Article

Coping Flexibility and Psychological Adjustment to Stressful Life Changes: A Meta-Analytic Review

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Abstract

Compared with the large body of literature on coping, coping flexibility has received relatively scant research attention, although more such studies have begun to emerge recently. Researchers have conceptualized coping flexibility in diverse ways: as a broad coping repertoire, a well-balanced coping profile, cross-situational variability in strategy deployment, a good strategy-situation fit, or the perceived ability to cope with environmental changes. This meta-analysis is the first to provide a summary estimate of the overall effect size and investigate cross-study sources of variation in the beneficial role of coping flexibility. The analysis covers all available studies conducted between 1978 and 2013 that empirically tested the relationship between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment. The results of a random-effects model revealed a small to moderate overall mean effect size (r = .23, 95% CI [.19, .28], 80% CRI [-.02, .49], k = 329, N = 58,946). More important, the magnitude of the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment varied with the conceptualization of such flexibility. Studies adopting the perceived ability or strategy-situation fit conceptualization yielded moderate effect sizes, whereas those adopting the broad repertoire, balanced profile, or cross-situational variability conceptualization yielded small effect sizes. In addition, the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment was stronger in samples from countries lower (vs. higher) in individualism and samples with higher (vs. lower) average ages. Individualism and age explained 10% and 13% of the variance, respectively. We discuss the conceptual problems and implications and propose a synthesized conceptualization of coping flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

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... This focus on the relatively stable content of coping behaviors created various useful insights. However, it does not capture what strategies employees have at their disposal and if and how they adjust strategy selection to cope with specific demands (e.g., Cheng, Lau, & Chan, 2014;Eatough & Chang, 2018). In reality, demands and individuals' responses to these demands fluctuate over time. ...
... Coping flexibility refers to the ability to select and deploy a coping strategy that fits the stressful situation. As such, coping flexibility is seen as a trait that supports employees in their coping process (Cheng, 2001;Cheng, Kogan, & Chio, 2012;Cheng et al., 2014). For example, individuals assess the controllability of the situation and select a strategy that matches the situation accordingly (Elfering et al., 2005). ...
... Hence, individuals need to have gained insights on their coping behaviors in the past to be able to match the strategy to the situation. Overall, meta-analytic results are supportive of the idea that coping flexibility is a relevant factor by that coping flexibility is positively related to well-being and health (Cheng et al., 2014). Cheng et al. (2012) also developed an intervention to strengthen employees coping flexibility. ...
Chapter
Research on coping at work has tended to adopt a between-person perspective, producing inconsistent findings on well-being outcomes. This focus on interindividual differences is in contrast to many theories that position coping as process, hence, as an intraindividual process that unfolds over time in response to job stressors and appraisals. The authors propose that focusing more on the within-person coping processes and integrating them with learning perspectives has the potential to advance our understanding. More specifically, coping behavior and well-being can be seen as an outcome of current and past learning processes. In this chapter, the authors discuss three mechanisms that explain how coping processes can produce positive versus negative effects on well-being, and how coping can be integrated into a learning framework to explain these pathways. First, the stress process entails encoding and evaluation of the situation and, as a consequence, deployment of suitable coping behavior. Over and above the efforts that have to be invested to understand the stressful situation, the coping behavior itself also requires time and energy resources. Second, coping behavior likely co-occurs with learning processes such as reflection, exploration, and exploitation. These learning processes require further time and cognitive resources. Third, although coping behaviors and their accompanying learning processes have the potential to drain resources at the within-person level, they can also build up interindividual coping resources such as a broader repertoire and coping flexibility. These between-level differences equip employees to deal with future stressors.
... Yet, scholars increasingly argue that, rather than being intrinsically adaptive versus maladaptive, the impact of such strategies depends on the flexibility with which they are used across contexts (15)(16)(17). This perspective suggests optimal psychological functioning will be evident among more flexible individuals, characterized as those who show some variability in their selection of strategies, possibly as a way to maximize the appropriate use of specific strategies in particular contexts (17,18). ...
... Yet, scholars increasingly argue that, rather than being intrinsically adaptive versus maladaptive, the impact of such strategies depends on the flexibility with which they are used across contexts (15)(16)(17). This perspective suggests optimal psychological functioning will be evident among more flexible individuals, characterized as those who show some variability in their selection of strategies, possibly as a way to maximize the appropriate use of specific strategies in particular contexts (17,18). This flexibility framework provides a broader approach for characterizing how individuals may cope with varied stressors (15), and how the use of particular coping strategies may affect health. ...
... Moreover, while being flexible in the use of coping strategies might be health beneficial, it is unclear if there are limits to how much flexibility is beneficial. Indeed, the operationalization of coping variability and its linear association with outcomes, where more variability is inherently better, are debated (17,18). ...
Article
Objectives Some stress-related coping strategies contribute to survival among medical populations, but it is unclear if they relate to longevity in the general population. While coping strategies are characterized as being adaptive or maladaptive, whether capacity to tailor their implementation to different contexts (i.e., flexibility of use) may influence lifespan is unknown. Method In 2004–2006, participants from the Midlife Development in the United States study completed a validated coping inventory including 6 strategies and provided information on sociodemographics, health status, and biobehavioral factors (N = 4398). Deaths were ascertained from death registries with follow-up until 2018. Accelerated failure time models estimated percent changes and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in predicted lifespan associated with use of individual coping strategies. As a proxy for flexibility, participants were also classified as having lower, moderate, or greater variability in strategies used, using a standard deviation-based algorithm. Results After controlling for sociodemographics and health status, maladaptive strategies (e.g., per 1-SD increase in Denial = −5.50, 95%CI = -10.50, −0.21) but not adaptive strategies (e.g., Planning) were related to shorter lifespan. Greater versus moderate variability levels were related to a 15% shorter lifespan. Estimates were somewhat attenuated when further controlling for lifestyle factors. Conclusion Although most associations were of modest magnitude, use of some maladaptive coping strategies appeared related to shorter lifespan. Compared to moderate levels, greater coping variability levels were also clearly detrimental for lifespan. Although adaptive strategies were unrelated to longevity, future work should examine other favorable strategies (e.g., acceptance) and more direct measures of flexibility (e.g., experience sampling methods).
... ER or coping flexibility) (Bonanno & Burton, 2013;Kobylińska & Kusev, 2019). A meta-analysis summaries five methods to measure ER (or coping) flexibility, including broad strategy repertoire, well-balanced strategy profile, ER strategy variability, strategy-situation fit, and self-reported or perceived flexibility (Cheng et al., 2014). Among these indicators, only ER strategy variability and strategy-situation fit assessed ER flexibility with a dynamic perspective based on multiple measures across different situations. ...
... ER flexibility is defined by the covariation between ER strategies and situational changes (i.e. strategy-situation fit) (Cheng et al., 2014). For example, both empirical research and review have suggested that reappraisal (re-interpreting emotional information) would be preferred and effective when coping with low-intensity situations since it serves for long-term goals, whereas distraction would be preferred and adaptive in high-intensity situations, considering it can be less effortful by replacing negative stimulus with unrelated thoughts, thus leading to immediate effects in down-regulate intensive stimulus (Matthews et al., 2021;Sheppes et al., 2009;Sheppes & Meiran, 2008). ...
... A handful of studies have examined the coping flexibility construct empirically, with some promising-albeit preliminary-findings. It has shown to predict improved psychological health (i.e., less depression, anxiety, distress) (Blanke et al., 2020;Fresco et al., 2006;Kato, 2012;Roussi et al., 2007) and better adjustment following stressful life events (for meta-analysis, see Cheng et al., 2014). Thus, coping flexibility appears to be a critical transdiagnostic factor related to improved adaptation to stress. ...
... Increasingly, the literature shows that coping flexibility is an important predictor of mental health (e.g., Dawson & Golijani-Moghaddam, 2020;Kato, 2015;Park et al., 2015). It has been linked to decreased depression and anxiety, as well as better adjustment following stressful life events (Cheng et al., 2014;Fresco et al., 2006;Kato, 2012;Roussi et al., 2007). Yet to date, there has been almost no investigation of the role of coping flexibility in one of the most prevalent mental health problems in the U.S.-problematic alcohol use (Grant et al., 2015;Windle, 2003). ...
Article
Background: Coping has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of problem drinking. Traditional, static measurement of coping styles (e.g., approach, avoidance, social support) may fail to capture how adaptive a given coping style may be. Coping flexibility is an emerging construct, associated with psychological health, and one that may shed light on coping's role in drinking risk. Coping flexibility includes (1) discontinuation of an ineffective coping strategy ("Discontinuation") and (2) production of an alternative strategy ("Implementation"). This study is the first to our knowledge to examine its association to drinking outcomes. Further, because coping deficits are theorized to lead to drinking through coping motives, we also examined mediated pathways from coping flexibility to alcohol outcomes via coping motives. Methods: College students (N = 528) completed an online assessment. Data were analyzed using path analysis. Control variables included sex and coping styles. Results: In path analytic models, Implementation was negatively associated with alcohol use and, indirectly via coping motives, negatively associated with alcohol consequences. The direct effect on alcohol use remained when controlling for coping styles and sex, but the mediational pathway was no longer significant. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence for the protective role of coping flexibility in alcohol use behavior, which may have implications for how best to address coping skills in alcohol interventions. The direct effect of Implementation on drinking suggests that there may be utility in teaching clients a flexible approach to coping in treatment. Replication, particularly with longitudinal designs, is needed.
... This is not unambiguously observed, however, as meta-analytical evidence has shown that a broader repertoire of coping strategies has only a modest effect on global resilience. Therefore, consistent with the flexibility sequence concept, the greatest importance should be placed on identifying strategies that are effective in situ (Cheng et al., 2014). ...
... Feedback monitoring speaks to a skill which involves the evaluation of the regulation strategy, and a decision as to whether to maintain or adjust this based on its effectiveness in that particular context (Bonanno & Burton, 2013). Feedback is central to flexible adaptation, as during this stage individuals are engaging in self-evaluation and regulation to cope more effectively, ultimately improving the chance of post-traumatic resilience (Aldao et al., 2015;Cheng et al., 2014). Previous evidence has supported this idea, showing that greater evaluation and adaptation skills related to coping strategies are significantly associated with a reduced risk of depressive symptomology (Kato, 2012(Kato, , 2015. ...
Article
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Background: Psychological resilience has grown in popularity as a topic of study in psychotraumatology research; however, this concept remains poorly understood and there are several competing theories of resilience. Objective: This study sought to assess the support for one proposed theory of resilience: the flexibility sequence. Method: This study use secondary data analysis of panel survey data (N = 563). Participants were aged 18 years or over and based in the UK. A series of sequential mediation models was used to test the flexibility sequence theory as a proposed pathway of resilience on mental health outcomes (post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression) among a trauma-exposed sample from the UK. Results: The ‘feedback’ component of the proposed flexibility sequence components was associated with reduced symptom severity with all outcomes, whereas ‘context sensitivity’ and ‘repertoire’ were significantly associated only with depression as an outcome. When indirect mediation pathways were modelled via the flexibility sequence, statistically significant effects were observed for all outcomes under investigation. Conclusions: These findings support the theorized flexibility sequence pathway of resilience, suggesting that the combination of these skills/processes performs more favourably as a framework of resilience than any in isolation. Further research into more elaborate associations and feedback loops associated with this pathway is warranted.
... Lack of rigor in measurement may jeopardize the validity of the conclusions of scientific research, including research in the field of educational psychology (Flake, 2021). Thus, we examined the measurement quality of the instrument used to assess TBRED as a moderator, adapting criteria for the rigorousness of the measurements from previous meta-analyses (Cheng et al., 2014;Holmbeck et al., 2008). ...
... We coded the quality of teacher-based racial-ethnic discrimination instruments, adapting the criteria that were used in previous meta-analyses for the rigorousness of assessment (Cheng et al., 2014;Holmbeck et al., 2008). Each study received a score from 1 (low quality) to 4 (high quality). ...
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Although research has overwhelmingly demonstrated the negative consequences of racial-ethnic discrimination on children’s and youth’s well-being and academic outcomes, context- and perpetrator-specific discrimination experiences are rarely disaggregated. Racial-ethnic discrimination in the school environment is common, and the perpetrators are often teachers who may treat racial-ethnic minority students unfairly. This work used a three-level multilevel approach to meta-analytically synthesize existing evidence with the aim of 1) documenting the links between teacher-based racial-ethnic discrimination (TBRED) and students’ psychological, behavioral, physical well-being, substance use, grade point average and school motivation, and 2) examining whether these associations differ by sample and study characteristics. Based on 69 studies and 263 effect size estimates, we found that TBRED is linked to lower well-being (r = -0.16, 95% [-0.19, -0.12]), higher substance use (r = 0.13, 95% [0.06, 0.20]), and lower academic performance (r = -0.16, 95% [-0.20, -0.13]) with substantial heterogeneity across effect sizes. Similarly, TBRED had small-to-medium negative associations within each domain of well-being and academics. The results were partially moderated by school racial-ethnic composition, suggestive of a protective function of a higher concentration of ethnic minority students. In addition, gender, publication status, and fewer items that measured TBRED were associated with stronger negative correlations with well-being. These findings highlight the importance of increasing awareness around issues of racism and discrimination in initial teacher training and professional development. We encourage further exploration of effect size heterogeneity and call for research on TBRED outside the United States.
... Assessing how individuals vary in their habitual use of certain ER strategies can at least partially explain why individuals react differently and experience different emotions, when faced with similar situations and environments (Joormann & Gotlib, 2010;Wang et al., 2021). The ability to implement suitable strategies based on context has increasingly been suggested as a primary indicator of emotion regulation ability (Bonanno & Burton, 2013;Cheng et al., 2014). Using strategies flexibly, in ways that are matched to specific situations and contexts, may be more beneficial for successful emotion regulation versus rigidly utilizing the same strategies regardless of contextual demands (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2013;Bonanno & Burton, 2013). ...
... It is likely that people choose, abandon, and update ER strategies dynamically in response to their ever-changing environment (Aldao et al., 2015). When a strategy fits a given situation, it is adaptive, and can be considered to have good strategy-situation fit (Cheng et al., 2014;Haines et al., 2016;Troy et al., 2013). This strategy-situation fit requires both evaluating contextual demands and flexibly matching strategies to meet these demands (Goodman et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Background: Perception of bodily signals—or interoception—has been suggested to facilitate individuals’ habitual use of emotion regulation (ER) strategies and to guide the flexible deployment of specific ER strategies. Previous research has shown that the emotional intensity of stimuli modulates regulatory choice between disengagement (i.e., distraction) and engagement strategies (i.e., reappraisal). Method: This study used experience-sampling methods to investigate the role of interoceptive attention in dynamic changes in ER strategies. Healthy participants first completed one-time measurements of ER strategies, emotional awareness and interoceptive attention in the lab and then reported on negative events and use of strategies including reappraisal and distraction, throughout daily life. Results: Results showed that interoceptive attention was positively associated with habitual use of several ER strategies, and emotional awareness mediated the relations between interoceptive attention and these ER strategies. Results also suggested an interaction between interoceptive attention and intensity of negative events; individuals with higher interoceptive attention used distraction rather than reappraisal only during high intensity negative life events, but those with lower interoceptive attention used more distraction than reappraisal, regardless of event intensity. Conclusions: Overall, these findings suggest interoceptive attention may increase emotional awareness, which in turn facilitates habitual ER but also the flexible deployment of specific ER strategies. Training interoceptive attention may provide a promising way to improve ER and promote mental health.
... The 2008 global economic crisis and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have imposed immense amounts of stress on employees amid widespread concerns about job insecurity and layoffs (3,4). A recent metaanalysis indicates that coping flexibility is the cornerstone of psychological adjustment to stressful life changes, as demonstrated by the positive associations between this coping skill and multiple mental health indicators such as subjective well-being and quality of life (5). ...
... The creative and flexible thinking skills acquired from SPT enable the participants not only to spot new opportunities in the business environment, but more importantly, to change strategies, structures, products, business models, and systems. In the same vein, our study further shows that the SPT is also efficacious for facilitating coping flexibility, an essential skill for handling stressful life transitions and vicissitudes (5). Workshop participants acquire cognitive astuteness and sensitivity to environmental cues (i.e., cognitive flexibility) through constant shifting of their constructed models from one context to another, and their acquired astuteness facilitates the choice of the most situation-appropriate strategy from their coping repertoire (i.e., behavioral flexibility) (61). ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate a newly developed gamification-based intervention of serious play training (SPT). A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of the new intervention program in comparison with a widely adopted cognitive-behavioral training (CBT) program. Real-life work teams were recruited to enhance the ecological validity of outcome evaluation. The participants comprised 250 Chinese working adults (68% men; median age = 25 years, range: 18–40) who took part voluntarily. They were randomly assigned to the SPT, CBT, and waitlist conditions. For outcome evaluation, team effectiveness was the primary outcome, whereas coping flexibility was the secondary outcome. For explanation of outcome changes, group cohesion and discriminative thinking were tested as the hypothesized learning mechanisms. The results revealed that the SPT group alone reported greater team effectiveness over time, with an increase in group cohesion found to explain the improvement. Both the SPT and CBT groups reported greater coping flexibility over time, with discriminative thinking found to account for the beneficial changes. These findings provide initial evidence indicating the efficacy of utilizing the gamification approach in corporate training for team-building and personal coping.
... The regulatory flexibility perspective (Bonanno and Burton, 2013) contributes to the literature by suggesting three sequential components that characterize successful coping and emotion regulation procedures. These depend, firstly, on accurate perception and understanding of situational demands and opportunities (i.e., sensitivity to context) and matching the most effective regulatory strategies with situational demands (Cheng, 2001;Cheng et al., 2014). Next, whether people can adopt the best-match strategies depends on availability of diverse strategies or resources (i.e., coping repertoire). ...
Chapter
This article on stress covers four topics. An overview is given on how persons cope with chronic stress and trauma. Classic theories of the psychology of stress, namely the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping, the Salutogenic Model, and the Conservation of Resources Theory, are outlined. Next, the meaning-making process, the Shift-and-Persist Model, and the regulatory flexibility perspective will describe specific cognitive and emotional regulatory processes potentially leading to successful stress adaptation. The article will end by summarizing current theoretical and empirical evidence on stress resilience from different contextual levels.
... In line with the ability to be resilient, Sam also applied various and flexible coping strategies adjusted to situations where there were controls called coping flexibility. Coping flexibility has been proven to help psychological adjustment (Cheng et al, 2014), encourage resilience (Galatzer-Levy et al., 2012), and enable positive mental health outcomes (Liao, 2014). Furthermore, Sam's psychological adjustment is not only maintained by resilience, but also by the chances of post-traumatic growth (Tedeschi et al., 2018) which are characterized by five domains as mentioned in the literature review above, namely (1) relating to others, (2) new possibilities, (3) personal strengths, (4) spiritual changes, and (5) appreciation of life. ...
Conference Paper
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Existing studies examining relational complex trauma in emerging adults are mostly associated with adverse effects, whereas recovery may be difficult let alone growth—it is doubted. Thus, this study aimed to understand how a relational complex trauma victim survived in his emerging adulthood. A case study with longitudinal narrative analysis explored the accounts of a qualified participant, particularly those midst close contact with perpetrators that still maintained their former caregiving style. A 20-year-old male typed his story while having anxiety and depressive symptoms. He was interviewed at the age of 24 when finally living without any symptoms of clinical disorders as well as gaining some actualizations. The analysis focused on how he described his experiences and what he talked about. Two types of narrative forms were identified in each data collection: 'All included in my typed stories but negatives’ and ‘My tone stories are more diverse, but the fluency is lacking’. There were five narrative themes concluded, namely living with conditioned destructive ways of nurturing, enduring the negative consequences of ongoing parent-related conflicts, distancing without escaping and gaining self-actualizations gradually, benefiting from external social supports while regulating self to approach problems carefully, and framing the future as certain and uncertain. The findings indicate that individual affected by relational complex trauma may empower and maintain his personal, or interpersonal resources although from outside own family. Focusing on gradually encouraging potentials but also being sensitive to the flexibility of coping and the available social support, may have good impacts on recovery. https://proceeding.internationaljournallabs.com/index.php/picis/article/view/96
... The buffering role of accommodation is only partial. Possibly, adolescents need to combine accommodation with other coping strategies to be better protected against psychologically controlling parenting, thereby deploying multiple coping strategies flexibly (Cheng et al., 2014). Although accommodation is considered an autonomous and potentially adaptive coping strategy, it may be ineffective and even lead to frustration, especially in the longer run, when it is used too one-sidedly and persistently (Zimmer-Gembeck et al., 2018). ...
Article
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To explain why there is substantial heterogeneity in the degree to which adolescents suffer from psychologically controlling parenting, it is important to take into account adolescents’ active contribution to the socialization processes and to their coping with controlling parenting in particular. This study aimed to examine whether adolescents’ coping with controlling parenting (i.e., oppositional defiance, compulsive compliance, negotiation, and accommodation) moderated associations between psychologically controlling parenting, adolescents’ experiences of psychological need frustration, and their internalizing and externalizing problems. A total of 161 adolescents (M age = 15.56 years; SD age = 1.14; 61.5% female) and either their mother or their father participated in 7-day diary study. As expected, accommodation played an adaptive role, thereby buffering within-person (daily) associations between psychologically controlling parenting, adolescents’ need frustration, and subsequent problems. Unexpectedly, compulsive compliance played a similar adaptive role. Overall, the moderating effects of coping were rather limited, suggesting that adolescents’ coping can alter the daily negative consequences associated with psychologically controlling parenting only to a certain extent.
... Optimism, hope, resilience, coping flexibility, and secure attachment as FEPPTs have been found to be positively correlated with the good life, happiness, wellbeing, and flourishing among adults and college students (Bajaj & Pande, 2016;Butler & Kern, 2016;Cheng et al., 2014;Cole et al., 2015;Feldman & Dreher, 2012;Karreman & Vingerhoets, 2012;Kato, 2015;Mattanah et al., 2004;Peterson, 2000;Yarcheski & Mahon, 2016). For example, K. J. Chan and colleagues (2016) reported that optimism, hope, resilience, coping styles, and secure attachment were some of the positively associated predictors for post-traumatic growth. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine (a) to what extent demographic covariates, foundational and emerging positive psychology traits (FEPPTs), and PERMA uniquely predict college life adjustment, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and life satisfaction of student military veterans; (b) PERMA as a happiness and well-being model for college life adjustment, HRQOL, and life satisfaction among student veterans; and (c) FEPPTs as predictors of PERMA. In addition, we tested whether total PERMA scores mediate the relationship between service-connected disability and college adjustment. A total of 205 student veterans responded to an online survey. Results revealed that demographic covariates (e.g., service-connected disability), FEPPTs (e.g., optimism), and PERMA (e.g., positive emotion) significantly accounted for college life adjustment, HRQOL, and life satisfaction of student veterans. In addition, a mediation analysis revealed that PERMA partially mediated the relationship between service-connected disability and college life adjustment of student veterans. The results of this study provide empirical supports for the use of PERMA as a comprehensive well-being model of college life adjustment for student veterans.
... The preventive measures adopted during the pandemic to stop the virus from spreading came rapidly and with the pronounced distress of the whole society. Young people are usually more flexible and compliant to accepting new situations and changes (Cheng et al., 2014). They can, however, also be more vulnerable to abrupt changes in their lives because of the lack of psychological capabilities of resilience and coping that have not yet had time to develop (Romeo, 2013). ...
Article
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Objective Long-term isolation, including lockdowns and quarantines, may have a distressing effect on anyone experiencing it. Adolescent brain architecture is very sensitive to environmental adversities, and the mental health development of adolescents may be particularly vulnerable during the pandemic era. In order to better understand the triggers for perceived adolescent stress (PSS) during the COVID-19 lockdown, the present study aimed to assess the effects of social well-being and changes in time use during the lockdown, as well as the family COVID experience of adolescents. Methods The sample for this study comprised n = 3,440 adolescents (54.2% girls; mean age = 13.5 ± 1.6 years). Bayesian correlations between PSS, health and well-being variables were assessed. PSS was then modeled as an outcome variable in a series of nested Bayesian multilevel regression models. Results The negative impact of the COVID-19 lockdown was more apparent in girls. PSS was moderately correlated with adolescent health and well-being. The strongest predictor of higher level of PSS was frequent feeling of loneliness. On the contrary, lower level of PSS was most associated with having someone to talk to. Conclusion Long-term social isolation of adolescents could be harmful to their mental health. Psychological coping strategies to prevent the consequences of social isolation and development of mental health problems should be promoted on the individual, family, and even community level.
... This capacity has been linked to students' academic accomplishment, cognitive ability and creativity development (Feng et al., 2020). The aspects of flexibility reflect the potential of finding creative insights, solutions to the problem or ideas and replacing maladaptive thoughts with balanced and adaptive thinking, establishing alternatives and analysing difficult situations to make them more manageable (Gulum and Dag, 2012;Cheng et al., 2014). Indeed, creativity relates to forming new associations among different ideas (Dreu et al., 2011;Ritter et al., 2012) and also includes overcoming the mindset or the functional fixedness (Smith and Blankenship, 1991). ...
Article
Purpose Entrepreneurship is one of the significant drivers of economic growth, development and job generation in several countries worldwide. Realizing its significant contribution to the nation’s development, policymakers and educators have also drawn attention to fostering entrepreneurship among the youth. Researchers attempted to comprehend the dynamics and investigate the factors influencing entrepreneurial intention (EI). As is true for other abilities and response tendencies, individual differences exist for EI also. This study aims to explore the relationship of emotional intelligence (EIn) and cognitive flexibility (CF) with EI and mediating effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) in the relationship between CF, EIn and EI. Design/methodology/approach The cross-sectional survey was conducted to gather responses from 635 individuals aged 17–26 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.49). The hypotheses were tested using correlation, regression and mediation analysis. Findings The findings indicated that EIn and CF were significantly and positively related to EI. Furthermore, ESE was found to be a partial mediator between EIn and EI and a full mediator between CF and EI. Research limitations/implications Results reflected the critical significance of ESE and implied that EI might be strengthened by intervening in ESE through various sources. Originality/value This study adds to the existing literature by incorporating less studied individual factors (EIn and CF) to better understand EI by explaining the mediation mechanism through ESE.
... Lazarus (1993a) also brings the procedural perspective of coping, in which it is understood that strategies can change over the years and are subject to adaptation according to context. Literature suggests that the higher the level of flexibility in the use of coping strategies, the better the level of adaptation of the individual to stressful situations (Cheng, Lau, & Chan, 2014). This suggests we, humans, are dynamic and that individual-environment interactions are of the utmost importance. ...
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Based on the importance of the stress phenomenon, this research sought to evaluate the relationship between stress, coping strategies, negative life events and biological markers, based on the Transactional Stress Model. A general hypothesis of mediation was formulated: coping strategies would mediate the relationship between negative life events and biological markers. The sample consisted of 96 users of a biomedical school laboratory, in which 77.78% were female. Participants answered the Brief COPE questionnaire, as well as a questionnaire on negative life events. Laboratory tests were collected shortly after the application of the questionnaires. Mediations were found between Venting, Red Blood Cells and Hemoglobin. The research aimed to contribute to the knowledge in the field of stress and coping, as well as to serve as a possible empirical study of the Transactional Stress model.
... The cognitive-transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) is one of the most widely accepted theoretical models proposed for children and adolescents (Cheng et al., 2014;Compas et al., 2001;Garcia, 2009;Zimmer-Gembeck & Skinner, 2011). In this theory, two coping strategies are applied when a stressor is perceived: problemfocused and emotion-oriented coping. ...
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Background Adolescence is a developmental period that can place individuals at heightened risk of engaging in disordered eating patterns. Stress and coping have been included as etiological factors of eating pathology, yet the mechanism of this relationship in adolescent males and females remains understudied. Aims This study investigated the role of coping as a mediator in the stress-disordered eating relationship in a sample of adolescents. Demographics/settings Participants included 2262 grade 7–12 students from a larger cross-sectional study entitled, Research on Eating and Adolescent Lifestyles (REAL). Methodology/analyses Participants completed measures of perceived stress, life stressors, coping style, and disordered eating. Multiple mediator models of coping were analyzed to examine the extent to which coping mediated the stress-disordered eating relationship, for males and females separately. Findings Emotion-oriented coping was a significant partial mediator in the relationship between stress (perceived stress, life stressors) and disordered eating in male and female adolescents. Findings suggest adolescents experiencing high stress tend to engage in emotion-oriented coping, which may lead to greater levels of disordered eating. Implications Interventions targeting effective coping strategies for dealing with different stress types may prevent youth from disordered eating, thus reducing their risk of eating disorders during a vulnerable period in development.
... To investigate the causality of the relationship between coping profiles and well-being, longitudinally studies are required. In addition, other concepts could be included, such as coping flexibility, which additionally considers coping repertoire, balance of coping profile, cross-situational variability in coping, or fit between situation and coping (Cheng et al., 2014). To address the impact of pandemics on population well-being, specific training programs should be evaluated to improve functional coping strategies during this and future pandemics that can enhance well-being. ...
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Background: During the current COVID-19 pandemic, people need to cope with multiple stressors which may affect their well-being. This study aimed (1) to identify latent coping profiles in the German general population, and (2) to investigate differences between these profiles in well-being. Methods: In total, N = 2,326 German participants were recruited as part of the European Society of Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) ADJUST study from June to September 2020 using an online survey. Coping strategies were assessed using the Brief-COPE and the Pandemic Coping Scale (PCS); well-being was assessed using the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. Coping profiles were identified using latent profile analysis; differences between profiles were examined using the automatic BCH method and multiple group analyses. Results: Five coping profiles were identified that included different types and numbers of coping strategies: (1) High functional coping (17.84%), (2) Moderate functional coping (40.63%), (3) High functional and religious coping (9.07%), (4) Low functional coping (22.06%), (5) Moderate functional and dysfunctional coping (10.40%). The identified profiles significantly differed in well-being (χ2 = 503.68, p <.001). Coping profiles indicating high functional coping were associated with greater well-being compared to coping profiles indicating low (χ2 = 82.21, p <.001) or primarily dysfunctional (χ2 = 354.33, p <.001) coping. Conclusion: These results provide insight into how people differ in their coping strategies when dealing with stressors in an early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study indicates higher levels of well-being in coping profiles with more frequent use of functional strategies. To promote well-being in the general population, it might be beneficial to train functional coping strategies in appropriate interventions that are associated with increased well-being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... As for the relations between controllability appraisals and the use of coping strategies, it was hypothesized that lower levels of controllability would be related to higher use of distraction and reappraisal and lower use of active coping strategies ( 29-31 ; Hypothesis 3). In terms of the relations between the use of coping strategies and psychological functioning outcomes, it was hypothesized that higher use of reappraisal would predict subsequent lower levels of depression and anxiety, and higher levels of resilience, whereas higher use of active coping and distraction would have the opposite relations ( 18,32,34 ; Hypothesis 4). Finally, in line with Waters 20 , an integrative path model of indirect effects was hypothesized (Hypothesis 5) where employment status was related to poor psychological functioning (i.e., higher depression and anxiety, lower resilience) indirectly through the influence of controllability appraisals and differential uses of coping strategies (i.e., employment status → controllability appraisals at Time 1 → coping strategies used from Time 1 to Time 2 → psychological functioning at Time 2). ...
Article
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Job loss is a stressful event that increases the risk of experiencing depression and anxiety, especially during the initial months of unemployment. This study examined differences in psychological symptoms and resilient functioning accounted by employment status. The results pointed out that recently unemployed compared to currently employed individuals had lower levels of perceived controllability and resilience as well as higher levels of depression and anxiety. Path analyses showed that lower controllability appraisals at wave 1 of recently unemployed compared to employed individuals, in turn, predicted a lower use of active coping and reappraisal at wave 2, with the latter further accounting for lower levels in resilience. Higher use of distraction further mediated the relation between employment status and higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Our findings demonstrate the importance of controllability appraisals and coping strategies used to promote adaptive psychological functioning following job loss.
... Previous research found that coping flexibility could be beneficial to psychological adjustment (Cheng et al., 2014) and could reduce the onset and the symptom severity of psychological disorders (Rodin et al., 2017). In addition to the development of a broad spectrum of strategies, clinical interventions may attempt to coach clients in the flexibility required to deal with changing situations through fostering their dialectical thinking. ...
Article
Background and objective : Past research has shown that worldviews can influence coping strategies but coping is often regarded as a stable person-based behavioral characteristic. The present research aims to examine how one component of worldviews – social complexity – influences the flexibility of coping strategies across situations. Design : In two cross-sectional studies and one prospective study, we tested a mediation model in which the perceived complexity of the social world (i.e., social complexity) predicted coping flexibility through dialectical thinking. Results : Across three studies, social complexity consistently facilitated dialectical thinking, which in turn fostered the cross-situational flexibility of coping strategies at a single time point and over 12 months. Conclusions : Believing in complex causes of phenomena and multiple solutions to problems facilitates a cognitive style of viewing issues from multiple perspectives and tolerating contradictions, which are conducive to the flexible evaluation and implementation of effective strategies to cope with problems. Theoretical and practical implications of the present research are discussed.
... In further research, researchers could try to use the variable of coping flexibility instead of including a range of coping strategies as predictors of psychosocial adaptation. Coping and cognitive flexibility are essential for choosing appropriate behavioral coping responses and they both exert significant effects on the adjustment to stressful life changes (Cheng et al., 2014;Dajani & Uddin, 2015). Fourth, the modeling of predictors of psychosocial adaptation in this study is mainly based on a model of adaptive and non-adaptive reactions and how coping variables affect mental well-being. ...
Article
Psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability (CID) involves a complex interplay of the client’s background factors with resilience and coping. To date, there have been few studies on psychosocial adaptation to CID in the Chinese context. To examine the predictors of psychosocial adaptation, we surveyed people with CID from community-rehabilitation settings and self-help groups ( N = 224). The research questionnaire collected information on demographics, health-related factors, social support, resilience, coping strategies, psychosocial adaptation, and mental well-being. Resilience, coping strategies, health-related factors, and sex were found to be important predictors of psychosocial adaptation. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we tested a conceptual model on how social support and health-related factors predict adjustment variables (resilience and coping strategies), which further affect psychosocial adaptation and mental well-being. All the variables are closely linked and the path coefficients are all significant. An overall fair model fit (comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.89; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.089) was obtained. The results provide support for the conceptual model we proposed based on health-related coping and the phase model of psychosocial adaptation. The key predictors of psychosocial adaptation and mental well-being in Chinese people with CID in Hong Kong are similar to those identified in non-Chinese studies.
... As proposed by Cheng et al. (2015, MA/PMU), regulatory or coping flexibility is a concept that is understudied in the literature on coping using media. Coping flexibility is a personality trait that is defined as "intra-individual variability in the deployment of diverse coping strategies and, more importantly, the capacity to exhibit such variability in a way that fosters adjustment to life changes" (Cheng et al., 2014(Cheng et al., , p. 1582. According to our conceptualization, coping flexibility should also include the flexible deployment of coping tools and, thus, a decrease of coping flexibility might more adequately predict types of problematic media use than using media for coping per se. ...
Thesis
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Being a parent of young children is associated with both joy and stress. High parental stress was shown to be associated with decreased parental wellbeing and negative child outcomes. Thus, it is important that parents successfully cope with stress. Research has shown that becoming a parent often results in constraints on time allocation and a perceived state of isolation, making it harder to cope with stress. Smartphones might be a useful tool for parental stress management. For most parents, smartphones are always and easily accessible. Moreover, smartphones can provide many resources such as social support and information and can be used for short periods. Accordingly, first studies show that parents often use their smartphones to cope with stress. However, parental smartphone use has been widely problematized in academic and public discussions because smartphones are said to distract parents from interacting with their children. Research on how parents use smartphones to their benefit is still limited. Moreover, we do not know yet whether and under what circumstances coping using smartphones effectively reduces parental stress. To fill this knowledge gap, I examined in my dissertation how mothers of young children use their smartphones for coping with stress and under what circumstances coping using smartphones is effective. As mothers are still the primary caregivers, my dissertation mainly focuses on mothers. In a first theoretical step, I conducted a systematic scoping review summarizing and integrating the previous literature on media use for coping. Many studies assessed how media are used for coping. However, the literature had not clearly identified where media have their place in stress management models. In the scoping review, I suggested placing media in the transactional model of stress and coping by differentiating between coping strategies, such as social support or distraction and coping tools, such as talking to a friend or using a smartphone. When confronted with a stressful encounter, individuals choose a combination of coping tools and coping strategies to cope with stress. The fit of this combination with the situational circumstances determines whether the coping efforts are successful. Based on this conceptualization, I conducted a qualitative focus groups study and a quantitative experience sampling study (ESS). In the focus group study, building on a synthesis of the literature on digital media use for parenting and smartphone use while parenting, I interviewed parents in a medium-sized city and a parent-child health retreat clinic about how they use their smartphones for stress management. In the ESS, I additionally drew on theoretical conceptualizations from mobile communication and digital wellbeing research. Over 200 mothers filled in four questionnaires a day for one week and answered questions about a stressful situation that had happened in the last two hours. Both studies showed that when mothers are in stressful situations with their children, they mainly use their phones to distract themselves from the stressful encounter and to find information and support. In the focus groups study, parents reported many instances in which they successfully used their phones for stress coping. In the ESS, mothers, however, experienced a smaller stress decrease in stressful situations in which they used their phone than in situations involving no phone use. Using positive phone content, though, was related to increased coping effectiveness. My dissertation also demonstrated that social norms around maternal smartphone use play an important role when mothers use their phones for coping with stress. To explore this, I suggested a social constructivist viewpoint on media use and media effects. This viewpoint posits that the perception of and feelings around ones own media use are just as important for media effects as characteristics of objectively measurable media use, such as usage time. Further, I argue that these media use perceptions are influenced by what others say about media use and are, thus, socially constructed. Confirming the value of this viewpoint, I show in the ESS that mothers who perceived stronger injunctive norms against parental phone use experienced increased guilt when they used their phone for stress coping. Feelings of guilt around phone use in turn were related to a diminished coping effectiveness. Overall, my dissertation shows that by using positive content, mothers can use their smartphones to their benefit when they are confronted with stressful situations. Negative social norms against parental smartphone use can, by inducing guilt, be associated with diminished coping effectiveness when mothers use their phone to cope with stress. Therefore, academic and public discussions around smartphone use should consider the benefits of smartphone use for parents so that a more nuanced debate does not lead to social pressure and feelings of guilt among parents.
... 力中与抑郁情绪呈显著负相关, 而在可控的生活压力中与抑郁情绪呈显著正相关 (Troy et al., 2013); 二是研究者强调情绪调节过程应该考虑不同调节策略与生活情境的交互作用, 即情 绪调节的效果依赖于特定策略和不同情境特征的匹配 (Cheng et al., 2014) English & Eldesouky, 2020)。首先, 相比于实验室研究测量情绪调节灵活性 (Bonanno et al., 2004;Hay et al., 2015;Levy-Gigi et al., 2016;Orejuela-Dá vila et al., 2019), 基于经验取样法可以现实生活中 丰富的生活情境。其次, 丰富的时间点允许对情绪调节策略的动态属性进行刻画 (Hollenstein et al., 2013;Ram & Gerstorf, 2009) (Abramson et al., 1978;Buchwald et al., 1978;Telner & Singhal, 1984) (Thayer et al., 1996), 社交焦虑障碍的个体倾向于隐藏自己在社交情境中的感受或 避免与社交情境相关的刺激 (Heeren & McNally, 2018;Hofmann & Bitran, 2007;Schneier et al., 2011) (Gross, 1998(Gross, , 2015, 分别反应了情绪调节过程模型不同阶段 的调节方式。具体而言, 我们选择了发生在注意部署阶段的分心策略、发生在认知变化阶段 的认知重评和发生在反应修正阶段的表达抑制。同时, 我们也纳入接受、情绪表达以及社会 分享三个常见的调节策略(Flett et al., 2003;Forman et al., 2007;Vincke & Bolton, 1994 ...
... While descriptive content is tailored to UCPPS, the protocol synthesizes [69] evidence-based CBT strategies into 4 modules targeting core transdiagnostic vulnerability factors [70][71][72][73] reflecting a rigid cognitive style expressed as discrete perceptual biases [74]. These include (a) a tendency toward self-immersive, abstract, and repetitive negative thought (RNT) [70] manifested in (b) the inclination to overestimate the probability of negative events (threat expectancy bias) [75][76][77][78]; (c) the tendency to inflate their costs or consequences when they occur (threat interpretative bias) [79][80][81]; (d) extreme negative self-schemas [82] (i.e., dysfunctional misconceptions or core beliefs like perfectionism [83][84][85]); and (e) a rigid, non-discriminative coping style characterized by an overreliance on control-oriented, problem-focused strategies deployed regardless of situational demands (e.g., controllability) [86][87][88][89][90]. Technical components include "real time" self-monitoring to generate a functional analysis of symptoms, their triggers, and responses across multiple domains (cognitive, emotional, somatic, behavioral), diaphragmatic breathing to reduce arousal and enhance personal control, worry control (e.g., evidence-based logic, decatastrophizing) to correct maladaptive information processing style, flexible problem solving, and relapse prevention skills to maintain gains after treatment discontinuation. ...
Article
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Background Urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS) encompasses several common, costly, diagnoses including interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome that are poorly understood and inadequately treated with conventional medical therapies. Behavioral strategies, recommended as a first-line treatment for managing symptoms, are largely inaccessible, time and labor intensive, and technically complex. The Easing Pelvic Pain Interventions Clinical Research Program (EPPIC) is a clinical trial examining the efficacy of low-intensity cognitive behavioral therapy (Minimal Contact CBT or MC-CBT) for UCPPS and its durability 3 and 6 months post treatment. Additional aims include characterizing the operative processes (e.g., cognitive distancing, context sensitivity, coping flexibility, repetitive negative thought) that drive MC-CBT-induced symptom relief and pre-treatment patient variables that moderate differential response. Methods UCPPS patients (240) ages 18–70 years, any gender, ethnicity, and race, will be randomized to 4-session MC-CBT or a credible, non-specific education comparator (EDU) that controls for the generic effects from simply going to treatment. Efficacy assessments will be administered at pre-treatment, 2 weeks, and 3 and 6 months post treatment-week acute phase. A novel statistical approach applied to micro-analytic mediator assessment schedule will permit the specification of the most effective CBT component(s) that drive symptom relief. Discussion Empirical validation of a low-intensity self-management therapy transdiagnostic in scope has the potential to improve the health of chronic pelvic pain patients refractory to medical therapies, reduce social and economic costs, conserve health care resources, as well as inform evidence-based practice guidelines. Identification of change mechanisms and moderators of treatment effects can provide proactive patient-treatment matching fundamental to goals of personalized medicine. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT05127616. Registered on 9/19/21.
... Varying coping strategies in accordance with the pressuring situation is also known as 'coping flexibility'. A meta-analysis has indeed shown that coping flexibility is positively associated with psychological adjustment (Cheng, Lau, & Chan, 2014). Moreover, this association was larger when coping flexibility was defined as a matched fit between a coping strategy and a specific situation. ...
Article
Scholars typically consider parental overprotection to be a maladaptive type of parenting with negative repercussions for adolescents' psychosocial adjustment, with frustration of adolescents' psychological needs serving as an underlying mechanism behind these effects. However, little is known about how adolescents cope with overprotective parenting and how adolescents' coping can alter associations between perceived overprotective parenting and adolescents' maladjustment. In the present study, we examined the moderating role of four coping strategies (i.e. compulsive compliance, oppositional defiance, negotiation and accommodation) using a moderated mediation model based on cross-sectional data of 382 Belgian adolescents (Mage = 17.1 years, 44.5% male). Overall, the results showed that adolescents' coping with overprotective parenting alter to some extent the strength of associations between overprotective parenting and developmental problems. Compulsive compliance in particular appears to be a maladaptive strategy in the context of overprotective parenting. Overall, the results underscore adolescents' active role in overprotective parenting.
... Specifically, the Chronic Care Model [18] is an example of initiative medicine, namely a patient care model for the management of chronic diseases that does not "wait" for the patient to show up in hospital but goes to meet him by planning personalized interventions based on his health needs. In this approach, patients become an active part of their personalized care pathway, and the doctor-patient relationship addresses not only the medical but also the psychological, emotional and social dimensions that scientific literature considers so relevant in the adjustment to chronic diseases [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. ...
Article
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When people receive a diagnosis of chronic or non-communicable disease, they need to reorganize their lives to understand and accommodate the changes associated with the new health condition. This reorganization, which involves the activation of a process through which meaning is given to the illness, could be fostered by narrative methods also in the context of Primary Care. The Sense of Grip on Disease (SoGoD) model intends to focus on the role of sense-meaning-making processes in the psychological adjustment to non-communicable illness, emphasizing the patients' role in managing their own health condition. In this study, the authors propose a mixed-method research method which implies the adaptation of the narrative interview on the Sense of Grip on Disease. The interview was administered to 31 adults suffering from non-communicable diseases and has been analyzed with a theory-driven approach, which aims to explore the modalities of five narrative functions: organization of temporality, integration of illness, expression of emotions, social sharing and orientation to action. Through a Multiple Correspondence Analysis and a Cluster Analysis, the authors have identified two different 'Grip Profiles', called "Dynamic Profile" and "Compliant Profile", representative of different degrees of flexibility, integration and adjustment to disease.
... In this study, we focused on the ability to devise and implement coping strategies, which involves producing available coping strategies and selecting and employing the most appropriate strategy among those available, according to the nature of the specific stressful situation. Recent research regards the functions of coping flexibility itself or of concepts related to coping flexibility as a core component required to cope flexibly with a stressful situation 15,16 . For example, Sheppes and colleagues 17 stated that difficulties in the selection of available strategies and implementation of the selected strategy can lead to depression; this was supported by the only study 13 based on the dual-process theory. ...
Article
Objective: The present study examined the moderating effect of coping flexibility on the association between the coping waiting patiently for interpersonal stressors and depression. Coping flexibility refers to devising and implementing suitable coping strategies according to the situation, coping was defined in this study as holding oneself back and not acting prematurely to address a stressful relationship. Participants: A total of 481 Japanese college students. Methods: Participants completed questionnaires to measure coping, coping flexibility, perceived stress, and depression using a longitudinal design. Results: Multiple regression analysis showed that an interaction between coping and coping flexibility was associated with depression. This result indicated that higher levels of coping was associated with lower depression 16 weeks later when coping flexibility was higher, but the association was not observed when coping flexibility was lower. Conclusions: Our findings contribute to elucidating the condition or process whereby the strategy of waiting patiently as a coping mechanism for interpersonal stressor reduces depression.
... As postulated by the uncertainty theory of anxiety, individuals tend to seek information in an attempt to mitigate their vaccination anxiety. However, coping theories state that the effects of coping may not always be beneficial [29,30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of a constantly mutating novel virus has led to considerable public anxiety amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Information seeking is a common strategy to cope with pandemic anxiety. Using Google Trends analysis, this study investigated public interest in COVID-19 variants and its temporal associations with the disease-prevention measure of vaccination during the initial COVID-19 vaccine rollout period (13 December 2020 to 25 September 2021). Public interest was operationalized as the relative search volume of online queries of variant-related terms in the countries first affected by the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants: the UK, South Africa, and India, respectively. The results show that public interest in COVID-19 variants was greater during the Delta-variant-predominant period than before this period. The time-series cross-correlation analysis revealed positive temporal associations (i.e., greater such public interest was accompanied by an increase in national vaccination rate) tended to occur more frequently and at earlier time lags than the negative temporal associations. This study yielded new findings regarding the temporal changes in public interest in COVID-19 variants, and the between-country variations in these public interest changes can be explained by differences in the rate and pace of vaccination among the countries of interest.
... The lower frequency of exclusive use of adaptive coping strategies among younger individuals may be due to the smaller cognitive and behavioral repertoire for coping with the pandemic in this age group than in older individuals. Cheng et al. (2014) also suggest that older people generally have a greater ability to adapt to life demands because of the greater number of experiences and life patterns they accumulated over time and because of the adaptations required for a healthy aging process. This process leads to greater flexibility in adjusting expectations and, consequently, better psychological adjustment. ...
Article
Objectives: To identify the strategies used by Brazilian adults for coping with the COVID-19 pandemic and to verify the effect of these strategies on subjective distress. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study with online data collection in May/June 2020, November/December 2020, and May/June 2021. The BriefCOPE Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale (IES-R) were used. The prevalence of strategies used at different time points was estimated with a 95% confidence interval and compared with a z-test. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed and the odds ratio (OR, 95%CI) was calculated to verify the probability of subjective distress according to the coping strategy used. Results: Younger individuals had a lower prevalence of adaptive strategies, which increased significantly with age. Participants with higher income levels had a higher prevalence of adaptive strategies, as did those who were never diagnosed with a mental health disorder. The prevalence of using only maladaptive strategies ranged from 6.1% to 5.4% (p > 0.05). The use of problem-centered strategies (Active Coping and Planning), venting of emotions, and substance use increased with time, while acceptance and behavioral disengagement decreased. In general, the population used problem-centered strategies, but the high prevalence of problem avoidance was striking. Positive reinterpretation and acceptance were protective factors for subjective distress, whereas maladaptive strategies increased the chance of distress. The presence of a negative valence component (problem- or emotion-centered) increased the chance of subjective distress, whereas strategies based on Problem Solving acted as a protective factor. Conclusion: Coping strategies were significantly associated to subjective distress and have changed since the beginning of the pandemic. Strategies focused on emotion regulation may be relevant to minimize distress.
... Also, part of this flexibility is related to the tactics used by the individuals to achieve the desired regulation (Ford et al., 2019). Coping flexibility has been consistently found to be related to better psychological adjustment (Cheng et al., 2014), and to be attenuated in participants with MDD, with inflexibility being associated with greater depression severity (Stange et al., 2017). Coping flexibility has been conceptualized in diverse ways, and one source of coping flexibility variation to take into account in future intensive longitudinal research is related to its components, defined in terms of abilities (Bonanno and Burton, 2013): the sensitivity to the situational context, the ability to utilize a repertoire of regulatory strategies, and the ability to monitor feedback and maintain or readjust regulatory strategies as needed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion regulation (ER) is a central target in the study of psychological and neurobiological processes of emotions for numerous psychological disorders. Ecological momentary assessments, overcoming retrospective self-reports, allow a better understanding of the relation between the use of ER strategies and daily life affective experiences. A systematic review and meta-analyses of studies testing these relations through experience sampling methods (ESM) and daily diaries were conducted. ESM studies showed significant large effect sizes between negative affect (NA) and rumination, suppression, and worry, and positive affect (PA) and reappraisal; medium effect sizes between NA and rumination, and PA and distraction; and a small effect size between NA and suppression. Daily diary studies showed significant large effect sizes between NA and rumination and suppression; and PA and reappraisal; medium effect sizes between PA and acceptance, and problem-solving; and a small effect size between NA and reappraisal. These findings shed light on the temporal relations between the use of ER strategies and affective experiences and highlight conceptual and methodological limitations in the field.
... In this context, it can be proposed that the ability to effectively and flexibly deal with emotions, in accordance with internal and external contextual demands, is fundamental to psychological health. This is in accordance with previous proposals on the positive relationship between coping strategies and psychological adjustment (Cheng et al., 2014), where higher levels of flexibility would predict fewer psychological symptoms (Waugh et al., 2011;Southward and Cheavens, 2017). Additionally, previous reports exist about the importance of emotion regulation for cognition in humans not only on a daily basis but at different life stages. ...
Article
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Background: Stressful situations and psychopathology symptoms (e.g., depression and anxiety) shape how individuals regulate and respond to others’ emotions. However, how emotional expressions influence mental health and impact intrapersonal and interpersonal experiences is still unclear. Objective: Here, we used the Flexible Regulation of Emotional Expression (FREE) scale to explore the relationship between emotion expression abilities with affective symptoms and mental health markers. Methods: From a sample of 351 participants, we firstly validate a German version of the FREE scale on a final sample of 222 participants located in Germany, recruited through an online platform. Following, we performed confirmatory factor analyses to assess the model structure of the FREE-scale. We then utilize a LASSO regression to determine which indicators of psychopathology symptoms and mental health are related to emotional expressive regulation and determine their particular interactions through the general linear model. Results: We replicated the FREE scale’s four latent factors (i.e. ability to enhance and suppress positive as well as negative emotional expressions). After selection of relevant instruments through LASSO regression, the suppress ability showed specific negative associations with depression (r=.2) and stress symptoms (r=.16) and positive associations with readiness to confront distressing situations (r=.25), self-support (r=.2) and tolerance of emotions (r=.2). Both, emotional expression enhance and suppress abilities positively associated with coping markers (resilience) and emotion regulation skills. Finally, the interaction effects between emotional flexibility abilities and stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms evidenced that consistently with the flexibility theory, enhance and suppress abilities may predict psychopathological symptoms. Conclusions: These findings emphasize the importance of considering the flexibility to express emotions as a relevant factor for preserved mental health or development of psychopathological symptoms and indicate that online surveys may serve as a reliable indicator of mental health.
... The above predicted appraisal-ER strategy use connections are expected to reflect how ER flexibility is expressed in daily life, as evidenced by within-individual variance in the use of each specific ER strategy, depending on momentary stress appraisals (see also Goodman et al., 2021). ER flexibility is thought to be a central marker of adaptive emotional functioning and is impaired in conditions of high affective symptomatology such as elevated depression or anxiety levels (Bonanno & Burton, 2013;Cheng et al., 2014;Haines et al., 2016). In the present study, it was further examined whether the hypothesized flexible patterns of ER strategy use in stressful contexts are modulated by individual differences in depression and/or anxiety levels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Flexible use of emotion regulation (ER) strategies in daily life is theorized to depend on appraisals of occurring stressful events. Yet, to date, little is known about (a) how appraisals of the current situation modulate the use of ER strategies in daily life and (b) how individual differences in affective symptoms impact these relations among appraisals and ER strategy use. This study attempted to address these two limitations using a 5-day experience sampling protocol, with three surveys administered per day in a sample of 97 participants. Each survey measured momentary appraisals of stress intensity and controllability as well as ER strategy use (i.e., rumination, reappraisal, avoidance, and active coping). Results showed that, in situations of low-stress intensity, higher stress controllability was related to greater use of reappraisal and rumination. In situations of high-stress intensity, higher controllability was related to reduced use of rumination. This pattern of flexible use of ER strategies depending on momentary stress appraisals was found for both rumination and avoidance and occurred specifically in individuals reporting lower levels of depression and/or anxiety levels. These findings provide new insight into how flexible use of ER strategies in daily life is modulated by interactions between stress intensity and controllability appraisals at varying levels of affective symptoms. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42761-022-00122-9.
... Regarding implications for the promotion of mental health in higher education settings, in the Health, Counseling and Disability Services blog at Finders University, Garth Furber (142) indicates that Resilience is not an optional extra, not something that is nice to have, but something essential to build (143)(144)(145). The competency model for studying, learning, and performing under stress (SLPS competency) has considered resilience a metamotivational variable, coping strategies to be meta-emotional variables, and engagement-burnout an emotional state that favors or hinders learning and academic achievement. ...
Book
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Children and adolescents face many challenges in today’s fast changing society and constantly have to overcome increasing levels of adversity in order to achieve success. Enhancing the ability of young people to cope with adversity by training in resilience skills has been the objective of several interventions and programs in the past years. Resilience programs promote the development of protective and preventive factors, both at a personal and social level, that can help to overcome socio-emotional challenges in a positive and adaptive way. Past work has shown the importance of training resilience of youth by leveraging on relevant activities they typically perform in formal and informal learning environments. This Frontiers Research Topics eBook presents 20 peer reviewed papers published in Frontiers in Psychiatry on promoting resilience in young people, with a particular focus on evidence-based resilience programs in promoting mental well-being in youth, both in the short and long term. Several contributions present evaluations of existing and new resilience programs for children and young people.
... These findings support our formulation and those of Miller (1981) that aspects of the pandemic as a stressor such as its high uncertainty, enduring intensity, and abundance of potential distractors may encourage people to choose distraction as their go-to coping strategy. These findings also add to the coping flexibility literature (Bonanno & Burton, 2013;Cheng et al., 2014), which states that people may select and implement different coping strategies to address different types of stressors. One limitation of this and other findings from this study, however, is that we did not have pre-pandemic measurements of these stressor aspects and distraction use, which would have allowed us to test whether these stressor aspects actually caused people to differentially select distraction. ...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic was a novel chronic stressor that necessitated figuring out how to cope with it. We hypothesized that disengagement coping - coping with a stressor by disengaging from it - would be effective because the pandemic featured heightened uncertainty and enduring intensity. Design: We assessed the disengagement strategies of distraction - taking a break from a stressor - and avoidance - avoiding thoughts and feelings associated with a stressor - and emotional well-being outcomes (positive/negative emotions, stress) in three waves one week apart (305 participants completed all three waves). Results: Distraction was one of the most frequently endorsed coping strategies. The results of multi-level models and cross-lagged panel models showed that participants who used distraction habitually experienced better emotional well-being overall and that using distraction led to better emotional well-being that week, but did not predict increases in well-being from one week to the next. Those who used avoidance also experienced better emotional well-being that week, but habitual use of avoidance was associated with worse emotional well-being overall. Conclusions: These findings suggest that in the midst of chronic stressors like this pandemic, the disengagement coping strategy of distraction is popular and effective for temporarily improving people's well-being.
... ( ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺭﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬ ) ٣٣ ( ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜـﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺒﻌـﺎﺩ‬ ) ‫ﻥ‬ ١ = ١٢ ‫ﻥ‬ ، ٢ = ١٠ ‫ﻥ‬ ، ٣ = ١١ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ .( ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺼـﺎﺌﺹ‬ (Cheng et al., 2014(Cheng et al., , 1585 ...
Article
Extending literature on youth coping and stress physiology, this two‐wave longitudinal study examined independent and interactive roles of youth coping with daily stressors (i.e., peer, academic) and cardiac autonomic functioning in subsequent social and academic adjustment across the transition to middle school. Our sample consisted of 100 typically developing youth (10–12 years old at Time 1, 53 boys, 43% ethnic minorities) who reported on their coping strategies in response to peer and academic stress. Youth participated in laboratory tasks (i.e., baseline, mother–youth conversations about youth's actual peer and academic challenges) during which sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were recorded, and cardiac autonomic functioning indicators were derived. Youth, mothers, and teachers reported on various aspects of youths’ social and academic adjustment at Times 1 and 2. Results revealed that, for both peer and academic domains, greater use of engagement coping strategies was prospectively linked with better adjustment 7 months later, but only among youth who exhibited higher (greater sympathetic–parasympathetic coactivation) but not lower (limited coactivation, or coinhibition) cardiac autonomic regulation at baseline. Findings suggest that a match between more engagement coping behaviors and greater cardiac autonomic capacity to coactivate the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches is linked with better social and academic adjustment.
Chapter
Adaptive intelligence features collective adaptation as a hallmark of human intelligence. Any thought and behavior labeled as adaptively intelligent must contribute to the perpetuation of human populations instead of being destructive to this perpetuation. Whereas most intellectual capacities captured by conventional IQ tests can be replaced by “intelligent” machines, adaptive intelligence—the ability to deliver contextually relevant outputs for the survival and sustainable development of humans and the world they inhabit—may be a uniquely human ability. In this chapter, we link adaptive intelligence to cultural evolution theories. We further propose that adaptive intelligence is supported by a concatenation of mutually reinforcing individual and interpersonal capacities. These capacities have evolved and are evolving to support adaptation of human populations to the environment and its changes. Furthermore, adaptive intelligence is solution-oriented; it enables human groups to identify/create and implement optimally adaptive strategies to meet challenges in concrete physical, socioeconomic and social ecologies. Based on these ideas, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding, measuring and developing a psychological system of adaptive intelligence.
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine (a) to what extent demographic covariates, foundational and emerging positive psychology traits (FEPPTs), and PERMA uniquely predict college life adjustment, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and life satisfaction of student military veterans; (b) PERMA as a happiness and well-being model for college life adjustment, HRQOL, and life satisfaction among student veterans; and (c) FEPPTs as predictors of PERMA. In addition, we tested whether total PERMA scores mediate the relationship between service-connected disability and college adjustment. A total of 205 student veterans responded to an online survey. Results revealed that demographic covariates (e.g., service-connected disability), FEPPTs (e.g., optimism), and PERMA (e.g., positive emotion) significantly accounted for college life adjustment, HRQOL, and life satisfaction of student veterans. In addition, a mediation analysis revealed that PERMA partially mediated the relationship between service-connected disability and college life adjustment of student veterans. The results of this study provide empirical supports for the use of PERMA as a comprehensive well-being model of college life adjustment for student veterans.
Chapter
Coping with stressful events is a basic process integral to adaptation and survival. Coping involves how people of all ages detect, appraise, and respond or deal with stressful encounters, including threats, challenges, and loss. Decades of research has described the complexity of coping as it unfolds over each stressful event episode and develops with age and experience. In particular, researchers have considered how individuals vary in their coping responses to stressful events and how coping helps to explain why stressors can result in ill health, psychopathology, or resilience and growth. New directions include consolidation of the many ways of coping reported across thousands of published studies, developmental theories, complex methodologies that augment cross-sectional studies based on self-report questionnaires, identification of coping flexibility as an adaptive response to stress, and studies of interventions that identify the most important coping responses for recovery from stressful life experiences.
Article
Researchers have examined the efficacy of a horticultural stress management program for menopausal women. The quasi-experimental research design was employed by providing stress management and horticulture techniques to the experimental group (n = 55), whereas an informational pamphlet was given to the control group (n = 42). Moreover, this management program was comprised of hands-on training (Herb testing and smelling, Rocky Leaf prints, Grass Doll activity, and Kokedama activity), short lectures, and group discussions (sessions) for two hours, once a week, and continued for four weeks. Data was gathered from public-related activities i.e., camps on women’s health and it consisted of three stages; before and after management and one month after completion of the intervention. The primary goal was to increase the stress coping ability, while the secondary goal was to enhance the psychological well-being and decrease menopausal symptoms. The aspects of horticultural attitude, cognitive flexibility, manageability, and knowledge of menopause were measured by using ANCOVA on SPSS 17 v. All the aspects significantly improved in the experimental group. Knowledge of menopause, horticultural attitude, cognitive flexibility, and manageability of stress significantly improved in the experimental group.
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Background: The number of never-married women is increasing worldwide. According to a recent census (2016) this trend is also apparent in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate how never-married Iranian women to cope with their single status. Methods: The present study was qualitative in nature. Purposeful sampling with maximum variation was used to select 18 never-married women aged over 35. Data were analyzed on the basis of conventional content analysis and inductive reasoning. Results: 154 codes, nine subcategories, three categories, and one theme were extracted. The three categories were: (1) responding to sexual needs (sub-categories: having sex; masturbation; sexual abstinence); (2) responding to emotional needs (sub-categories: getting used to being alone; living with family; closer relationship with good friends); (3) lifestyle changes (subcategories: accepting God's destiny; striving for beauty and health; becoming absorbed in work and education). Conclusions: Results showed that never-married women aged over 35 tried to adapt to sexual and emotional needs and lifestyle changes as proxies of singleness in various ways. It appears that these women adopted several strategies to cope with the lack of a spouse, children, or family life, these normally being developmental tasks characteristic of early adulthood.
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Представлены результаты исследования, направленного на выявление роли когнитивной флексибильности в проявлении оптимистического атрибутивного стиля и стратегиях совладающего поведения. В исследовании приняли участие 269 респондентов.Уровень выраженности когнитивной флексибильности оценивался при помощи «Опросника когнитивной флексибильности». Для диагностики оптимистического атрибутивного стиля применялся «Опросник стиля объяснения успехов и неудач» для взрослых, с целью определения копинг-стратегий была использована методика «Стратегии совладающего поведения». Результаты исследования показали различия в группах с высоким, средним и низким уровнем когнитивной флексибильности: параметры атрибутивного стиля «стабильность» и «глобальность», «общий показатель оптимизма» и «оптимизм в ситуациях успеха» характеризуют респондентов с высокими и средними показателями когнитивной флексибильности, параметр «контроль» атрибутивного стиля выражен у лиц с высокими показателями исследуемой способности. Параметры «альтернативы» и «контроль» когнитивной флексибильности выступают предикторами выбора некоторых стратегий совладающего поведения и атрибутивного стиля. Стратегии «планирование решения проблемы» и «положительная переоценка» продемонстрировали обусловленность обоими параметрами когнитивной флексибильности. Стратегия «самоконтроль» обусловлена параметром «альтернативы» с положительным значением, а стратегия «бегство-избегание» – отрицательным показателем параметра «Контроль» когнитивной флексибильности. Структура исследуемой выборки представлена в трех профилях. Первый характеризуется (n = 110) средними значениями исследуемых показателей, второй профиль (n = 130) представлен респондентами с высокими показателями, третий профиль (n = 29) включает респондентов с низкими значениями.
Article
Objectives This study focused on the negative affect of informal caregivers of older adults. In a novel investigation, the interplay of aging anxiety, caregiving burden, and resilience as a protective factor was examined, suggesting that aging anxiety and caregiving burden are mediators for the link between resilience and negative affect. Methods In a cross-sectional design, 191 Israeli informal caregivers of older adults (65+) participated in the study. They completed questionnaires that assessed demographic and caregiving characteristics, resilience, aging anxiety, caregiving burden, and negative affect. Results The findings showed a serial mediation process in which higher resilience predicted lower caregiving burden, which subsequently predicted lower aging anxiety, which subsequently predicted lower negative affect. However, the indirect path from resilience to aging anxiety and negative affect was non-significant. Conclusion Based on this study’s findings, the aging anxiety of informal caregivers of older adults should be professionally addressed in the early stages of caregiving because it contributes to the caregiving burden and negative affect. Additionally, resilience should be enhanced by psycho-social interventions tailored to address informal caregiver challenges that often induce caregiving burden and negative affect.
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The article deals with coping flexibility, yet incomplete theory concerning the assumption of an individual to successfully manage stressful situations, and focuses on the practical use of this theory when using questionnaires in psychological assessment. This theory is so far under-represented in the Czech literature, so the aim of this article is to present it and demonstrate its possible use in practice. Hence, the theoretical part is elaborated in more detail, which is illustrated by empirical research. The aim of the research survey is qualitative preliminary study, which could be followed by quantitative verification. The sample consists of 10 undergraduate students in the field of psychology. The theoretical concept of the Balanced Profile was chosen for the research part. The SVF-78 questionnaire is used here and research concepts for its individual stress strategies were obtained using the open coding method. The results of the research bring new contexts for psychotherapeutic and counselling interventions in working with the SVF-78 questionnaire and a basis for follow-up work.
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Introduction: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the factor structure of Spanish translation and adaptation of the Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (CFI) in a sample of Colombian adults. Method: The sample of the study was n = 968. Respondents were aged between 18 and 52 years old (Mage=22.81, SD=4.42). Descriptive analyses, confirmatory factor analysis, and Cronbach's Alpha calculation were carried out. Results: Internal consistency for the global scale was high (α=.89). Likewise, the coefficients of the Alternative factor and the Control factor were similar (α=.90, 95% CI=.89-.90 and α=.83, 95% CI=.81-.85, respectively). A two-factor structure performed best according to the results of model selection criteria. This model suggested the existence of two correlated factors, with correlated items within factors (Item19 Item20 and Item8 Item10). Conclusions: Overall, the results suggest that the CFI scale exhibits construct validity and adequate reliability, both for the general scale and the subscales in the Colombian sample, enabling their use in contexts such as clinical or research.
Article
Objective: This study used a randomized clinical trial design to evaluate the success with which The Building a Strong Identity and Coping Skills intervention (BaSICS) engaged the proximal mechanisms of poverty-related stress's impact on the psychosocial functioning and mental health of young adolescents living in high poverty contexts. Method: 129 youth from very low-income families were randomized to receive the 32-hour group-based intervention or no-treatment control - 16 of these families withdrew before the intervention groups began. The remaining 113 youth aged 11-12 (53% assigned to intervention; 54% female; 40% Hispanic, 63% Black, 20% White) participated in the study, which included four assessment waves: pretest, posttest, 6-month follow-up and 12-month follow-up assessments. Primary control, secondary control, and disengagement coping were assessed via a combination of parent and youth reports as well as via interviews and questionnaires. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) reactivity was assessed via salivary cortisol responses occurring during a lab-based stress induction (Trier Social Stress Test). Results: Multilevel regression models with repeated measures nested within subjects revealed that in comparison to controls, intervention youth had sustained significant increases in their knowledge about primary control coping (e.g., problem solving, emotion modulation), knowledge and utilization of secondary control (e.g., cognitive restructuring) coping, as well as decreased reliance on disengagement coping. These were accompanied by decreased cortisol reactivity in intervention versus control youth. Conclusions: These findings support that BaSICS engages several proximal mechanisms of poverty-related stress' impact on early adolescent mental health - coping skills and HPA reactivity - during the neurodevelopmentally plastic pubertal period.
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Are Americans more individualistic and less collectivistic than members of other groups? The authors summarize plausible psychological implications of individualism–collectivism (IND-COL), metaanalyze cross-national and within-United States IND-COL differences, and review evidence for effectsof IND-COL on self-concept, well-being, cognition, and relationality. European Americans were found to be both more individualistic—valuing personal independence more—and less collectivistic—feeling duty to in-groups less—than others. However, European Americans were not more individualistic than African Americans, or Latinos, and not less collectivistic than Japanese or Koreans. Among Asians, only Chinese showed large effects, being both less individualistic and more collectivistic. Moderate IND-COL effects were found on self-concept and relationality, and large effects were found on attribution and cognitive style.
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Coping flexibility is defined as; “the management of coping strategies in correspondence to changes of controllability in stressful situations”. It is considered an important factor in decreasing stress responses. The desire for control is an individual factor that obstructs coping flexibility. The present study examined the effects of the desire for control on the adoption of coping strategies and stress responses in situations when controllability declined. Twenty-five subjects with high desire for control and 25 with low desire for control were selected by the Desirability of Control Scale. We generated controllability of aversive situations by using gradually decreasing ratios of answerable mental arithmetic tasks through the experimental sessions. Subjects with high desire for control tended to adopt a problem-focused coping strategy in spite of the decline of controllability. These subjects also showed a high depressive mood and high systolic blood pressure. These results indicated that coping persistency might cause high effort and stress.
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People respond to stressful events in different ways, depending on the event and on the regulatory strategies they choose. Coping and emotion regulation theorists have proposed dynamic models in which these two factors, the person and the situation, interact over time to inform adaptation. In practice, however, researchers have tended to assume that particular regulatory strategies are consistently beneficial or maladaptive. We label this assumption the fallacy of uniform efficacy and contrast it with findings from a number of related literatures that have suggested the emergence of a broader but as yet poorly defined construct that we refer to as regulatory flexibility. In this review, we articulate this broader construct and define both its features and limitations. Specifically, we propose a heuristic individual differences framework and review research on three sequential components of flexibility for which propensities and abilities vary: sensitivity to context, availability of a diverse repertoire of regulatory strategies, and responsiveness to feedback. We consider the methodological limitations of research on each component, review questions that future research on flexibility might address, and consider how the components might relate to each other and to broader conceptualizations about stability and change across persons and situations. © The Author(s) 2013.
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This paper presents the validation of the Career Adapt- Abilities Scale (CAAS) in the Philippine context. The CAAS consists of four subscales, with six items each, measuring self-regulative psychosocial resources (e.g., concern, curiosity, control, and confidence) for coping with occupational tasks and transitions. Filipino university students (N = 289) and working adults (N = 495) participated in the study. Internal consistency estimates for the full scale and subscales ranged from .87 to .97. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the multidimensional and hierarchical model of career adaptability. The factor structure was similar to that obtained from the CAAS international validation from 18 countries. Results also suggested that career adaptability was positively associated with adaptivity in the form of tenacious goal pursuit and flexible goal adjustment as well as with adaptation outcomes of career satisfaction and promotability. Overall, the findings confirm the utility of CAAS in the Philippine context and support the model that states higher levels of personal adaptivity (willingness) and career adaptability (competence) relate to better adaptation outcomes in terms of career success.
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Meta-analysis collects and synthesizes results from individual studies to estimate an overall effect size. If published studies are chosen, say through a literature review, then an inherent selection bias may arise, because, for example, studies may tend to be published more readily if they are statistically significant, or deemed to be more “interesting” in terms of the impact of their outcomes. We develop a simple rank-based data augmentation technique, formalizing the use of funnel plots, to estimate and adjust for the numbers and outcomes of missing studies. Several nonparametric estimators are proposed for the number of missing studies, and their properties are developed analytically and through simulations. We apply the method to simulated and epidemiological datasets and show that it is both effective and consistent with other criteria in the literature.
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In this study, the authors tested four cultural models—independence, interdependence, conflict, and integration—that describe the hypothesized relationships between dimensions of self-construal and components of subjective well-being among individualistic and collectivistic countries. Collectivistic countries that have undergone rapid socioeconomic changes (i.e., East Asian countries) and those with limited changes (i.e., African countries) were differentiated. Participants were 791 university students from four Western countries, 749 university students from three East Asian countries, and 443 university students from three African countries. Findings provided some support for the applicability of (a) the independence model to individuals from Western countries and (b) the integration model to individuals from East Asian countries. Mixed results were found among the African countries. The interdependence model is more applicable to African participants from the sub-Saharan region, but the integration model is more applicable to those from the North African region.
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Based on attachment theory and recent findings with adults on relations between narrative coherence and well-being, we hypothesized that mothers who are more securely attached and who cope more effectively would be more engaged and more emotionally expressive in mother-child co-constructed narratives about stressful events. Twenty-seven mostly white mixed-SES mothers and their 9- to 12-year-old children with asthma were asked to discuss two asthmaspecific stressful events together: a chronic parent-child conflict and an acute asthma attack. Few relations emerged for the asthma attack event, although, against predictions, mothers who were more anxiously attached were more engaged and more explanatory in these narratives than mothers who were less anxiously attached. For the conflict event, mothers who were more anxiously attached talked more about other people’s emotions than did mothers who were less anxiously attached, and mothers who cope more effectively were more engaged, more emotionally expressive, and more explanatory, and, in turn, their children showed more flexible coping.
Article
Discriminative facility was proposed as a cognitive process and need for closure was proposed as a motivational process underlying coping flexibility. The dual-process model posits that need for closure influences discriminative facility, which in turn modifies coping flexibility and psychological adjustment. In Study 1, results of structural equation modeling provided support for the dual-process model. This model was further examined using experimental methods (Study 2) and a prospective design (Study 3). Consistent with the dual-process model, results from all 3 studies showed that participants who were more motivated to seek alternative coping strategies tended to encode stressful situations in a more differentiated way. These individuals used a greater variety of strategies to fit different situational demands and were better adjusted.
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Article
Effective coping is based upon a good balance between problem- and emotion-focused strategies. Thus, stress management trainings (SMT) should aim at supplementing rather than reinforcing one-sided coping-profiles. In this study differential SMT-induced changes of coping profiles were investigated. 82 healthy working persons took part in a 12-week- SMT and 55 matched persons formed a no intervention control group (CG). Standardized questionaires on coping, well-being and complaints were administered before and after the intervention in both study groups. Hierarchical cluster analysis and subsequent K-means iterative partitioning were performed on initial coping scores. Differential changes in coping clusters were then analyzed using analyses of covariance. Cluster analyses resulted in a 3- cluster solution: 1 "active-flexible coping" (n = 53), 2 "one-sided problemfocused coping" (n = 40) and 3 "resignative-avoidant coping" (n = 44). SMT-participants of Cluster II showed significant improvements regarding emotion-focused coping and those of cluster III regarding problem-focused coping when compared to CG-persons of the same cluster. Only these differential changes in coping were associated with improvements of well-being. It is concluded that participation in SMT led to improved coping by differentially balancing one-sided initial coping-profiles.
Conference Paper
All individuals have multiple views of themselves. Whereas the consistency among the different aspects of identity is emphasized in Western cultures, the "multiple selves" are often viewed as coexisting realities in East Asian cultures. This research revisits the classic thesis in psychology that identity consistency is a prerequisite condition of psychological well-being. Between individuals (Study 1), people with a more consistent self-view had a more clear self-knowledge, were more assertive, and, most notably, had self-experiences that were less affected by the perspectives of others. Compared with North American participants. (Study 2), Koreans viewed themselves more flexibly across situations, and their subjective well-being was less predictable from levels of identity consistency. Also, consistent individuals received positive social evaluations from others in the United States but not in Korea.
Article
This research sought to formulate a theoretically based conceptualization of coping flexibility and to adopt a multimethod approach in assessing this construct. A self-report daily measure and an experiment were designed geared to theoretical and empirical grounds. The new daily measure was used in Study I to examine coping flexibility in a life transition. Findings showed individual differences in patterns of coping flexibility across different real-life stressful events. In Study 2, coping flexibility was examined in both real-life and laboratory settings. Results replicated those of Study I and further revealed consistency between the self-report and the experiment data. Study 3 extended previous studies by adopting a longitudinal design over a 3-month time span. Participants' flexibility in coping with laboratory tasks was found to predict how flexible they would be in handling real-life stressful events.
Chapter
Background Although the influence of wealth, status and power on health has been documented across different cultures for centuries (Liberatos, Link & Kelsey, 1988), it was not until the nineteenth century that more systematic scientific evidence emerged showing that those who were more affluent lived longer and healthier (e.g. by Villermé (1840) in France, Chadwick (1842) in Britain and Virchow (1848) in Germany). However, with the advance of bacteriology in the late nineteenth century and the ensuing dominance of the biomedical paradigm of health and illness, considerations of socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to health were largely put aside and confined to its role as a control variable (House, 2002). With the realization of the limits of modern medicine, interest in social epidemiology and medical sociology grew again during the second half of the twentieth century (Bloom, 2002) and so did the output of research looking at SES, in particular poverty, and health. These early studies assumed a threshold effect of SES on health (Adler & Ostrove, 1999, see Figure 1); increases in income were thought to improve health only beneath, not above, a given ‘poverty line’. As discussed below, however, emerging evidence showed the picture to be far more complex than this. Main observations Socioeconomic status as used in research is a conglomeration of various concepts which centre around indicators of desirable social and material attributes.
Article
A dual-process framework is proposed for understanding how the self-system negotiates the conflicting demands of ensuring a stable pursuit of goals and plans while adjusting to changes that affect their attainability. The model distinguishes two basic modes of reducing discrepancies between desired and factual situations or developmental outcomes: The assimilative mode comprises intentional efforts to modify the actual situation in accordance with personal goals, whereas the accommodative mode engages mechanisms that promote the adjustment of goals to constraints and changes in action resources. Differential conditions, underlying cognitive mechanisms, as well as life-course implications of these regulatory modes are specified. Empirical findings are presented that illustrate the explanatory scope of the model and its implications for well-being, efficacy, and successful aging.
Article
“Coping flexibility” was newly defined. Moreover, the effect of decreasing stress responses were investigated from the following points: (a) variation of cognitive appraisal and coping in different situations, (b) variations in cognitive appraisal and coping using an unsuitable coping strategy, (c) goodness of fit between cognitive appraisal and coping, (d) discriminating between problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, (e) variation of coping from a tri-axis perspective. University student participants (n = 88) responded to the coping flexibility questionnaire, which identified their coping pattern for three stressful events. Stress responses were measured on four occasions during teaching practice. Cluster analysis of coping flexibility patterns indicated four groups: “inflexible and emotion-focused”, “flexible”, “cognitively flexibility and problem-focused”, “cognitively flexibility and not fit”. Results of an analysis of variance revealed that the “flexible” group experienced less somatic symptoms and social dysfunction than the “cognitive flexible and not fit” group. These results suggest that coping flexibility contribute to mental health.
Article
This volume considers the problem of quantitatively summarizing results from a stream of studies, each testing a common hypothesis. In the simplest case, each study yields a single estimate of the impact of some intervention. Such an estimate will deviate from the true effect size as a function of random error because each study uses a finite sample size. What is distinctive about this chapter is that the true effect size itself is regarded as a random variable taking on different values in different studies, based on the belief that differences between the studies generate differences in the true effect sizes. This approach is useful in quantifying the heterogeneity of effects across studies, incorporating such variation into confidence intervals, testing the adequacy of models that explain this variation, and producing accurate estimates of effect size in individual studies. After discussing the conceptual rationale for the random effects model, this chapter provides a general strategy for answering a series of questions that commonly arise in research synthesis: 1. Does a stream of research produce heterogeneous results? That is, do the true effect sizes vary? 2. If so, how large is this variation? 3. How can we make valid inferences about the average effect size when the true effect sizes vary? 4. Why do study effects vary? Specifically do observable differences between studies in their target populations, measurement approaches, definitions of the treatment, or historical contexts systematically predict the effect sizes? 5. How effective are such models in accounting for effect size variation? Specifically, how much variation in the true effect sizes does each model explain? 6. Given that the effect sizes do indeed vary, what is the best estimate of the effect in each study? I illustrate how to address these questions by re-analyzing data from a series of experiments on teacher expectancy effects on pupil's cognitive skill. My aim is to illustrate, in a comparatively simple setting, to a broad audience with a minimal background in applied statistics, the conceptual framework that guides analyses using random effects models and the practical steps typically needed to implement that framework. Although the conceptual framework guiding the analysis is straightforward, a number of technical issues must be addressed satisfactorily to ensure the validity the inferences. To review these issues and recent progress in solving them requires a somewhat more technical presentation. Appendix 16A considers alternative approaches to estimation theory, and appendix 16B considers alternative approaches to uncertainty estimation, that is, the estimation of standard errors, confidence intervals, and hypothesis tests. These appendices together provide re-analyses of the illustrative data under alternative approaches, knowledge of which is essential to those who give technical advice to analysts.
Article
Investigated the functional relations among cognitive appraisal and coping processes and their short-term outcomes within stressful encounters. The authors used an intraindividual analysis of the interrelations among primary appraisal (what was at stake in the encounter), secondary appraisal (coping options), 8 forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and encounter outcomes in a sample of 85 married couples (females aged 35–45 yrs and males aged 26–54 yrs). Findings show that coping was strongly related to cognitive appraisal; the forms of coping that were used varied depending on what was at stake and the options for coping. Coping was also differentially related to satisfactory and unsatisfactory encounter outcomes. Findings clarify the functional relations among appraisal and coping variables and the outcomes of stressful encounters. (47 ref)