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Evaluation of the Protective Effects of Emilia sonchifolia Linn. (DC.) on Perchlorate-Induced Oxidative Damage

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Abstract

Emilia sonchifolia Linn. (DC.) is a traditionally used medicinal plant seen in most tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Various parts of the plant are used for the treatment of diseases like asthma, intermittent fevers, breast cancer, ophthalmia, nyctalopia etc. We have isolated the flavonoid fraction from E. sonchifolia (whole plant). Female albino rats were fed with 0.2% sodium perchlorate to induce oxidative stress. The flavonoid fraction of the plant was fed along with sodium perchlorate to another group of animals. The experiment consisted of 30 days. The antiperoxidative effect of the plant material was studied in vivo . The levels of lipid peroxidation products (Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances-TBARS), the activities of the antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as well as the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined. The results obtained show that the flavonoid fraction of E. sonchifolia is a potent inhibitor of peroxidative damage and can be used as a therapeutic agent.

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... 36 48 This plant is commonly known as 'red Pualele,'/'cupid's shaving brush' belonging to Convolvulaceae family. 48 Habit and distribution 50 A glabrous slender herb, 30-40 cm in height. Erect, variously branched. ...
... The plant is reported as anti inflammatory, 49 antioxidant, 50 anti bacterial, 51 cytotoxic activity, 52 anti-cataract 53 and anti diabetic activities. 54 ...
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Kerala state is famous for its medicinal plant wealth and the tradition of indigenous system of therapy, specifically the Ayurveda. Dashapushpam constitute a group of ten potential herbs which are culturally and medicinally significant to the people of Kerala state. They are a group of ten herbs with which the ladies decorate their hairs and dance the thiruvathira kali on the day of thiruvathira in the Malayalam month of dhanu (December to January). Dashapushpas are also been eaten in the form of karkkadaka kanji in karkkidaka masam (during mid-July to mid August) to get better health in the upcoming monsoon season. Also these plants are used in folklore practice in lithiasis, gonorrhea, vomiting, indigestion, skin diseases, intermittent fever, flatulence, urogenital diseases etc. Most of them are scientifically validated for various bioactivities. Still there are lots of possibilities for potential pharmacological activities from these herbs, yet to be explored. This article would throw light on the therapeutic potential of these ten sacred plants aiding to further propagation of these plants.
... The crushed leaves are used externally to treat breast abscesses among tribal women. The leaves are rubbed on the forehead to relieve headache 25 . The Africans consume the leaves as vegetable for its laxative property. ...
... Gayathri Devi et al. 25 studied the protective effects of the flavonoid fraction isolated from the whole plant of E. sonchifolia on perchlorate-induced oxidative damage in female albino rats. The level of TBARS, catalase, SOD, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) were estimated. ...
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Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC (Family: Asteraceae), commonly known as 'lilac tasselflower' is an important edible medicinal plant found to be used as one of the popular ingredients of traditional vegetable salads in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India. In addition to its use as a vegetable, the plant is documented in ethnomedicine to possess several medicinal benefits in treating night blindness, epilepsy, fever and inflammatory diseases, malaria, asthma, liver diseases, eye inflammation, influenza, burns and breast abscesses. The pharmacological studies have shown that the plant possesses numerous notable biological activities such as antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antianxiety, anticataract and anticonvulsant activities. A few phytoconstituents have been isolated from the plant. The plant is rich with flavonoids. Presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been reported in the plant. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are considered to be hepatotoxic and therefore, the use of the plant either as a food or in ethnomedicine need to be restricted. With the availability of primary investigations, further investigations are recommended to study the toxicity of the plant in detail before rationalizing its use as a health food.
... 36 48 This plant is commonly known as 'red Pualele,'/'cupid's shaving brush' belonging to Convolvulaceae family. 48 Habit and distribution 50 A glabrous slender herb, 30-40 cm in height. Erect, variously branched. ...
... The plant is reported as anti inflammatory, 49 antioxidant, 50 anti bacterial, 51 cytotoxic activity, 52 anti-cataract 53 and anti diabetic activities. 54 ...
Article
Full-text available
Kerala state is famous for its medicinal plant wealth and the tradition of indigenous system of therapy, specifically the Ayurveda. Dashapushpam constitute a group of ten potential herbs which are culturally and medicinally significant to the people of Kerala state. They are a group of ten herbs with which the ladies decorate their hairs and dance the thiruvathira kali on the day of thiruvathira in the Malayalam month of dhanu (December to January). Dashapushpas are also been eaten in the form of karkkadaka kanji in karkkidaka masam (during mid-July to mid August) to get better health in the upcoming monsoon season. Also these plants are used in folklore practice in lithiasis, gonorrhea, vomiting, indigestion, skin diseases, intermittent fever, flatulence, urogenital diseases etc. Most of them are scientifically validated for various bioactivities. Still there are lots of possibilities for potential pharmacological activities from these herbs, yet to be explored. This article would throw light on the therapeutic potential of these ten sacred plants aiding to further propagation of these plants. Introduction: The Western Ghats region, wherein the Kerala state is situated, is one of the 34 biodiversity hotspots in the whole world. 87 A fairly good collection of plants over 200 taxa used in Ayurveda include dashapushpam, ten sacred plants of Kerala tradition and culture.
... Engl., in Ivory Coast, Benin, and Guinea [16]. Methanol plant extract (Kerala, India) None identified In vitro cytotoxicity (L-929 murine lung fibroblast, IC 50 = 15 µg/mL) [28] Aqueous leaf extract (Nsukka, Nigeria) None identified Anti-inflammatory (mouse paw edema assay, ED 50 = 780 mg/kg) [23] Ethanol plant extract (Kerala, India) None identified Inhibition of perchlorate oxidative stress (rat model) [29] Methanol leaf extract (Ibiono, Nigeria) None identified Analgesic (acetic acid writing, formalin hind paw, and hot plate assays, mouse model) [25] CH 3 We report herein our investigation into the collection of L. egregia leaf essential oil and the essential oil from the leaves of E. sonchifolia from southwest Nigeria, the analysis of the essential oil compositions, and antimicrobial screening of the essential oils. This investigation is part of our ongoing research aimed at the characterization of the bioactivity and the compositions of the essential oils from Nigerian medicinal plants for potential exploitation in pharmaceutical applications. ...
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Lannea egregia (Anacardiaceae) and Emilia sonchifolia (Asteraceae) are plants used in traditional medicine in southwestern Nigeria. The essential oils from the leaves of L. egregia and E. sonchifolia were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Both essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenoids. The major components in L. egregia leaf essential oil were α-panasinsen (34.90%), (E)-caryophyllene (12.25%), α-copaene (11.39%), and selina-4,11-diene (9.29%), while E. sonchifolia essential oil was rich in γ-himachalene (25.16%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.72%), and γ-gurjunene (8.58%). The essential oils were screened for antimicrobial activity against a panel of bacteria and fungi and displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 156 μg/mL to 625 μg/mL. Based on these results, either L. egregia or E. sonchifolia essential oil may be recommended for exploration as complementary antibacterial or antifungal agents.
... The LC-MS/MS could be a better option for identification and structural characterization of glycosylated compounds, as it can ionize polar compounds readily. Various pharmacological studies revealed the potent antioxidant and anticancer effects of flavonoids present in E. sonchifolia (52,53). Another study suggests that the flavonoids present in E. sonchifolia extracts can modulate lens opacification and oxidative stress in selenite-induced cataract (54). ...
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The usage of plants as a source of medicine begins with the isolation of active bio-compounds which are responsible for their therapeutic action. Research in flavonols has flourished in the last decades, fueled by the recognized importance of natural antioxidants on health benefits. The current research focused on a novel elicitation approach to improve the therapeutic value of medicinal plants. It attempted to investigate if heat (one-day for 6 hrs, 45 °C) and drought stress (one week) could be used to enhance the production of three flavonols such as rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol in tropical medicinal plant Emilia sonchifolia. The increment in the antioxidant levels of E. sonchifolia plant was attributed to the increased accumulation of three flavonols and total flavonoid content with strong scavenging ability against free radicals. The short-term heat stress and moderate water deficit proved as effective strategies to increase the rutin, quercetin and kaempferol contents in E. sonchifolia.
... Among these are the preliminary reports that revealed its anti-inflammatory (Muko and Ohiri 2000;Nworu et al. 2012) and antitumour (Shylesh and Padikkala 2000) properties. In addition to this, a gamut of beneficial properties has been reported including its protective effect on oxidative stress (Devi et al. 2006), modulation of selenite cataract , apoptotic activity on cancer cells (Lan et al. 2011(Lan et al. , 2012 and antinociceptive effect (Couto et al. 2011). Previously, we reported the immunomodulatory and antimetastatic effects of this plant along with a complete profile of the various compounds identified, and among them showing γ-humulene (C 15 H 24 ) as the major principle present in the plant Kuttan 2015, 2016). ...
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In folklore medicine, the plant Emilia sonchifolia, belonging to the family Asteraceae, is used for treating tumour and inflammation. In our previous studies, we have done a thorough phytochemical investigation of E. sonchifolia with a report on its potent antimetastatic activity. Further, we isolated and characterised its active fraction (AFES) containing the major compound γ-humulene with an evaluation of the antiangiogenic effect of AFES (5 mg/kg b.wt.). In the first part of the present study, AFES in different concentrations was used for the assessment of its possible anti-inflammatory effect employing three in vivo inflammatory models. Further using the most effective concentration of AFES 5 mg/kg b.wt, its effect on proinflammatory cytokine levels was recorded along with a confirmatory gene expression analysis. The results manifested with a reduction in the paw oedema significantly decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, nitric oxide and also there was an efficient downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide. Urotoxicity is one of the major side effects of conventional chemotherapy. So in the second part of the study, we used AFES in combination with the conventional therapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in vivo in mice. The effect of AFES on urotoxicity was assessed from various biochemical parameters, cytokine markers and finally with a histopathology of the bladder. The current study revealed the protective effects of AFES, implicating reduced levels of urea nitrogen, by revamping of glutathione and marker cytokine levels towards positive amelioration. The results obtained altogether proved the safeguarding effect of AFES in murine experimental models.
... E. sonchifolia (Asteraceae), is an herbaceous plant which is found in India and other countries of Asia [8]. It is an edible plant used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of gastropathy, diarrhea, ophthalmia, nyctalopia, cuts and wounds, intermittent fevers, pharyngodyma and asthma [9]. The root is used for controlling diarrhea. ...
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Objective: The main objective of the study is to investigate the chemical fingerprint profile of diterpenoid and sesquiterpenoids of E. sonchifolia (L.) DC. using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) technique. Methods: HPTLC profile of diterpenoid and sesquiterpenoids were done and profiles were developed for authentication. Results: The n-hexane extract of E. sonchifolia showed the presence of diterpenoids in the standard but absent in the sample with different Rf values in the range of 0.01 to 0.61 but the sesquiterpenoids is present in both the standard as well as the sample with different Rf values in the range of 0.01 to 0.93. Conclusion: Based on the results it can be concluded that the n-hexane extract of E. sonchifolia is the potential natural resources for pharmacology and functional foods. The development of such fingerprinting from the aerial parts of E. sonchifolia is useful in differentiating the species from the adulterant and act as biochemical markers in the pharmaceutical industry and plant systematic studies. In future, the bioactive compounds will be isolated from this plant which may lead to the formation of new drugs against various diseases.
... The plant is sudorific [20] . The root juice mixed with salt and water is used to treat cataracts and redness of eye [21] . The development of more effective strategies to combat pancreatic cancer is of paramount importance [22] . ...
... Similar results have been reported by a number of investigators. [44,45] The biochemical fi ndings were also supported by the histopathologic studies which showed a glomerulus with loss of surrounding Bowman's capsule and diffuse tubular necrosis in the renal section of rats induced with nitrobenzene. These histopathologic changes almost disappeared in the renal tissue of rats treated with the ethanol extract of E. hirta. ...
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Euphorbia hirta (L.) (Euphorbiaceae) is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight) was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight). The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05) depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity.
... The methanolic extract of Emilia sonchifolia has been reported to have anti-tumor property (Shhylesh and Padikkala, 2000;Shylesh et al., 2005), anti-inflammatory (Muko and Ohiri, 1999) and antioxidant activity (Gayathri Devi et al., 2006;Kawaree and Chowwanapoonpoh, 2009;Shylesh and Padikkala, 1999). In addition, anticonvulsant activity of aqueous extract has previously been reported (Asije et al., 2006). ...
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Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat asthma, fever, cuts, wounds and rheumatism. This study was conducted to establish the antinociceptive properties of hydroethanolic extract from aerial parts of Emilia sonchifolia in mice using chemical and thermal models of nociception. To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of Emilia sonchifolia hydroethanolic extract (EsHE) administered by oral route, peripheral (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin), spinal (tail flick) and supra-spinal (hot plate) behavioral models of acute pain were used. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the fingerprint chromatogram of the EsHE. The EsHE at test doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity in all tests. The extract had a stronger antinociceptive effect than morphine. Administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, completely inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by EsHE (100mg/kg). The presence of phenolic compounds in the extract of Emilia sonchifolia was confirmed using HPLC. The extract of Emilia sonchifolia markedly exhibits opioid-mediated anti-nociceptive activity action in mice. Thus, may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory hyperalgesic disorders, which supports previous claims of its traditional use.
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The relationships between biodiversity and stability were determined for both population and ecosystem traits in a long-term study of 207 grassland plots. Results demonstrate that biodiversity stabilises community and ecosystem processes, but not population processes. Specifically, year to year variability in total aboveground plant community biomass was significantly lower in plots with greater species variability both for the entire 11-year period and for the 9 non-drought years. The change in total plant community biomass from before the drought to the peak of the drought was also highly dependent on species richness. For all three measures of total community biomass stability, multiple regressions that controlled co-variates showed similar relationships between plant diversity and stability. In contrast, year to year variability in species abundance was not stabilised by plant species richness for either all years or non-drought years. This difference between species vs. community biomass likely results from interspecific competition. When climatic variations harm some species, unharmed competitors increase. Such compensatory increases stabilise total community biomass, but cause species abundances to be more variable. These results support both the predictions of Robert May concerning the effects of diversity on population stability and the diversity-stability hypothesis as applied to community and ecosystem processes, thus helping to reconcile a long-standing dispute.
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The properties of subcellular fractions of rat liver in catalyzing the decomposition of linoleic acid hydroperoxide have been compared with those of transition salts, heme compounds, and nucleophiles. The properties compared included the range of products produced, the pH dependence of the reaction, and the effects of metal-complexing agents, inhibitors, and hydrogen donors. It was concluded that the decomposition of the hydroperoxide in the liver cell was due principally to reaction with the intracellular nucleophile glutathione by a mechanism catalyzed by the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. In the absence of glutathione, however, both the mitochondrial and microsomal fractions decomposed the hydroperoxide presumably by a radical mechanism probably involving the cytochromes.
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Five known compounds were obtained from the whole plant of Emilia sonchifolia. By means of chemical and spectral methods, they were identified to be simiral, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, palmitic acid and honey acid.
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Methanolic extract of Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), a folklore medicinal plant, was found to be cytotoxic to Daltons lymphoma (DL), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and mouse lung fibroblast (L-929) cells, but not toxic to normal human lymphocytes, under in vitro conditions. Oral administration of the extract (100 mg/kg, b. wt) to mice reduced the development of both solid and ascites tumors and increased the life span of these tumor bearing mice. Further, the extract inhibited DNA synthesis as judged from a reduction in tritiated thymidine incorporation into DL cells under in vitro conditions.
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The aqueous and methanolic extracts of Emilia sonchifolia leaves progressively reduced rat paw oedema induced by subplantar injection of albumin, the aqueous extract showing a more pronounced effect than the methanol extract.
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The high level of glucose in blood for a long duration is the main cause of the development of retinopathy. So yearly screening of patients newly diagnosed with NIDDM diabetes is recommended because rare cases of treatable diabetic retinopathy have occurred early in one course of NIDDM diabetes. Hyperglycaemia leads to non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins and HbA1C was found increased. Antioxidants such as GSH and SOD level is found decreased in retinopathy conditions due to the higher lipid peroxidation, which is evident from high MDA and DC values. So it can be clearly stated that increase in the free radical by hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation and advanced glycosylation endproducts along with decreased antioxidants are the causative agents for the development of retinopathy.
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A standardized extract of Citrullus colocynthis used as an oral natural laxative in folk medicine was tested for its influence on liver function parameters in vitro. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under the influence of Citrullus colocynthis extract was investigated by means of stimulated lipid peroxidation (LPO), H2O2 formation and amplified chemiluminescence in rat liver microsomes. In rat liver 9000 x g supernatants 4 monooxygenase reactions mediated by different CYP forms were measured. Putative hepatotoxic effects of Citrullus colocynthis extract were measured by means of potassium and GSH concentrations in and LDH leakage from precision-cut rat liver slices. For possible hepatoprotective effects the influence of the extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced changes of these parameters was investigated. Citrullus colocynthis extract in concentrations higher than 10 microg/ml incubation mixture proved to inhibit lipid peroxidation and ROS-production as well as CYP1A-, 2B- and 3A-dependent reactions with typical substrates. In contrast, H2O2 production was not reduced under the influence of the extract, a slight but significant increase was seen. Citrullus colocynthis extract was found to be free of hepatotoxic effects in concentrations up to 100 microg/ml incubation mixture when liver slices were incubated in William's medium E for 22 hours. All viability parameters used were not influenced by the extract of Citrullus colocynthis. Carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity could not be prevented or alleviated. Moreover, the damage was sometimes enhanced by higher extract concentrations.
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Oxidative stress plays an important role in cell death associated with many diseases. In the present study, concentration-dependence of hydrogen peroxide on rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell viability was studied. Preventive effects of antioxidants on the viability of these cells treated with 2 mM hydrogen peroxide were compared. Trolox and Stobadine, as chain-breaking antioxidants were studied in comparison with standardized extracts of flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba and Pycnogenol, known as agents effective in several diseases. All antioxidants increased the viability of hydrogen peroxide-treated PC12 cells. Flavonoid extracts were more effective than Trolox and Stobadine. Antioxidants were most effective if present after the oxidative treatment. As expected, the preloading with antioxidants was without effect on cell viability. Correlations between viability increase induced by antioxidants, and content of oxidation products of proteins and lipids were studied at concentrations of antioxidants mostly effective in preventing cell death: Trolox (10 microM), Stobadine (30 microM), Ginkgo biloba (160 microg/ml), Pycnogenol (100 microg/ml). In these concentrations, antioxidants did not statistically significantly decrease the content of protein carbonyls, with exception of Stobadine, which had no effect. Ginkgo biloba, Trolox and Stobadine intensively decreased the content of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Pycnogenol was without any preventive effect. Concentrations of antioxidants with a large effect on viability of PC12 cells were not effective in preventing oxygen radical-induced injury of proteins. Antioxidants prevented the oxidative injury of lipids more effectively than that of proteins.
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Oxygen radicals react with polyunsaturated fatty acid residues in phospholipids resulting in the production of a plethora of products, many of them reactive toward protein and DNA. One of the most abundant carbonyl products of lipid peroxidation is malondialdehyde (MDA), which also is generated as a side-product of prostaglandin biosynthesis. It reacts with DNA to form adducts to deoxyguanosine, deoxyadenosine, and deoxycytidine. The deoxyguanosine adduct (M(1)G) has been detected in liver, white blood cells, colon, pancreas, and breast from healthy human beings at levels ranging from 1 to 120 per 10(8) nucleotides. Random and site-specific mutagenesis experiments indicate that MDA-DNA adducts are mutagenic in bacteria and in mammalian cells. M(1)G is highly mutagenic when incorporated into viral genomes then replicated in E. coli. It is repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Lipid peroxidation appears to be a major source of endogenous DNA damage in humans that may contribute significantly to cancer and other genetic diseases linked to lifestyle and dietary factors.