analyses of women's strategies and coping mechanisms lead to a more culturally and temporally grounded understanding of patriarchal systems than the unqualified, abstract notion of patriarchy encountered in contemporary feminist theory. Women strategize within a set of concrete constraints, which I identify as patriarchal bargains. Different forms of patriarchy present women with distinct “rules of the game” and call for different strategies to maximize security and optimize life options with varying potential for active or passive resistance in the face of oppression. Two systems of male dominance are contrasted: the sub-Saharan African pattern, in which the insecurities of polygyny are matched with areas of relative autonomy for women, and classic patriarchy, which is characteristic of South and East Asia as well as the Muslim Middle East. The article ends with an analysis of the conditions leading to the breakdown and transformation of patriarchal bargains and their implications for women's consciousness and struggles.
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That women tend to see harassment where men see harmless fun or normal gendered interaction is one of the more robust findings in sexual harassment research. Using in-depth interviews with employed men and women, this article argues that these differences may be partially explained by the performative requirements of masculinity. The ambiguous practice of “girl watching” is centered, and the production of its meaning analyzed. The data suggest that men's refusal to see their behavior as harassing may be partially explained through the objectification and attenuated empathy that the production of masculine identities may require. Thus, some forms of harassment and their interpretations may more accurately be seen as acts of ignoring than states of ignorance (of the effects of the behavior or the law). Implications for anti-sexual harassment policies and training are explored.
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In this article I seek to extend the analysis of the 1995 public disturbances by Burlet and Reid: 'A gendered uprising: political representation and minority ethnic communities' (Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 21, no. 2, 1998). That incident is contextualized as part of a process of changing Pakistani Muslim male behaviour in the public sphere from orderly protest, through demand, to harassment, violence and disorder. This is related to the ongoing public and private violence perpetrated by such young men which often centres on issues of control in the spheres of sexuality and gender. I suggest that Burlet and Reid prioritize cultural differences over such features of the person as gender, age, class location and religious affiliation, and that this results in sociologically inadequate analysis. It also, despite the title of the article, renders invisible women (and other) victims of the male violence which is justified by its perpetrators on cultural and religious grounds.
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The Tanzimat— a series of legal and administrative reforms implemented in the Ottoman empire between 1839 and 1876—has been described by Roderic Davison as a modernization campaign whose momentum came “from the top down and from the outside in.” There can be little doubt about the basic historical veracity of this characterization. Ottoman reform was indeed the brainchild of a small, albeit influential, portion of the imperial bureaucratic elite and its direction and timing were undeniably influenced by foreign diplomatic pressure (in the context of the so-called “Eastern Question”). But by characterizing, correctly, the Tanzimat as a state-led, elitist project, Davison's argument enters an interpretive vicious circle which seems to be more a reflection of twentieth-century political sensibilities than of nineteenth-century realities. A “top-down” political project, according to this argument, is by definition less likely to succeed than a project that has “vigorous popular support.” And, since we know that the project in question ultimately failed to stop the breakup of the empire, it must indeed have lacked such support.
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In the late 1950s and the 1960s, an Egyptian welfare state was developed to provide the economic basis of a new social contract between the Nasser regime and its key class allies. Its main beneficiaries were the men and women of both the middle class and the labor aristocracy, who were to staff and run its expanding state sector. For Egyptian women, who were scorned by the pre-1952 states, the new welfare state offered explicit commitment to public equality for women. It contributed to the development of state feminism as a legal, economic, and ideological strategy to introduce changes to Egyptian society and its gender relations. In its own turn, state feminism contributed to the political legitimacy of Gamal Abdel Nasser's regime and its progressive credentials.
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The Arab brother/sister relationship has been overlooked, romanticized, or seen as an extension of the patriarchal father/daughter relationship. The central role of the brother/sister relationship in the reproduction of Arab patriarchy, as a result, has been missed, misconstructed, or underestimated. This article argues that Arab brothers and sisters in Borj Hammoud, Lebanon, developed connective relationships based on love and nurturance, while paradoxically also based on power and violence. These dynamics were manifested psychodynamically, social structurally, and culturally. Connectivity, love, and power underwrote the central role played by the brother/sister relationship in the reproduction of Arab patriarchy, [family culture, psychodynamics and social structure, gender, urban working class, Lebanon]
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"The most significant theoretical advance in Muslim-world women's studies for years." —Voice Literary Supplement This collection of original essays examines the relationship between Islam, the nature of state projects, and the position of women in the modern nation states of the Middle East and South Asia. Arguing that Islam is not uniform across Muslim societies and that women’s roles in these societies cannot be understood simply by looking at texts and laws. the contributors focus, instead, on the effects of the political projects of states on the lives of women.
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The dearth of cooperative and contentious collective action on the part of the Egyptian urban poor by no means implies a lack of grassroots activism. Conditioned by political and cultural constraints, the poor instead resort to an alternative strategy - that of quiet encroachment. Qualitatively different from defensive measures or coping mechanisms, this strategy represents a silent, protracted, pervasive advancement of ordinary people - through open-ended and fleeting struggles without clear leadership, ideology or structured organization - on the propertied and powerful in order to survive.
Review of the ECWR Seminar on Sexual Harassment and Egypt's Tourism Industry
  • A Azita
Azita, A., 2008, 'Review of the ECWR Seminar on Sexual Harassment and Egypt's Tourism Industry', Surfacing 2 (1):83-80.
Defiance and Compliance: Negotiating Gender in Low-Income Cairo
  • H A El-Kholy
El-Kholy, H.A., 2002, Defiance and Compliance: Negotiating Gender in Low-Income Cairo, New York: Berghahn Books.
Female Tourists Face Sexual Harassment
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Indian Feminisms: Issues of Sexuality and Representation
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Clouds in Egypt's Sky:" Sexual Harassment from Verbal Harassment to Rape', Cairo: Egyptian Centre for Women's Rights (ECWR)
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Hassan, R., Komsan N. and Shoukry, A., 2008, '"Clouds in Egypt's Sky:" Sexual Harassment from Verbal Harassment to Rape', Cairo: Egyptian Centre for Women's Rights (ECWR).
The Pitfalls of the Nationalist Discourses on Citizenship Rights in Egypt
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Hatem, M., 2000, 'The Pitfalls of the Nationalist Discourses on Citizenship Rights in Egypt', in Souad Joseph, Gender and Citizenship in the Middle East, ed., pp. 33-57, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.
The Other Half of Gender: Men's Issues in Development
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Popular Opposition to Sadat's Economic Policy
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Dynamics and Coping Strategies of Eve Teasing
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The Story of Draupadi's Disrobing: Meanings for Our Times
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Rajan, R.S., 2000, 'The Story of Draupadi's Disrobing: Meanings for Our Times', in Horner, A. and A. Keane, eds., Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
In Egypt, Sexual Harassment Grows', Christian Science Monitor
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