Article

Consumer Attitudes and Preferences for Fresh Market Tomatoes

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Unlabelled: This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Practical application: Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Thus, greater emphasis is being laid on determining value preferences of consumers in terms of quality attributes they look for in fresh produce so that value chain activities can be upgraded accordingly (Adegbola et al., 2018). It is now commonly held belief that businesses operating along the chains cannot increase their profits without adequately meeting requirements of their target consumer markets located in different areas (Heuvel et al., 2007;Oltman et al., 2014). Value preferences of consumers living in different areas may have similarities as well as dissimilarities due to various socio-economic and cultural reasons (Kotler and Keller, 2016). ...
... 2006; Causse et al., 2010;Martínez-Carrasco et al., 2012;Alamanos et al., 2013;Oltman et al., 2014;Adegbola et al., 2018). However, such consumer research on tomatoes is unavailable in Pakistan. ...
... The study included six search (shape, peel colour, large size, freshness, undamaged and unblemished), nine experience (firmness, aroma, ease of peeling, pulp colour, sweet taste, ripeness, shelf-life, juiciness and seed presence), three safety (cleanliness, pesticide and origin) and six market-related attributes (price, retailer cleanliness, packaging, grading, certification and information provision). These quality attributes were identified from related studies (Causse et al., 2010;Oltman et al., 2014;Adegbola et al., 2018). Later, brief discussions with few consumers and experts were held to finalize these attributes in the local context. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study determined value preferences of consumers for fresh tomatoes in Karachi, Lahore and Faisalabad – the three major cities of Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to identify tomato quality attributes consumers considered important in their purchase decisions. To this end, a survey of 275 consumers of fresh tomatoes was conducted in the selected cities. Using convenient sampling technique, consumers were approached when they had finished buying vegetables at retail shops in different localities of the selected cities. For conducting face to face interviews, a questionnaire was developed from reviewing related studies and holding brief discussions with consumers. Data were captured on consumption and purchase preferences and consumer importance ratings on various quality attributes of tomatoes. Collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. Results revealed both similarities and dissimilarities in consumption and purchase preferences for fresh tomatoes in three cities. The study did not find statistically significant differences among consumers in their preferences for most of the experience, safety and marketing attributes. Consumers largely differed in their preferences for search attributes. The study suggests that tomato value chain participants should deliver their produce according to the requirements of their target markets. For delivering fresh, undamaged and unblemished tomatoes, they need to upgrade their production, harvesting and marketing practices and improve collaboration among them. The study also urges related public-sector institutions to consider consumer requirements in designing their support activities because profitability of stakeholders in tomato value chains particularly growers cannot be enhanced without meeting these requirements.
... The attributes and their levels are presented in Table IV. The attributes and levels were chosen based on literature research (Adeoye et al., 2015;Causse et al., 2010;Oltman et al., 2014) and were validated in discussions with experts. The experts Tomato attributes and consumer preferences included marketing experts, tomato breeding experts, breeders and experts on the quality of plant products. ...
... In the present study, the results indicated that colour was not the most important attribute of tomatoes, in contrast to previous research (Oltman et al., 2014). Different segments valued colour differently. ...
... Segments 1, 5 and 6 strongly preferred small tomatoes; Segment 2 had no clear preference, while Segment 4 preferred large tomatoes (however, for Segment 4 the colour of the tomatoes is in the foreground of the judgement). In a study by Oltman et al. (2014) in the US, tomatoes of a baseball size were classified as mediumsized and were preferred. This result is different to our findings. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Vegetables are an important component of a healthy diet. Given that tomatoes are the most purchased vegetable in Germany, the purpose of this paper is to focus on how consumers evaluate tomatoes during their food choice. Each consumer has different preferences and, in order to target them, it is necessary to identify consumer groups. The study segments tomato consumers into homogenous target groups. Design/methodology/approach A choice experiment was used to simulate the buying situation in a supermarket. The data were analysed using latent class analysis, as well as principal component factor analysis to measure food-related lifestyles. The sample consisted of 1,027 consumers and was representative of the characteristics of gender, age, educational level and income for the German population. Findings Consumers perceive air transportation and plastic wrapping as most climate damaging in tomato production. Six different tomato consumer groups were identified and named according to the attribute they found most important, i.e. “Balanced consumers”, “Price-conscious consumers”, “Taste enthusiasts”, “Colour-sensitive consumers”, “Price-conscious consumers with a taste preference” and “Colour- and price-sensitive consumers”. In three clusters, colour was the most important attribute. However, green and yellow tomatoes were rejected by all segments, indicating communication problems. Originality/value The results of this study provide breeders and marketers with valuable insights into the factors driving tomato choice. The information was based on a large sample and will help breeders to select the types of tomatoes that are in demand by consumers.
... Cherry-or mini-tomatoes have been stood out among tomato types that have been showing high demand for fresh consumption (Guilherme et al., 2014), mainly those from special hybrids, such as the sweet-grape tomato. The main characteristics of sweet-grape tomatoes is low acidity index, high contents of sugar and soluble solids (Junqueira et al., 2011), small size, elongated shape, and intense red color, which ensure a good acceptability by consumers (Oltman et al., 2014) and results in a high consumption, making the crop economically viable (Sandri et al., 2015). Fruits from this hybrid represents up to 10% of the total horticulture sales, despite being 20% to 40% more expensive than those from common tomato types (Junqueira et al., 2011). ...
... The fruit firmness was affected only by the N rates where 50% of N rate was better than 100 and 125% (Table 4). Total soluble solid contents, fruit specific volume, fruit density and firmness are importance aspects related to resistance of fruits to post-harvest handling, and maintenance of physical quality during transport and distribution, that affect the acceptability of the product by the consumer (Oltman et al., 2014). ...
... The treatment with 50% of the recommended rate presented higher values of light, showing that the consumer considers bright-appearance fruits more attractive. The results confirm those of Oltman et al. (2014), who evaluated different types of fresh tomatoes and found that consumers consider color as the most important attribute. Nitrogen application is needed to achieve high lycopene contents, which is directly related to the fruit color (Simonne et al., 2007;Kuscu et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Most sweet-grape tomatoes are marketed fresh; thus, sensorial characteristics are important for this vegetable. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the technological quality based on the physical, chemical, and sensorial characteristics of sweet-grape tomatoes, the cultivar Carolina, grown under different nitrogen (N) sources (urea and organo-mineral) and N rates (50%, 75%, 100%, and 125%). The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with controlled environment; the plants were grown in pots, using a drip irrigation system. A completely randomized experimental design was used, in a 2×4 factorial arrangement. The N soil fertilizer application was divided into three times: at 10, 17, and 24 days after the emergence of the plants. The fruits were harvested when presenting reddish color in the whole surface. The parameters evaluated were: weight, volume, specific volume, density, color, texture, total soluble solids, and sensorial characteristics. The physical characteristics of the sweet-grape tomatoes showed better results when using the organo-mineral treatment. The sensorial analysis showed better results when using the treatment with organo-mineral nitrogen fertilizer, which resulted in better marketable fruits higher than 70%. The treatment with urea resulted in marketable fruits higher than 50%. The N rate of 50% (urea or organo-mineral) resulted in greater acceptance by consumers, when considering the parameters appearance and firmness.
... This study looks at consumers' preferences of specific characteristics of tomatoes. It focuses on the attributes colour, size, inner firmness, taste, aroma, consistency, regionality, label and price, which are important based on the reviewed literature (Adeoye et al., 2015;Causse et al., 2010;Oltman et al., 2014). The implicit assumptions of these attri-was applied, which uncovers the latent variables of the consumers and allocates them into classes. ...
... All classes had a high preference for red tomatoes with a very intensive tomato taste and a crispy consistency. The finding that colour and crispy consistency are important attributes is consistent with prior research (Oltman et al., 2014;Pagliarini et al., 2001). Besides that, recent research states that flavour is an attractive tomato attribute (Oltman et al., 2014;Oltman et al., 2016). ...
... The finding that colour and crispy consistency are important attributes is consistent with prior research (Oltman et al., 2014;Pagliarini et al., 2001). Besides that, recent research states that flavour is an attractive tomato attribute (Oltman et al., 2014;Oltman et al., 2016). Literature regarding consumer preference in terms of tomato size is rare, and the results of the latent class analysis show that there is no clear preference for one specific tomato size. ...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge about different types of tomato consumers and what consumers are looking for when purchasing tomatoes is scarce. This study focuses on fresh market tomatoes and their consumers, with the objective to identify homogenous target groups of tomato consumers. The purchase situation was simulated through a choice-experiment, and the data was analysed using latent class analysis. The sample consisted of 337 consumers from Germany, and the survey was conducted in April and May 2017. Most of the participants (65.2%) were in the age class from 20 to 29 years. Female consumers accounted for 65% of the sample. Based on the results of the latent class analysis, there were three different types of consumers, with a membership probability of 91.3%. For each class, the preferred attributes, the price preferences and the favoured food-related lifestyles were estimated. We identified three different types of tomato consumers, namely price-sensitive, extrinsic-sensitive and intrinsic-sensitive consumers. Each class differently valued the tomato attributes. The presented information helps growers, breeders as well as marketing practitioners to gain insights into the attributes consumers are looking for when purchasing tomatoes.
... However, the authors debated that green and yellow tomatoes were rejected by all segments. It emerges that an attractive tomato was red (Jürkenbeck, Spiller, and Meyerding 2019;Oltman, Jervis, and Drake 2014;Rocha et al. 2013) with even and intense color (Oltman, Yates, and Drake 2016). These results were confirmed also for processed tomato. ...
... Also, the brightness of the color was perceived as an important attribute (Rocha et al. 2013;Verbeke et al. 2008). Referring to tomato size we discovered a dispute: some studies shown that it was not perceived as key quality attributes (Frez-Muñoz, Steenbekkers, and Fogliano 2016;Jürkenbeck, Spiller, and Meyerding 2019;Oltman, Yates, and Drake 2016;Rocha et al. 2013) and others considered the size an important external factor related to appearance Oltman, Jervis, and Drake 2014;Verbeke et al. 2008). Particularly, Oltman, Jervis, and Drake (2014) affirmed that an attractive tomato was medium/small sized. ...
... It represented an exception to this trend the study proposed by Rocha et al. (2013) according to which no significant differences were found referring to beautiful tomatoes. Several studies (Frez-Muñoz, Steenbekkers, and Fogliano 2016;Oltman, Jervis, and Drake 2014;Oltman, Yates, and Drake 2016;Rocha et al. 2013) shown the presence of a consumers' cluster that considered firmness one the most important quality attributes, representing a driver of tomatoes purchase intention (Rocha et al. 2013). On the contrary, from the results shown by Jürkenbeck, Spiller, and Meyerding (2019) and Martínez-Carrasco et al. (2012), firmness was considered one of the least important attributes respectively for German and Spanish consumers. ...
Article
Full-text available
During the last two decades several studies were developed to understand the attributes able to affect consumer vegetable choice over the world. Focusing on fresh and processed tomato product, this study proposes a systematic literature review to systematize and critically apprise the current body of knowledge in this research field. In order to discover suggestions useful to enhance market strategies and policies about vegetable intake, the discovered tomato attributes were categorized, according the Search Experience and Credence logic, into: price, product features, packaging, convenience, brand, sensory properties, sustainability, origin, safety and health, production processes. By synthesizing the review findings, a multi-dimensional integrative content framework was conceived with the aim to maps the extant literature with multiple levels of analysis: antecedent, phenomenon and consequences. As part of the review, a future research agenda, theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
... This vegetable is generally consumed fresh. The quality of tomato fruits, like that of other vegetables, is defined mostly by direct consumer perception based on fruit size, weight, colour, flavour, aroma, and texture (Oltman et al., 2014;Bertin and Génard, 2018). Colour is the most important external characteristic to consumers, followed by juiciness, size, the presence of seeds, and firmness (Oltman et al., 2014). ...
... The quality of tomato fruits, like that of other vegetables, is defined mostly by direct consumer perception based on fruit size, weight, colour, flavour, aroma, and texture (Oltman et al., 2014;Bertin and Génard, 2018). Colour is the most important external characteristic to consumers, followed by juiciness, size, the presence of seeds, and firmness (Oltman et al., 2014). The internal quality of fruits is closely related to flavour, which is the result of a complex interaction among different chemical components (sugars, organic acids, salts, amino acids and volatiles) of which the total soluble solids content (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and their reciprocal ratio give an important, but not exclusive, contribution to tomato flavour (Causse, 2002;Valero and Serrano, 2010). ...
... The river sand contributed to the highest PJ at level 1, with and without Trichoderma, compared to the other substrates. At level 2, the application of Trichoderma to the plants grown in river sand and tezontle decreased PJ (by 8 and (Oltman et al., 2014). The increase in the juiciness of fruits is due to the activity of the enzyme polygalacturonase, which produces low-molecular weight pectins (Illera et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The quality of tomato fruits is influenced by preharvest factors. Trichoderma are considered biostimulants with potential to improve growth and development in plants, as well as the quality of the fruits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of Trichoderma on the quality of tomato fruits at different cluster levels on the same plant in two commercial hybrids using three different substrates in a greenhouse. Six foliar applications of a liquid biological preparation of Trichoderma were performed at a dose of 4 mL L ⁻¹ every 15 days after transplanting. The results show that the foliar application of Trichoderma increased the ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity of the fruits at different cluster levels, which was mainly due to the decrease in acidity rather than the increase in soluble solids. The decrease in titratable acidity is in accordance with the increase in the pH of the fruits. Trichoderma have a positive effect on titratable acidity, pH and electrical conductivity of fruits. In the Cid hybrid grown in the tezontle substrate, the application of Trichoderma increased the ratio of total soluble solids to titratable acidity. At the same time, sand increased the percentage of juice in the fruits. Foliar application of Trichoderma increases the quality of tomato fruits, and as such, should be considered as a crop management option.
... attractiveness, which is enhanced by the use of transparent packaging, allowing greater visibility of the product (Adegbola et al., 2019). Red fruit, such as the ones from BRS Iracema, BRS Zamir, and Sweet Heaven, are particularly interesting due to their commercial relevance and preference among consumers, as previously mentioned (Oltman et al., 2014). However, non-red fruit have been gaining more space and relevance on the supermarket shelves, and the availability of new cultivars with diverse colors suits the gastronomic sector demand to decorate dishes. ...
... The firmness of the fruit enhances its durability and represents one of the determining criteria for purchase (Wann, 1996). Considering that Iraí and Sweet Heaven are the crunchiest, their fruit are potentially more desirable by most consumers (Oltman et al., 2014). ...
Article
The choice of promising parents represents a crucial step in developing improved cultivars in breeding programs for mini-tomatoes— highly demanded miniature vegetables. The association of non-sensory and sensory features of fruit greatly enhances the generation of cultivars that meet the expectations of the productive and commercial chain of tomatoes, focusing on diverse market niches. Thus, in this study, five genotypes of mini-tomatoes were characterized based on physical, biochemical, and sensory attributes. The genetic material encompasses four cultivars (BRS Iracema, BRS Zamir, Iraí, and Sweet Heaven) and one landrace (UEL 238). The fruit were characterized by their dimension, color, firmness, soluble solids content, acidity, vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. In the sensorial test, 109 participants, including 27 chefs, evaluated the shape, size, color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall liking of the fruit. The cultivar Sweet Heaven, with an oblong red fruit, brought together the main desirable physical traits, such as greater mass, pericarp thickness, firmness, and soluble solids content; while BRS Zamir presented superior values for biochemical characteristics, such as total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. Despite the lesser appreciation of the landrace UEL 238, all genotypes were accepted by consumers, especially BRS Iracema (round red fruit), followed by Iraí (oblong yellow fruit). The characterized mini-tomatoes may be explored in breeding programs as promising parents to combine desirable sensory attributes with the highest nutraceutical quality, resulting in superior cultivars that have been increasingly demanded on the market.
... Therefore, the selection of heirloom tomato genotypes by color does not directly imply the Lyco content in the fruits, mainly because many heirloom tomatoes have a mixture of colors in the epicarp, justifying the importance of measuring both. It is noteworthy that the color of tomatoes is one of the most important factors for commercialization, especially in the consumer's purchase decision, which often chooses to buy red fruits (Oltman et al. 2014, Adegbola et al. 2019. ...
... According to Costa et al. (2019), a high SS/TA determines a mild flavor, which is desired by consumers; on the other hand, low values of this ratio indicate less appreciable flavor. In tomato breeding programs, it is desirable to improve the nutritional and sensory quality of the fruits of commercial cultivars, while it can guarantee a greater financial return to the horticulturist by exploring new consumer market niches, which are increasingly demanding in functional food and beautiful vegetables (Bartoshuk and Klee 2013, Oltman et al. 2014, Patil et al. 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Heirloom tomatoes are open-pollinated varieties bearing a wide diversity of colors and shapes that may be used by breeders aiming to improve physical and biochemical fruit traits. Hence, in this work heirloom tomato accessions were characterized, gathering information to genetic breeding programs focusing on human food. For that, 67 heirloom tomato accessions were evaluated for fruit size, fruit mass, fruit volume, color, vitamin C, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, phenolic compounds content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three repetitions. Linear mixed model, Pearson’s correlation and hierarchical clustering were applied to data. Five groups were formed by Ward’s clustering method. The accession UEL 300 constituted group A, which had the greatest mass and volume fruit. Eight accessions formed group B and showed mostly yellow fruits. Group C was comprised of 13 accessions, which had the highest levels of carotenoids, vitamin C, and antioxidant activity. Thirty-three accessions that constituted group D did not stand out for any of the attributes, while 12 accessions into group E had the highest content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, along with the highest ratio of soluble solids and acidity. Five accessions in this collection (UEL 296, UEL 146, UEL 238, UEL 231, and UEL 217) stood out for their biochemical traits. The wide diversity for physical and biochemical fruit traits can be explored in tomato breeding programs, seeking to develop new cultivars, and strengthening family farming. Key words Solanum lycopersicum L.; gene bank; tomato breeding; post-harvest quality; horticulture
... Furthermore, it was discovered that consumers prefer tomatoes that are full of flavor, juicy, sweet and sour at once and with only a few seeds. 4,5 Tomato flavor can be defined as a combination of the taste attributes of sweetness and acidity along with concentrations of odor-active volatile compounds. 6,7 The good taste of a tomato has been positively related with rising levels of titratable acids (TA), total soluble solids (TSS) and dry matter (DM), as well as firmness and surface redness. ...
... 47 Bright red tomatoes are favored in Europe and the USA. 4,5,48 The red color values (a*) in our red-fruited cultivars ranged between 20 and 30 (Table 1) and were comparable with the results of Hernández et al. 28 Significant correlations between the fruit color values and fruit K content were observed only for Primavera for both years (Table 2). A more intense red was detected for highly fertilized fruits. ...
Article
BACKGROUND The market for cocktail tomatoes is growing continuously, mainly because of their good taste. Titratable acids (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and dry matter (DM) contents correlate positively with good taste. So far, the impact of different K applications on yield and consumer‐oriented quality traits has not been comprehensively described for cultivars of smaller fruits. To fill this gap, we tested the effect of different K fertilization regimes on three cultivars of small‐sized or cocktail tomatoes. RESULTS A positive impact on quality parameters (TSS, TA, DM, color, and firmness) was detected by raising the K fertilizer application for the cocktail tomato cultivars Primavera and Yellow Submarine. The cultivar Resi showed no response to fertilization, except for TSS and TA. Yield increased significantly by higher K application only in Primavera, the most productive cultivar. The K concentration in tomato rose with increasing K application. CONCLUSION As TSS and TA increased in all cultivars, while only one cultivar showed increase in yield, our results emphasize the importance of application of cultivar‐specific mineral fertilizers on yield‐ and consumer‐oriented quality traits.. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The researchers also recreated a known fruit size QTL, locule number (lc) in tomato, generating fruits with increasing locule number 104 . Color and texture are also important aspects of consumer perception of fresh tomatoes 141 . Consumers from different areas have different color preferences. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fruits are major sources of essential nutrients and serve as staple foods in some areas of the world. The increasing human population and changes in climate experienced worldwide make it urgent to the production of fruit crops with high yield and enhanced adaptation to the environment, for which conventional breeding is unlikely to meet the demand. Fortunately, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology paves the way toward a new horizon for fruit crop improvement and consequently revolutionizes plant breeding. In this review, the mechanism and optimization of the CRISPR system and its application to fruit crops, including resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, fruit quality improvement, and domestication are highlighted. Controversies and future perspectives are discussed as well.
... Other studies explored consumer preference for methods of production (Ekelund et al., 2007;Novotorova & Mazzocco, 2008) and origin of production (Maumbe & Brown, 2013). These credence attributes complement search and experience attributes such as price and brand or visual, smell and taste attributes in buyer's decision (see Moser et al., 2011;Dimech et al., 2011;Kuhar & Juvančič, 2010;Fernqvist, 2014;Carroll et al., 2013;Oltman et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Albania has potential for developing the organic agriculture sector; however, it is a new industry and constraints abound including lack of consumer preferences information for organic food. Knowledge on consumer preferences and behaviour toward organic (bio) products is crucial for market development benefiting potential entrepreneurs and government policies. They need to know the preference for preferred product attributes and willingness to pay. Tomato, which is the most important vegetable in terms of consumption and production in Albania, is the subject of this study. A conjoint choice experiment with the most important product attributes: production type (bio vs. conventional), production system (open field vs. greenhouse), origin and price were used to design the choice surveys. Four distinct classes have been identified as significant using latent class analysis. The classes are summarized as: bio-ready consumers, price sensitive consumers, variety seeking consumers and quality seeking consumers. Origin played a small influence on preference. Education and income did show some influence on preference for organic tomatoes. Although the organic food market in Albania is in its infancy stage, organic tomatoes are clearly preferred and many consumers are willing to pay a premium price.
... Conjoint analysis mimics real-world purchasing scenarios by requiring consumers to make "trade-offs" between product concepts (Orme, 2014). Conjoint analysis has been applied to determine consumer preferences for both extrinsic and intrinsic product attributes of sour cream (Jervis et al., 2012), sandwich bread , fresh tomatoes (Oltman et al., 2014), and protein beverages (Oltman et al., 2015). Although conjoint analysis estimates the overall importance of each attribute to a holistic product concept, MaxDiff scaling, sometimes referred to as "best-worst" scaling, allows direct comparison of individual attribute/ level combinations (Lynch, 1985;Hein et al., 2008). ...
Article
This study established attractive attributes and drivers of purchase for prepackaged Cheddar cheese shreds. Seven focus groups of Cheddar cheese shred consumers (n = 61) were conducted to probe consumer beliefs regarding packaging, ingredients, label claims, and applications of prepackaged Cheddar cheese shreds. Subsequently, an online survey was developed utilizing the key attributes from the focus groups. The survey (n = 1,288) included maximum difference scaling, Kano questions, and adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis. Additionally, 9 different commercial Cheddar cheese shreds varying in color, shred thickness, brand, and price were selected for a follow-up qualitative multivariate analysis to gain further consumer insight on attribute importance. Consumers (n = 13) were provided with commercial packages of shreds to evaluate over a 4-week period. Consumers journaled their likes and dislikes after use of each cheese shred and subsequently participated in a final 2.5-h focus group and projective mapping exercise. Consumers placed highest importance on price, followed by nutrition claims, color, sharpness, thickness, and label claims. Four consumer clusters were identified from conjoint utility scores. One consumer cluster exhibited preference for value-added features such as nutrition claims and brand, and another consumer cluster placed importance on shred color, whereas the other 2 groups were driven primarily by price. The qualitative multivariate analysis results confirmed the focus group and survey results: meltability, orange color, lack of clumps, ability to reseal the bag, and desirable "Cheddar" flavor were also preferred Cheddar shred qualities.
... It is an effective method to investigate the effect of packaging through the creation of artificial (but realistic) package images created through statistically optimized experimental designs (Deliza, Macfie, & Hedderley, 2003). Examples of recent applications can be found in several product categories such as meat (Mclean, Hanson, Jervis, & Drake, 2017), dairy (Hubbard, Jervis, & Drake, 2016;Mccarthy, Parker, Ameerally, Drake, & Drake, 2017), and fresh produce (Oltman, Jervis, & Drake, 2014). Several types of conjoint analysis exist-such as full-profile conjoint analysis, adaptive conjoint analysis, menu-based conjoint, and adaptive choice-based conjoint (see Jervis, Ennis, & Drake, 2012 for a discussion)-with the main differences pertaining to the task (e.g., choice versus rating), the of stimulus (e.g., product or attributes), the type of experimental design (e.g., full versus fractional), and the type of analysis performed on the data. ...
Article
The aim of the present research was to investigate the influence of packaging design on consum-ers' perception of quality of fresh carrots. We adopted a conjoint analytic approach in which 251 Danish consumers rated the perceived quality and value (expected price) of nine packaging images, obtained by systematically varying packaging type (plastic bag, plastic box, cardboard paper) and label color (blue, brown, grey). The results revealed that the main attribute influencing the perceptions of the consumer was packaging type. Specifically, the box packages (both plastic and cardboard) were associated to carrots of significantly higher perceived value and quality compared to the plastic bag packages. Furthermore, the study identified the most important aspects consumers attend to when purchasing carrots. A transparent packaging, allowing consumers to inspect the produce, was mentioned as the most important aspect. Being organic and local were identified as the second and third most important, respectively. Practical applications Packaging is an important extrinsic product attribute that can influence consumer perceptions of fresh produce. The results have implications for retailers and producers with respect to the choice of packaging and label design. Specifically, consumers associated box packages to higher quality produce, suggesting that carrots in this type of package may command higher price and/or be preferred to bagged alternatives at a similar price point. The study further indicated the importance of using a transparent packaging that clearly allow consumers to inspect the produce, and also suggest that "organic" and "local" are important drivers of purchase for this product category.
... ical residue testing (CRT) information" is included since the study on food safety topics shows that chemical and pesticide residues are important issues for consumers [43]. Particularly, after several food fraud incidences, information on CRT of food products are in some cases displayed by Taiwanese food retailers [44] [45] [46]; 4) "price" is known to be the driving force for consumer's purchase decision [47] [48]; 5) "shopping location" is considered owing to the finding reported by [49] and [50] that the choice of store location and the distance of store from home is a decision that a food shopper is fairly involved in their food purchase decision making process; 6) "visual appearance" and the 7) "sense of touch" are concerned in the BWS design, because visual and tactile multisensory evaluation influence overall consumer attitude towards products as well as the purchase intentions [51] [52] [53]; 8) "package size" is considered as an influential criterion in the BWS design. Scott et al. [54], Aerni et al. [55] and Wansink [56] found that the package size might affect the consumption behaviour; 9) ...
... Regarding the attribute levels, S1 especially values that tomatoes are of a local origin and tasty (high sweetness and low acidity). The origin of the product is an appealing quality for this sector of the population, as supporting the local economy by purchasing products from the region makes them feel good [53]. On the other hand, S2 stands out because of the importance it gives prices compared to S1 (Figure 4). ...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural activity has changed significantly in recent years. There is a clear trend towards monoculture and the replacement of traditional crops for others which are more productive and achieve better economic results. These factors have two fundamental consequences: on the one hand, the abandonment of agricultural activity, with the subsequent loss of rurality; on the other hand, a negative effect on the maintenance of biodiversity, because traditional varieties disappear. In this context, this paper analyses the situation of consumers and farmers of a traditional crop in the southeast of Spain: the tomato. In order to understand the current situation and the forecasted future, a choice experiment was conducted on 217 tomato consumers. Furthermore, 40 tomato farmers of this area underwent an in-depth interview. On the one hand, analysis of the consumer study established a potential segment of the population that prefers traditional varieties due to their high organoleptic properties. Meanwhile, the farmer study revealed a segment of this population that is willing to produce these types of crops. Therefore, the possibility that a certain sector of producers cultivates traditional varieties is suggested, and for these varieties to be aimed at a market niche that values them positively, making the activity of Small and Medium Enterprises (agricultural SMEs) profitable. This would improve the sustainability of the rural territory and would strengthen the preservation of genetic heritage.
... Grunert et al. (2014) studied consumer preferences for foods with sustainability labeling that offered a sense of environmental awareness and morality. Studies have also evaluated consumer preferences on the basis of the characteristics of foods such as their appearance Oltman et al., 2014). ...
Article
Expectations of exporting food and agricultural product to Malaysia have been substantially growing in Japan. Although Japan has two halal certification bodies recognized by Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia (JAKIM), it is unclear whether Malaysian consumers trust its certified processed foods. Thus, this study aims to clarify Malaysian consumers' preference for Hokkaido ice cream by conducting a conjoint analysis. The results show no significant difference in the level of consumer trust in halal certifications, indicating a distribution based on both Malaysian and Japanese certification bodies. Therefore, it is possible that Malaysian consumers would accept Japanese products with a halal certification approved by JAKIM. In addition, the willingness to pay for Hokkaido ice cream reported a high satisfaction value. However, there is no significant effect on food functionality possibly because Malaysian consumers' awareness of the health benefits remains low.
... In contrast, those with a firm consistency are more desired. This result is in accordance with those of Oltman et al. (2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Constraints related to the technical and socioeconomic aspects of adopting tomato varieties are well documented. However, preferences relating to the demand for this fruit are rarely studied. In fact, demand for the different varieties of tomatoes might be related to consumers’ preferences for the extrinsic (color, size) and intrinsic (taste, nutritive value, water content) characteristics specific to each variety. It is therefore indispensable to determine the characteristics of tomatoes preferred by consumers. We examine consumers’ preferences for tomato attributes among a sample of 600 consumers in four representative markets in the main cities in southern Benin. The study also identifies potential segments of consumers and the market shares of each profile for each segment. The study identifies four potential tomato market segments, two of which have a strong preference for local tomatoes, namely, those that can be conserved for long periods and those with a firm consistency.
... For example, reintroduction of the alternate Lin5 should result in higher sugar content. Although in most cases, higher sugar content is associated with a reduction in the size of a fruit, consumers do not prefer large fruit and are very willing to purchase minimally smaller fruit with superior taste (16). One possible solution to this trade-off between higher sugar and smaller size is based on our observations that certain fruit volatiles significantly enhance the percep-tion of sweetness (2,5). ...
Article
Looking for lost flavor in tomatoes Commercially available tomatoes are renowned these days for sturdiness, but perhaps not for flavor. Heirloom varieties, on the other hand, maintain the richer flavors and sweeter tomatoes of years past. Tieman et al. combined tasting panels with chemical and genomic analyses of nearly 400 varieties of tomatoes. They identified some of the flavorful components that have been lost over time. Identification of the genes that have also gone missing provides a path forward for reinstating flavor to commercially grown tomatoes. Science , this issue p. 391
... Several researchers reported the same trend that we observed in this study (Arias et al., 2000;Brandt et al., 2006;López-Camelo and Gómez, 2004). The firmness of fresh tomato fruit is a qualitative factor for buyers and consumers who decide to purchase these fruits (Causse et al., 2010;Oltman et al., 2014), and it is influenced by the skin strength and flesh firmness (Kader et al., 1978). The firmness generally decreases during fruit ripening due to polygalacturonase activity (Hobson, 1965). ...
Article
Full-text available
Highlights Human visual classification and predictive models often disagree when only color indices are used. The degree of agreement is improved significantly when predictive models are cultivar-specific. The degree of agreement can be improved when firmness and carotenoid contents are considered. Abstract. Traditionally, the ripening stage of tomato fruit is determined by the observed percentage of red color on the fruit surface based on color charts provided by USDA standards. However, multiple observers can assign different ripening stages to the same tomato fruit due to subjectivity and/or inaccurate evaluations. This practical challenge has not been extensively discussed in the literature, so we assessed the degree of agreement between human visual classification and model-based prediction using physicochemical properties such as color (L*, a*, b*, hue, and chroma), firmness, and carotenoid contents. In our exploratory data analyses, we clearly observed increasing a* and decreasing L*, hue, and firmness with respect to ripening stage, but the rate of change seemed different from cultivar to cultivar. To assess the degree of agreement, cross-validations were used to compare thirty linear regression models with various combinations of the predictors. The cross-validations indicated that predictions from a cultivar-specific model agreed well with human visual classifications. When the cultivar-specific model was considered with the color indices, we achieved up to 95.5% accuracy. When firmness, lycopene, and ß-carotene were added to the model, the accuracy increased to 96.8%. These results suggest the reliability of non-destructive methods for auto-sorting systems. Keywords: ß-carotene, Color index, Firmness, Fruit color, Lycopene, Ripening, Tomato.
... Thick pericarp and small locules are important for peeled products. Fruit color has been shown to be a major driver of fresh market tomato purchases (Oltman et al., 2014;Walter and van Gemert, 1990). Thus, there is considerable breeding activity to improve the red color of tomatoes. ...
Chapter
Profitable natural pigment production in the form of pure compounds or concentrates requires high-quality plant sources. Plant breeding is a time-consuming process of crop improvement resulting in new plant cultivars of desired characteristics that are suitable for agricultural production. Demands in the pigment industry for high-quality plant materials must be combined with the needs of farmers for high yield. Progress in cultivar development depends on many factors, including plant reproductive biology, trait heritability, existing genetic variation, agrotechnical practices, and environmental conditions. In this chapter, we discuss these and related aspects of breeding plants for improved sources of natural pigments. We have focused our chapter on three separate case studies of vegetable crops: tomato, beetroot, and carrot, representing the most important industrial sources of the three major pigment classes for carotenoids (lycopene), betalain, and anthocyanin production, respectively. These fruit and root crops differ in their life cycle and reproductive biology, and they exhibit diverse biosynthetic pathways for pigment production. The depth of knowledge on genes and biosynthetic pathways involved in pigment production varies for these crops. In addition, the biennial life cycle of carrot and beetroot make progress in cultivar development more challenging. Advances in new molecular techniques facilitate conventional breeding for pigment production and new avenues of inquiry have been opened from genome sequencing and related approaches.
... The most important traits of tomato quality include color and flavor (Rodriguez-Saona and Aykas, 2019). Tomatoes classified as red and dark red are positively evaluated and well accepted by consumers of fresh tomatoes (Oltman et al., 2014). Consumers equally value full flavored fruit and prefer them over less flavorful tomatoes when making buying decisions (Baldwin et al., 2000). ...
Article
Improper postharvest handling often impairs horticultural quality even when damage is visually imperceptible. In this study, tomato fruit were subjected to controlled compressive forces (196.13 N) and the effects of this mechanical damage were evaluated. The following parameters were assessed: production of CO2, ethylene (C2H4), color, enzymatic activity (LOX, HPL and ADH) and volatile compounds. Ethylene production increased in tomatoes subjected to compression. Damaged tomatoes were unable to develop the typical red color when compared to the control fruit and showed a transient increase in the activity of the enzymes LOX, HPL and ADH. The imperceptible damage applied to tomatoes modified the profile of volatile compounds produced by the fruit, reducing the emission of compounds perceived as fruity and sweet.
... In contrast, those with a firm consistency are more desired. This result is in accordance with those of Oltman et al. (2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Constraints related to the technical and socioeconomic aspects of adopting tomato varieties are well documented. However, preferences relating to the demand for this fruit are rarely studied. In fact, demand for the different varieties of tomatoes might be related to consumers’ preferences for the extrinsic (color, size) and intrinsic (taste, nutritive value, water content) characteristics specific to each variety. It is therefore indispensable to determine the characteristics of tomatoes preferred by consumers. We examine consumers’ preferences for tomato attributes among a sample of 600 consumers in four representative markets in the main cities in southern Benin. The study also identifies potential segments of consumers and the market shares of each profile for each segment. The study identifies four potential tomato market segments, two of which have a strong preference for local tomatoes, namely, those that can be conserved for long periods and those with a firm consistency.
... The primary consideration is the colour of the tomato, as consumer preference, as it is one of the most important quality parameters from which to infer other characteristics of the fruit (4,5). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Study black fruited tomato cultivars in open field.
... higher than the conventional freezing concerning color, texture and overall acceptability (Fig 1). Survey results say that the most attractive attribute of tomatoes towards purchase is the color, especially the red color is preferred (Oltman et al., 2014). Sensory analysis for color, BFT tomatoes have a higher magnitude of preferences. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Due to their highly perishable nature, vegetables possess a higher chance of deterioration and damage after harvesting. Freezing is a potential preservation technique used to reduce the deterioration and increase the shelf life of vegetables by preventing the wastage of substantial quantities of tomatoes in Sri Lanka. Methods: In this research calcium chloride (2.4% w/w) pretreated Thilina and RIDA F1 tomato variety pieces were analyzed drip loss, pH, color, hardness, cutting shearing strength, ascorbic acid content and sensory parameters under air blast freezing (-30C, 3 ms-1 air velocity) and conventional freezing (-18C) conditions. Result: The L* values of colour, pH and ascorbic acid content were shown significant differences (p<0.05) but a*, b* values, driploss%, cutting and shearing strength didn't show any significant differences (p<0.05) during different freezing conditions. The magnitude of color change (E) is higher (p<0.05) in conventional freezing treatment than in air-blast freezing. The preference among the panelists is significantly (p<0.05) higher for blast frozen tomato samples than conventional frozen samples concerning color, odor, texture and overall quality parameters. According to the statistical analysis, air blast freezing preserve better physiochemical and sensory parameters of Thilina and RIDA F1 tomato varieties.
... Fruit size is also an important trait that directs consumer preferences. Medium and large tomatoes are usually preferred by consumers [41]. In this work, three QTLs were identified on chromosomes T2, T4 and T6 for fruit weight. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Solanum pimpinellifolium has high breeding potential for fruit quality traits and has been used as a donor in tomato breeding programs. Unlocking the genetic potential of S. pimpinellifolium requires high-throughput polymorphism identification protocols for QTL mapping and introgression of favourable alleles into cultivated tomato by both positive and background selection. Results: In this study we identified SNP loci using a genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approach in an IBL mapping population derived from the cross between a high yielding fresh market tomato and S. pimpinellifolium (LA1589) as the recurrent and donor parents, respectively. A total of 120,983,088 reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencing platform. From these reads 448,539 sequence tags were generated. A majority of the sequence tags (84.4%) were uniquely aligned to the tomato genome. A total of 3.125 unique SNP loci were identified as a result of tag alignment to the genome assembly and were used in QTL analysis of 11 fruit quality traits. As a result, 37 QTLs were identified. S. pimpinellifolium contributed favourable alleles for 16 QTLs (43.2%), thus confirming the high breeding potential of this wild species. Conclusions: The present work introduced a set of SNPs at sufficiently high density for QTL mapping in populations derived from S. pimpinellifolium (LA1589). Moreover, this study demonstrated the high efficiency of the GBS approach for SNP identification, genotyping and QTL mapping in an interspecific tomato population
... It seems that a high rating of sensory aroma and measured a * value were important factors that enhanced the acceptability of "Supersweet 100 F 1 " and "Sakura F 1 ", regardless of their superiority in sweetness as the most important criterion. Redcolored tomatoes are more familiar and attractive to consumers than other colored fruits (59,60). Regarding the aroma, both sensory tests confirmed that "Supersweet 100 F 1 ", "Black Cherry", "Sakura F 1 ", and "Goldita" had the most intensive aroma. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to determine the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with fruit flavor in diverse tomato cultivars (salad and cocktail cultivars) under organic low-input production. For this objective, 60 cultivars deriving from very diverse breeding programs 1880–2015 were evaluated in 2015, and a subset of 20 cultivars was selected for further evaluation in 2016. The diversity of instrumentally determined traits, especially for VOCs concentration and sensory properties (fruit firmness, juiciness, skin firmness, sweetness, sourness, aroma, and acceptability), was investigated at two harvest dates. The evaluation of the cultivars exhibited a wide range of variation for all studied traits, with the exception of a few VOCs. Cultivar had the most important effect on all instrumentally determined traits, while the influence of cultivar × harvest date × year interaction was significant for 17 VOCs, but not for total soluble solid (TSS) and titratable acidity (TA). The VOCs with the highest proportion (>8%) were hexanal, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one, 2-isobutylthiazole, and ( E )-2-hexenal, which were identified in all cultivars. Twelve VOCs significantly correlated with one or more sensory attributes and these VOCs also allowed differentiation of the fruit type. Among these VOCs, phenylethyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol positively correlated with acceptability in the cocktail cultivars, whereas 2-isobuthylthiazole and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol negatively correlated with acceptability in the salad cultivars. As a result of this study, organic breeders are recommended to use cultivars from a wide range of breeding programs to improve important quality and agronomic traits. As examples, salad tomatoes “Campari F 1 ”, “Green Zebra”, and “Auriga”, as well as cocktail tomatoes “Supersweet 100 F 1 ”, “Sakura F 1 ”, and “Black Cherry” showed higher scores for the sensory attributes aroma and acceptability under organic low-input growing conditions. It remains a challenge for breeders and growers to reduce the trade-off of yield and quality.
... higher than the conventional freezing concerning color, texture and overall acceptability (Fig 1). Survey results say that the most attractive attribute of tomatoes towards purchase is the color, especially the red color is preferred (Oltman et al., 2014). Sensory analysis for color, BFT tomatoes have a higher magnitude of preferences. ...
Article
Background: Due to their highly perishable nature, vegetables possess a higher chance of deterioration and damage after harvesting. Freezing is a potential preservation technique used to reduce the deterioration and increase the shelf life of vegetables by preventing the wastage of substantial quantities of tomatoes in Sri Lanka. Methods: In this research calcium chloride (2.4% w/w) pretreated Thilina and RIDA F1 tomato variety pieces were analyzed drip loss, pH, color, hardness, cutting shearing strength, ascorbic acid content and sensory parameters under air blast freezing (-30°C, 3 ms-1 air velocity) and conventional freezing (-18°C) conditions. Result: The L* values of colour, pH and ascorbic acid content were shown significant differences (p less than 0.05) but a*, b* values, driploss%, cutting and shearing strength didn’t show any significant differences (p less than 0.05) during different freezing conditions. The magnitude of color change (∆E) is higher (p less than 0.05) in conventional freezing treatment than in air-blast freezing. The preference among the panelists is significantly (p less than 0.05) higher for blast frozen tomato samples than conventional frozen samples concerning color, odor, texture and overall quality parameters. According to the statistical analysis, air blast freezing preserve better physiochemical and sensory parameters of Thilina and RIDA F1 tomato varieties.
... Although other sources of dietary lycopene can be found in watermelon, GAC (Momordica cochinchinensis) fruit, pink grapefruit, and pink guava, the high consumption of tomatoes in the American diet accounts for about 85% of the lycopene consumed [5]. Lycopene is the primary carotenoid that gives tomato fruit a red color at the red ripe stage [6], and the red color of lycopene is one of the most significant decision factors in consumer acceptance of fresh market tomatoes and tomato processing products [7]. In tomato, lycopene begins to accumulate at the breaker stage of ripening and reaches maximal content at the red ripe stage. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lycopene content in tomato fruit is largely under genetic control and varies greatly among genotypes. Continued improvement of lycopene content in elite varieties with conventional breeding has become challenging, in part because little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms in high-lycopene tomatoes (HLYs). We collected 42 HLYs with different genetic backgrounds worldwide. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed lycopene contents differed among the positive control wild tomato Solanum pimpinellifolium, HLYs, the normal lycopene cultivar “Moneymaker”, and the non-lycopene cultivar NC 1Y at the pink and red ripe stages. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of expression of the 25 carotenoid biosynthesis pathway genes of each genotype showed a significantly higher expression in nine upstream genes (GGPPS1, GGPPS2, GGPPS3, TPT1, SSU II, PSY2, ZDS, CrtISO and CrtISO-L1 but not the well-studied PSY1, PDS and Z-ISO) at the breaker and/or red ripe stages in HLYs compared to Moneymaker, indicating a higher metabolic flux flow into carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in HLYs. Further conversion of lycopene to carotenes may be prevented via the two downstream genes (β-LCY2 and ε-LCY), which had low-abundance transcripts at either or both stages. Additionally, the significantly higher expression of four downstream genes (BCH1, ZEP, VDE, and CYP97C11) at either or both ripeness stages leads to significantly lower fruit lycopene content in HLYs than in the wild tomato. This is the first systematic investigation of the role of the complete pathway genes in regulating fruit lycopene biosynthesis across many HLYs, and enables tomato breeding and gene editing for increased fruit lycopene content.
... Thus, fruit size and vertical/horizontal ratio (fruit shape index) are important indicators of tomato traits. Fruit color is the most attractive attribute as commodities (Oltman et al., 2014). The pericarp is the circular outer part of the fruit fresh part developed from mesocarp. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tomato fruit phenotypes are important agronomic traits in tomato breeding as a reference index. The traditional measurement methods based on manual observation, however, limit the high-throughput data collection of tomato fruit morphologies. In this study, fruits of 10 different tomato cultivars with considerable differences in fruit color, size, and other morphological characters were selected as samples. Constant illumination condition was applied to take images of the selected tomato fruit samples. Based on image recognition, automated methods for measuring color and size indicators of tomato fruit phenotypes were proposed. A deep learning model based on Mask Region-Convolutional Neural Network (R-CNN) was trained and tested to analyze the internal structure indicators of tomato fruit. The results revealed that the combined use of these methods can extract various important fruit phenotypes of tomato, including fruit color, horizontal and vertical diameters, top and navel angles, locule number, and pericarp thickness, automatically. Considering several corrections of missing and wrong segmentation cases in practice, the average precision of the deep learning model is more than 0.95 in practice. This suggests a promising locule segmentation and counting performance. Vertical/horizontal ratio (fruit shape index) and locule area proportion were also calculated based on the data collected here. The measurement precision was comparable to manual operation, and the measurement efficiency was highly improved. The results of this study will provide a new option for more accurate and efficient tomato fruit phenotyping, which can effectively avoid artificial error and increase the support efficiency of relevant data in the future breeding work of tomato and other fruit crops.
... It is an effective method to investigate the effect of packaging through the creation of artificial (but realistic) package images created through statistically optimized experimental designs (Deliza, Macfie, & Hedderley, 2003). Examples of recent applications can be found in several product categories such as meat (Mclean, Hanson, Jervis, & Drake, 2017), dairy (Hubbard, Jervis, & Drake, 2016; Mccarthy, Parker, Ameerally, Drake, & Drake, 2017), and fresh produce (Oltman, Jervis, & Drake, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Bilgi çağı, büyük bir hızla günlük hayatta yer edinmeye başlamıştır. Öyle ki öğrenebilen makineler, sürücü olmadan hareket edebilen araçlar, tüketici ile sohbet imkânı sunan yazılımlar, robotik cerrahi uygulamaları gibi örneklerini sıralayabileceğimiz dijitalleşen Dünyada kabul edilmelidir ki hala başrol insana aittir. Bilgiye değer katan ve onu anlamlandıran insan, her dönemin en değerli kaynağı olmayı sürdürürken her sene çok sayıda insan iş kazası ve meslek hastalıkları nedeniyle hayatını kaybetmekte veya çalışma gücünden olmaktadır. Devamlılığı amaçlayan işletmeler, insanların meslekleri nedeniyle maruz kaldıkları riskleri azaltmak, verimliliği engelleyen unsurları minimuma indirmek, iş sağlığı ve güvenliği alanındaki çalışmaları artırmak için teknolojik yatırımlarını her geçen gün artırmaktadır. İş sağlığı ve güvenliği kapsamında gerçekleştirilen çalışmalar ve eğitimler genel anlamda yalnızca teoriden ibarettir. Uygulamalı eğitimlerin bu anlamda riskli olduğu belirtilmektedir. Ancak, yaşanan teknolojik gelişmeler her alanda olduğu gibi eğitim ve öğrenme alanlarında da etkisini göstermektedir. Yaşanan bu gelişmeler ile bireylerin öğrenme sürecinde aktif rol üstlendiği ortamlar geliştirilerek öğretimin kalitesi ve etkinliği artırılmaktadır. Son zamanlarda hızlı gelişim gösteren sanal gerçeklik teknolojisi de öğretim yöntemlerinde yeni bir deneyim imkânı sunmaktadır. Bu çalışma ile amaçlanan iş sağlığı ve güvenliği açısından çalışanların çok daha anlaşılır ve kalıcı bilgiler edinmelerini sağlamak amacıyla sanal gerçeklik uygulamalarının verilmesinin, verilen bu eğitim uygulamalarının tehlikelerden korunma açısından önemini incelemek ve sanal gerçeklik ile deneyimsel öğrenme tekniğini ortaya koymaktır.
... color, shape, and firmness) as well as the intrinsic characteristics (e.g. taste and aroma) (OlTmAn et al., 2014). The flavor is a complex attribute and derived from the interaction between the volatile compounds, such as hexanal and 2-isobutylthiazole, and nonvolatile components like sugar, acids, and minerals (beckleS, 2012). ...
Article
Sensory properties are an essential quality aspect when the consumption of fresh tomato is under consideration. The flavor of tomato is defined as a combination of taste sensations (sweetness, sourness), aroma (volatile compounds), and texture (firmness, mealiness), some of which are proven to be affected by insufficient nutrient supply − especially potassium (K). This study intends to undertake a holis- tic assessment of the K fertilization effect on the flavor of tomato by connecting the use of sensorial and instrumental methods. An optimal K supply significantly increased the sensory descriptors sweetness, sourness, and aroma as well as the instrumental estimated color, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acids (TA), and dry matter (DM) in a cultivar-specific manner. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were not significantly affected by K fertilization. The evaluation by the panelists confirmed the results of the instru- mental analyses, by which an increment in the fruit quality with ris- ing K supply could be detected. An optimal K supply of 3.66 g/plant could be suggested to increase tomato flavor in the cocktail cultivars studied: Primavera and Yellow Submarine. Cultivar effects should, therefore, be considered for defining the optimal K fertilizer dose that favors high tomato fruit quality and, hence, better flavor.
... Tomatoes are one of the most extensively used fruit or vegetable crop in the world, with approximately 180 million tons of tomato fruits produced per year since 2016 [1,2]. Due to the desire of consumers for fresh tomatoes, especially the red color and firmness attributes [3], and to minimize transportation or other supply chain related injury, tomatoes are commercially picked at the mature green stage of ripening [4][5][6] because mature green tomatoes are still firm, have a longer shelf life, and can continue turning red even after being detached from the plant [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the mature green tomatoes have color similar to branches and leaves, some are shaded by branches and leaves, and overlapped by other tomatoes, the accurate detection and location of these tomatoes is rather difficult. This paper proposes to use the Mask R-CNN algorithm for the detection and segmentation of mature green tomatoes. A mobile robot is designed to collect images round-the-clock and with different conditions in the whole greenhouse, thus, to make sure the captured dataset are not only objects with the interest of users. After the training process, RestNet50-FPN is selected as the backbone network. Then, the feature map is trained through the region proposal network to generate the region of interest (ROI), and the ROIAlign bilinear interpolation is used to calculate the target region, such that the corresponding region in the feature map is pooled to a fixed size based on the position coordinates of the preselection box. Finally, the detection and segmentation of mature green tomatoes is realized by the parallel actions of ROI target categories, bounding box regression and mask. When the Intersection over Union is equal to 0.5, the performance of the trained model is the best. The experimental results show that the F1-Score of bounding box and mask region all achieve 92.0%. The image acquisition processes are fully unobservable, without any user preselection, which are a highly heterogenic mix, the selected Mask R-CNN algorithm could also accurately detect mature green tomatoes. The performance of this proposed model in a real greenhouse harvesting environment is also evaluated, thus facilitating the direct application in a tomato harvesting robot.
... Consumer decisions in food purchases are influenced by several factors, including environmental, production, nutritional and qualitative concerns (Moser et al., 2011). Consumer perception of quality is influenced by the intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of a product, some of which can be evaluated before the purchase (e.g., price, dimension, size, color), while others can be determined only after consumption (e.g., taste, flavor, convenience) (Moser et al., 2011;Oltman et al., 2014). ...
Article
The valorization of plant genetic resources and their direct use in local markets can make a significant contribution to the preservation of agrobiodiversity, while also contributing to the sustainability of rural communities. Indeed, plant genetic resources are a precious source of genes, and they represent an important crop heritage for the quality and sensory characteristics that are required by both farmers and consumers. However, an efficient strategy of agrobiodiversity conservation is strictly connected to product marketability and to consumer preferences. In the present study, choice experiments that involved 920 consumers were carried out to determine their willingness to pay for ancient local tomato varieties (landraces) rather than commercial varieties based on their preferences, and to determine how much they valued these products. The results obtained indicate that consumers are willing to pay premium prices for ancient local tomato varieties (an additional €0.90 kg ⁻¹ ), thus demonstrating their increasing attention to sustainable food and the willingness to contribute to agrobiodiversity conservation and enhancement. These results provide the basis for planning strategies and programs to support the cultivation of these landraces and the development of regional and national markets to acknowledge their characteristics, which will considerably increase the effectiveness and efficiency of conservation strategies.
... Tomato fruit quality for fresh consumption depends on numerous traits relating to external (appearance, hand-evaluated texture), and internal (texture, flavor and nutritive value) attributes, most of which are polygenic traits influenced by the genotype, the environment, the agronomic practices, but also the maturity stage [2][3][4]. Considering the purchase environment, external quality attributes are primary drivers in the initial consumer's choice [5], while eating quality becomes the major influencing factor in subsequent purchases [6]. Preference mapping studies conducted on fresh market tomatoes have frequently reported flavor and texture to be the main factors driving and differentiating consumer preferences [7][8][9][10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumer dissatisfaction with the flavor quality of many modern fresh market tomato varieties has fostered breeders’ interest in sensory quality improvement, and the demand for traditional varieties, which are generally associated with better flavor. To achieve further knowledge on the factors influencing the sensory quality and consumers’ preferences and perception, European traditional and modern fresh market tomato varieties were grown and evaluated in France, Italy, and Spain. Different growing conditions were tested in France (soilless vs. soil) and in Spain (open field vs. greenhouse), while in Italy fruits were evaluated at two ripening stages. Fruit quality was assessed by integrating physicochemical analyses, sensory profiles, and consumer tests. In all three countries, overall modern varieties were perceived as having more intense “tomato flavor” and “overall flavor” than traditional ones. In France and Spain, consumers’ preferences were more oriented towards modern varieties than traditional ones. Significant growing condition effects were found on sensory and physicochemical traits, while the effect on consumers’ overall liking was not significant, largely depending on the genotype. A fair agreement between product configurations from descriptive analysis by trained assessors and Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questions by consumers was observed. Penalty-lift analysis based on CATA allowed identifying positive and negative drivers of liking.
... In tomato, a known QTL associated with fruit size and locule number was reconstructed to produce large fruits with numerous locules [86]. For consumers, fruit texture and color are the key components to identify fresh tomatoes [87]. American and European consumers prefer red tomatoes, while Asia consumers prefer pink tomatoes [88,89]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In several parts of the world, the prevalence and severity of drought are predicted to increase, creating considerable pressure on global agricultural yield. Among all abiotic stresses, drought is anticipated to produce the most substantial impact on soil biota and plants, along with complex environmental impacts on other ecological systems. Being sessile, plants tend to be the least resilient to drought-induced osmotic stress, which reduces nutrient accessibility due to soil heterogeneity and limits nutrient access to the root system. Drought tolerance is a complex quantitative trait regulated by multiple genes, and it is one of the most challenging characteristics to study and classify. Fortunately, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology has paved the way as a new frontier in crop improvement, thereby revolutionizing plant breeding. The application of CRISPER systems has proven groundbreaking across numerous biological fields, particularly in biomedicine and agriculture. The present review highlights the principle and optimization of CRISPR systems and their implementation for crop improvement, particularly in terms of drought tolerance, yield, and domestication. Furthermore, we address the ways in which innovative genome editing tools can help recognize and modify novel genes coffering drought tolerance. We anticipate the establishment of effective strategies of crop yield improvement in water-limited regions through collaborative efforts in the near future.
... The color of tomatoes is mainly linked to the lycopene content and is by far the most important quality parameter as is the first characteristic to be evaluated by consumers. This is because color is the single most important product-intrinsic sensory indicator when it comes to setting people's expectations regarding the likely taste and flavor of tomatoes [30]. In the present study, in general, higher red color was found in tomatoes growth under water stress conditions, as shown by higher values of the color coordinates a* and Chroma (C). ...
Article
Full-text available
The tomato cultivated surface is one of the most important surfaces in the world. This crop needs a sufficient and continuous supply of water during vegetative growth. Therefore, production may be at risk in warm and water-scarce areas. Therefore, the implementation of irrigation alternatives such as regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is of great importance to reduce the use of water and improve the production of the quality of tomatoes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the deficit irrigation scheduling using plant water status as a tool in deficit irrigation. Experimental design was a randomized design with four replications per treatment. Two irrigation treatments were applied: Control (125% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc)) and Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI). This latter treatment considered different threshold values of midday leaf water depending on crop phenological stage. No differences were observed in yield, with RDI treatment being more efficient in the use of irrigation water than the control. Besides, RDI tomatoes presented, in general, greater weight, size, Total soluble solids (TSS), sugars, antioxidant activity, lycopene, β-Carotene, and redder color with more intense tomatoes flavor. Finally, it might be said that RDI strategy helped to reduce 53% of irrigation water and to improve the nutritional, functional, and sensory quality of tomatoes.
... Massaglia, Borra, Peano, Sottile, and Merlino (2019) found that appearance was ranked 7th in order of importance when studying preferences for fruits and vegetables in Italy using a BWS approach. Oltman, Jervis, and Drake (2014) found through focus groups that U.S. consumers percieved an attractive tomato to be red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. This work builds on the existing literature by expanding knowledge related to how the use of images and words impact consumer preferences for tomatoes using best-worst scaling experiments. ...
Article
Full-text available
Two best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments, one including only pictures and one including both pictures and descriptive words, were used to rank consumer preference for tomatoes with varying attributes in a nationally representative sample of 1,200 US residents. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first implementation of a fully pictorial-based BWS experiment. Relative preference among pictures of tomatoes in different retailing/production scenarios were analyzed and results between pictures that did and did not include descriptive words were compared. The experiment resulted in relative rankings that were statistically different between the BWS experiments. Further analysis evaluated word associations of respondents for the tomato pictures, establishing the foundation that, at least in one instance, lack of agreement existed regarding pictorial content. The potential for varying ranking of products or attributes when pictures versus text are used to convey related meaning/messaging has implications for the marketing and conveyance of product attributes.
Article
Practical applications: Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint (ACBC) is a research technique that allows consumers to react to assembled products and identify product attributes that they prefer. Kano questions allow researchers to look at the individual aspects of a product and understand consumer sentiment and expectations towards those product qualities while Maximum Difference scaling allows consumers to directly rank single attributes of a product relative to one another. A combination of these 3 approaches can provide key understandings on consumer perception of retail bacon allowing companies to optimize and maximize their development and advertising resources.
Article
en Canned whole peeled tomatoes are a premium tomato product; however, no information is available about the key intrinsic and extrinsic quality attributes perceived by consumers when buying this product. This research considered consumers differing in the level of familiarity with peeled tomatoes, that is, knowledge, frequency of consumption, and availability of this product, on 3 markets: Chile (low), The Netherlands (medium), and Italy (high). The perceptions and preferences of each group were studied using first focus groups and subsequently conjoint analysis in order to identify the key quality attributes leading their preferences for this product. Focus groups identified 7 intrinsic attributes (color, packing medium, tomato consistency, acidity level, sweetness level, extra ingredients, and intensity of product taste), and 5 extrinsic attributes (packaging material, product type, country of origin, brand, and label design). Significant variations according to the familiarity were found. The conjoint analyses showed that color of tomatoes was the most important intrinsic quality attribute for all groups, while packaging material was the most important extrinsic quality attribute for Chileans and Dutch, being a glass container or a can with easy open the preferred packaging for respective groups. In contrast, country of origin was the most important parameter for Italians. We concluded that intrinsic and extrinsic attributes were strongly influenced by the degree of familiarity with canned whole peeled tomatoes. Practical Application pt The relevance of quality parameters perceived by consumers of canned whole peeled tomato differs depending on the familiarity with the product. The certification of origin from Italy is important only for Italian consumers. Unfamiliar consumers are more attracted by convenience packaging, and intrinsic attributes were not significantly influenced by familiarity.
Article
Neonicotinoids can control crop pests with high efficiency and low cost and have quickly swept one-fourth of the global insecticide market since the launch of imidacloprid in 1991. Imidacloprid and acetamiprid, the first generation of neonicotinoids, and dinotefuran, the representative of third generation of neonicotinoids, were applied on tomato plants individually to investigate neonicotinoid effects on tomato fruit quality, especially on appearance parameters, sugar, acid, and aroma compounds. Compared with the control, fewer differences in the transcriptome profile, sugar, acid, and volatile organic compound (VOC) contents, and sensory analysis results were shown in dinotefuran treatments than in the other two treatments. Therefore, dinotefuran was more recommended to control pests of tomatoes with less loss of fruit flavor and quality as well as lower ecological risks.
Article
Fresh food e-commerce has become a burgeoning branch in online markets and changed the circulation of fresh food. Concerning the background of e-commerce, this study tries to relate suppliers' awareness of promoting fresh food business with the logistic obstacles and consumer impacts. The article first introduces five guiding questions after reviewing present literature. To better understand the fresh food markets, it analyzes the operational model of respective suppliers in the UK and China separately. The article also describes primary data collection through the distribution of questionnaires to the sample population. According to the valid feedbacks, the article concludes different consuming trends in fresh food markets and finds that logistical services are still the biggest challenge which need to be improved. Based on the results, it provides recommendations to suppliers for improving the fresh food e-commerce.
Article
The objective of this study was to assess the implicit and explicit qualities of protein products that consumers find attractive. To do so, an Adaptive Choice‐Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey and a Constant Sum (CS) survey were conducted. Participants (n = 457) were the same for both studies and results were compared on both aggregate and individual levels. Additionally, ACBC utility scores were used to calculate “Share of Preference” scores so that each attribute level could be directly compared to CS. Attribute importance scores were relatively similar between methods, with the exception of the platform, sweetener claim, and sweetener type, which were different (p < 0.05) between surveys. Overall, both techniques agreed that the ideal protein product was a chocolate‐flavored protein bar with 20–29 g of primarily whey protein, all‐natural, and naturally sweetened by stevia. Additionally, both methods agreed on relative scaling of levels within each attribute. ACBC resulted in smaller standard deviations for shares of preference ratings than the CS survey. Differences in results between the surveys suggest that protein product consumers have differences in implicit and explicit preferences. Exploration of where these preferences disagree may provide insight on product development initiatives for select consumers. Practical applications This study found that there are subgroups of protein product consumers who express different ideals and desires. Furthermore, these preferences exist both explicitly and implicitly within individual consumers, and differences in those preferences may influence subsequent segmentation of consumer groups. Understanding the benefits and shortcomings of these different survey methods, and reviewing the sentiments each method captures, may help manufacturers and product developers reach new consumer groups and satisfy existing consumers to a greater extent.
Article
Full-text available
Tomato flavor has changed over the course of long-term domestication and intensive breeding. To understand the genetic control of flavor, we report the meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using 775 tomato accessions and 2,316,117 SNPs from three GWAS panels. We discover 305 significant associations for the contents of sugars, acids, amino acids, and flavor-related volatiles. We demonstrate that fruit citrate and malate contents have been impacted by selection during domestication and improvement, while sugar content has undergone less stringent selection. We suggest that it may be possible to significantly increase volatiles that positively contribute to consumer preferences while reducing unpleasant volatiles, by selection of the relevant allele combinations. Our results provide genetic insights into the influence of human selection on tomato flavor and demonstrate the benefits obtained from meta-analysis.
Article
Full-text available
In this work we evaluated different varieties of garlic. All varieties of garlic are rated from one harvest year. Compared samples were different in shape, taste, aroma and characteristics, which were likely to impact on consumer choice and deciding on purchases garlic. Selected indicators were part of internal sensory evaluations, which were evaluated by experts in the sensory laboratory. External part of the preference mapping was conducted among consumers relying on different varieties of garlic under their consumption. Using the internal part of the preferential mapping we summarize randomly selected characteristics within the textural properties and characteristics of taste in which we consider the possible impact on consumer´s choice. In the sensory evaluation assessors used 9 point scale to evaluate 15 selected properties across the texture, taste and aroma on 10 selected varieties according to the degree of preference. Garlic odour and textural properties were evaluated by the normal procedure, though the taste because of intense lingering aftertaste of has been evaluated in a prepared mixture after cooking. For external evaluation, we designed a questionnaire in which consumers can express their preference for individual samples based on photo and variety characteristics, using a hedonic scale from 1 to 9. Obtained data from sensory evaluation and a questionnaire survey were evaluated using statistical software XLSTAT. Preferential map summarise results from internal and external evaluation. We identified characteristics affecting the degree of consumer preferences according to the visualization of our results.
Article
Full-text available
Cilj istraživanja bio je utvrditi ponašanje potrošača u kupnji i potrošnji svježe rajčice, razloge konzumacije svježe rajčice, te važnost ekstrinzičnih i intrinzičnih obilježja svježe rajčice. Anketno ispitivanje provedeno je na uzorku od 100 potrošača svježe rajčice. Najveći udio ispitanika konzumira svježu rajčicu u sezoni dva do tri puta tjedno, u količinama 0,5-1 kg tjedno. Ispitanici najčešće kupuju svježu rajčicu u supermarketima i na gradskim tržnicama. Najviše potrošača kupuje rajčicu u rinfuzi, dok samo manji udio kupuje pakiranu rajčicu Glavni razlog za konzumiranje svježe rajčice jest da je svježa rajčica osvježavajuća ljetna salata, te da je zdrava i nutritivno vrijedna namirnica. Od intrinzičnih obilježja svježe rajčice ispitanicima su najvažniji okus i sočnost, pri čemu preferiraju intenzivan okus rajčice, s velikim udjelom soka. Od ekstrinzičnih obilježja svježe rajčice za ispitanike su najvažniji tvrdoća ploda i podrijetlo svježe rajčice, a najviše preferiraju tvrdu svježu rajčicu i domaće podrijetlo. Rezultati istraživanja su od velike važnosti za proizvođače svježe rajčice u svrhu planiranja proizvodnje i odabira sorti rajčice koje zadovoljavaju preferencije potrošača. Također, rezultati pružaju korisne informacije trgovcima i marketarima pri izradi marketing strategija za unapređenje prodaje.
Article
Fluid milk consumption has declined in the United States, but lactose-free dairy milk (LFM) sales have steadily increased. It is important to understand how consumers perceive LFM and what consumers value when purchasing LFM. This study characterized consumer perceptions and preferences for LFM. Three 1.5-h focus groups (n = 25), an online survey (n = 331), trained panel descriptive analysis, and a consumer acceptance taste test (n = 160) were conducted with LFM consumers. Focus groups were evaluated by frequency of responses. From the focus group findings, we found that price was a primary choice driver of LFM. Habit and flavor familiarity with cow milk were a major driver of selection of LFM over plant-based alternatives for consumers. Higher sweetness and lower viscosity were the primary sensory differences between LFM and traditional milk, and were viewed negatively in general. The online survey included Kano questions, maximum difference scaling, and an adaptive choice-based conjoint. The data gathered from these techniques provided insight into the perceptions and purchase habits of consumers. Kano data demonstrated consumer attitudes toward the presence or absence of product attributes. The maximum difference scaling scaled the importance of product attributes to consumers. An adaptive choice-based conjoint provided insight into consumer purchase habits by simulating a purchase decision through an online interface. The attributes evaluated included price, packaging material, package size, lactose removal method, shelf life, sweetness, texture, nutrition claims, and label claims. Survey responses were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistics. Survey results quantitatively confirmed many focus group observations. Price, texture, sweetness, shelf life, and package size were the most important attributes to LFM consumers. A low price, ultrapasteurized LFM in a half-gallon cardboard package was the ideal LFM. Descriptive analysis of 9 commercial LFM followed by consumer acceptance testing was conducted. External preference mapping was conducted with trained panel and consumer acceptance results. Consumer acceptance testing of commercial LFM revealed 3 consumer clusters with distinct preferences for LFM flavor and texture. High sweet taste was a driver of liking for the overall population, and eggy flavor and viscosity were drivers of disliking. Knowledge of consumer preferences for LFM will provide actionable insights for new product development within the dairy industry for this market segment.
Article
Full-text available
Italy is a recognized secondary center of diversification for cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The study of phenotypic and genetic diversity in landrace collections is important for germplasm conservation and valorization. Here, we set up to study the tomato germplasm collected in the region of Lazio in Central Italy, with a focus on the distinctiveness among landraces and the attribution of membership to unnamed accessions. Our regional collection included 32 accessions belonging to eight different locally recognized landraces and 19 unnamed accessions. All accessions were gathered from local farmers and are preserved in the collection held at the Regional Agency for the Development and the Innovation of Lazio Agriculture (ARSIAL) and at the University of Tuscia. We included 13 control genotypes comprising nine landraces from neighbor regions and four reference cultivars. The collection showed wide phenotypic variability for several qualitative and quantitative traits, such as leaf border and shape, inflorescence type, fruit shape, green shoulder, fruit weight (range 14–277 g), locule number (2–12), shape index (0.54–2.65), yield (0.24–3.08 kg/plant), and soluble solids (3.4–7.5°B). A few landraces showed uncommon phenotypes, such as potato leaf, colorless fruit epidermis, or delayed ripening. Multivariate analysis of 25 cardinal phenotypic variables separated the accessions into two distinct groups; accessions showing a flattened-ribbed fruit were distinguished from those with round to elongate fruits with smooth structure. Genotyping analysis of 7,720 SNPs was performed using the tomato array platform SolCAP, to point out the genetic relationship among the studied accessions. A neighbor-joining tree analysis allowed to confirm or deny phenotypic data and to assign some of the unnamed accessions to recognized groups. Allelic status at marker loci linked to resistance genes commonly used in breeding identified accessions putatively derived from modern material or commercial hybrids, thus not classifiable as landraces. Overall, this study provided the information useful to preserve, valorize, and juridically protect tomato local landraces from the Lazio region and will in addition be helpful to their improvement by breeding.
Article
Branding is an important tool to increase a product's value. Fresh fruits and vegetables are largely unbranded. This study aimed to 1) investigate consumer preferences for brands (including brand transfers) of fresh produce, compared with other extrinsic attributes, 2) identify consumer segments and describe them with the psychological scale “food and beverage need for uniqueness” (FBNFU), and 3) explore consumer thought processing of brands during choice. We applied a concurrent mixed-methods approach: a discrete choice experiment and latent class analysis (quantitative) and a think-aloud interview (qualitative). Results showed that brands are not generally the most important attribute for choice. Experimental brand transfers received the lowest preference rating (i.e., part-worth utilities). However, for certain consumer segments, branding is most important. The consumer segments with the strongest preference for brands showed the highest level of FBNFU. Consumers' thought process during choice typically starts with brand recognition, and associations follow. Consumers with negative or no associations, or who were unfamiliar with the brand, disregarded the brand as the choice process progressed. Our results provide insights into the value of fresh-produce brands for consumers. Practitioners should target the FBNFU mindset and maximize brand awareness when promoting branded fresh produce.
Article
Full-text available
The level of malnutrition in Nigeria is very alarming and is on the rise. Carrying out a study on consumers' consumption of staple foods with vitamin A source is of importance. The study specifically examined consumers' preferences and willingness to pay for bio-fortified vitamin A garri in SouthWestern , Nigeria. Data were sourced from two hundred respondents through a well-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, conjoint analysis and craggs' double-hurdle model. The result of the analysis showed that the mean age of the respondents were 51(±18.37). The preferred attributes of bio-fortified vitamin A garri were low or medium price, good taste, often availability, high vitamin A content, easiness to prepare, good packaging and high B-carotene content. A higher proportion of the consumers were willing to pay for bio-fortified vitamin A garri although at a lower amount. In the first hurdle, variables such as education (0.0233), household size (-0.2177) and awareness (0.0096) at (p<0.10), (p<0.01) and (p<0.10) respectively significantly affect the willingness to pay for bio-fortified vitamin A garri in the study area. In the second hurdle, age (0.0533) and perception (1.2807) of consumers at (p<0.05) and p<0.05 respectively affect the amount they were willing to pay for bio-fortified garri in the study area. It was therefore recommended that there should be an increased sensitization program in form of education and awareness about the medicinal and nutritional importance of consumption of bio-fortified vitamin A garri so that the rate of consumption can increase in the study area.
Article
Full-text available
A sensory profile was created for 8 fresh tomato cultivars (Cherry-Pachino, Lobato, Rita, Furora, Bravo, ES200, Cherry-Licatese, and Sardegna) and their relationship to consumer preference was evaluated. A panel of 11 trained judges was used to evaluate the sensory profile. Results were processed by Analysis of Variance. Mean scores of sensory attributes (red, green, colour uniformity, fruity aroma, acid, salty, sweet, astringent, fruity flavour, crispy, firm, thick-skinned, juicy and mealy) were then subjected to Principal Component Analysis. In order to.
Article
Full-text available
The major components of flavor in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and other fruit are thought to be sugars, acids, and flavor volatiles. Tomato overall acceptability, tomato-like flavor, sweetness, and sourness for six to nine tomato cultivars were analyzed by experienced panels using a nine-point scale and by trained descriptive analysis panels using a 15-cm line scale for sweetness, sourness, three to five aroma and three to seven taste descriptors in three seasons. Relationships between sensory data and instrumental analyses, including flavor volatiles, soluble solids (SS), individual sugars converted to sucrose equivalents (SE), titratable acidity (TA), pH, SS/TA, and SE/TA, were established using correlation and multiple linear regression. For instrumental data, SS/TA, SE/TA, TA, and cis-3-hexenol correlated with overall acceptability (P = 0.05); SE, SE/TA (P ≤ 0.03), geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (P = 0.11) with tomato-like flavor; SE, pH, cis-3-hexenal, trans-2-hexenal, hexanal, cis-3-hexenol, geranylacetone, 2+3-methylbutanol, trans-2 heptenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (P ≤ 0.11) with sweetness; and SS, pH, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-isobutylthiazole, geranlyacetone, β-ionone, ethanol, hexanal and cis-3-hexenal with sourness (P ≤ 0.15) for experienced or trained panel data. Measurements for SS/TA correlated with overall taste (P = 0.09) and SS with astringency, bitter aftertaste, and saltiness (P ≤ 0.07) for trained panel data. In addition to the above mentioned flavor volatiles, methanol and 1-penten-3-one significantly affected sensory responses (P = 0.13) for certain aroma descriptors. Levels of aroma compounds affected perception of sweetness and sourness and measurements of SS showed a closer relationship to sourness, astringency, and bitterness than to sweetness.
Article
Full-text available
Flat-plate compression, constant area compression, and puncture tests were examined for their sensitivity in differentiating the firmness of previously chilled (6C, 85% RH, 15 days) and nonchilled mature-green tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill CV. Caruso) fruit during 10 days of ripening at 22C. Firmness, as measured by each of the three methods, progressively decreased (P < 0.001) with ripening. Previously chilled tomatoes were initially softer (P < 0.01) than nonchilled tomatoes, as measured by puncture of whole fruit and constant area compression of pericarp tissue sections, but not by flat-plate compression of whole fruit. Flat-plate compression was therefore found to be a relatively insensitive method by which to measure differences in tomato firmness that are characteristic of slightly chilling-injured fruit.
Article
Full-text available
In order to analyze the genetic control of fresh-market tomato quality, the genetic variation of quality attributes was analyzed in 45 hybrids and their 13 parental lines, grown in 2 contrasted environments. Fruit quality was assessed by physical measurements, fruit composition, and sensory analyses (descriptive analysis by a trained panel and hedonic tests by randomly chosen consumers). Most of the physicochemical traits, flavor attributes, and firm texture showed a simple additive inheritance on the contrary to the aroma and other texture traits. Specific networks of relationships among traits were shown in hybrids. Consumers perceived significant differences among hybrids and seemed to particularly appreciate the hybrids among old and modern lines.
Article
Full-text available
Incorporating the `voice of the consumer' in early stages of the new product development process has been identified as a critical success factor for new product development. Yet, this step is often ignored or poorly executed. This may be due to lack of familiarity on which methods are available, the use of disciplinary terminology, and difficulty in accessibility of papers on this subject. This paper reviews and categorises 10 of the most common methods in this area, in terms of what their key features are, and what strengths, weaknesses and appropriateness are. We develop a classification scheme based on three performance dimensions with specific criteria: (1) stimuli used as cue for need elicitation, (2) task format, and (3) need actionability. We provide guidelines for the appropriateness of these methods in the new product development process based on the newness strategy of the development process (radical versus incremental innovation) and identify which functional department (marketing versus R&D) the method should primarily support
Article
Full-text available
Tomato texture is one of the critical components for the consumer's perception of fruit quality. Texture is a complex character composed of several attributes that are difficult to evaluate and which change during fruit ripening. This study investigated the texture of tomato fruits at the rheological, sensory, morphological, and genetic levels, and attempted to correlate several parameters. Analyses were performed on tomato fruits from introgressed lines carrying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with texture traits localized on different chromosomes, in two genetic backgrounds. Rheological measurements were used to determine resistance to deformation and fruit elasticity. Sensory analysis was used to assess flesh firmness, juiciness, mealiness, and skin toughness. Image analysis was used to study fruit morphology and to define the cellular structure and heterogeneity of the pericarp. A highly significant correlation was observed between instrumental and sensory firmness. Moreover, correlations were also established between some texture traits and parameters of the pericarp cellular structure. Compared with QTLs detected in a previous study, the phenotypic effects expected for mealiness were confirmed in all lines, whereas, for firmness, they were not confirmed. Significant interactions between QTL and genetic background were observed for several traits. In addition, kinetic analysis showed that differences in firmness occurred from the early stages of fruit development. These results provide both a broad description of texture components and preliminary information to understand their genetic control.
Article
Sugars, acids and their interactions were important to sourness, sweetness, and overall flavor intensity in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Fructose and citric acid were more important to sweetness and sourness than glucose and malic acid, respectively. The pH was a better objective measure of sourness than titratable acidity. An interaction between glucose and citric acid on sweetness was observed. Quantitative differences in 11 volatile compounds were found among the cultivars. Several of these volatiles were significantly related to variation in the flavor characteristics studied. Three compounds (peaks (20–21), 51, and 75) appeared to be more important to the “tomato-like” character.
Article
Composition and sensory characteristics were investigated to determine the effect of ripeness at picking on fresh market flavor of ‘Cal Ace’ (1974, 1975, 1976) and ‘Cherry’, ‘Calmart’, and ‘Early Pak 7’ (1976) tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Tomatoes picked at earlier stages of ripeness and ripened at 20°C were evaluated by panelists as being less sweet, more sour, less “tomato-like” and having more “off-flavor” than those picked at the table-ripe stage. Objective tests showed these fruits had less sugars and reduced ascorbic acid, and varied significantly in volatile composition. The magnitude of these differences varied greatly among the cultivars. In ‘Cal Ace’ the “off-flavor” characteristic was largely correlated with a volatile compound (peak 43) but in other cultivars seven other volatile compounds also appeared to play a role.
Article
Adaptive choice-based conjoint (ACBC) analysis is a technique that uses choice data and incorporates it into an adaptive interviewing experience. ACBC analysis has been suggested to provide more accurate information at the individual level, which can lead to better predictions even when using smaller sample sizes. A comparison of a traditional choice-based conjoint (CBC) survey and an ACBC survey was undertaken to compare the overall utility scores and importance values of attributes determined by both techniques using sour cream as the subject. A CBC and an ACBC survey were conducted. More respondents participated in the CBC (n=777) survey than in the ACBC version (n=250). Respondents to the ACBC version were from the same pool of respondents to the CBC version. A random sample of 250 respondents from the CBC survey was also analyzed. Results were analyzed by overall utility scores, importance values, landscape segmentation analysis and cluster analysis via latent class. The ACBC and CBC results were similar in overall utility scores for all attributes with similar respondent clusters. Both techniques revealed fat content as the most important attribute, followed by price and followed by brand. The CBC result for 250 respondents overestimated the importance of brand. The ACBC utility scores were not as distinct as CBC results in all categories; however, the direction of the mean utility scores was the same in all categories. Overall, ACBC and CBC revealed similar outcomes for different sour cream product types when price was excluded; however, the CBC results differentiated products to a greater extent than ACBC with the same sample size considered.
Chapter
Article
Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred-eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees (P < 0.05). A subsequent conjoint analysis (n = 250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to provide a quantitative decision approach to the service quality management, developed on the basis of Kano's theory of attractive quality. The proposed approach aims at exploiting contacts with service made by “mystery guests” rather than traditional surveys on customer opinions. Design/methodology/approach A specific probabilistic model of the process of serving quality is the adopted basic tool. Multiple comparison tests aimed at controlling the service quality are the core of the proposed decision approach. In order to collect the needed sampling data, a few mystery guests who experience many customer‐service contacts are employed. Findings A quantitative decision methodology which both allows one to evaluate the actual service quality level and provides, via comparison tests, a tool to highlight the weak and strong points of the service delivery process. Originality/value The proposed quality map is an original graphical tool, which enables one to pin‐point strengths and failings in service quality, prioritize corrective actions and recognize improvements, if any. The operative value of the whole methodology is tested through a real application to the hotel service industry.
Article
Ginseng food products in the U.S.A. have mostly been limited to beverages despite the growth of functional foods market. The objectives of the study were to: (1) probe consumer attitudes and expectations of ginseng food products in the U.S.A., and (2) identify ginseng food product concept(s) that possess market potential in the U.S.A. Focus group panel (n = 14) experienced limited types of ginseng food products from the Asian market and suggested that new ginseng food products be developed on the basis of preexisting product types in the U.S.A. Conjoint analysis (n = 400) was performed with four categories and five elements from each category, which were generated based on findings from preceding focus groups. Participants had a low level of initial interest in ginseng food products. “Sweetness” and “ginseng chocolate” had the highest utility values. Findings suggested that the original ginseng flavors, including bitterness and earthiness, be minimized in order to establish potential for success in the U.S. market. This present work demonstrates consumers' insights and expectations of ginseng food products as well as ginseng food product concepts that drive consumers' interests, which have not been extensively researched in the U.S.A. Moreover, findings from the study demonstrate U.S. consumers' knowledge and insights of ginseng and its health effects. These will help food manufacturers understand the consumers who are latent in purchasing ginseng food products in the market and develop ginseng food products that will ensure their success in the U.S. market. Segmentation of consumers based on the pattern of their responses to the concept elements will be beneficial for food-marketing experts to establish marketing strategies. New ginseng food products where the findings from the study are applied are expected to increase consumers' intent to purchase the products, which have been known as containing numerous bioactive compounds.
Article
The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the consumer perception of fat reduction in cheese. Choice-based conjoint analysis surveys for Cheddar and mozzarella cheeses (n = 179 and 171 consumers, respectively) were developed using results from focus groups conducted with users and nonusers of lower fat cheeses. Factors investigated were fat content, flavor, texture and price of cheese. Relative importance of product attributes was determined through a realistic trade-off scenario. Consumer acceptance testing (n = 101) was then conducted on Cheddar and mozzarella cheeses with varying levels of fat reduction. Conjoint analysis results suggested that a 2% milk Cheddar cheese would be most appealing among fat reduced Cheddar cheeses and that a part-skim mozzarella would be more appealing than a fat-free mozzarella, and these results were confirmed by consumer acceptance testing. These results confirm that most consumers are not willing to sacrifice flavor or texture for fat reduction in cheeses. Significant changes in flavor and texture are needed for a low-fat Cheddar cheese to have widespread consumer appeal.
Article
Quality comparisons were made on mature green and firm red tomato fruits of three cultivars harvested at different times throughout the season. Fruits were harvested at the mature green stage and ripened at 20° C in humidified air for the room ripened treatment. Quality measurements included reduced ascorbic acid content, locular material content, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids content, soluble solids-acidity ratio and moisture content. Field ripened fruits had greater ascorbic acid contents relative to room ripened fruits, but variations occurred with harvest time. Field ripened fruits were judged as better in overall quality and flavor relative to room ripened fruits. Correlations were made between quality measurements and sensory evaluations.
Article
A multiple regression model was developed to predict the acceptability of the four tomato varieties studied (Aranka, Cherry, Beef and Pitenza). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering showed the presence of four consumer clusters. One cluster preferred small tomatoes (Aranka and Cherry) and another cluster the larger tomatoes (Beef and Pitenza). In the sensorial analysis Aranka was the preferred variety, scoring more highly in taste, odour, acidity, sweetness and hardness. In the physicochemical analysis Aranka also obtained the highest values for titratable acidity (TA) and sugars (SSC), confirming that these parameters are important in tomato flavour. Lower values for both sets of parameters were reflected by lower consumer acceptability, with Beef and Pitenza receiving the lowest score for these flavours attributes (except odour). A significant correlation between the sensorial and physicochemical parameters was also observed: odour was positively correlated with calibre, while taste, acidity, hardness and acceptability were negatively correlated with calibre, pH and SSC/TA and positively correlated with SSC and TA. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Consumers are increasing their produce consumption; however, complaints of inconsistent produce quality and improper consumer handling practices could reduce consumer satisfaction with and demand for specific produce items. Seventy to eighty percent of consumers buy cantaloupes, peaches, pears, strawberries and tomatoes at the supermarket; only about half buy apricots at the supermarket. Apricots are not purchased at any location by almost 30% of consumers. Satisfaction with quality is highest for cantaloupes, lowest for tomatoes and apricots. Consumer complaints center around flavor and textural changes which develop in ripening. Both consumer handling practices and fresh product quality contribute to dissatisfaction.
Article
ABSTRACTA lexicon for describing the sensory flavor and texture characteristics of fresh and processed tomatoes was developed. A six-member highly trained, descriptive sensory panel identified, defined and referenced 33 sensory attributes for fresh and processed tomatoes. Forty products including a variety of raw, canned, concentrated and dried tomatoes, as well as tomato-based products including ketchup and simple pasta sauce, were evaluated in the study. These products represented a wide range of sensory characteristics in raw and processed tomatoes. The lexicon established included 5 aroma attributes, 10 texture attributes and 18 flavor attributes including 6 taste and mouthfeel attributes. The lexicon provides attribute descriptors, definitions and references that often are lacking in previous literature. Reducing the number of attributes may be appropriate when testing specific tomato products.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONSIncreased consumption of tomato products has expanded interest in improving the sensory characteristics of tomatoes and subsequent products. This research provides a list of sensory flavor and texture terms that can be used to describe the sensory characteristics of both fresh and processed tomatoes. This information will help researchers, breeders and processors better understand the flavor and texture properties of fresh and processed tomatoes, and the tomato characteristics of tomato products. Taste attributes, often used in previous literature, are important but are not enough to describe the characteristics of tomatoes. In addition to flavor attributes, aroma and texture properties are important for describing tomato characteristics but have not been thoroughly established in previous research.
Chapter
This article chapter provides an up-to-date review of methods that have come to be called conjoint analysis. These methods enable marketing researchers to determine trade-offs among attributes of a new product based on responses of stated preferences and stated choices. These trade-offs can assist in product design, pricing, market segmentation, and similar marketing decisions. There are essentially four types of conjoint analysis; these are traditional conjoint analysis that uses stated preferences, choice-based conjoint analysis (CBCA) that uses stated choices, self-explicated conjoint analysis that uses direct elicitation of attribute importances and ratings on attribute levels, and adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) which involves a staged and adaptive data collection. Over several thousand conjoint studies were conducted since the introduction of this method in the early 1970s. The chapterarticle also covers significant advances in estimation methods and design of stimuli (profiles and choice sets) over these years. Essentially, this methodology is alive and thriving well.
Article
Twelve tomato selections were evaluated for their flavor components using sensory and chemical/instrumental measurements. Regression analysis was performed to develop prediction models for the sensory descriptors. Significant prediction models were obtained for most descriptors. Both volatile and nonvolatile flavor components influenced the aromatic descriptors, but the volatile components provided more consistent relationships. Sucrose equivalents provided more significant correlations with descriptors than did soluble solids. Tomatoes described as full flavored by the breeder were characterized by higher sugars, soluble solids, aromatic volatile compounds, and lower amounts of organic acids than those considered to be of poorer flavor by the breeder. These data provide quantitative linkages of aromatic volatile compounds, sugars, and acids with specific flavor notes.
Article
Two commercial samples were evaluated in five focus group sessions to determine the reliability of the focus group technique in identifying the desirable and important sensory characteristics of dry and cooked mungbean noodles and to determine its quality characteristics. Each focus group consistently identified a similar list of desirable and undesirable characteristics. These results indicated that the focus group technique was a reliable method for determining consumer criteria for quality for mungbean noodles. When there is a need to determine consumers’ definition of product quality at a stage when consumer testing is not desired, the focus group technique can be used as a valuable tool. Mungbean noodle quality was found to have two distinct aspects: appearance of the dry noodles and eating quality of the cooked noodles. Color, glossiness, and transparency are the most important characteristics of dry starch noodles while mouthfeel or texture is considered the most important characteristic of cooked starch noodles. Color, taste, and odor of the cooked noodles were considered not as important.
Article
A conjoint analytic study was conducted with military and civilian consumers to assess the importance of taste and other product characteristics to the intended use of nutraceutical products. Taste was found to be the most important factor for both consumer groups, followed by the benefit to be achieved, the source of the benefit claim, required dosage, mode of consumption, and product type (natural compared with synthetic). Interest among the military was greatest for products that increased muscle mass, whereas interest among civilians was greatest for products that improved thinking. For both groups, required frequency of consumption greater than 3 times a day had a negative influence on probable use, whereas consumption in a capsule form was viewed most desirable.
Article
Advanced high sugar and acid breeding lines of tomatoes (Lycopersion esculentum Mill.) were rated higher in sweetness, sourness and overall flavor intensity than the standard cultivars Cal Ace or T3. Titratable acidity and soluble solids content were major contributors to differences in overall flavor intensity. The results demonstrate that significant improvement in tomato flavor can be attained by increasing sugar and acid contents in tomato fruits by genetic manipulation. Current evidence indicates that breeding for high soluble solids in horticulturally acceptable tomato cultivars is justified.
Article
Realizing that texture is a sensory property gives proper orientation to facets of texture research. Following the breakthrough in the 1960s and 1970s in surfacing the multi-parameter nature of texture and in defining the general principles of texture acceptability, the field has essentially reverted to commodity work. This paper reviews briefly the state of knowledge and points out specific research areas that could constitute new significant breakthroughs. These include defining the components of complex textural characteristics, developing an understanding of the perceptual interplay among texture parameters and between textural and other (e.g. visual clues, taste) modalities, exploring the breakdown pathways in the mouth for various food categories, and repeating earlier studies on consumer attitudes and preferences in the context of 21st century cultures and lifestyles.
Article
Incorporating the `voice of the consumer' in early stages of the new product development process has been identified as a critical success factor for new product development. Yet, this step is often ignored or poorly executed. This may be due to lack of familiarity on which methods are available, the use of disciplinary terminology, and difficulty in accessibility of papers on this subject. This paper reviews and categorises 10 of the most common methods in this area, in terms of what their key features are, and what strengths, weaknesses and appropriateness are. We develop a classification scheme based on three performance dimensions with specific criteria: (1) stimuli used as cue for need elicitation, (2) task format, and (3) need actionability. We provide guidelines for the appropriateness of these methods in the new product development process based on the newness strategy of the development process (radical versus incremental innovation) and identify which functional department (marketing versus R&D) the method should primarily support.
Article
With the Total Food Quality Model as point of departure, a study is described which analyses how consumers evaluate the quality of beef in a purchase situation in four European countries: France, Germany, Spain and the UK. The study consisted of a series of focus groups and of an extended form of conjoint analysis which allows an estimation of meansend structures. Tradition and security, variation, atmosphere and social life, health, acceptance from family/children/ guests, nutrition, demonstration of cooking abilities, and status are the most important purchasing motives in all four countries. The most important quality aspects of beef are that it tastes good, is tender, juicy, fresh, lean, healthy and nutritious. Purchasing motives as well as quality aspects are uni-dimensional in Germany, Spain, and the UK, while they are multi-dimensional in France. Place of purchase and quality perception are related in all four countries, i.e. the butcher is regarded as a sort of guarantor of high quality. This applies less in the UK than in the other countries, however. The most important concrete product characteristics which consumers base their quality evaluation on are fat content and colour. Fat is generally negative, and this applies to all aspects of fat. The positive effects of fat on taste and tenderness are not perceived. German consumers prefer dark meat, whereas Spanish consumers tend to prefer light meat. Information about country of origin and breeding and feeding has no effect on quality perception. The results suggest that producers of superior beef have a problem in communicating this quality to consumers, and that a quality grading system developed in co-operation between producer and retailer may be the best way to overcome consumer uncertainty in evaluating the quality of beef.
Article
Purchase intention and ‘willingness to pay more’ for a relatively new spreading fat with a proven health benefit were compared with those of an established spread by a panel of consumers (n=70). Unlabelled assessment showed that the two spreads differed significantly in liking for taste, in-mouth texture and overall liking. Label information (identity, price and nutritional benefit) had a significant effect on intention to buy, especially when combined within higher liking. Main reasons for ‘buying’ and ‘not buying’ the spread with the proven health benefit were ‘healthy’ and ‘high price’, respectively. Consumers were willing to pay more for the new spread but at a level below its current retail price, although this was significantly higher when combined with higher liking. Gender, age, health concern and nutritional knowledge had mostly interactive effects on purchase intent, with females, older subjects and those with high health concern having higher purchase intent for the proven health benefit label. ‘Willingness to pay more’ level was also higher for these sub-groups and for those with higher nutritional knowledge, but effect sizes were less than those due to differences in liking.
Article
The effects of adding sugar and acid to fresh tomatoes on the response by descriptive and consumer panels were studied. ‘Duke’ tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were diced and mixed with reducing sugars (fructose/glucose, 14:11) and citric acid at levels of 0, 1.4, or 2.8% that of the total mixture weight for the sugars and 0, 0.3, or 0.6% for the acid. Descriptive analysis was used to evaluate tomato samples according to the flavor terms sweet, sour, and fresh tomato impact using 150-mm unstructured line scales. Consumer tests were conducted to rate flavor acceptability of diced tomatoes. Regression analysis indicated that a second-order polynomial predicted the response of consumer flavor acceptability to sugar and acid levels. Increasing total sugar and acid levels did not affect fresh tomato impact but did significantly affect flavor acceptability. Maximum levels of acid were reached above which further increases negatively affected consumer acceptability.
Article
Acidic whey protein beverages are a growing component of the functional food and beverage market. These beverages are also astringent, but astringency is an expected and desirable attribute of many beverages (red wine, tea, coffee) and may not necessarily be a negative attribute of acidic whey protein beverages. The goal of this study was to define the consumer perception of astringency in clear acidic whey protein beverages. Six focus groups (n=49) were held to gain understanding of consumer knowledge of astringency. Consumers were presented with beverages and asked to map them based on astringent mouthfeel and liking. Orthonasal thresholds for whey protein isolate (WPI) in water and flavored model beverages were determined using a 7-series ascending forced choice method. Mouthfeel/basic taste thresholds were determined for WPI in water. Acceptance tests on model beverages were conducted using consumers (n=120) with and without wearing nose clips. Consumers in focus groups were able to identify astringency in beverages. Astringency intensity was not directly related to dislike. The orthonasal threshold for WPI in water was lower (P < 0.05) than the mouthfeel/basic taste threshold of WPI in water. Consumer acceptance of beverages containing WPI was lower (P < 0.05) when consumers were not wearing nose clips compared to acceptance scores of beverages when consumers were wearing nose clips. These results suggest that flavors contributed by WPI in acidic beverages are more objectionable than the astringent mouthfeel and that both flavor and astringency should be the focus of ongoing studies to improve the palatability of these products.
Article
To better understand the effect of sugars and acid levels on perception of aroma volatiles, intensity of tomato earthy/medicinal/musty, green/grassy/viney, and fruity/floral aroma and flavor descriptors were evaluated using coarsely chopped partially deodorized tomato puree. This puree was spiked with 1.5% to 3% sugar (glucose/fructose combinations), 0.1% to 0.2% acid (citric/malic acid combinations), or water and 2 levels of 12 individual food-grade volatiles reported to contribute to tomato flavor. A panel consisting of 6 to 8 trained members rated 9 aroma, 8 taste, and 1 aftertaste descriptors of the spiked and nonspiked purees. The panelists detected significant differences (P < or = 0.1) for various individual aroma compound/sugar/acid combinations for a range of descriptors. Adding 0.2% acids alone to bland tomato puree decreased green and floral aromas as well as sweet taste. Adding 3% sugars alone increased green and musty aromas and decreased floral aroma as well as sour, citrus, and bitter tastes. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 56.5% of the variation in the first 3 principal components (PCs) for added acids and volatiles to bland tomato puree. The effect of added acids with the various aroma compounds generally increased perception of overall and ripe tomato taste and aroma, tropical aroma, and sour taste, and decreased sweet, fruity, and bitter tastes. PCA for added sugars with volatiles explained 67.8% of the variation in first 3 PCs, and sugars generally decreased perception of sour, bitter, and citrus tastes and green aroma, while enhancing perception of flavors associated with ripe, tropical, and aromatic tomatoes. Adding sugars, acids, and volatiles together had a similar effect to addition of sugars alone.