Article

Do Slumped and Upright Postures Affect Stress Responses? A Randomized Trial

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Abstract

Objective: The hypothesis that muscular states are related to emotions has been supported predominantly by research on facial expressions. However, body posture also may be important to the initiation and modulation of emotions. This experiment aimed to investigate whether an upright seated posture could influence affective and cardiovascular responses to a psychological stress task, relative to a slumped seated posture. Method: There were 74 participants who were randomly assigned to either a slumped or upright seated posture. Their backs were strapped with physiotherapy tape to hold this posture throughout the study. Participants were told a cover story to reduce expectation effects of posture. Participants completed a reading task, the Trier Social Stress speech task, assessments of mood, self-esteem, and perceived threat. Blood pressure and heart rate were continuously measured. Results: Upright participants reported higher self-esteem, more arousal, better mood, and lower fear, compared to slumped participants. Linguistic analysis showed slumped participants used more negative emotion words, first-person singular pronouns, affective process words, sadness words, and fewer positive emotion words and total words during the speech. Upright participants had higher pulse pressure during and after the stressor. Conclusions: Adopting an upright seated posture in the face of stress can maintain self-esteem, reduce negative mood, and increase positive mood compared to a slumped posture. Furthermore, sitting upright increases rate of speech and reduces self-focus. Sitting upright may be a simple behavioral strategy to help build resilience to stress. The research is consistent with embodied cognition theories that muscular and autonomic states influence emotional responding.

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... To the best of our knowledge, no study has tested the influence of postures on hormones yet. Scientists in posture research have tended to focus on cardiovascular responses, but no significant differences between UPs and SPs were found for heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, and stroke volume in adults (Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2014;Wilson, & Peper, 2004). Initial findings in children showed increased heart rate through UPs (Inagaki, Shimizu, & Sakairi, 2018), and UPs in adults were reported to increase eye blink startle (Ceunen et al., 2014). ...
... Engaging in UPs was reported to lead to higher task persistence than engaging in SPs (Nair et al., 2014;Riskind & Gotay, 1982). When participants received feedback on their performance on an achievement test, the highest task persistence was observed when people adopted the respective posture (Riskind, 1984). ...
... Many studies have reported more positive or fewer negative emotions from adopting UPs (Kozak, Roberts, & Patterson, 2014;Nair et al., 2014), more negative and fewer positive emotions from adopting SPs (Nair et al., 2014;Veenstra, Schneider, & Koole, 2017), better mood when comparing UPs with SPs or controls (nonclinical individuals in Roberts & Arefi-Afshar, 2007; depressive patients in Wilkes, Kydd, Sagar, & Broadbent, 2017), and better recall of negative events or words than positive events in SPs in comparison with UPs (depressive patients in Michalak, Mischnat, & Teismann, 2014;nonclinical populations in Peper, Lin, Harvey, & Perez, 2017;Riskind, 1983;Tsai, Peper, & Lin, 2016). Further, SPs led to reduced recovery in negative mood (Veenstra et al., 2017), and when in UPs, participants could more easily generate positive thoughts than when in SPs (Wilson & Peper, 2004). ...
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Research on the effects of body positions has attracted enormous attention in recent years but has been plagued by failed replication attempts. Today, there is some confusion about which effects can be considered reliable. One problem that may have contributed to this confusion is the fact that most previous studies have not clearly distinguished between different types of body positions. We apply the dominance‐prestige framework to distinguish between two types of body positions. On the basis of this reasoning, we argue that research on so‐called power poses in fact has analyzed expansiveness as an indicator of dominance, whereas research on postures has focused on the straightness of the spine, which may be seen as a display of prestige. We review the literature and conclude that there is no clear evidence that short‐term interventions involving body positions affect physiology or behavior. Still, there are effects on actors' self‐perceptions. Repeatedly, studies on power poses have found effects on feelings of power and self‐evaluations, and studies on postures have found effects on emotional experience. However, there is hardly any research that has directly compared the two types of interventions.
... Innerhalb der letzten Jahrzehnte kam es im Zuge der zunehmenden Barsalou, 1999;Gibbs, 2006 (Barsalou et al., 2003;Weisfeld & Beresford, 1982) oder auch umgekehrt eine bestimmte Haltung die darauffolgende Stimmung bedingen (Carney et al., 2015;Nair et al., 2014;Peper et al., 2018;Stepper & Strack, 1993 (Newen et al., 2018). In diesem Zusammenhang sind auch Theorien des erweiterten Geistes zu nennen, da hier eine Erweiterung kognitiver Prozesse auf außerkörperliche Objekte angenommen wird (Clark, 2008;Clark & Chalmers, 1998 (Gibson, 1979;Newen et al., 2018). ...
... Informationsverarbeitung (Friedman & Förster, 2010;Smith & Trope, 2006) (Caldwell et al., 2003;Nair et al., 2014;Nicholson & Stone, 1987), welche sich auf die Leistung auswirken könnten. (Strack, 2017). ...
... So zeigte sich beispielsweise, dass Personen nach einem negativen Leistungsfeedback eine relativ gebeugte Haltung einnehmen(Weisfeld & Beresford, 1982) und bei Personen in gebeugten Haltungen eine eher negative Stimmung vermutet wird(Schouwstra & Hoogstraten, 1995). Umgekehrt wurde jedoch beobachtet, dass Körperhaltungen auch einer veränderten Stimmungslage vorausgehen können(Laird & Lacasse, 2014;Nair et al., 2014). Im Rahmen mehrerer Meta-Analysen wurde versucht, bisherige Forschungsarbeiten zu Effekten aufrechter bzw. ...
Thesis
Die vorliegende kumulative Dissertation beschäftigt sich mit der Fragestellung, welches Potenzial sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Embodiment-Theorien für die Pädagogik ergeben kann. Embodiment bzw. Embodied Cognition (dt. verkörperte Kognition) beschreibt eine Sammlung interdisziplinärer Ansätze innerhalb der neueren Kognitionswissenschaften, die kognitive Prozesse nicht rein geistig verorten, sondern als ein Zusammenspiel aus Geist, Körper und Umwelt betrachten. Im Rahmen der Einleitung findet zunächst eine kurze Darstellung des Forschungsbedarfs und eine Erläuterung der Untersuchungsgegenstände statt. Um eine theoretische Basis für die vorliegende Arbeit zu schaffen, werden im Anschluss die Grundgedanken von Embodiment-Ansätzen kontrastierend zu klassischen Kognitionstheorien vorgestellt. Nach einer allgemeinen theoretischen Einführung zu Embodiment erfolgt eine Überleitung zum Bereich der Pädagogik und damit eine Untersuchung der Thematik hinsichtlich ihrer Relevanz für Lehr- und Lernprozesse. Vor dem Hintergrund der Fragestellung, ob Embodiment zu einem Paradigmenwechsel in der Pädagogik führen kann, bestand das Ziel der Arbeit zum einen darin, bisherige (aus pädagogischer Sicht relevante) Erkenntnisse zu Embodiment aufzubereiten und basierend darauf, anhand zweier empirischer Untersuchungen, konkrete Effekte von Embodiment zu erfassen und hinsichtlich ihrer Bedeutung für Lehr- und Lernkontexte zu diskutieren. Dieses Ziel wurde schrittweise anhand dreier Publikationen verfolgt, welche den Kern der vorliegenden Dissertation bilden und inhaltlich aufeinander aufbauen. Publikation 1 („Embodiment – Die unterschätzte Rolle des Körpers im Lernprozess: Ein Paradigmenwechsel in der Schulpädagogik?“) umfasst eine Sammlung und Systematisierung ausgewählter Einzelbefunde der Embodiment-Forschung auf Theorieebene, wobei der Fokus auf der Beleuchtung bisheriger Forschung aus schulpädagogischer Perspektive liegt. Publikation 1 schließt mit dem Fazit, dass sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Erkenntnissen zu Embodiment wichtige Optimierungsmöglichkeiten für Lehr- und Lernprozesse ergeben können. Publikation 1 ist außerdem der Ausgangspunkt für Publikationen 2 und 3, zwei in Kapitel 3.2 dargelegte empirische Untersuchungen. In Publikation 2 („I sat, I felt, I performed: Posture Effects on Mood and Cognitive Performance“) erfolgt eine theoretische und empirische Auseinandersetzung mit Effekten von Stimmungen und Körperhaltungen auf Aspekte kognitiver Leistung (Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit und -genauigkeit in einem Aufmerksamkeits- und Konzentrationstest). Hierbei liegt der Fokus auf einer vergleichenden Betrachtung aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen. Entgegen den meisten bisherigen Untersuchungen bestand der Anspruch unter anderem in einer weitgehend impliziten Manipulation der Körperhaltung. Basierend auf vorangegangener Literatur, galt es die Hypothesen zu testen, dass 1) aufrechte Körperhaltungen mit positiverer Stimmung korrelieren, 2) aufrechte Körperhaltungen zu einer höheren Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit in einem Konzentrationstest führen, 3) gebeugte Körperhaltungen hingegen eine genauere Bearbeitung fördern sowie, dass 4) Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kognitive Leistung durch Stimmung mediiert werden. Die Teilnehmenden bearbeiteten hierfür einen Konzentrationstest sowie einen Fragebogen zu ihrer Befindlichkeit. Es zeigte sich, dass Personen in der aufrechten Bedingung eine positivere Stimmung empfanden und verglichen mit der gebeugten Bedingung bei dem Konzentrationstest schneller arbeiteten. Effekte auf die Bearbeitungsgenauigkeit ließen sich jedoch in der vorliegenden Stichprobe nicht beobachten. Auch eine Mediation der Effekte von Körperhaltung auf Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit durch Stimmung ist in den Daten nicht zu erkennen. Es werden daher mögliche Limitationen und alternative Erklärungen diskutiert. In Publikation 3 („Offene Haltung, offenes Denken? Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kreative Leistung“) galt es, basierend auf dem Studiendesign von Publikation 2, Effekte aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen auf kreative Denkprozesse zu untersuchen. Zur Erfassung des kreativen Denkens wurde sich für einen Test zu divergentem Denken entschieden. Die Daten lassen darauf schließen, dass aufrechte Körperhaltungen nicht nur positive Auswirkungen auf die Befindlichkeit zeigen, sondern außerdem auch förderliche Effekte auf die Ideenflüssigkeit und Originalität bei kreativem Denken haben. Auch hier ließ sich jedoch keine Mediation durch Stimmung erkennen, mögliche alternative Hintergründe werden diskutiert. Zusammenfassend wird, basierend auf den Ergebnissen der vorliegenden Dissertation, postuliert, dass Ansätze des Embodiments im Rahmen von Lehr- und Lernprozessen stärkere Berücksichtigung finden sollten.
... Nonetheless, there is a growing body of research suggesting that physical cues may precede mood-related experiences (Duclos et al., 1989;Laird & Lacasse, 2014;Stepper & Strack, 1993). Similar findings were also presented in a more recent study by Nair et al. (2014), in which participants in the slumped condition reported feeling more nervous and stressed, compared to those sitting in an upright position. In line with these observations, it was also discovered that accessing positive thoughts appears to be easier in upright, rather than in stooped postures (Tsai et al., 2016;Wilson & Peper, 2004). ...
... The term body feedback is often associated with these experiences: it describes feedback of the entire body, during which information is transferred from the body to the brain and thus, to the cognitive and psychological processing system (Koch, 2014;Riskind & Gotay, 1982;Suitner et al., 2012). The majority of the existing literature on body feedback focuses on facial feedback processes, also referred to as the facial feedback hypothesis (McIntosh, 1996;Nair et al., 2014;Tourangeau & Ellsworth, 1979). For instance, limited flexibility of facial expression, e.g., by the use of botulinum toxin, resulted in limitations of experienced sensitivity (e.g., Davis et al., 2010;Duclos & Laird, 2001;Lewis & Bowler, 2009). ...
... A study by Stepper and Strack (1993) revealed that, compared to subjects in a slouched body condition, participants who were seated in an upright position reported feeling significantly more pride after positive feedback on performance. Additionally, a recent study linked upright postures with experiences of higher selfesteem, increased arousal, a more positive mood, less fear and fewer negative words (Nair et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Previous embodiment findings indicate a relationship between physical posture and mood states, suggesting upright postures induce positive mood states. Findings also showed a relationship between moods and cognitive performance. While positive mood states were found to be related to increased processing speed, negative mood states were associated with higher processing accuracy in cognitive task performance. This implies that posture may affect the aforementioned sub-aspects of cognitive performance via mood states. Additionally, most studies on posture effects rely on explicit posture manipulation. With that in mind, our research explores the effects of implicitly manipulated postures on processing speed and accuracy and whether these effects are mediated by general mood. The results revealed that subjects in our sample (N = 82, M = 23.09 years) who adopted an upright posture showed a more positive general mood (d = 0.50) and higher processing speed (d = 0.42) compared to those in stooped postures. Surprisingly, no differences in processing accuracy were found. There was no evidence of the proposed mediation in our data.
... Likewise, posture, or the act of sitting or standing in relation to the proper anatomical position, is related to mood and emotion, which in turn affects how one thinks and feels (Nair et al., 2015). Research shows that correct, upright posture improves self-esteem, mood, and overall affect in addition to reducing fatigue, in both healthy and depressed people (Wilkes et al., 2017). ...
... Research shows that correct, upright posture improves self-esteem, mood, and overall affect in addition to reducing fatigue, in both healthy and depressed people (Wilkes et al., 2017). Research has also suggested that sitting upright during a cognitive task, as opposed to being slumped over, actually reduces fatigue and improves mood and self-esteem, which aids in building resilience to stress (Nair et al., 2015). Therefore, researchers have concluded that autonomic states and physical behavior influence affective responding (Nair et al., 2015). ...
... Research has also suggested that sitting upright during a cognitive task, as opposed to being slumped over, actually reduces fatigue and improves mood and self-esteem, which aids in building resilience to stress (Nair et al., 2015). Therefore, researchers have concluded that autonomic states and physical behavior influence affective responding (Nair et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Leader character has emerged as a critical foundation for leadership. In spite of the view that leader character can be developed, there has been limited holistic attention to what it takes to develop character. Character requires conscious development, and that conscious development not only requires an understanding of what character is, but how the anatomy of character enables and inhibits character development and expression. By anatomy, we refer to the four underlying anatomical systems—physiology, affect, behavior, and cognition (PABC)—that function independently, and in an interrelated manner, to support the development of character. For illustration, we offer the practice of listening to music as a means to develop character, highlighting the links between the PABC systems and character development.
... Request [21], studies showed that body posture could be a good indicator of emotional states. However, most studies mainly focused on some particular body parts, such as upper body posture [16,20,23]. To our knowledge, there are no studies investigate the characteristics of whole-body regions while seated and sedentary workers' stress conditions in screen-based ofce working scenarios. ...
... What is more, Wallbott et al. [26] claimed that body posture changes provide a strong indication of the diferences in afective states. Furthermore, research supporting embodiment theory highlights that postural body changes can afect stress response [17,20,25]. That is, participants with an upright posture during a psychological stress task reported better mood and lower stress than those manipulated with slumped sitting postures. ...
... The converse efects of postural behavior on emotion modulation have been widely studied. Nair et al. [20] stated that upright posture had been associated with increased arousal and mood. Rather than static posture, researchers also found that dynamic posture such as walking posture could also afect people's emotion, which is in line with the embodied theories of cognition that physical body states infuence emotional regulation. ...
... Moreover, poor workplace design may lead to increased cycle times and lower work quality, as well as exposure to high forces and awkward postures. A mismatch between these work environmental factors and the characteristic of the individual can lead to an increase in the amount of stress placed on an individual (Edwards & Cooper, 1990;Kaushik & Charpe, 2008;Nair et al., 2015;Pandve, 2016;Ravalier, 2019;Zafir et al., 2007). At present, workplaces are designed based on physical and subjective parameters, which may not be optimally designed for worker comfort and safety, as the due induced stress throughout the work process is mostly on the margin of their consideration. ...
... Lindberg et al. (2018) identified an association among the workstation type, enhanced physical activity, and reduced perceived stress. In a comparison of a slumped posture and an upright posture, Nair et al. (2015) reported an increase in negative emotional states such as fear, hostility, and nervousness when experiencing a psychological stressor. Another study by Hackford et al. (2019) also reported that a person's walking postures (upright and slumped) could influence their response to stress. ...
Article
Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the workstation type on the severity of mental stress by means of measuring prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Background Workstation type is known to influence worker’s health and performance. Despite the practical implications of ergonomic workstations, limited information is available regarding their impact on brain activity and executive functions. Method Ten healthy participants performed a Montreal imaging stress task (MIST) in ergonomic and nonergonomic workstations to investigate their effects on the severity of the induced mental stress. Results Cortical hemodynamic changes in the PFC were observed during the MIST in both the ergonomic and nonergonomic workstations. However, the ergonomic workstation exhibited improved MIST performance, which was positively correlated with the cortical activation on the right ventrolateral and the left dorsolateral PFC, as well as a marked decrease in salivary alpha‐amylase activity compared with that of the nonergonomic workstation. Further analysis using the NASA Task Load Index revealed a higher weighted workload score in the nonergonomic workstation than that in the ergonomic workstation. Conclusion The findings suggest that ergonomic workstations could significantly improve cognitive functioning and human capabilities at work compared to a nonergonomic workstation. Application Such a study could provide critical information on workstation design and development of mental stress that can be overlooked during traditional workstation design and mental stress assessments.
... Apart from verbal communication, posture is one of the key elements that convey our own or detect others' emotions, intentions and attitudes (Hostetter & Alibali, 2008). For example, holding an upright seated pose signi cantly increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions (Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015). ...
... Future study may investigate the people's perception of intimacy towards counterparts' postures in interpersonal interaction. In addition, previous studies suggested that people holding expansive postures felt more positive and those in constrictive postures felt more negative (Nair et al., 2015). Individuals' emotions may be affected by the counterparts' emotions through the emotional-contagion process (Van Kleef, 2009). ...
Article
Power is one of the vital components embedded within interpersonal interactions, but few studies have studied it in everyday life context. This experience sampling study examined the associations of subjective power with emotional well‐being and investigated the moderating effects of counterpart' postures in the associations. Our results demonstrated that individuals reported higher positive emotions and lower negative emotions when they perceived higher subjective power. Their positive emotions were positively correlated with counterparts' expansive postures while negative emotions were positively correlated with counterparts' constrictive postures. The subjective power‐negative emotion associations were stronger when counterparts displayed higher level of constrictive posture. Our findings provide an evidence base for a comprehensive understanding on the role of subjective power and perception of counterparts' power‐related posture in dyadic communications in emotional well‐being.
... Hormones (e.g., testosterone, cortisol) constitute the major proportion of the physiological dependent variables, although other measures have occasionally been used (e.g., skin conductance, heart rate, e.g., Nair et al., 2015;Saggese et al., 2018). Past research has largely concluded that hormonal effects can be dismissed (e.g., Jonas et al., 2017;Ranehill et al., 2015;Ronay et al., 2017;Turan, 2015; but see Elkjaer et al., 2020). ...
... Power poses have often increased feelings of power (see Gronau et al., 2017), which were measured using terms such as powerful, in charge, in control, and dominant (e.g., Carney et al., 2010;Park et al., 2013;. Upright postures have often increased positive emotions (e.g., Nair et al., 2015;Peper et al., 2017). Typically, researchers used ad hoc single-item or multi-item mood measures (e.g., Briñol et al., 2009;Roberts & Arefi-Afshar, 2007), or in some cases standardized scales (e.g., Profile of Mood States in Miragall et al., 2020;Affect Valuation Index in Nair et al., 2015). ...
... This result is inconsistent with research showing congruency effects between proprioceptive feedback and affective states or judgements (e.g. Nair et al., 2015;Strack et al., 1988). We suggest that our findings diverge due to the nature of the task, in both Nair et al. (2015) and Strack et al. (1988) the study design altered participants' proprioceptive state. ...
... Nair et al., 2015;Strack et al., 1988). We suggest that our findings diverge due to the nature of the task, in both Nair et al. (2015) and Strack et al. (1988) the study design altered participants' proprioceptive state. In our study this was an optional response to presented stimuli. ...
Article
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Converging evidence has established that positive concepts presented on a computer screen are associated with upper regions of space, and negative concepts with a lower region of space. One explanation for this is that understanding positive or negative concepts requires the re-experiencing of direction, whereby “happy is up” and “sad is down.” However, it is unclear how the regions of space are encoded in these paradigms, space can be encoded in relation to oneself (egocentrically) or in object centred coordinates that are independent of oneself (exocentrically). The current study compares exocentric and egocentric coding of space, using a variation of the Meier and Robinson (2004) paradigm. Participants were asked to evaluate valenced concepts in either the upper or lower half of the screen. Spatial primes were used such that the concepts were preceded by either an upwards or a downwards eye movement. Exocentric coding of space in this paradigm was the computer screen, whilst egocentric coding was the eye movement used to access the top or bottom of the screen. It was proposed that egocentric coding of space, being coded in the body, provides evidence of a stronger relationship between the original bodily state of ‘up’ or ‘down’ and subsequent simulation. However, significant results supported an exocentric coding of space, with faster responses to positive concepts in the upper half of the screen, and to negative concepts in the lower half, irrespective of the direction of the eye movement preceding it. The implications of this for embodied cognition are discussed.
... Our facial expressions and bodily postures can both reflect and change our emotional states (Ekman, Friesen, & Ellsworth, 2013;Green & Green, 2007;Peper, Booiman, Lin, & Harvey, 2016;Tsachor & Shafir, 2017). For example, studies have shown that a slumped body posture is associated with negative affect and low positive affect (Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015). Upright posture is theorized to reflect positive mood, increased arousal, high self-esteem, and lower fear, all of which inversely correlate to a more slumped posture (Nair et al., 2015). ...
... For example, studies have shown that a slumped body posture is associated with negative affect and low positive affect (Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015). Upright posture is theorized to reflect positive mood, increased arousal, high self-esteem, and lower fear, all of which inversely correlate to a more slumped posture (Nair et al., 2015). ...
Article
The objective of this study was to determine if either creative movement or art were effective in decreasing stress among college students and improving their mood. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to either a movement (n = 30) or an art (n = 30) intervention. Before the intervention, participants in both conditions wrote about a current stressor, rated their perceived intensity of the stressor, and completed a mood questionnaire (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Watson et al., 1988). Following the intervention participants again completed the mood questionnaire, wrote about a current stressor, and rated their perceived intensity of the stressor. Two-way ANOVAs (group x time) found significant reductions in stress (p < .001) and negative affect (p < .001), in addition to increases in positive affect (p = .007) for both groups from pre- to post-intervention. Our results suggest that briefly partaking in creative movement or art can psychologically help college students in the short-term.
... A good posture is also associated with enhanced confidence and selfesteem and hence many believe that sitting upright may be a simple behavioural strategy to build resilience against stressful situations. (Nair et al., 2015) However, there are some limitations to be considered while analysing the results. First is the design of the study which restricts the data collection to a literate, English speaking population with sufficient access to the internet. ...
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Background: It has been six months since the first case of COVID-19 was reported in India. Since then, the focus has been on finding a cure to the disease. Largely neglected is the psychological impact of the pandemic on the adolescent population in the country. Methods: A hybrid combination of interviews and standardised questionnaires was used for data collection. The questionnaires were sent through an anonymous link on a social media platform to collect responses from July 4-8. The Impact of Events scale-Revised (IES-R) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were used to assess the psychological impact and perceived social support. Results: Approximately, every four in five respondents had a significant psychological impact (IES score>24). Higher psychological impact was significantly associated with females, lower perceived social support, decreased sleep quality and a greater frequency of watching pandemic related news. Increased physical activity and time spent to relax predicted lower psychological impact. Conclusion: Approximately 81% of the adolescents surveyed had a significant psychological impact due to the pandemic which highlights the need of more longitudinal studies to be conducted on this age group. Urgent care and appropriate formulation of policies is needed to address the identified problems and to provide care to those in need.
... It is suggested that physical postures of the body are one of several types of cues that can affect emotional experience and behavior [65]. Shwetha Nair, et al. investigate whether an upright seated posture could influence responses to a psychological stress task [66]. Adopting an upright seated posture in the face of stress can maintain self-esteem, reduce negative mood, and increase positive mood compared to a slumped posture. ...
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Highlights The current lifestyle, with its increased use of modern technologies, has determined modifications in people's behavior, making individuals more and more sedentary and with inappropriate body habits. Posture is one of the most important factors affecting the physical and mental status of an individual. Purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on relative changes in postural habits, patterns and associated problems among Physiotherapy students, correlating it with the increased technology use and a reduction in levels of physical activity. It was a cross-sectional online survey conducted during COVID-19 lockdown period (June to July 2020). Participants were 223 college students (mean age 20.65 ± 2.86) years recruited from undergraduate (I-IV year), internship, and postgraduate programs under Maharashtra University of Health Sciences. This was a qualitative study in which perspectives of students were obtained through a self-reported questionnaire. The results of this study revealed that the majority of the students have inefficient posture patterns and inadequate postural habits. Dominant inappropriate postural patterns were those of established low back pain, followed by neck pain, upper back pain, and shoulder pain (these being most prominent). This was majorly seen in participants who assumed awkward postures, owing to postural habits, increased use of digital devices, inappropriate ergonomics and also emotional stress. However, a significant number have also attempted to correct the same. The levels of physical activity before and during lockdown was either 'considerably' or 'minimally reduced' with the majority engaging in only light to moderate physical activity. The acquisition of adequate body behaviors and postural habits must be shaped during early adult age, minimizing postural disorders in later adult life and their consequences. Thus, early detection of postural changes and musculoskeletal risks is essential for the application of a preventive and educational protocol.
... This study highlights the workplace environment and psychosocial stressors, and their interactions and effects on the severity of mental stress. Evidence has emerged that uncomfortable working conditions could affect workers' comfort and increase their stress symptoms [4][5][6], resulting in disorders related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, such as cardiovascular and hypertensive diseases [7][8][9]. The use of functional neuroimaging has contributed to a better understanding of the neural correlates of stress and other mental states. ...
Article
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This research seeks to examine the impact of workstation types on the coupling of neural and vascular activities of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The design of the workstations was found to impair the performance, physical and mental health of employees. However, the mechanism underlying cognitive activity involved during workstation design-related stress effects in the PFC has not been fully understood. We used electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to simultaneously measure electrical activity and hemoglobin concentration changes in the PFC. The multimodal signal was collected from 23 healthy adult volunteers who completed the Montreal imaging stress task in ergonomic and non-ergonomic workstations. A supervised machine learning method based on temporally embedded canonical correlation analysis (tCCA) was utilized to obtain the association between neural activity and local changes in hemoglobin concentrations to enhance localization and accuracy. The results showed deactivation in alpha power rhythms and oxygenated hemoglobin, as well as declined activation pattern of the fused data in the right PFC at the non-ergonomic workstation. Additionally, all participants at the non-ergonomic workstation experienced a substantial rise in salivary alpha-amylase activity in comparison with the ergonomic workstation, indicating the existence of high-stress levels. The proposed tCCA approach obtains excellent results in discriminating workstation types achieving accuracies of 98.8% and a significant improvement of 8.0% ( $p < 0.0001$ ) and 9.4% ( $p < 0.0001$ ) over EEG-only and fNIRS-only, respectively. Our study suggests the use of functional neuroimaging in designing the workplace as it provides critical information on the causes of workplace-related stress.
... Thus, we do not know whether and how power posing affected individuals' physiological arousal. Furthermore, evidence from some studies also suggests that powerful postures might increase physiological arousal (Laborde, Strack, & Mosley, 2019;Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015;Smith & Bargh, 2008). One reason, therefore, could be that power activates the behavioural approach system, thereby inhibiting the parasympathetic system (Keltner et al., 2003;Laborde et al., 2019;Smith & Bargh, 2008). ...
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Objective Power posing involves the adoption of an expansive bodily posture. This study examined whether power posing could benefit individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and women with normal weight in regards to interoceptive ability and affective states. Method Participants included 50 inpatients and outpatients with AN as well as 51 normal‐weight women. Interoceptive accuracy (IAcc), measured by the heartbeat tracking task and interoceptive sensibility (IS), measured by confidence ratings, were assessed at baseline, after a single power posing session and after 1 week of daily training. Also, the short‐term effects of power posing on subjective feelings of dominance, pleasantness, and arousal were investigated. Results Both groups increased in their IAcc after one power posing session. Also, there was a significant main effect of time on feelings of dominance and pleasantness in the short‐term. Women with AN displayed lower levels of IS, dominance, and pleasantness as well as higher levels of arousal than women without AN. Discussion These findings suggest that power posing has the potential to increase IAcc, subjective feelings of power and pleasant affect in the short‐term. Further research should investigate which mechanisms foster the effectiveness of this intervention to tailor it to the needs of women with AN. Highlights • Feelings of powerlessness are prominent in AN but few concrete interventions exist that directly address this concern. • Power posing has the potential to increase interoceptive accuracy, subjective feelings of power and pleasant affect in the short‐term. • Women with AN display lower levels of interoceptive sensibility than women without AN.
... In addition, other research has suggested no significant effects of power posing on testosterone, cortisol or perceived subjective fear before public speaking (Davis et al., 2017). Another study found increased physiological arousal in high power condition (Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2014), which is commonly associated with high stress (Brown, Rainone, Jensen, & Fish, 2018;Craig, 1968).These inconsistent effects could be explained by personality differences, since past research suggests some variation across personalities and stress (Ebstrup, Eplov, Pisinger &, Jørgensen, 2011;Oswald et al., 2016). If personality affects stress reactivity, power posing may buffer stress differently depending on personality. ...
... • Movement (even just 10 minutes) improves mood. • References [3][4][5][6] [18][19][20][21] Eat eight fists full of fibre daily. ...
Article
Background: The escalating prevalence of mental health disorders necessitates a greater focus on web- and mobile app-based mental health promotion initiatives for nonclinical groups. However, knowledge is scant regarding the influence of human support on attrition and adherence and participant preferences for support in nonclinical settings. Objective: This study aimed to compare the influence of 3 modes of human support on attrition and adherence to a digital mental health intervention for a nonclinical cohort. It evaluated user preferences for support and assessed whether adherence and outcomes were enhanced when participants received their preferred support mode. Methods: Subjects participated in a 10-week digital mental health promotion intervention and were randomized into 3 comparative groups: standard group with automated emails (S), standard plus personalized SMS (S+pSMS), and standard plus weekly videoconferencing support (S+VCS). Adherence was measured by the number of video lessons viewed, points achieved for weekly experiential challenge activities, and the total number of weeks that participants recorded a score for challenges. In the postquestionnaire, participants ranked their preferred human support mode from 1 to 4 (S, S+pSMS, S+VCS, S+pSMS & VCS combined). Stratified analysis was conducted for those who received their first preference. Preintervention and postintervention questionnaires assessed well-being measures (ie, mental health, vitality, depression, anxiety, stress, life satisfaction, and flourishing). Results: Interested individuals (N=605) enrolled on a website and were randomized into 3 groups (S, n=201; S+pSMS, n=202; S+VCS, n=201). Prior to completing the prequestionnaire, a total of 24.3% (147/605) dropped out. Dropout attrition between groups was significantly different (P=.009): 21.9% (44/201) withdrew from the S group, 19.3% (39/202) from the S+pSMS group, and 31.6% (64/202) from the S+VCS group. The remaining 75.7% (458/605) registered and completed the prequestionnaire (S, n=157; S+pSMS, n=163; S+VCS, n=138). Of the registered participants, 30.1% (138/458) failed to complete the postquestionnaire (S, n=54; S+pSMS, n=49; S+VCS, n=35), but there were no between-group differences (P=.24). For the 69.9% (320/458; S, n=103; S+pSMS, n=114; S+VCS, n=103) who completed the postquestionnaire, no between-group differences in adherence were observed for mean number of videos watched (P=.42); mean challenge scores recorded (P=.71); or the number of weeks that challenge scores were logged (P=.66). A total of 56 participants (17.5%, 56/320) received their first preference in human support (S, n=22; S+pSMS, n=26; S+VCS, n=8). No differences were observed between those who received their first preference and those who did not with regard to video adherence (P=.91); challenge score adherence (P=.27); or any of the well-being measures including, mental health (P=.86), vitality (P=.98), depression (P=.09), anxiety (P=.64), stress (P=.55), life satisfaction (P=.50), and flourishing (P=.47). Conclusions: Early dropout attrition may have been influenced by dissatisfaction with the allocated support mode. Human support mode did not impact adherence to the intervention, and receiving the preferred support style did not result in greater adherence or better outcomes. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): 12619001009101; http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12619001009101.aspx.
... People often experience events associated with vertical-space positions in daily life (e.g., Olympic champions stand on the top position when they take their prizes). Whether the notion of the inherent spatial nature can be generalized to other conceptual domains associated with verticality, such as valence (e.g., Meier & Robinson, 2004;Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015) and emotion (Cian, Krishna, & Schwarz, 2015;Fetterman & Robinson, 2013), needs to be investigated in future work using the current paradigm. ...
Article
Previous studies have shown that powerful and powerless concepts are metaphorically associated with top and bottom spaces respectively. However, this association might be contaminated by spatial and strategic biases due to the involvement of spatialized stimuli or responses. It is unknown whether power by itself can automatically activate spatial representations. To eliminate spatial and strategic biases, Experiment 1 separately presented power and spatial stimuli at the center of the screen, and participants had to classify power words and HIGH/LOW labels (Experiment 1a) or indicate up/down arrows (Experiment 1b) using a single key and follow different response rules that were combined with a Go/no-go task. Experiment 2 replicated the non-spatialized design but used an implicit power judgment task. Based upon the non-spatialized method, the results provide the first evidence that a power-space association effect still exists when eliminating spatial and strategic biases, revealing the nonconscious spatial nature of power.
... The TSST lasted a total of 20 min and included an instructional and preparation period before the test. As a means of controlling for the potential influence of body position on the physiological stress responses, participants were instructed to maintain an upright posture during the TSST (Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015). Following the stress condition, participants were taken to a separate room and were instructed to rest with the option to eat at their leisure for one hour. ...
Article
This study explored the associations between the frequency and effectiveness of habitual stress coping strategies on physiological and psychological stress responses to an acute laboratory stressor in adolescents with overweight/obesity (51 adolescents; 47% female; ages 14-19 years). Coping strategies were assessed using the Schoolager's Coping Strategies Inventory. Acute physiological stress responses were measured as salivary cortisol and α-amylase output during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and during a control condition. Acute psychological stress was measured using a Likert-type scale, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline. Results revealed that higher coping effectiveness was associated with lower log-based α-amylase during the stress (β= -0.025, p=0.018) and control (β= -0.030, p=0.005) conditions, but not with cortisol across either condition (all ps>0.05). SBP moderated the association between coping effectiveness and α-amylase during the stress condition, with higher coping effectiveness associated with lower α-amylase only among individuals with lower SBP (β=0.002, p=0.027). Coping frequency was not associated with cortisol responses, neither was habitual stress coping strategies associated with psychological stress (all ps>0.05). These findings provide preliminary evidence that effective use of stress coping strategies may provide a dampening effect on sympathetic activity in an at-risk adolescent population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... It has also been proposed that positive social interactions and specific exercises, aiming to increase awareness about one's body language, such as facial expression, posture or gestures in relation to others, reinforce positive self-perception and confident thoughts [30][31][32]. These embodied cognitions positively affect self-esteem [33,34]. ...
Article
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Social communication and self-esteem are often affected in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Implementation and evaluation of interventions targeting social skills are challenged due to specific characteristics of autism. Intensive, valid evaluation of social skills programs is needed. In this explorative multiple case study, we examined effects and working mechanisms of dog-assisted therapy on social communication and self-esteem, by analyzing detailed observations with Monte Carlo permutation tests (testing against 10,000 random samples) and using self- and other-reports in N=6 high-functioning adults with ASD. Results showed significant positive effects on secure body posture. There was an indication of improved self-esteem and more spontaneous touching of the dog, while no convincing increase was found for verbal initiatives. Cross-correlation analyses revealed that touching the therapy dog may be an important determinant to elicit social development in Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT). Considering preliminary results, we recommend exploring underlying mechanisms more thoroughly with real-time observations, accounting for possible gender-effects.
... Beyond happiness and affirmation, popular interventions often rely on other positive inductions such as getting people to assume powerful postures (Huang et al., 2011;Huang & Aaker, 2019;Körner et al., 2019), communicate using powerful language (Blankenship & Holtgraves, 2005;Klofstad, 2016), as well as utilizing other expressions of power (Holland et al., 2017;Schubert, 2020). Indeed, some trends emphasize feeling powerful as a means of becoming more successful across different domains of life (Burgmer & Englich, 2012;Lammers et al., 2013;Michalak, et al., 2014;Nair et al., 2014;Peper et al., 2018). Rather than being inherently beneficial, persuasion science has revealed how the confidence that comes from feelings of power following thinking can magnify whatever mental content is accessible (Briñol, Petty, Durso, et al., 2017). ...
Article
Can people improve their lives by smiling more, trying to have a better posture, and by thinking about good memories? Can individuals become more successful by deliberatively engaging in positive actions and thoughts? Do people feel better by following recommendations from naïve psychology? In the present article we discuss these questions, noting that although some popular interventions thought to be universally beneficial (e.g., inductions of happiness, self-affirmation, empowerment, self-distancing) can sometimes yield positive outcomes, at other times the outcomes can also be negative. Taking an empirical approach based on experimental evidence, we postulate that understanding the underlying processes discovered in the science of persuasion is the key for specifying why, when, and for whom these practical initiatives are more likely to work or to backfire.
... Regarding the physical aspect, when the body's alignment is adequate, the balance of the muscu-loskeletal structure improves and work efficiency increases, and it is less susceptible to injury or deformation 6) . Regarding mental health, appropriate body alignment (an upright posture) helps to maintain self-esteem, reduce negative mood, and increase positive mood 7) . These positive emotions can affect the productivity of the working population. ...
Article
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[Purpose] This study examined whether workplace support of an exercise program would increase the workers’ engagement. [Participants and Methods] Employees at two facilities of the Kyoto Industrial Health Association (the Uji branch and the headquarters) were recruited. A survey of 238 employees was conducted. A seminar was held, at the facilities, about the “Bipoji” exercise program and afterward the participants underwent different procedures. The Uji branch (the support group) supported the continuation of the program for two months. At the headquarters (the control group), the individual decided whether to continue the program. Data were collected at the time of the seminar (the baseline) and two months later. A questionnaire measured work engagement using the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. [Results] At the follow-up, data were collected from 65 people (60.2%) from the support group and 97 people (74.6%) from the control group. The average change in the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale scores was 1.7 and −1.2, for the support group and the control group, respectively. When adjusted for background factors, the change was 1.6 and −1.2, for the support group and the control group, respectively. This indicates a significant increase in work engagement for the support group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a workplace exercise program can improve work engagement.
... Positive correlations with self-esteem (RSES) and self-efficacy (GSE) and negative associations with depression (BDI-II) are also identified. Scientific literature supports evidence that certain bodily attitudes can influence self-confidence, the perception of being able to cope with difficulties, and emotional state (Keltner et al., 2003;Michalak et al., 2014;Nair et al., 2015;Cuddy, 2016); on the one hand, it could deduce that a greater posture awareness allows greater control over it and over the states it influences, favoring a more positive self-image; on the other hand, this could also be interpreted taking into account that higher levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy are associated to higher insight (Gori et al., 2015), also allowing a greater sense of mastery in one's environment and a greater awareness of how body fits and interacts with it, facilitating a state of well-being. ...
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Postural awareness (PA) refers to a subjective conscious awareness of body posture and falls within the framework of mind–body integration. The aim of this research was to validate and evaluate psychometric properties of the Postural Awareness Scale (PAS) in an Italian population sample (n = 928; 45.04% men and 54.96% women; mean age = 29.96 years, standard deviation = 11.44). The results obtained with Velicer’s Minimum Average Partial Test, Horn’s Parallel Analysis, and exploratory factor analysis showed a two-factor solution, as supported by the confirmatory factor analysis: ease/familiarity with postural awareness and need for attention regulation with postural awareness. Furthermore, the findings highlighted both a good internal consistency (α = 0.76 for the total scale and α = 0.80, α = 0.79 for the two subscales) and a satisfactory construct validity. Furthermore, multivariate analysis of variance was carried out to assess differences in PA between specific subgroup. In particular, the positive effects of physical activity and healthy body weight were confirmed, whereas no significant differences related to gender or age were found. All these findings suggest that the Italian version of the PAS is a rapid instrument with good psychometric properties, which can be useful both for research and clinical practice.
... Maintaining the correct body alignment of body segments affect the function of body organs (Gray et.al., 1966). It is commonly acknowledged among the scientific population that correct posture is worthy of being maintained, taught, and exemplified (Hansraj, 2014;Kritz, 2008;Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015). Correct posture has ear, shoulder, hip, knee and ankle in alignment from the side. ...
Article
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The position of a body while performing any of the activity like sitting, standing, laying, writing, walking and sleeping is referred as posture. It helps to hold the body in desired position for certain time. Correct posture is a posture which avoids strain and develops good body carriage while working. Incorrect posture causes body pain. Correct posture reduces excessive strain on the joints and muscles of the body, consequently reduces the pain and minimizes the risk of injury. The purpose of this study is to analyze effect of posture on workplace efficiency along with health benefits and recommend solutions. The results of our statistical analysis indicated that prolonged sitting times among office workers could have an effect on exhaustion during the working day, job satisfaction, hypertension (blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg), and MSD symptoms in the shoulders, lower back, thighs, and knees of office workers.
... We asked participants to rate the extent to which each static bodily expression expressed four types of emotions (sadness, anger, fear, and happiness). We predicted sadness to be associated with specific patterns of body-trunk and handarm postures, such as slumped and head-tilted-down postures, in accordance with previous studies (e.g., Michalak et al. 2009;Nair et al. 2015;Parkinson et al. 2017;Wallbott and Scherer 1986). Additionally, as activation property can function to distinguish some emotion from others (e.g., Wallbott 1998), specific types of sadness-related bodily postures may also have specific characteristic body-expression properties. ...
Article
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Emotions are expressed by physical expressions such as body posture. Physical cues play a crucial role in recognizing emotional states. We hypothesized that bodily expressions are stored in long-term memory in association with emotion and that such memory representation, knowledge of emotion, enables us to recognize mental states as a certain emotion. The present study focused on sadness as the target emotion and aimed to clarify how bodily expressions are associated with sadness. We decomposed bodily expressions into body-trunk and hand-arm postures and created body-expression photographs by combining these bodily postures. The 44 participants assessed 16 body-expression photographs to evaluate the extent to which they expressed four major emotions (sadness, anger, fear, and happiness), sadness-related body-expression properties (e.g., duration of physical expression), and social situations (e.g., loss of loved one). Sadness was more associated with the two types of body-trunk postures (deep and shallow forward-bent) and the two types of hand-arm postures (overall-face and around-eye). We subsequently classified the bodily expressions based on three kinds of assessment and specified three main groups associated with sadness. Each sadness-related body-expression group was differently associated with body-expression properties and sadness-related situations; for instance, one sadness-related body-expression group was assessed as an activated body-expression property with short-term duration and was associated with failure situations. These findings suggest that nonverbal bodily expressions play a key part in memory representations of sadness in association with body-expression properties and social situations.
... For example, feeling high (representing "joy") or feeling down (representing "sadness") are expressions that might rely on bodily states such as upward postures when feeling happy and slumped postures when feeling sad (cf. Nair et al., 2015). Building upon these assumptions, different experimental paradigms have been developed to investigate those space-valence associations. ...
... People often experience events associated with vertical-space positions in daily life (e.g., Olympic champions stand on the top position when they take their prizes). Whether the notion of the inherent spatial nature can be generalized to other conceptual domains associated with verticality, such as valence (e.g., Meier & Robinson, 2004;Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015) and emotion (Cian, Krishna, & Schwarz, 2015;Fetterman & Robinson, 2013), needs to be investigated in future work using the current paradigm. ...
... For these people, applying these measures allowed them to go out without conforming to the slogan stay at home. So applying the barrier measures gave increased confidence and self-esteem and as a result many could no longer stay at home and believe that applying the barrier measures can be a simple strategy to build resilience to the pandemic [18]. ...
... Similarly, it is also possible in the present study that the operationalization of contractive posture led participants to sit upright (erect spine), whereas the expansive posture led them to be slumped forward to reach the materials (curved spine). Some studies have demonstrated that participants in an upright sitting posture (compared to in a slumped posture) reported higher self-esteem (Nair, Sagar, Sollers, Consedine, & Broadbent, 2015), generated more positive thoughts (Wilson & Peper, 2004), rated a math test as being less difficult (Peper, Harvey, Mason, & Lin, 2018), recalled more positive images (Peper, Lin, Harvey, & Perez, 2017), and persisted longer on a task to solve puzzles (Riskind & Gotay, 1982). However, and to our knowledge, the effect of upright or slumped postures has not been examined on creative thinking, contrary to expansive and contractive postures (Andolfi et al., 2017;N. ...
Article
Embodied creativity research has begun to demonstrate that postures may boost creative performance depending on whether the creativity task requires either divergent or convergent thinking processes. Although a few studies have demonstrated that being in an expansive posture can benefit creative performance in a divergent-exploratory thinking task, empirical evidence is lacking on the positive effects of a contractive posture on creative performance in a convergent-integrative thinking task. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that sitting in a contractive posture requiring arm flexion to perform a convergent-integrative thinking task would lead to better creative performance than sitting in an expansive posture requiring arm extension. The results confirmed this hypothesis and suggest that creativity may be influenced by participants’ sitting postures during a task. The findings provided new empirical evidence for embodied creativity based on the impact of body postures on creative thinking.
... Prolonged poor posture can lead to a prolonged distressed state. Improvement in postural changes may increase positive effect, reduced fatigue, and alleviate stress (43). In addition, the result showed that DON nurses spent more time in walking and standing/sitting positions than ICU nurses, which may explain the higher LF%, lower LnHF and RMSSD among DON nurses. ...
Article
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This study aims to measure workplace stress of nurses using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis based on data derived from wearable ECG heart rate monitors. The study population consists of 17 nurses at a major public hospital in China. Data was collected from 7 DON nurses (department of neurosurgery; all females; mean age: 31.43 ± 4.50), and 9 ICU nurses (intensive care unit; 8 females and 1 male; mean age: 31.33 ± 5.43). Each participant was asked to wear a wireless ECG heart rate monitor to measure stress level during work, and to complete the Chinese Nurses Stress Response Scale (CNSRS) after work as subjective response criteria. Demographic information, body posture, heart rate, R-R intervals (RRI), low frequency components (LF) and high frequency components (HF) were collected. LF%, LnHF and the squared root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD) based on HRV analysis were used to estimate the stress level of nurses. DON nurses reported a higher LF%, lower LnHF and lower RMSSD than ICU nurses. Work shifts were shown to have significant effects on LF%, LnHF and RMSSD respectively, with nurses in long shifts and night shifts reported high stress levels. Higher LF%, lower LnHF and lower RMSSD were found during work shift. Posture analysis revealed negative correlations with LnHF and RMSSD in walking and standing/sitting positions, and a significant negative correlation with LF% in lying-down position. Nurses with higher LF% reported higher CNSRS scores in all subscales, whereas nurses with lower LnHF or RMSSD reported higher CNSRS scores in social phobia and fatigue subscales. The results of this study support the idea that HRV can be used to investigate workplace stress among nurses under real work condition, and can serve as a preventive measure for identifying stress-related illnesses among nurses.
... Under all conditions, we observed a positive association between improved VertHead angles and self-reported anxiety, with a statistically significant and moderate effect size for the eyes open condition. This finding aligns with a growing body of short-term experimental studies linking posture and anxiety (Lipnicki and Byrne, 2008;Nair et al., 2015;Asadi-Melerdi et al., 2020). For example, one study among adults with depression showed that a single session of adopting an upright posture led to acute reductions in anxiety and negative affect, compared with sitting in a neutral position (Wilkes et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Theories of embodied cognition hypothesize interdependencies between psychological well-being and physical posture. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of objectively measuring posture, and to explore the relationship between posture and affect and other patient centered outcomes in breast cancer survivors (BCS) with persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP) over a 12-week course of therapeutic Qigong mind-body training. Twenty-one BCS with PPSP attended group Qigong training. Clinical outcomes were pain, fatigue, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, stress and exercise self-efficacy. Posture outcomes were vertical spine and vertical head angles in the sagittal plane, measured with a 3D motion capture system in three conditions: eyes open (EO), eyes open relaxed (EOR) and eyes closed (EC). Assessments were made before and after the Qigong training. The association between categorical variables (angle and mood) was measured by Cramer’s V. In the EO condition, most participants who improved in fatigue and anxiety scales also had better vertical head values. For the EOR condition, a moderate correlation was observed between changes in vertical head angle and changes in fatigue scale. In the EC condition, most of the participants who improved in measures of fatigue also improved vertical head angle. Additionally, pain severity decreased while vertical spine angle improved. These preliminary findings support that emotion and other patient centered outcomes should be considered within an embodied framework, and that Qigong may be a promising intervention for addressing biopsychosocially complex interventions such as PPSP in BCSs.
... While, the subjects who adopted a slumped posture showed an inclination to speak less, used less positive emotion words; used more negative emotion words and more of self-focus. Thus sitting upright may lend more backbone in terms of confidence and inherent strength to face a stressful situation (Nair et al., 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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Posture plays a very important role in an individual's health. There are studies that cite the impact of postures on emotion generation and emotion regulation. This systematic and exhaustive review attempts to examine the finer details of this dynamic through the investigation of posture on respiration and blood flow, and their subsequent effect on emotions. This route of investigation is cushioned by a lateral review on the effect of posture on brain activity, especially in the areas of the brain associated with emotions. Towards the latter part of the review, the linkage between musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and emotions is reviewed, with the backing of the premise that bad postures are the root cause of MSDs. These series of bundled and connected reviews are carried out to inspect the benefits of the extension of physiopsychological review into the realm of applied ergonomics that can help experts to attribute the utility of posture in activating or regulating emotions, especially in the current pandemic scenario where many are working from home. Bad postures adopted while working from home can potentially lead to negative emotions that affect the emotional well-being of the individual. Therefore, this conceptual review aims to dissect the various ways in which posture affects emotions and thus enlighten the readers on emotion activation and regulation through postural modulation.
... Einen weiteren theoretischen Rahmen zur Untersuchung von High-und Low-Fives stellt die Embodiment Perspektive dar. Embodied-Cognition Ansätze (Barsalou, 2008;Barsalou et al., 2003;Nair et al. 2015;Niedenthal, 2007) gehen davon aus, dass kognitive Prozesse im Körper und insbesondere in der Interaktion des Körpers mit der Umgebung eingebettet sind. Dabei werden kognitive Prozesse nicht als abstrakt betrachtet, sondern sind tief in sensomotorischen Prozessen integriert. ...
Article
Zusammenfassung. High- und Low-Fives stellen im Sport verbreitete aber unerforschte Phänomene dar. Ziel der Studie ist es, den bislang unklaren Einfluss auf psychophysiologische, soziale und leistungsrelevante Parameter zu untersuchen. In einem Innersubjektdesign nahmen 23 tischtennisaffine Dyaden teil. Vor und nach den Bewegungsmanipulationen (High-Fives alleine; High-Fives mit Partner_in; Low-Fives alleine; Low-Fives mit Partner_in; Kontrollbedingung) gaben Versuchspersonen Auskunft über Motivation, Macht, Affekt und wahrgenommene Nähe zum/zur Partner_in. Ebenfalls gaben sie Speichel zur Erfassung von Cortisol ab. Anschließend wurde die Aufschlagleistung im Tischtennis erhoben. Ergebnisse zeigten weder Unterschiede in der Veränderung der psychophysiologischen Parameter noch in der Leistung zwischen den Bedingungen. Lediglich die wahrgenommene Nähe stieg in den Bedingungen mit Partner_in an. Die Ergebnisse widersprechen den Theorien des Embodiments, was hinsichtlich der unnatürlichen Bewegungsausführung diskutiert wird. Allerdings sind unsere Ergebnisse im Einklang mit Theorien über die Funktionen von Berührungen und zeigen erstmalig für den sportlichen Kontext, dass High- und Low-Fives einen positiven Effekt auf soziale Strukturen haben.
... With one of direct consequences of inadequate posture being back pain, whereas indirectly linked improper posture ailments can range from cardiovascular disease, lumbar disease and even early mortality [5]. Some studies have suggested that body posture is an important predictor of stress [14,28] and mental fatigue [2]. ...
Chapter
There still exists a knowledge gap in the field of computer vision in respect of posture prediction and deviation evaluation is an important metric for various medical applications, that require posture abnormality quantization. Our paper proposes a deep heuristic neural network architecture, using BlazePose as a backbone, that is capable of reconstructing users skeleton from a real-time monocular video feed, using which we are able to evaluate the subjects performed exercise and measure the deviation from expected values. The proposed heuristics are able to identify and evaluate most of the abnormalities, with the highest indicator of postural issues being the spinal deviation accounting for 95%. Additional evaluation of real-time performance has shown that our method is capable of maintaining 23-ms response times, making it applicable to real-time applications.
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Las personas con trastornos de personalidad tienden a atribuir significados según patrones mentales estereotipados que les dificultan alcanzar una adaptación y satisfacción social. Estos patrones van más allá de ser meras representaciones cognitivas sobre uno mismo y los demás, sino que están repletos de emociones, disposiciones de conducta y experiencias somáticas. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es presentar cómo la terapia metacognitiva interpersonal trabaja con los patrones corporales a través del uso de imágenes mentales y ejercicios sensoriomotores. Como se expone, este tipo de técnicas ayudan a revisar los componentes corporales de los patrones interpersonales desadaptativos y promueven la aparición de otros nuevos más saludables. Se pretende que los patrones resultantes incluyan aspectos más funcionales que impidan la puesta en marcha de las estrategias de afrontamiento impulsadas por los esquemas problemáticos. A través de la exposición de un caso clínico, se subraya que el trabajo experiencial debe llevarse siempre a cabo en el contexto de una regulación constante de la relación terapéutica que permita detectar cualquier posible impasse o ruptura. Igualmente, se muestra cómo el uso de ciertas técnicas en las fases iniciales puede permitir una formulación más dinámica y enriquecida de los esquemas disfuncionales. Finalmente, se discuten algunas implicaciones clínicas y se sugiere el trabajo experiencial como un componente crucial en el tratamiento de pacientes con problemas interpersonales graves, como ocurre en los trastornos de personalidad.
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Objective: To assess the adherence to a set of evidence-based recommendations to support mental health during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its association with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods: A team of health workers and researchers prepared the recommendations, formatted into three volumes (1: COVID-19 prevention; 2: Healthy habits; 3: Biological clock and sleep). Participants were randomized to receive only Volume 1 (control), Volumes 1 and 2, Volumes 1 and 3, or all volumes. We used a convenience sample of Portuguese-speaking participants over age 18 years. An online survey consisting of sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaires and mental health instruments (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 [GAD-7]) was administered. At 14 and 28 days later, participants were invited to complete follow-up surveys, which also included questions regarding adherence to the recommendations. A total of 409 partici- pants completed the study – mostly young adult women holding university degrees. Results: The set of recommendations contained in Volumes 2 and 3 was effective in protecting mental health, as suggested by significant associations of adherence with PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores (reflecting anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively). Conclusion: The recommendations developed in this study could be useful to prevent negative mental health effects in the context of the pandemic and beyond.
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This review and meta-analysis explores the experimental effects of expansive and contractive motor displays on affective, hormonal, and behavioral responses. Experimental studies were located through systematic literature searches. Studies had to manipulate motor displays to either expansive or contractive displays and investigate the effect of the displays on affect, hormones, or overt behavior. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the pooled, standardized mean differences between the effects of motor displays on affective, hormonal, and behavioral responses. From 5,819 unique records, 73 relevant studies were identified. Robust differences between expansive and contractive displays emerged for affective responses and overt behavioral responses across contexts, type of manipulation, and methods of measurement. The results suggest that the effects are driven by the absence of contractive motor displays (contractive vs. neutral displays: Hedges’s g = 0.45) rather than the presence of expansive displays (expansive vs. neutral displays: g = 0.06). The findings stand as a corrective to previous research, as they indicate that it is the absence of contractive displays rather than the presence of expansive displays that alters affective and behavioral responding. Future research should include neutral control groups, use different methods to assess hormonal change, and investigate these effects in the context of ideographic goals.
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Emotionen sind durch Wahrnehmungen, Gedanken oder Erinnerungen ausgelöste Gemütsbewegungen. Die emotionale „Bewegung“ zeigt sich sowohl durch mentale Zustandsänderungen als auch durch körperliche Reaktionen. Die mentalen und körperlichen Äußerungen der Emotion bedingen sich gegenseitig. Der Ausdruck von Emotionen durch Körperhaltung oder Mimik ist für die soziale Interaktion von großer Bedeutung: Über die Hälfte der zwischenmenschlichen Informationen wird auf nonverbalem Weg durch Körpersprache übertragen. Unsere Überzeugungen, unser Denken und unsere Emotionen prägen in einem Top-down-Mechanismus körperliche Prozesse. Demgegenüber lassen sich über körperliche Zustände in einem Bottom-up-Mechanismus mentale Vorgänge wie das Denken oder die Gemütslage beeinflussen. Die Embodiment-Forschung befasst sich mit der Wechselbeziehung dieser Ebenen. Bezüglich des Bewegungssystems sind vor allem Muskelaktivitäten, Gesichtsausdruck, Körperhaltung, Gangtyp, Augenbewegungen und Atemstereotypen in diese Interaktion eingebunden. Embodimentübungen stützen sich in ihrer Konzeption auf die Erkenntnisse der Embodiment-Forschung. Sie basieren auf der Theorie, dass sich sowohl die Kognition als auch Emotionen mit spezifischen körperlichen Übungen modulieren lassen.
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This manuscript was published in the journal Društvena istraživanja: Journal for General Social Issues 28(2):361–362 and is available online (https://hrcak.srce.hr/220936) with the following DOI: https://doi.org/10.5559/di.28.2.11 .................................................................................................................................................. PLEASE CITE AS: Gabrić, P. (2019). Konferencija: Cognitive Science. Društvena istraživanja: Journal for General Social Issues, 28(2), 361–362. https://doi.org/10.5559/di.28.2.11 .................................................................................................................................................. Konferencija "Cognitive Science" održala se na Institutu "Jožef Stefan" u Ljubljani 11. listopada 2018. u sklopu 21. Međunarodne multikonferencije "Information Society". Konferenciju "Cognitive Science" organiziralo je Slovensko društvo za kognitivnu znanost. Cilj konferencije bio je povezati stručnjake iz raznih disciplina koje se bave kognicijom te omogućiti razmjenu raznolikih i izazovnih ideja.
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Speech delivery pedagogy has both changed dramatically over the last several centuries and remained remarkably fixed over the last 100 years. In the early 1900s, this pedagogy underwent a dramatic shift from an “elocutionist approach” to a “natural approach” to speech delivery. Since that time, speech delivery pedagogy has remained in an essentially petrified state while our understanding of nonverbal behaviors – the very behaviors at the heart of speech delivery – has grown exponentially. In this essay, we draw upon the expansive nonverbal communication literature to argue for a new approach to teaching speech delivery – an approach we refer to as the interconnected approach. This interconnected approach re-emphasizes the importance of speech delivery, structures the topic of speech delivery around coherent nonverbal clusters, and acknowledges the unnatural pathway to developing a natural speech delivery.
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Yoga is sometimes interpreted as medical therapy and the evidence from biomedical research indicates that it can be useful in a broad range of health conditions. Yoga, however, can also be pursued as a process-oriented contemplative practice. This article draws on participant observation-based research with yoga practitioners at two hospitals, one in Pondicherry, India, and one in Fukui, Japan. It explores how patients and their families at these healthcare institutions are invited to move without anticipating an outcome and to cultivate attitudes such as contentment and non-violence. Taking cues from research participants' approaches to yoga as a skill and from anthropological understandings of skill, yoga is considered here as a capacity of moving with awareness. A skill-based approach allows practitioners to try out yogic techniques according to their personal abilities and needs. The analysis suggests that, in the contexts discussed, yoga practitioners pursue wellbeing not as an individual therapeutic goal but as mutual explorative learning.
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Body postures can affect how we process and attend to information. Here, a novel effect of adopting an open or closed posture on the ability to detect deception was investigated. It was hypothesized that the posture adopted by judges would affect their social acuity, resulting in differences in the detection of nonverbal behavior (i.e., microexpression recognition) and the discrimination of deceptive and truthful statements. In Study 1, adopting an open posture produced higher accuracy for detecting naturalistic lies, but no difference was observed in the recognition of brief facial expressions as compared to adopting a closed posture; trait empathy was found to have an additive effect on posture, with more empathic judges having higher deception detection scores. In Study 2, with the use of an eye-tracker, posture effects on gazing behavior when judging both low-stakes and high-stakes lies were measured. Sitting in an open posture reduced judges’ average dwell times looking at senders, and in particular, the amount and length of time they focused on their hands. The findings suggest that simply shifting posture can impact judges’ attention to visual information and veracity judgments (Mg = 0.40, 95% CI (0.03, 0.78)).
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Background Previous research has shown that anxiety syndromes are highly prevalent among university students. Effective treatments are needed to reduce the burden of anxiety in this population. Powerful postures have been found to impact affective states, as well as interoception (i.e. the ability to perceive inner bodily signals). However, no previous study has compared the effects of powerful- and neutral postures in regards to anxiety and interoceptive ability. Methods The first part of the study measured the single-session effect of adopting powerful- vs. neutral postures on students' (n = 57) interoceptive ability and state anxiety. The second part of the study measured the effect of adopting powerful or neutral postures twice daily for two weeks, on individuals' interoceptive ability and trait anxiety. Results State anxiety decreased in both conditions whereas interoceptive accuracy only increased in the power posing condition after a single session. Interoceptive accuracy increased in both groups after two weeks of training. Limitations The study included no comparison to a condition where individuals adopted their natural (i.e. usual) bodily posture. Conclusions Embodiment interventions that include elements of adopting an open or expansive bodily posture whilst maintaining a self-focus, can help to reduce state anxiety and improve interoceptive accuracy in student populations. Power posing does not seem to be superior to holding a neutral posture to improve interoceptive accuracy or anxiety. One reason therefore could be that both conditions include the manipulation of self-focus and a postural change that diverges from individuals' normal posture.
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Poor posture has been shown to decrease both visceral and respiratory/circulatory function as well as to increase neuro-musculoskeletal system stress. Improper postures of children at school and in daily life can affect their physical and psychological development. In particular, many children who refuse to go to school or who have experienced school refusal have physical and mental problems. Given that posture is closely related to one’s psychological state, modifying one’s posture can improve both physical and psychological health problems. This study examined the changes to school-refusing students’ physical and psychological condition after attending an intervention to improve their posture. The participants were 65 high school students who have experienced school refusal and were attending a program to modify their posture for 2 months. Their posture and psychological states were recorded both pre- and post-intervention with the following measurements: postural alignment and spinal curve according to a sagittal plane, the General Health Questionnaire 30 (GHQ), and the Subjective Adjustment Scale (SAS). Post-intervention, most of the participants saw improvement in their postural alignment (e.g., trunk inclination in standing position, P < 0.001, 95%CI [2.00, 4.00]). Participants with improved standing posture post-intervention had higher SAS scores (e.g., feeling of acceptance and trust, P < 0.05, 95%CI [−3.00, −0.00]). We found that easy-to-implement postural interventions have a positive effect on students’ mental health. Furthermore, it was suggested that their adjustment to school would also improve as their posture improved. The contribution of this study shows that it is possible to care for the physical and mental health of students without using special facilities and techniques. It is hoped that the findings of this study will lead to an improved adjustment to both school or novel environments, as well as prevent health-based school refusal.
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Children with secondary sexual characteristics who experience considerable physical, psychological, and social development are prone to physical and mental imbalances. The effects of postural intervention on physical and psychological aspects in junior high school students in terms of secondary sexual characteristics were investigated in this study. Of the 30 participants in this study, 21 (10 boys, 11 girls) with complete measurements were included. The postural intervention consisted of 1 month of direct muscle stretching for postural maintenance and breathing as well as activities to orient the spinal curvature. The participants’ body arrangement, spinal curvature, and General Health Questionnaire 30 (GHQ) scores were compared before and after the postural intervention. The intervention improved postural alignment (e.g., head–neck angle t20 = 2.23, p < 0.01, 95%CI [0.30, 5.36]) and GHQ scores (e.g., GHQ total t20 = 3.36, p < 0.01, 95%CI [0.79, 3.40]). The postural intervention improved the posture of the students as well as positively affected their mental health. This study showed that students with secondary sexual characteristics can receive physical and psychological care without the use of special facilities or techniques.
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The chapter proposes a model to integrate the cognitive and motivational perspectives on social inference. The model specifies (1) the conditions under which affective and motivational factors do and do not influence inferential processes and (2) the mechanisms through which affective and motivational processes influence inferential processes to produce biased conclusions. The chapter focuses on the role of a self-esteem motive in producing the self-serving attribution bias. This particular motive is chosen because a wide variety of theorists throughout the history of psychology have suggested that the need for self-esteem exerts a powerful influence on people's cognitions and behavior. It should be pointed out; however, the model is quite general and applicable to the mechanisms through which other motives influence inferences as well. Influenced by recent developments in cognitive psychology and information processing, the theorists focus on the way people encode and organize—the retrieve information and on the knowledge structures—transformation rules and heuristics that are used to make inferences of various kinds. The chapter briefly discusses some of the major influences on various steps in the sequence when the only goal of the process is to arrive at an accurate attribution for the observed event.
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Publisher Summary Individuals come to “know” their own attitudes, emotions, and other internal states partially by inferring them from observations of their own overt behavior and/ or the circumstances in which this behavior occurs. Thus, to the extent that internal cues are weak, ambiguous, or uninterpretable, the individual is functionally in the same position as an outside observer, an observer who must necessarily rely upon those same external cues to infer the individual's inner states. This chapter traces the conceptual antecedents and empirical consequences of these propositions, attempts to place the theory in a slightly enlarged frame of reference, and clarifies just what phenomena the theory can and cannot account for in the rapidly growing experimental literature of self-attribution phenomena. Several experiments and paradigms from the cognitive dissonance literature are amenable to self-perception interpretations. But precisely because such experiments are subject to alternative interpretations, they cannot be used as unequivocal evidence for self-perception theory. The reinterpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena and other self-perception phenomena have been discussed. The chapter highlights some differences between self-perception and interpersonal perception and shift of paradigm in social psychology. It discusses some unsolved problems, such as the conceptual status of noncognitive response classes and the strategy of functional analysis.
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Essays written by currently-depressed, formerly-depressed, and never-depressed college students were examined for differences in language that might shed light on the cognitive operations associated with depression and depression-vulnerability. A text analysis program computed the incidence of words in predesignated categories. Consistent with Beck's cognitive model and with Pyczsinski and Greenberg's self-focus model of depression, depressed participants used more negatively valenced words and used the word, "I" more than did never-depressed participants. Formerly-depressed (presumably depression-vulnerable) participants did not differ from never-depressed participants on these indices of depressive processing. However, consistent with prediction, formerly-depressed participants' use of the word "I" increased across the essays and was significantly greater than that of never-depressed writers in the final portion of the essays.
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Reports 2 experiments that test whether both emotional and nonemotional feelings may be influenced by uninterpreted proprioceptive input. The logic of the procedure was adopted from studies by F. Strack et al (1988), who unobtrusively manipulated people's facial expressions. In the 1st experiment, a functionally equivalent technique was used to vary the posture of the body. Study 1 results revealed that success at an achievement task led to greater feelings of pride if the outcome was received in an upright position rather than in a slumped posture. Study 2 results revealed that nonemotional feelings of effort were influenced by contraction of the forehead muscle (corrugator), and Ss' self-ratings on a trait dimension reflected this experience when the facial contraction was maintained during the recall of behavioral episodes exemplifying this trait. To account for these results, a framework is proposed that draws on a distinction between noetic and experiential representations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Language is the currency of most human social processes. We use words to convey our emotions and thoughts, to tell stories, and to understand the world. It is somewhat odd, then, that so few investigations in the social sciences actually focus on natural language use among people in the real world. There are many legitimate reasons for not studying what people say or write. Historically, the analysis of text was slow, complex, and costly. The purpose of this chapter is to suggest that social scientists in general and social psychologists in particular should reconsider the value of language studies. With recent advances in computer text analysis methods, we are now able to explore basic social processes in new and rich ways that could not have been done even a decade ago. When language has been studied at all within social psychology, it has usually relied on fairly rigorous experimental methods using an assortment of standardized human coding procedures. These works are helping researchers to understand social attribution (Fiedler & Semin, 1992), intercultural communication (Hajek & Giles, 2003), and even how different cultures think about time (Boroditsky, 2001).
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Three experiments with 147 undergraduates tested the hypothesis that slumped (depressed) or upright physical postures are not just passive indicators of mental states but can reciprocally affect the mental states and behavior of an individual. By using a methodology similar to that in many facial manipulation studies, the experimenters changed Ss' postures in a standard learned helplessness setting. Results indicate that when a slumped posture was "inappropriate" to the current situation (an S had just succeeded), the slumping seemed to undermine subsequent motivation as well as feelings of control. But when "appropriate" (an S had experienced failure or helplessness), slumping minimized both feelings of helplessness and depression and motivation deficits. A new theoretical analysis—the appropriateness hypothesis—is therefore proposed: A slumped vs upright posture orientation can guide and moderate information-processing and responses to positive and negative mood-relevant stimuli. Implications regarding self-regulatory processes that may operate in emotion, depression, and learned helplessness are discussed. (55 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A total of 74 Ss were induced to adopt expressions of fear, anger, disgust, and sadness in Experiment 1. Each expression significantly increased feelings of its particular emotion compared with at least two of the others, a result that cannot be explained by a single dimension. Postures should play the same role in emotional experience as facial expressions. However, the demonstrated effects of postures (Riskind, 1984) could also represent a single dimension of variation. In Experiment 2, subjects were induced to adopt postures characteristic of fear, anger, and sadness. Again, the effects were specific to the postures. These two studies indicate that emotional behavior produces changes in feelings that specifically match the behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In the study reported here, we investigated whether covertly manipulating positive facial expressions would influence cardiovascular and affective responses to stress. Participants (N = 170) naive to the purpose of the study completed two different stressful tasks while holding chopsticks in their mouths in a manner that produced a Duchenne smile, a standard smile, or a neutral expression. Awareness was manipulated by explicitly asking half of all participants in the smiling groups to smile (and giving the other half no instructions related to smiling). Findings revealed that all smiling participants, regardless of whether they were aware of smiling, had lower heart rates during stress recovery than the neutral group did, with a slight advantage for those with Duchenne smiles. Participants in the smiling groups who were not explicitly asked to smile reported less of a decrease in positive affect during a stressful task than did the neutral group. These findings show that there are both physiological and psychological benefits from maintaining positive facial expressions during stress.
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For some years now, emotion re-searchers have debated a series of issues related to the structure of consciously experienced affective states. The structure of affect helps organize their exploration, under-standing, and measurement of the affective domain. Coming to con-sensus on this structure is impor-tant because knowledge about affective phenomena would accu-mulate more rapidly if researchers could organize their thinking around one consensually held de-scriptive system with a common set of terms. The purpose of the present article is to familiarize readers with points of consensus as well as the remaining controversies regarding this structure. Affective structure has been in-terpreted in several different ways, each with its own measurement model, conceptual framework, and accumulating literature (see Fig. 1). The original pleasure-activation model has its origins in Wundt (1912/1924) and Schlosberg (1941), and is represented most recently by the second author (Russell, 1980), Larsen and Diener (1992), and Reisenzein (1994). In this descrip-tive structure, pleasure-displeasure (or valence) is a dimension of expe-rience that refers to hedonic tone. Activation is a dimension of experi-ence that refers to a sense of mobi-lization or energy. A person senses being somewhere on a continuum ranging from sleep (at the low end), through drowsiness, relax-ation, alertness, hyperactivation, and, finally, frenetic excitement (at the opposite end). Alternative interpretations of the structure exist. In contrast to separating pleasantness and activa-tion dimensions, Watson and Tellegen (1985) defined affective structure in terms of two dimen-sions of valence (i.e., Positive and Negative Affect) that implicitly communicate activation; in fact, Watson and Tellegen have recently renamed their dimensions Positive and Negative Activation. Thayer (1989) defined it in terms of two di-mensions of activation (i.e., Tension and Energy), and his two activation dimensions implicitly communi-cate valence. From the names, one would think that the different sets of dimensions in the various mod-els describe different phenomena. Researchers are now coming to un-derstand, however, that the four systems diagramed in Figure 1 de-scribe the same structure viewed in different ways (Yik, Russell, & Feldman Barrett, in press). We have proposed that current affect can be described as a space formed by two bipolar, but inde-pendent dimensions, degree of pleasantness and degree of activa-tion (see Fig. 2). Despite other dis-agreements, writers from the pre-Socratics, through Spinoza and introspectionists like Wundt, to current-day theorists have de-scribed emotion as some form of pleasure or displeasure. All known human languages have words to communicate pleasure or displeas-ure (Wierzbicka, 1992), and the pleasure-displeasure dimension is pancultural in emotion lexicons (Russell, 1991). The activation di-mension has been prominent in theories of emotion throughout most of this century. Although, as Figure 1 indicates, other re-searchers have attempted to em-phasize one dimension over the other, we maintain that independ-ent pleasure and activation dimen-sions are required to understand affective feelings clearly and that to otherwise combine these properties confounds distinct aspects of the space and causes immeasurable confusion. Four issues have presented themselves as central to the nature of this structure. We address each issue in turn, and demonstrate where points of consensus have re-cently emerged, or where contro-versies remain.
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Building on the notion of embodied attitudes, we examined how body postures can influence self-evaluations by affecting thought confidence, a meta-cognitive process. Specifically, participants were asked to think about and write down their best or worse qualities while they were sitting down with their back erect and pushing their chest out (confident posture) or slouched forward with their back curved (doubtful posture). Then, participants completed a number of measures and reported their self-evaluations. In line with the self-validation hypothesis, we predicted and found that the effect of the direction of thoughts (positive/negative) on self-related attitudes was significantly greater when participants wrote their thoughts in the confident than in the doubtful posture. These postures did not influence the number or quality of thoughts listed, but did have an impact on the confidence with which people held their thoughts. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This review evaluates four facial feedback hypotheses, each proposing a certain relation between the face and emotions. It addresses criticisms of the data, considers implications for emotional and social processes, and advises directions for future research. The current data support the following: Facial actions are sensitive to social context, yet correspond to the affective dimension of emotions; matches with specific emotions are unlikely. They modulate ongoing emotions, and initiate them. These two claims have received substantially improved support, in part due to studies controlling for effects of experimental demand and task difficulty. Facial action may influence the occurrence of specific emotions, not simply their valence and intensity. Facial action is not necessary for emotions. There are multiple and nonmutually exclusive plausible mechanisms for facial effects on emotions. Future work must focus on determining the relative contributions of these mechanisms, and the parameters of their effects on emotions.
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Four studies were conducted in a laboratory setting to examine whether variations in physical posture can have a regulatory or feedback role affecting motivation and emotion. The results of the first study, which were replicated in the second study, revealed that subjects who had been temporarily placed in a slumped, depressed physical posture later appeared to develop helplessness more readily, as assessed by their lack of persistence in a standard learned helplessness task, than did subjects who had been placed in an expansive, upright posture; surprisingly, there were no differences in verbal reports. The third study established that physical posture was an important cue in observers'' verbal reports of depression in another person. The fourth study further explored the role of posture in self-reports of emotion using another posture. The results indicated that subjects who were placed in a hunched, threatened physical posture verbally reported self-perceptions of greater stress than subjects who were placed in a relaxed position. The findings of these studies are interpreted in terms of self-perception theory. It is suggested that physical postures of the body are one of several types of cues that can affect emotional experience and behavior.
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This article examines the measurement of short-lived (i.e., state) changes in self-esteem. A new scale is introduced that is sensitive to manipulations designed to temporarily alter self-esteem, and 5 studies are presented that support the scale's validity. The State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES) consists of 20 items modified from the widely used Janis-Field Feelings of Inadequacy Scale (Janis & Field, 1959). Psychometric analyses revealed that the SSES has 3 correlated factors: performance, social, and appearance self-esteem. Effects of naturally occurring and laboratory failure and of clinical treatment on SSES scores were examined; it was concluded that the SSES is sensitive to these sorts of manipulations. The scale has many potential uses, which include serving as a valid manipulation check index, measuring clinical change in self-esteem, and untangling the confounded relation between mood and self-esteem.
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For some years now, emotion researchers have debated a series of issues related to the structure of consciously experienced affective states. The present article reviews evidence that current affective experience can be summarized by a structure that is anchored by two bipolar but independent dimensions of experience, pleasure and activation. Four issues have presented themselves as central to the nature of this structure: the number of dimensions necessary to describe the space, the bipolarity of the dimensions, whether the structure displays a circumplex shape, and the definition of the activation dimension. Points of consensus and the remaining controversies regarding each issue are presented.
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If invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure is not warranted, finger cuff technology can provide continuous and noninvasive monitoring. Finger and radial artery pressures differ; Nexfin® (BMEYE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) measures finger arterial pressure and uses physiologic reconstruction methodologies to obtain values comparable to invasive pressures. Intra-arterial pressure (IAP) and noninvasive Nexfin arterial pressure (NAP) were measured in cardiothoracic surgery patients, because invasive pressures are available. NAP-IAP differences were analyzed during 30 min. Tracking was quantified by within-subject precision (SD of individual NAP-IAP differences) and correlation coefficients. The ranges of pressure change were quantified by within-subject variability (SD of individual averages of NAP and IAP). Accuracy and precision were expressed as group average ± SD of the differences and considered acceptable when smaller than 5 ± 8 mmHg, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation criteria. NAP and IAP were obtained in 50 (34-83 yr, 40 men) patients. For systolic, diastolic, mean arterial, and pulse pressure, median (25-75 percentiles) correlation coefficients were 0.96 (0.91-0.98), 0.93 (0.87-0.96), 0.96 (0.90-0.97), and 0.94 (0.85-0.98), respectively. Within-subject precisions were 4 ± 2, 3 ± 1, 3 ± 2, and 3 ± 2 mmHg, and within-subject variations 13 ± 6, 6 ± 3, 9 ± 4, and 7 ± 4 mmHg, indicating precision over a wide range of pressures. Group average ± SD of the NAP-IAP differences were -1 ± 7, 3 ± 6, 2 ± 6, and -3 ± 4 mmHg, meeting criteria. Differences were not related to mean arterial pressure or heart rate. Arterial blood pressure can be measured noninvasively and continuously using physiologic pressure reconstruction. Changes in pressure can be followed and values are comparable to invasive monitoring.