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Effects of Organic Acid and Bacterial Direct-Feed Microbial on Fattening Performance of Kivircik-Male Yearling Lambs

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Abstract

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of addition of organic acid (OA), (SAL CURB?) and/or direct-feed microbial (DFM), (Cylactin? LBC ME 10) to the rations of Kivircik male-yearling lambs on body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, some blood metabolites, and the levels of serum minerals. A group of sixty 1-year old male lambs of Kivircik Breed were used. The animals were divided in to 4 groups of 15 lambs each. The groups were assigned as control, organic acid, direct-feed microbial, and direct-feed microbial plus organic acid. A commercial direct-feed microbial product and organic acid mix were used as feed treatment supplements. The average daily gain means of the lambs supplemented with organic acid plus direct-feed microbials was found significantly higher than that of control group lambs. Significant differences in total proteins, cholesterol, total lipids, and serum Zn levels were detected among the groups. As a result, addition of organic acid and/or direct-feed microbial to the ration of yearling Kivircik male lambs resulted in an increased body weight gain (p<0.05). In addition, the dietary supplement of organic acid to the lambs caused a decrease in the serum cholesterol level while direct-feed microbial addition caused an increase in the serum Zn level (p< 0.05).
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (2): 149-154, 2007
ISSN 1680-5194
© Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2007
149
Effects of Organic Acid and Bacterial Direct-Feed Microbial on Fattening
Performance of Kivircik-Male Yearling Lambs
Ismail Abas , Halil Can Kutay , Recep Kahraman , Nezir Yasar Toker ,
1 1 1 2
Dervis Özçelik , Fatma Ates and Aysun Kaçakci
3 3 3
Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases,
1
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University, 34320 - Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
2
Istanbul University, 34320, Avcilar, Istanbul, Turkey
Department of Biophysics, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty,
3
Istanbul University, 34300 Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of addition of organic acid (OA), (SAL CURB®)
and/or direct-feed microbial (DFM), (Cylactin® LBC ME 10) to the rations of Kivircik male-yearling lambs on
body weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, some blood metabolites, and the levels of serum
minerals. A group of sixty 1-year old male lambs of Kivircik Breed were used. The animals were divided in
to 4 groups of 15 lambs each. The groups were assigned as control, organic acid, direct-feed microbial, and
direct-feed microbial plus organic acid. A commercial direct-feed microbial product and organic acid mix were
used as feed treatment supplements. The average daily gain means of the lambs supplemented with
organic acid plus direct-feed microbials was found significantly higher than that of control group lambs.
Significant differences in total proteins, cholesterol, total lipids, and serum Zn levels were detected among
the groups. As a result, addition of organic acid and/or direct-feed microbial to the ration of yearling Kivircik
male lambs resulted in an increased body weight gain (p<0.05). In addition, the dietary supplement of
organic acid to the lambs caused a decrease in the serum cholesterol level while direct-feed microbial
addition caused an increase in the serum Zn level (p<0.05).
Key words: Kivircik male lambs, organic acid, direct-feed microbial, performance, blood parameter
Introduction
Recent studies on ruminant nutrition have mostly
focused on increasing the feed conversion rate. A variety
of feed additives have been developed to achieve this
objective. Antimicrobial feed additives, which are one of
the additives that have been used widely in the world;
have been prohibited or restricted in most countries due
to the increased concern of causing resistance to
antibiotics in bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the interest
to potential alternatives to antibiotic feed additives such
as direct-feed microbials (DFM), which is known as
biological products composed of cultures of useful
microorganisms (Alp and Kahraman, 1996; Krehbiel et
al., 2003; Elam et al., 2003), and organic acids
increased (Callaway and Martin, 1996; Martin, 1998;
Castillo et al., 2004).
In ruminants, direct-feed microbials are mainly used for
lowering the effects of stress conditions and decreasing
the use of antibiotics in calves. These microbials both
increase milk yield in dairy cows and the body weight
gain and feed conversion rate in beef cattle (Krehbiel et
al., 2003). Lema et al. (2001) it has been reported that
the addition of direct-feed microbials to the ration of
sheep resulted in decreased numbers of harmful
microorganisms in the intestines improved fattening
performance, and feed conversion rate.
Few studies have been carried out on the action of DFM
on blood parameters and published results have been
conflicted. Jouany et al. (1998), reported that DFM did not
have any effect on ruminal metabolism such as protein
decomposition or microbial protein synthesis and did
not cause any changes in some of the blood parameters
including serum urea, total protein and albumin. In
contrast, Chiofalo et al. (2004), found an increase in
serum urea concentration, whereas no change was
observed in blood total protein and total cholesterol.
There is still no product or method developed as a
substitute of antimicrobial feed additives. Yet, organic
acids (OA) are thought to be as one of the most
important candidate as an alternative of antibiotic feed
additives.
Organic acids establish antimicrobial effect in the
intestines by suppressing fungal activity and maintaining
acidic environment (Dibner and Buttin, 2002). Organic
acids are reported to improve rumen fermentation, like
ionophor antibiotics, they do and maintain the rumen pH
even after consumption of carbohydrate-rich feeds
through which an increased growth and fattening
performance are observed (Martin, 1998). Martin et al.,
Abas et al.: Organic Acid and Bacterial Direct-Feed Microbial
150
Table 1: Concentrate composition of the experimental ration.
Ingredient g/kg, as mixed
Corn grain, ground 360.0
Barley grain, ground 200.0
Sunflower Meal (280 g/kg CP) 200.0
Corn bran 80.0
Wheat bran 70.0
Molasses 65.0
Limestone 18.0
Salt 5.0
Vitamin + mineral premix* 2.0
*Composition of vitamin - mineral premix per kilogram of premix:
vitamin A 12 000 000 IU; vitamin D 3 000 000 IU; vitamin E 30
3
g; Mn 50 g; Fe 50 g; Zn 50 g; Cu 10 g; I 0.85 g; Co 0.15 g; Se
0.15 g.
Table 2: Nutrient contents of diet (DM basis)
Chemical composition (g/kg) Concentrate* Forage**
Dry Matter 872.4 834.6
Ash 61.0 96.4
Crude protein (N X 6.25) 148.4 104.2
Crude fiber 96.1 337.0
Ether extract 22.3 15.6
Ca 8.1 6.9
P4.7 1.5
*Ration consisted of 1: 1 concentrate: forage. **Composition of
per kilogram of forage: grass hay 520 g, wheat straw 440 g and
corn silage 40 g, as fed.
1999, noted that plasma component concentrations
were generally unaffected by organic acid (DL-malate)
except that, plasma urea level was lower for steers
whereas cholesterol was higher for heifers. Results of
a recent study by Castillo et al. (2004) showed that, in
addition to buffering effect in feed and rumen, organic
acids might increase energy-efficiency and digestibility
of crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus by lowering
methane production and decrease the numbers of
harmful bacteria attached to the intestinal wall.
The organic acid and DFM are feed supplements to
ruminant with the claim of improving performance.
However, there is little information about OA and DFM or
their combination on performance of lambs. To further
investigate the efficacy of using this additives with along
or their combination for lambs, we conducted
experiment to compare the effects of OA and DFM or
their combination on performance and blood
parameters of Kivircik male-yearling lambs. Blood
metabolite concentrations were also evaluated for
nutritional status of lambs.
Materials and Methods
Sixty yearling Kivircik male lambs were used in the
present study. The animals were randomly divided into
four boxes of four different treatments. The four different
treatments were assigned as control (C, no additive),
organic acid (OA), direct-feed microbial (DFM), and
organic acid and direct-feed microbial combination
(OA+DFM). The direct-feed microbial used was a
commercial product of Enterococcus faecium cernelle 68
strain (Cylactin® LBC ME 10) at 1.0x10 cfu/g
10
concentration. The organic acid used was a commercial
mixture (SAL CURB® brand dry) of 1 g/kg (propionic
acid, calcium propionate, ammonium formate, sorbic
acid, formic acid, and BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole).
The concentrate of control group of animals did not
receive any additive. The animals in OA group received
a mixture of organic acids at 3 g/kg, group DFM animals
received direct-feed microbial at 1 g/kg, and OA+DFM
group of animals received a combination of organic acid
(1.5 g/kg) and direct-feed microbial (0.5 g/kg) in their
concentrates.
The treatment ration consisted of 1:1 forage: concentrate
and was fed as total mixed ration (Table 1 and 2). Fresh
and clean drinking water and feed (mixture of roughage
and concentrate-yearling lamb feed) were given to the
animals ad libitum.
The roughage and concentrate feed were analyzed for
dry matter, ether extract, Nitrogen, and crude ash using
standard procedures AOAC (1990). Dry matter was
determined by oven drying for 24 h at 105 C (DM;
o
934.01), Nitrogen using the Kjeldahl Procedure with a
Kjeltec- UDK 126 A (Velp Scientific, Italy) (CP; 954.01),
crude ash by combustion at 550 C for 6h (OM; 942.01)
o
and ether extract by using Soxhlet extraction procedure.
Each animal was ear-tagged and weighed on days 0,
28, and 56 using a scale. Feed intake was recorded
daily as the difference between what was offered and
what was refused. In addition, the feed conversion ratio
of every group was calculated. Health conditions of the
lambs were closely monitored during the study.
Blood samples were collected from the individual
animals after morning feedings on days 0, 28, and 56.
The blood samples were taken from V. jugularis in to 10
ml-vacutainer tubes without anticoagulant and
centrifuged (4000rpm/min) for the separation of serum.
Using ready-to-use spectrophotometrical kits, the serum
samples were analyzed for deterring the levels of
albumin (Chema Diagnostica BC 0500 CH), total protein
(Chema Diagnostica TP 0500 CH), urea (Chema
Diagnostica A2 F245 CH), cholesterol (Chema
Diagnostica CT F400), total lipids (Spinreact, 1001270),
Ca (Spinreact, 1001060), Mg (Chema Diagnostica TP
0500 CH), and Pi (Spinreact, 1001155). In addition,
serum Fe, Cu and Zn levels were determined using
atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS, Shimadzu
680 AA) according to the methods of AOAC (1990).
The data was analyzed for One-way variance analysis
(ANOVA) using SPSS statistical analysis software
(SPSS, 2002). Tukey’s HSD test was used for comparing
the means of the treatment groups. A significant level of
0.05 was used for comparisons (Snedecor and
Cochran, 1980). Statistical analysis were not conducted
for feed consumption and feed conversion ratios since
the animals were fed in-groups.
Abas et al.: Organic Acid and Bacterial Direct-Feed Microbial
151
Table 3: Body weight and average daily weight gain of yearling lambs Groups
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
COA DFM OA+DFM SEM
Body weight, kg
Initial 47.90 46.03 48.03 44.75 1.010
Day 28 51.97 51.52 52.21 51.31 1.090
Day 56 59.90 59.75 61.49 59.52 1.134
Average daily weight gain, g
Day 0 - 28 145.1 195.9 149.1 234.4 10.40**
bab b a
Day 29 - 56 283.2 294.2 331.5 293.2 9.11*
bab a b
Day 0 - 56 214.3 244.9 240.4 263.9 7.33*
bab ab a
Groups: Control (C); Organic Acid (OA); Direct-fed microbials (DFM); Organic acid + Direct-fed microbials (OA+DFM)
Means within sub rows with no common superscripts differ significantly (p<0.05). * p<0.05; **p<0.01
a-b)
Results
The effect of dietary organic acid supplement and direct-
feed microbial on body weight (BW) and average daily
gain (ADG) of Kivircik Breed yearling male lambs are
shown in Table 3. Significant differences in ADG
between periods of days 0-28, 29-56, and 0-56 were
detected among the groups. However, during the trial,
the animals of OA, P, or P+OA groups showed no
significant change regarding body weight at day 56.
Overall ADG of the lambs in OA+P group were found
significantly higher than that of control group the trough
d 56.
Feed consumption for different periods (days 0-28, 29-
56 and 0-56) for total, roughage, and concentrate and
calculated amount of feed for 1 kg of BW gain is provided
in Table 4. Statistical analysis were not conducted for
feed consumption and feed conversion ratios since the
animals were fed in groups.
The data of the effect on lipid, protein and mineral
metabolism created by adding organic acid and/or
direct-feed microbial to the rations of Kivircik yearling
lambs are presented in Table 5. Significant differences
were found among groups at the levels of urea,
cholesterol, Mg, and Zn on day 28 and at the levels of
total proteins, cholesterol, total lipids and Zn on day 56.
Discussion
In this study, it has been investigated how the addition of
organic acid and/or direct-feed microbial to the rations of
Kivircik Breed male yearling lambs affect the feeding
performance, some blood parameters. The feed
additives are used in animal nutrition either by direct
addition to feed or water or as silage additive (Alp and
Kahraman 1996; Kurtoglu et al., 2001). In recent years,
a variety of in vitro rumen studies have been undertaken
to investigate the effects of OA and DFM additives on
rumen metabolism (Newbold et al., 1995; Callaway and
Martin, 1996; Lopez et al., 1999; Agarwal et al., 2000).
Results of the present study indicated that there were
appreciable but not significant differences among
groups in mean BW of the animals determined at the
end of the feeding period. However, the ADG of the
animals, which received OA, DFM, or OA+DFM were
significantly higher regarding in their rations than daily
gains of the control animals during the entire study
period (Table 3). For instance, BW gain of the animals in
OA+DFM group per day was 23.15% higher than that of
control group lambs (p<0.05). Although the daily feed
consumption of the animals in all groups were close to
each other, feed conversion ratios determined in
animals that received feed additive in their rations were
higher than those determined in control lambs (Table 4).
The results of the present study are consistent with other
published reports indicating that addition of direct-feed
microbial as microbial feed additive to the ration of
sheep resulted in increased BW gain and feed
conversion rate (Lubbadeh et al., 1999; Lema et al.,
2001; Chiofalo et al., 2004). Henderson et al. (1986)
reported that feeding a sheep with silage inoculated
through bacterial cultures resulted in an increased
consumption of dry substances and increased ADG
compared to the control group animals. In a similar
study done by Emanuelle et al. (1992) feeding the lambs
with inoculum-added dry forage improved the feed
consumption, BW gain, and feed conversion rate of the
animals.
Results of a study carried out by Nadeau et al. (2000)
revealed that bacterial inoculum and formic acid added
silage resulted in higher dry matter intake and improved
growth performance. In another study, it was indicated
that the addition of organic acid to the feed of steers
improved the ADG by 8.6% and enhanced the growth
performance (Martin et al., 1999).
The data, which were on the effects of direct-feed
microbials added to the feed, might be due to
differences in cultures used as direct-feed microbial as
well as variations in breed, age, gender, and
environmental conditions, as explained by Krehbiel et al.
(2003).
Results of the analysis of the serum samples obtained
from blood samples taken on day 28 and 56 of the study
are presented Table 5. Blood metabolite concentrations
were evaluated for nutritional status of Kivircik male
yearling lambs.
Regarding to the parameters concerning lipid
metabolism, the result of the present study was that the
Abas et al.: Organic Acid and Bacterial Direct-Feed Microbial
152
Table 4: Feed consumption and feed efficiency ratio of yearling lambs
Concentrate Forage Total
------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------
Groups*
------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------
COA DFM OA+ COA DFM OA+ COA DFM OA+
DFM DFM DFM
Feed Consumption (gram per day)
Day 0 - 28 1046 1056 1049 1052 975 1001 975 985 2020 2057 2023 2036
Day 29- 56 1107 1106 1107 1124 1049 1045 1049 1059 2156 2151 2155 2183
Day 0 - 56 1073 1078 1075 1083 1008 1021 1007 1018 2080 2099 2081 2101
Feed Efficiency (gain: feed)
Day 0 - 28 0.14 0.19 0.14 0.22 0.15 0.20 0.15 0.24 0.07 0.09 0.07 0.11
Day 29- 56 0.26 0.27 0.30 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.32 0.28 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.13
Day 0 - 56 0.20 0.23 0.22 0.24 0.21 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.10 0.12 0.12 0.13
* Groups: Control (C); Organic Acid (OA); Direct-fed microbials (DFM); Organic acid + Direct-fed microbials (OA+DFM)
Table 5: Effects of organic acid and/or direct-fed microbials on some blood parameters in yearling lambs
Groups SEM
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
COA DFM OA + DFM
----------------------------------------------------------------------- Initial ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Albumin (g/L) 37.90 38.40 34.70 35.00 0.69
Total protein (g/L) 65.40 62.70 61.30 64.50 1.25
Urea (g/L) 0.26 0.20 0.27 0.28 0.02
Cholesterol (g/L) 0.86 0.91 0.82 0.78 0.02
Total lipid (g/L) 7.46 7.17 8.09 7.39 0.13
Ca (g/L) 0.09 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.003
Mg (mEq/L) 58.30 43.10 66.10 47.90 3.21
P (g/L) 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.002
i
Fe (mg/L) 1.20 1.20 1.30 1.30 0.53
Cu (mg/L) 0.70 0.71 0.61 0.78 0.03
Zn (mg/L) 0.61 0.54 0.64 0.53 0.02
------------------------------------------------------------------ Day 28 ------------------------------------------------------------------
Albumin (g/L) 40.50 38.10 41.90 42.30 0.82
Total protein (g/L) 62.10 55 65.40 62.40 2.15
Urea (g/L) 0.18 0.28 0.16 0.21 0.01*
b a b ab
Cholesterol (g/L) 7.69 5.95 8.24 7.42 0.03**
a b a ab
Total lipid (g/L) 7.11 7.39 7.33 6.91 0.11
Ca (g/L) 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.003
Mg (mEq/L) 53.4 70.5 68.0 52.1 2.50**
b a ab b
P (g/L) 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.001
i
Fe (mg/L) 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.2 0.05
Cu (mg/L) 0.98 0.86 0.96 0.93 0.03
Zn (mg/L) 0.85 0.69 0.91 0.77 0.02***
ab cabc
------------------------------------------------------------------ Day 56 ------------------------------------------------------------------
Albumin (g/L) 40.20 38.90 39.70 39.50 0.90
Total protein (g/L) 88.30 61.60 63.60 65.90 2.89***
a b b b
Urea (g/L) 0.20 0.24 0.19 0.22 0.01
Cholesterol (g/L) 9.60 7.23 8.41 7.98 0.22**
a b ab b
Total lipid (g/L) 8.02 7.20 7.33 6.70 0.15*
aab ab b
Ca (g/L) 0.10 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.003
Mg (mEq/L) 45.10 52.10 52.20 55 3.10
P (g/L) 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.002
i
Fe (mg/L) 1.80 1.70 1.80 1.80 0.06
Cu (mg/L) 0.93 0.94 0.88 0.84 0.02
Zn (mg/L) 0.64 0.84 0.86 0.85 0.03
b a a a
** Groups: Control (C); Organic Acid (OA); Direct-fed microbials (DFM); Organic acid + Direct-fed microbials (OA+DFM)
Means within sub rows with no common superscripts differ significantly (p<0.05). *p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p<0.001
a-c)
addition of the OA to the rations of the lambs significantly OA+DFM decreased the level of lipids significantly on
decreased the cholesterol level of the OA group animals day 56.
on days 28 and 56. On the other hand, the addition ofAlthough there are number of studies indicating that
organic acid and direct-feed microbial decreased the
total lipids relatively but not significantly. The addition ofdirect-feed microbials lower the blood cholesterol level
(Alp and Kahraman 1996; Lubbadeh et al., 1999), the
Abas et al.: Organic Acid and Bacterial Direct-Feed Microbial
153
results of the current study revealed that organic acidsConclusions: Results of the present study indicated that
decreased significantly the cholesterol level more thanaddition of organic acid or direct-feed microbial alone or
direct-feed microbials did. Lubbadeh et al., (1999)their combination to the rations of Kivircik Breed -male
brought up a possible explanation why the direct-feedyearling lambs increased body weight gain.
microbials decrease the level of cholesterol. MicrobialFurthermore, organic acid addition to the ration caused
feed additives reduce the absorption of lipid from the a decrease in blood cholesterol level while the addition
intestines by deconjugation; consequently it mayof direct-feed microbial caused an increase in blood Zn
decrease blood cholesterol. level.
The total protein, urea and albumin contents in blood are
indicators of protein metabolism in the organism. In this
study, the urea level of the yearling lambs in OA group
was found higher on day 28 than other groups (p<0.05).
This higher concentration of plasma urea was due to
increased quantity of ammonia absorbed from rumen
and circulating in the plasma because of the increasedin the lamb. Exp. Physiol., 76: 725-732.
feed consumption. Total protein level of the control group
animals was also found significantly higher than the
other groups at the end of the study period.
In one of the study, the effect of direct-feed microbials on
rumen metabolism and fattening performance in sheep
was observed and it was found that DFM did not change
the levels of some blood parameters including urea,
total proteins, and albumin. As a result, N metabolism
was not affected by yeast supplementation (Jouany et
al., 1998). In contrast to our result, Martin et al. (1999)
noted that blood urea concentration was decreased by
organic acid supplementation. The reduction in plasma
urea level for steers might have resulted from more
efficient utilization of dietary nitrogen. In addition,
Chiofalo et al. (2004) concluded that the application of
direct-feed microbial diet to growing Maltase goat kids
decreased blood total protein and urea levels. The
authors claimed that the lower content of urea could be
justified by better nutritional status.
During the trial, mineral metabolism was affected by
treatment. On day 28 of the present study; the serum Mg
level of the lambs in OA group was found significantly
higher than those of the control and OA+DFM groups. At
the end of this study (day 56), however, there was no
significant difference in Mg levels between the groups.
Another finding of the present study is that the addition
of direct-feed microbial to the ration caused and
increased serum Zn level (p<0.05).
The factors affecting mineral needs of animals,
inorganic composition of the body and tissues arekids. Reprod. Nutr. Dev., 44: 449-457.
determined by species of the animal, race, age, gender,
growth rate, health condition, nutritional condition,
endocrinological condition, season, and physiological
condition (lactation, pregnancy, dry period). In addition,
the mineral composition of the body and tissues depend
on levels of mineral and protein of the diet (i.e., amount,
chemical form, interaction between minerals) (Alp et al.,
2001; Kahraman et al., 2002). Abu-Damir et al., 1991,
reported that diet-induced change in blood acid-base
status was an important factor for mineral retention in
lambs and the rates of mineral retention were lowered
by acid diets in lambs.
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... It is worth mentioning that over the time of the experiment, the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulins and A/G ratio levels in all lambs of our experiment were within the normal physiological ranges recorded by Njidda et al. (2014). Similarly, Galip (2006), Abas et al. (2007), Dimova et al. (2013) and Soren et al. (2013) noticed no significant differences in the concentrations of total protein between control and probiotic or yeast culture supplemented lambs. In this study, a significant increase in the total protein content was observed at the end of experiment in lambs fed diet containing dried yeast. ...
... This is confirmed with the results obtained by Hussein (2014) who reported significant higher albumin values in probiotic supplemented lambs. Moreover, Galip (2006), Abas et al. (2007), Dimova et al. (2013) and Soren et al. (2013) observed no change in both albumin and globulin levels in probiotic supplemented lambs. The increase in serum albumin content in lambs receiving yeast supplementation indicates that such additives stimulate liver function and conse-quently improve the albumin synthesizing ability. ...
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This study was carried out to evaluate the potential effects of 90 days-long dietary supple- mentation of probiotic and yeast culture on immunity condition of lambs. Fifteen Rahmani growing male lambs (about 5 months old and 23.21±2.75 kg body weight) were randomly allo- cated to three equal groups consisting of 5 animals each. The animals in the first group, served as a control (group C), were fed a basal diet without any supplementation. The lambs in the second and third group were fed the basal diet supplemented with probiotic (group Y) or yeast culture (group YC), respectively. The probiotic consisted of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) alone, while the yeast culture was composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the media on which it was grown. In group Y and YC, each lamb was supplemented daily with 0.5 g and 7.0 g of live yeast and yeast culture, respectively. Blood samples were collected before feeding the supplements and then every 15 days until the day 90th. Total and differential leucocytic counts, total protein, albumin, IgA, IgG and IgM levels were measured in blood. There were insignificant (p>0.05) variations in the levels of total and differential leucocytic counts and total protein among the groups throughout the experiment. However, significant differences (p⟨0.05) were found in globulin, IgA, IgG and IgM in both (Y) and (YC) groups, but the effect of yeast culture seems to be better than that of the probiotic. In conclusions, the obtained results indicate that the tested probiotic and yeast culture improve the immunological status of lambs.
... Lower levels of blood triglyceride may be either due to decrease in intestinal lipid absorption or increased lipid catabolism. Such a reduction was reported by Ayad et al. (2013) in cows supplemented with yeast and also found in probiotic-supplemented kids or lambs (Abas et al., 2007;Baiomy, 2011). ...
... Probiotic has significant effect on low density lipoproteins (LDL) concentration in cattle and lowest LDL concentration 124.31 b ±4.78 mg/dL was found in probiotic added T3 group. The addition of probiotic to the diet leads to decrease in LDL concentration in kids or lambs (Abas et al., 2007;Baiomy, 2011). There was no significant effect of probiotic on the serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) concentration among all the investigated cattle. ...
... Previous studies have demonstrated that probiotic supplementation can improve gluconeogenesis by increasing propionate concentrations, which is the primary precursor of Glu, with a decisive influence on the Glu blood concentration in small ruminants [34]. Regarding the lipid profile, our results are in agreement with those obtained by Abas et al. [35], Chiofalo et al. [36], and Baiomy [37], who found that the concentrations of TLs, TGs, and LDL were decreased in kids or lambs that received probiotic supplementation. The reduction in CHO concentration in this study may be due to the inhibition of CHO synthesis or the direct assimilation of CHO [38]. ...
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Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding different levels of the combination of fibrolytic enzymes and probiotics (a mixture of bacteria and yeast) on the performance of fattening lambs. Thirty-two male Ossimi lambs (weighing 39 ± 0.24 kg) were divided into four groups randomly (eight animals each). The first group (control ration, G1) was fed on a ration of 60% concentrate feed mixture (CFM), 20% Egyptian clover (EC), and 20% wheat straw (WS). The second (G2), third (G3), and fourth (G4) groups were fed a control ration supplemented with Calfo Care® at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 kg/ton diet of dry matter (DM). Results showed that the G2 and G3 rations significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the DM, organic matter, crude protein, crude fiber, and ether extract digestibility compared with the G1 and G4 rations. Moreover, the G2 and G3 rations increased (p ≤ 0.05) the percentages of total digestible nutrients (TDN), starch values (SV), and digestible crude protein (DCP) compared with the G1 and G4 rations. Both the G2 and G3 rations significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the TDN, SV, and DCP as kg/day or g/kg w0.75 and kg or g/100 kg body weight compared with the G1 and G4 rations. Conversely, the G1 ration significantly decreased the feed conversion of DM, TDN, SV, and DCP compared with the experimental groups. Furthermore, the G2, G3, and G4 rations significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the total weight gain by 25.34%, 52.20%, and 3.79%, respectively, compared with the G1 ration. The G2, G3, and G4 rations also (p ≤ 0.05) increased the concentrations of most hematological parameters, including triiodothyronine, total protein, albumin, and glucose, compared with the G1 ration. Finally, the best net profit was recorded with the G3 ration.
... Previous studies have demonstrated that probiotic supplementation can improve gluconeogenesis by increasing propionate concentrations, which is the primary precursor of Glu, with a decisive influence on the Glu blood concentration in small ruminants [34]. Regarding the lipid profile, our results are in agreement with those obtained by Abas et al. [35], Chiofalo et al. [36], and Baiomy [37], who found that the concentrations of TLs, TGs, and LDL were decreased in kids or lambs that received probiotic supplementation. The reduction in CHO concentration in this study may be due to the inhibition of CHO synthesis or the direct assimilation of CHO [38]. ...
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Sheep meat is one of the most important sources of animal protein throughout the world, specifically in arid and semiarid regions. The meat yield of growing lambs can be maximized by improving the function and health of the digestive system, specifically using sheep diets containing ratios high in fibers. Diets rich in fibrous portions cannot be efficiently hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzymes or by the microbes of the rumen. Therefore, the addition of some feed additives that can improve fiber digestion and/or sustain digestive system eubiosis, such as fibrolytic enzymes, probiotics, and yeast, can be a suitable intervention. Fibrolytic enzymes are gaining importance because they improve the nutrient digestibility and performance of animals without affecting the animals’ health. Probiotics (bacteria and/or yeast) are also important feed additives that can support ruminal microbial activity and enhance gut health and ecology through rumen maturity by favoring microbial establishment. In the present study, dietary supplementation with a combination of fibrolytic enzymes and probiotics (Calfo Care®) at 0.5, 1, and 2 kg/ton diet of dry matter increased nutrient digestibility, feed intake and feed conversion, daily weight gain, average total weight gain, and improved most blood parameters of lambs. The addition of 1 kg/ton diet of DM resulted in more economic profit compared with other levels.
... or lambs with probiotics was shown to decrease the concentrations of triglycerides, total lipids, low-density lipoproteins and non-esterified fatty acids in the blood of ruminants. 142,143 Panda et al. 144 reported a significant reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides by dietary inclusion of 100 mg kg −1 diet of Lactobacillus sporogenes probiotic in animals. Total cholesterol reduction in probiotic supplemented animals could be the result of direct assimilation of cholesterol by bacterial cells (which causes a reduction in the cholesterol absorption and synthesis in the GIT), 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibition and bile salt hydrolysis. ...
Article
BACKGROUND Globally, ruminant production contributes immensely to the supply of the highest quality and quantity of proteins for human consumption, sustenance of livelihoods and the attainment of food security. Nevertheless, the phasing out of antibiotics in animal production has posed a myriad of challenges, including poor growth, performance and nutrient utilization, pathogen colonization, dysbiosis and food safety issues in ruminants. Probiotics (direct-fed microbials), live microbial strains, which confer health and nutritional benefits to the host when administered in appropriate quantities, are emerging as a viable, safe, natural and sustainable alternative to antibiotics. Although the mechanisms of action exerted by probiotics on ruminants are not well elucidated, dietary probiotic dosage to ruminants enhances development and maturation, growth and performance, milk production and composition, nutrient digestibility, feed efficiency, pathogen reduction, and the mitigation of gastrointestinal diseases. RESULTS However, the beneficial response to probiotics supplementation in ruminants is not consistent; rather, it depends on the microbial strain selected, combination of strains, dose, time and frequency of supplementation, diet, animal breed, physiological stage, husbandry practice and farm management. Nonetheless, several studies have recently reported beneficial effects of probiotics on ruminant performance, health and production. This review conclusively re-iterates the need for probiotics inclusion for the sustainability of ruminant production. CONCLUSION Considering the role ruminants play in food production and employment, global acceptance of sustainable ruminant production through supplementation with probiotics will undoubtedly ensure food security and food safety for the world. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... This contrasts the observation by Abas et al. [8] who reported an increased level of total protein in a control diet than a DFM treated diet. Though the albumin and the globulin levels were similar (P = 0.3074; P= 0.4752) among the treatments indicating that nitrogen metabolism was not affected by DFM supplementation Jouany et al. [9], it contrasts the study by Dabiri et al. [10] who reported a significant difference in albumin level in suckling lambs when DFM was added to the diet of lactating ewes. ...
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Citation: Christopher A, Patience A M, Samuel Asamoah A, Fareed KN A, Yaw O F, et al., Direct Fed Microbials and Their Influence on Blood Biochemistry, Immunology of Lambs and Escherichia Coli Count. Bi-omed J Sci & Tech Res 26(5)-2020. BJSTR. MS.ID.004401. ARTICLE INFO Abstract A 4 mo study investigated the effect of direct fed microbials (DFM): Rumen Enhancer three RE3™, RE3™Plus and Paenibacillus polymyxa (PP) on blood biochemistry, immuno-logical responses and gastrointestinal microbial isolates of neonatal lambs at four phases of growth. Twenty-four lambs of average weight 2.5±1.2Kg were put on four dietary treatments, namely: Control, RE3™, RE3™Plus and PP in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were administered orally during the suckling phase; and were added to their diets after they were weaned. Blood and fecal sampling were done every four weeks till the sixteenth week. The concentrations of total protein, albumen, globulins, IgA, IgM, CD3 and CD4 were assayed in the serum and E. coli counts from the fecal matter. Data recorded was analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Monthly sampling of blood samples for examination showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in total protein when the lambs when RE3 and PP were offered to the lambs, and a non-significant effect on albumin and globulin. Significant differences were registered among the treatments for all immunological parameters measured, except CD3. The study revealed a significant treatment × sampling period interaction (P < 0.0001) for all the parameters measured. The addition of different DFM products generally influenced the blood biochemistry , microbial isolates and immunology of growing lambs.
... Decreased total lipids and triglycerides by probiotics supplementation was similarly reported by previous authors (Chiofalo et al., 2004;Abas et al., 2007;Baiomy, 2011) who noted that the concentrations of total lipids and triglycerides decreased in probiotic-supplemented kids or lambs which may reflect an improvement in lipid profiles. ...
... The present results are agreement with Mallik et. al., (1998); Abas et al., (2007); Mukhtar et al., (2010) ;Hussein, (2014);Antunovicin et al., (2005) who reported that male lambs received probiotics had higher body weight gain than the control group. Haddad and Goussous (2005) reported that Awassi lambs fed diets supplemented with yeast culture recorded greater BW gain and better feed conversion ratio than the control group. ...
... However, from the third week onwards, all growth parameters were significantly higher in the treatment group as compared with the control group. These findings were in agreement with those given by several researchers in lambs (Abd El-Tawab et al. 2016;Hussein 2014;Abas et al. 2007;Fath-Allah 2006;Antunovic et al. 2005;Chaucheyras-Durand and Fonty 2001), in growing kids (Kochewad et al. 2009;Liotta et al. 2003;Lachowski 2001), and in calves (Raman et al. 1998;Lohnert 1999). The authors attributed that to the increased dry matter intake and crude fiber digestibility. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of probiotic supplementation on body growth and selected hematobiochemical parameters of growing Barki lambs. For this reason, twenty apparently healthy weaning lambs were randomly allotted into two equal groups (6 each): the first group (control) received a basal diet without any supplement, whereas the 2nd group (supplemented group) received the basal diet supplemented with probiotic (Bacillus subtilis, sorbitol sodium, vitamin B1, and glucose) which was given via drinking water at a dose of 1 g/L/day for 30 consecutive days. A blood sample was collected from each lamb via jugular venipuncture before starting the experiment (T0) and 15th day (T15) and 30th day (T30) after supplementation for hematobiochemical examination. Body weight and body growth indices of each lamb were calculated weekly. Supplemented lambs had a significant (P < 0.05) increase of body weight (14.5 ± 0.2 kg), length, height at withers, circumference of chest, body proportion, and anamorphosis indices at third and fourth week of experiment. In addition, the supplemented lambs showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase of Hb, RBCs (11.7 ± 0.4), PCV, and WBCs (13 ± 0.05) at T30. Concentrations of serum calcium, chloride, glucose, and urea and the activity of ALT, AST, and CK (301.7 ± 1.4 U/L) were significantly lowered at T30, while concentrations of serum phosphorus, potassium, total bilirubin, and triglycerides were significantly higher in supplemented group at the same time point. The results suggest that probiotic could be used as a useful supplement to improve health status and body growth of growing Barki lambs.
... However, at 30th day (T30), the supplemented group showed a significant increase in the body weight when compared to non-supplemented group (Fig. 1). Our findings were similar to those previously reported by several researchers in lambs [17][18][19][20][21], in growing kids [22][23][24], and in buffalo calves [11]. The authors endorsed that pathogenic microbes number was decreased and beneficial microbes number was increased, which resulted in an improvement in dry matter intake, digestion of crude fiber, and decrease the occurrence of diarrhea with the improvement of the cellulolytic activity within the rumen causing effective fiber degradation and the enhancement nutrient digestion. ...
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ABSTRACT Objective: In this study, we investigated the potential immune-enhancing effects in addition to anti-oxidative stress properties of commercially accessible Bacillus subtilis supplementation in Barki lambs. Materials and Methods: Twenty apparently healthy weaned Barki lambs were used in this study and distributed randomly into two experimental groups: Negative control group, received control basal diet without any feed supplements and a supplemented group, received control basal diet supplemented with water added to commercially accessible bacilli at 1 gm/l/day for 30 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected from each lamb before starting the experiment (T0), 2 weeks (T15), and 4 weeks (T30) post-supplementation for serum biochemical analyses, total leucocytes and lymphocytes count, and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. Results: The supplemented group showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the total number of leukocytes and the number of lymphocytes, lysozyme activity, reduced glutathione, total antioxidant capacity with a significantly lower malondialdehyde values at T30 and significantly higher levels (p < 0.05) of serum catalase and nitric oxide at T15 as compared with control ones. B. subtilis elicited maximal up-regulation of most of the studied genes compared with the control group. Conclusion: The results herein suggest that B. subtilis could be used as useful nutritional supplements to support the immune system in healthy lambs.
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This study was carried out in the Marmara region, which is known as one of the regions where animal husbandry is most developed in Turkey. The aim of the study was to determine and collect data on the mineral contents of forages and feedstuffs that are harvested and used in animal nutrition in the region. A further aim was to determine the blood mineral levels of sheep in order to gain information on the mineral insufficiency and/or excess mineral levels in sheep, which are fed mainly with these feedstuffs. Fifty-five different locations in 11 provinces within the whole of the Marmara region, where sheep farming is a common practice, were selected for this study. All locations were visited twice during the study, in autumn (November-December) and in spring (May-June), to collect samples in order to determine the effect of seasonal changes on the mineral contents of forages and the blood mineral levels of sheep. In each location, samples from the available forage and blood samples of 5-6 sheep were collected. Forage and the blood samples were analyzed in order to determine the Ca, P, Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn levels. Spectrophotometric analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometer were used to determine the level of phosphorus and other minerals in forage samples, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed for their Ca, Pi and Mg levels using a colorimetric autoanalyzer and K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn levels using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Collected data are shown in the tables in terms of the average of the Marmara region as well as on a province basis for the forage, and on a province basis for the blood samples. Results of this study show that there are variations in the mineral contents of forage amongst the provinces, as well as amongst various locations within the same province. Seasonal changes are also shown to have an effect on mineral contents of forage. Excess or insufficient mineral levels in forage bring about no clinical signs of a disease in sheep of the same particular region. In light of the data collected in this study, it is clear that preventive measures can be taken to avoid some performance losses in sheep in the region.
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Probiotics are defined as living micro-organisms, that upon ingestion in certain numbers, exert health benefits to the host. Their use is linked to proven efficacy on the gastrointestinal microbial equilibrium as well as immunomodulation. The positive effect in animals exerts not only in an improved health status, especially in young animals, but also in improved animal performance, including growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. Microorganisms that are used in animal feeds in the EU are mainly Gram-positive bacteria belonging to genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Streptococcus and yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Kluyveromyces species. While most of the species are apparently safe, certain microorganisms may exert harmful properties for animals as well as humans. Enterococci, for example, might harbour transmissible antibiotic resistance determinants, which have the potential to spread in animal and human-associated pathogenic microbial populations. Recent developments in synthetic and systems biology, coupled with bioinformatics and novel tools for genetic engineering, will soon enable the construction of 'artificial' probiotic microorganisms with virtually any combination of properties. Whether and when these 'designer probiotics' will reach out of the labs depends on legislation as well as public opinion.
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Feeding cattle high-grain diets has brought concurrent problems with ruminal acidosis. Grain overload in feedlot cattle has gained the most attention because of its economic impact. In fact, ruminal acidosis is second only to respiratory diseases, in depressing animal performance and production efficiency. Much of the past research has focused on effects of antimicrobial compounds (such as monensin) on ruminal fermentation; they have become management tools to prevent or to control ruminal acidosis. Despite beneficial effects of such compounds, in 2002 the European Commission proposed to ban on antibiotic growth promotants including monensin. This legislation has important economic implications in production cost of beef. Several nutritional alternatives to monensin have been studied in vitro with diverse results. This paper provides an overview of research with organic acids (malate and fumarate) for beef cattle as a substitute for monensin. Although these organic acids may be considered as feed additives, more research is needed about the effects of malate and (or) fumarate on beef cattle performance. Dietary factors such as forage:concentrate ratio, and forage or cereal grain type may alter the response to these additives. In addition, appropriate timing for supplementing with malate or fumarate must be studied.
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