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Aligning conservation and research priorities for proactive species and habitat management: The case of dugongs Dugong dugon in Johor, Malaysia

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Conservation efforts use scientific data to provide an adaptive framework wherein habitat and wildlife sustainability can co-exist with human activities. Good science informs decision-makers and facilitates the development of successful conservation approaches. However, conservation concerns for the dugong Dugong dugon in South-east Asia are sufficiently urgent that action must be taken quickly, even though science has not provided complete answers to critical questions. In Johor, Malaysia, aerial surveys were conducted to assess dugong numbers, dugong high-use areas and overlap of dugong sightings with areas of seagrass. Dugong distribution included existing marine parks and locations where known conservation threats exist. We conclude that the Johor islands may represent a significant congregation site for dugongs in Peninsular Malaysia, with as many as 20 dugongs recorded in a single day. The existence of a marine park where the dugong sightings were most prominent is encouraging but only 38% of those sightings fell within the boundaries of the park. Anthropogenic threats need to be assessed and addressed prior to complex development activities such as dredging and coastal reclamation for tourism development in this critical area. We use this case to explore the concept of advancing species conservation through focused research and management, particularly where uncertainties exist because data are scarce.
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Aligning conservation and research priorities for
proactive species and habitat management: the case
of dugongs Dugong dugon in Johor, Malaysia
Abstract Conservation eorts use scientic data to provide
an adaptive framework wherein habitat and wildlife
sustainability can co-exist with human activities. Good
science informs decision-makers and facilitates the devel-
opment of successful conservation approaches. However,
conservation concerns for the dugong Dugong dugon in
South-east Asia are suciently urgent that action must be
taken quickly, even though science has not provided
complete answers to critical questions. In Johor, Malaysia,
aerial surveys were conducted to assess dugong numbers,
dugong high-use areas and overlap of dugong sightings with
areas of seagrass. Dugong distribution included existing
marine parks and locations where known conservation
threats exist. We conclude that the Johor islands may
represent a signicant congregation site for dugongs in
Peninsular Malaysia, with as many as 20 dugongs recorded
in a single day. The existence of a marine park where the
dugong sightings were most prominent is encouraging but
only 38% of those sightings fell within the boundaries of the
park. Anthropogenic threats need to be assessed and
addressed prior to complex development activities such as
dredging and coastal reclamation for tourism development
in this critical area. We use this case to explore the concept
of advancing species conservation through focused research
and management, particularly where uncertainties exist
because data are scarce.
Keywords Conservation, Dugong dugon, Johor, Malaysia,
protected area
This paper contains supplementary material that can be
found online at
The dugong Dugong dugon (Sirenia, Dugongidae) has a
range spanning waters of 48 countries, from the
tropical and subtropical shallow coastal habitats of East
Africa to the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, and eastwards to the
Indo-Pacic region as far as Australia (Marsh, 2008). It is a
seagrass-community specialist with a diet predominantly of
seagrasses, occasionally consuming invertebrates and algae
(Marsh et al., 2011). The dugong is categorized as Vulnerable
on the IUCN Red List (Marsh, 2008), with some popula-
tions greatly diminished, threatened by human activities
and in imminent danger of extirpation (Marsh et al., 2011).
In South-east Asia studies of dugongs have assessed their
relative abundance and threats to the species in Indonesia,
Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and East Malaysia (de Iongh
et al., 1998; de Iongh, 1999; Hines et al., 2005,2008,2012;
Tsutsumi et al., 2006; Adulyanukosol et al., 2007; Jaaman
et al., 2008,2009; Rajamani & Marsh, 2010; Rajamani, 2013).
In Peninsular Malaysia dugongs are protected under
the Fisheries Act 1985 Part VI and the Fisheries (Control
of Endangered Species of Fish) Regulations 1999. The
Department of Fisheries formulated a National Plan of
Action for Dugongs in 2011 to protect, conserve and manage
dugongs and their habitats (DOFM, 2011). Additionally,
Malaysia is committed to the Convention on Biological
Diversity, with a target of having 10% of its marine
environment protected by 2020, particularly areas that are
important for threatened species (CBD, 2010). To date ,1%
of Malaysias marine area is protected (Bertzky et al.,
2012). Seagrasses are protected only in areas where they fall
within marine parks, and are not included in any national
policies. Strandings of dugongs have been reported
throughout Peninsular Malaysia since the 1940s (e.g.
Gibson-Hill, 1950; Langham, 1974; Mansor et al., 2000)
and the Department of Fisheries has maintained records of
dugong mortality since the 1990s, particularly cases reported
in the Johor Straits (DOFM, 2011). Nonetheless, information
on the dugong in Peninsular Malaysian waters is incomplete
but anecdotal evidence suggests that the species has become
LOUISA S. PONNAMPALAM*(Corresponding author) Institute of Ocean and Earth
Sciences, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
J. H. FAIRUL IZMAL The MareCet Research Organization, Shah Alam, Malaysia,
and Environmental Resources Management, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
KANJANA ADULYANUKOSOL Marine and Coastal Resources Research Center,
Upper Gulf, Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, Samut Sakhon,
JILLIAN L. S. OOI Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences,
Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
JOHN E. REYNOLDS III Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, Florida, USA
*Also at: The MareCet Research Organization, 40460 Shah Alam, Malaysia
Received 25 March 2013. Revision requested 15 July 2013.
Accepted 26 November 2013.
©2014 Fauna & Flora International,
, Page 1 of 7 doi:10.1017/S0030605313001580
increasingly rare (Aendi et al., 2005; Zulkii Poh, 2009;
L.S. Ponnampalam, unpubl. data).
Beginning in 1999 several surveys were conducted to
assess the distribution of dugongs around the Sungai Pulai
and Sungai Johor estuaries (sungai 5river) and islands o
the east coast of Johor (hereafter referred as the Johor
islands; Fig. 1), as well as the distribution and diversity of
seagrasses in these areas. Aerial surveys for dugongs and
seagrass were conducted during 19992008 (Mansor et al.,
2000;Aendi et al., 2005; Ooi et al., 2008) and studies of
dugong feeding trails and community-based monitoring
occurred during 20082009 (Zulkii Poh, 2009; Choo &
Ponnampalam, 2011). Threats to dugongs and their
habitats in Johor are varied and increasing in intensity
(Ponnampalam & Fairul Izmal, pers. obs.). Dugong
carcasses have been reported from parts of Johors coastline
and found as bycatch in shing gear (Aendi et al., 2005;
Choo & Ponnampalam, 2011; L.S. Ponnampalam, unpubl.
data). Dugongs are already extirpated in Mauritius, the
Maldives and Taiwan and are Critically Endangered in
Okinawa, Japan, and in the Gulf of Mannar, between India
and Sri Lanka (Marsh, 2008). Dugongs in Peninsular
Malaysia may also face eventual extirpation if their prime
habitats remain unprotected, with no specic management
measures implemented.
Here we present the results of a systematic aerial survey
conducted around the Johor islands in July 2010. Our main
objectives were to (1) determine the distribution of the
dugong in the archipelago, (2) assess the encounter rate of
dugongs, (3) compare dugong distribution with the extent
of existing marine parks, seagrass habitat and areas with
human activity, and (4) provide conservation and research
recommendations. Our work illustrates how conservation
eorts can commence using available data, existing laws
and policy mechanisms when resources for research are
Aerial surveys were conducted around the Johor islands
and Pulau Seribuat (in the neighbouring state of Pahang;
pulau 5island) for 8consecutive days during 815 July 2010
(Fig. 1). The surveys were conducted using a xed-wing
Cessna 172 aircraft, with two experienced observers on
board, which departed from the Sultan Ismail International
Airport in Senai, Johor. A series of predetermined parallel
line transects, each c. 510 km in length and set c. 1km apart,
was designed for the survey (Fig. 1). The transects covered
the leeward sides of each island and included areas where
seagrass beds were known to occur (Aendi et al., 2005;
Ooi et al., 2008,2011b; J.L.S. Ooi, unpubl. data). Funding
constraints prevented coverage of all of the regional inshore
areas and repeated surveys.
Surveys were conducted during high tide each day, for
consistency, at a search speed of 167 km per hour and
altitude of 213 m, in sea states <3on the Beaufort Scale. The
rst observer sat in the front right seat, next to the pilot, and
the second observer sat in the back seat on the left.
The rst observer photographed dugongs, using a digital
single-lens reex camera with a 75300 mm zoom lens,
and the survey search path was recorded using a global
positioning system (GPS). Events that occurred during the
ight (e.g. departure time, start of transect) were recorded
using a digital voice-recorder. When an animal or vessel was
sighted a waypoint was recorded on the GPS unit and the
event recorded on the voice recorder, including information
on group size, behaviour and the size of individuals (e.g.
adult or calf). The ight was terminated when all transects
had been completed or when weather and sighting con-
ditions deteriorated (rain, haze, sea state .Beaufort 3).
Encounter rates were calculated by dividing the total
number of individuals sighted during the whole survey by
the total survey eort (days, distance, time). The distribu-
tions of animals and vessels were plotted in ArcMap v. 10.1
(ESRI, Redlands, USA) and overlaid on known seagrass
0 5 10 20 30 40 km
FIG. 1 The area surveyed for dugongs Dugong dugon around the
islands othe east coast of Johor, and Pulau Seribuat (in the
neighbouring state of Pahang). Parallel line transects were own
on the leeward sides of all islands, using a light aircraft. The
rectangle on the inset shows the location of the main map othe
coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
2 L. S. Ponnampalam et al.
©2014 Fauna & Flora International,
, 1–7
areas and existing marine park boundaries to assess the
extent of overlap.
The transects surveyed covered a total of 2,986.4km of
water, with 17.5hours of observation. There were 93
sightings of dugongs, 22 of which consisted of mothercalf
pairs. The maximum daily counts of dugongs and mother
calf pairs were 20 individuals and four pairs, respectively
(Fig. 2). The largest group size observed was ve and the
smallest number was one. The daily mean encounter rates
were 15.4dugongs per day, 0.04 dugongs per km and 7.04
dugongs per hour.
Dugongs were sighted around all islands surveyed
(Fig. 3a). The highest concentrations were observed around
Pulau Sibu (n 566,71%) and Pulau Tinggi (n 515,16%;
combined total, n 581,87%; Fig. 3a). Of the total number
of sightings around Pulau Sibu, 41 (62%) were outside the
boundary of the islands marine park. Sightings of mother
calf pairs (n 519,21%) were concentrated at Pulau Sibu and
mainly outside its marine park boundary (n 513,68%;
Fig. 3a). Two dugongs were sighted grazing in the seagrass
beds at Pulau Setindan (Fig. 3a), near the site of the
now-halted Mersing Laguna Reclamation development
A total of 178 sightings of green sea turtles Chelonia
mydas were recorded during the surveys, concentrated
over the extensive seagrass meadows of Pulau Sibu and
Pulau Tinggi and extending beyond the boundary of Pulau
Sibu marine park (Fig. 3b). Marine vessels observed were
artisanal shing boats with single outboard engines, shing
trawlers, high-speed ferries, cargo tankers and tugboats
with barge (Fig. 3). These were sighted mainly around
Pulau Sibu, Pulau Besar and Pulau Rawa. Artisanal shing
boats were observed most frequently (1.66 boats per hour),
followed by shing trawlers (0.97 boats per hour).
Dugongs, habitats and anthropogenic activities
Our results suggest the dugong population in Johor is small,
based on the maximum daily count of only 20 animals in
2,986.4km of surveys. Conversely, few areas in South-east
Asia have more dugongs in such a conned area (e.g. Trang
Province, Thailand; Hines et al., 2005; Tsutsumi et al., 2006)
and the high percentage of calves indicates a reproducing
population. The highest concentrations of dugongs (includ-
ing mothercalf pairs) and sea turtles, particularly othe
south-west of Pulau Sibu, are attributable to the presence of
seagrass meadows in the area. Ooi et al. (2011a) reported that
the seagrasses Halodule uninervis and Cymodocea serrulata
dominate the seagrass meadows in Pulau Tinggi and the
dominant seagrass in the Pulau Sibu area is H. uninervis
(Ooi et al., 2008). Both species are consumed extensively
by dugongs (Marsh et al., 2011). Seagrass distribution data
are lacking for the surveyed area, especially outside the
Pulau Sibu marine park, where dugong sightings were
concentrated, indicating the need for further surveys of
Of the three main dugong areas in Johor (i.e. Sungai
Pulai and Sungai Johor estuaries and Johor islands; Fig. 1),
the Johor islands appear to be the only area with habitat
suitable for maintaining a viable population of dugongs.
Our ndings and those of Mansor et al. (2000) and Aendi
et al. (2005) indicate that the Johor islands are the site of the
most signicant congregation of dugongs in Peninsular
Malaysia. Previous seagrass surveys in the Sungai Pulai
estuary (Zulkii Poh, 2009; Choo & Ponnampalam, 2011)
and the Sungai Johor estuary (Aendi et al., 2005; Ooi et al.,
2008) revealed the presence of dugong feeding trails in areas
with high seagrass biomass. However, these areas are
aected by major developments, including port expansions
and petrochemical facilities, both of which are known to
cause habitat degradation and water pollution and to
threaten marine life (Ralph & Burchett, 1998; Macinnis-Ng
& Ralph, 2003; Wake, 2005; Ng & Song, 2010; Yap & Lam,
2013). Thus, it is unlikely that these areas are sustainable
long-term habitats for the dugongs. The Sungai Pulai
estuary and the mangrove coastline of the Johor Straits are
scheduled for signicant development under the Iskandar
Malaysia development plan (Iskandar Malaysia, 2011). The
heavily industrialized Sungai Johor estuary area is also
being developed further, to include a deep-water petroleum
renery (Integrated Envirotech, 2012). In interviews local
shermen from both areas reported low encounter rates
with dugongs since 2004, with encounters mainly
70 3.0
No. of animals sighted
Survey effort (hours)
0123 45
Survey day
Adult dugongs
Dugong mother–calf pairs
Sea turtles
Survey effort
FIG. 2 Survey eort and number of sightings of adult dugongs,
dugong mothercalf pairs and sea turtles per day during the
aerial survey othe east coast of Johor, Malaysia (Fig. 1).
Dugongs in Malaysia 3
©2014 Fauna & Flora International,
, 1–7
involving stranded dead animals (Zulkii Poh, 2009;
L.S. Ponnampalam, unpubl. data).
In contrast, the Johor islands have experienced a
lower level of human-induced environmental degradation,
partly because of the designated marine parks in the area
and the low levels of development on the islands
(L.S. Ponnampalam, pers. obs.). Given the extensive areas
of seagrass beds, particularly oPulau Sibu and Pulau
Tinggi, the islands are likely to be an important habitat for
dugongs, providing them with safe refuge and an abundant
food supply. However, interviews with shermen along the
east coast of Johor in 2010 revealed that commercial trawl
shing takes place illegally within the marine parks of Pulau
Sibu and Pulau Tinggi (L.S. Ponnampalam, unpubl. data),
which is likely to damage or destroy the dugongsseagrass
habitats (Duarte, 2009). Vessel trac may also pose threats
to dugongs in the study area, although our observations
revealed some degree of separation between dugongs and
vessels. The animals may be at risk from boat strikes and
disturbance, which have already been demonstrated to be an
increasing threat to dugongs in some heavily used water-
ways of Australia (Hodgson & Marsh, 2007). Additionally,
the vicinity of the Johor islands is exposed to the threats of
large-scale coastal development projects, which include
dredging and extensive land reclamation, under the East
Coast Economic Region Master Plan. For example, the
proposed (but cancelled) Mersing Laguna Reclamation in
Mersing Bay was a potential threat to dugongs, the seagrass
beds in the area and the general environment (Erftemeijer &
Lewis, 2006; Wang et al., 2010). Our survey results show that
the proposed reclamation area may be a tide-inuenced
feeding ground for dugongs, as reported for dugongs
in Australia (Sheppard et al., 2009). As such, increased
protection of the area and specic management measures
are needed to support dugong populations.
Aligning conservation and research
Lack of comprehensive scientic information should not be
a deterrent to the implementation of conservation actions.
We recommend that a dugong conservation area be
designed and managed following the strategies outlined
in Supplementary Table S1, combined with stakeholder
FIG. 3 (a) The locations of dugongs and marine vessels sighted during the aerial survey. The grey ovals around each island indicate the
approximate boundaries of existing marine parks, which extend 2nautical miles from the shoreline. (b) The locations of sea turtles
sighted during the aerial survey. The inset in (b) shows the locations of known seagrass beds at Pulau Sibu and Pulau Tinggi (Aendi
et al., 2005; Ooi et al., 2011b, unpubl. data).
4 L. S. Ponnampalam et al.
©2014 Fauna & Flora International,
, 1–7
consultation and involvement. Furthermore, we rec-
ommend that focused research in priority areas (outlined
in Supplementary Table S2) be undertaken in tandem with
our conservation recommendations. Research and conser-
vation should be undertaken concurrently, with each
complementing the other, to continue to improve and
strengthen the eectiveness of management of the area and
target species over time (Fig. 4).
As a signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity,
Malaysia is obligated to protect 10% of representative
marine ecosystems within its national boundaries. The
establishment of a dugong conservation area would con-
tribute to the global goal of meeting the Aichi Biodiversity
Targets (CBD, 2010). Moreover, conservation alongside
research is in line with the objectives and strategies of
Malaysias National Plan of Action for Dugongs (DOFM,
2011). We recommend that the dugong conservation area be
established in the areas of high dugong concentrations,
such as outside the boundaries of the existing Pulau Sibu
marine park (Fig. 3). The protection aorded by the current
marine parks alone is probably insucient, as is the case
in Indonesia (de Iongh, 1999), as anthropogenic activities
continue to increase. We believe that, given the range of
stakeholders and the fact that some of their activities may be
benign to dugongs, a managed area that involves careful
management of selected human activities is preferable to a
marine park, which is fully protected under Malaysian law.
Nonetheless, many socialculturaleconomic aspects will
need to be considered when establishing the dugong
conservation area (Ban et al., 2009). A framework for
conservation of sirenians is provided in Marsh et al. (2011)
and Hines et al. (2012), encompassing a range of regulatory
(e.g. legislation, enforcement and protected areas) and
enabling tools (e.g. education/awareness-raising, research
and adaptive management, community partnerships). The
careful development, implementation and maintenance
of a combination of both categories of tools are critical to
the conservation of dugongs in Malaysia and elsewhere.
Although there have been discussions among stakeholders
since this research was carried out, the rate of progress
towards establishing a managed area is slow. In 2013 the
protected area boundaries were extended by 1nautical mile
under state legislation, which, while useful, does not fully
encompass the areas identied to be of signicance to the
dugong population at the study site.
The waters around the Johor islands potentially host the
most signicant concentration of dugongs in Peninsular
Malaysia, partly as a result of the protection provided by
marine parks, which are located away from development.
Despite the low counts from our survey the presence of
calves, substantial areas of forage, and marine parks provide
hope that the dugongs can be conserved through proactive
actions. We suggest that limited data, in this case on dugong
distribution, extent of seagrass habitat and the use of
such habitat by dugongs, are not a barrier to eective and
enhanced conservation actions, especially where marine
parks and statutory protection already exist. We emphasize
that conservation and adaptive management actions should
be implemented immediately in some cases while collection
of scientic data continues. Multi-disciplinary research
activities are being undertaken to improve understanding
of the distribution and habitat use of dugongs, and the
federal and Johor state governments have taken an interest
in the matter. However, the level of threat to the dugong
population in the area is likely to increase (Ponnampalam &
Fairul Izmal, pers obs.).
regulatory provisions Implementation of
conservation actions
Monitoring and
Reassessment of the
status of target species,
threats, and the
effectiveness of
management actions
Studies to further the understanding of
the biology and ecology of target
species in the area
Studies to further the understanding of
habitats in the area, with emphasis on
those relevant to the target species
Studies of contaminants and their
effects on target species
Studies of economic alternatives to
promote conservation and provide
alternative livelihoods
Identification of threats that
affect or may affect target
FIG. 4 Hierarchy of
recommended actions for the
conservation, management and
research of dugongs and their
habitats othe east coast of
Johor, Peninsular Malaysia
(Fig. 1).
Dugongs in Malaysia 5
©2014 Fauna & Flora International,
, 1–7
The case of the dugongs in the Johor islands suggests that
for certain wildlife species or populations there may be
insucient time to wait for comprehensive scientic
justication and data collection before conservation actions
are implemented (Johannes, 1998). In most cases involving
threatened species, research should be undertaken concur-
rently with conservation actions (Marsh et al., 2011).
Funding for this survey was provided by Titan Chemical
Corp. Bhd. We thank our pilot, Capt. Cheng Xitao, for his
contribution, and Vivian Kuit for assisting with editing of
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Biographical sketches
LOUISA PONNAMPALAM is working towards lling the knowledge
gaps on the ecology of dugongs and cetaceans in Malaysia and
building local research capacity for conservation. F AIRUL IZMAL is a
marine environmental consultant. His interests lie in improving
scientic knowledge, awareness and policy legislation in relation to
cetaceans and dugongs in Malaysia. KANJANA ADULYANUKOSOL has
studied dugongs in Thailand for 25 years and has been involved in
community education in her study areas. JILLIAN OOI studies the
distribution patterns of tropical seagrasses in relation to ecological
drivers, and the utilization of seagrass habitats by marine organisms.
JOHN E. REYNOLDS III has been involved in conservation-based
marine mammal research and global marine conservation eorts over
the last 4decades.
Dugongs in Malaysia 7
©2014 Fauna & Flora International,
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... Marine organisms such as the dugong, which is listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), is also threatened by coastal reclamation. Habitat fragmentation, degradation, and ocean pollution in the Johor Islands have put the seagrass meadows, which these marine mammals feed on, at risk and therefore placing entire populations of dugongs in a constant state of vulnerability (Ponnampalam et al., 2015). The sharp decrease in landings of the critically endangered hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Pulau Upeh, Melaka, is also said to be due to coastal reclamation (Mayberry, 2016). ...
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Cities all over the world are edging further into the ocean. Coastal reclamation is a global conservation issue with implications for ocean life, ecosystems, and human well-being. Using Malaysia as a case study, the coastal reclamation trends over three decades (1991–2021) were mapped using Landsat images and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) via the Google Earth Engine platform. The changes in drivers and impacts of these coastal expansions throughout the decades were also reviewed. Twelve out of the 14 states in Malaysia had planned, active, or completed reclamations on their shorelines. Between 1991 and 2021, an absolute area of 82.64 km² has been or will be reclaimed should all the projects be completed. The most reported driver for coastal expansion in Malaysia is for development and modernization (41 %), followed by rise in human population (20 %), monetary gains from the development of prime land (15 %), and agriculture and aquaculture activities (9 %). Drivers such as reduction of construction costs, financial advantage of prime land, oil and gas, advancement of technology, and tourism (Malaysia My Second Home (MM2H)) had only started occurring within the last decade, while others have been documented since the 1990's. Pollution is the most reported impact (24 %) followed by disruption of livelihoods, sources of income and human well-being (21 %), destruction of natural habitats (17 %), decrease in biodiversity (11 %), changes in landscapes (10 %), erosion / accretion (8 %), threat to tourism industry (6 %), and exposure to wave surges (3 %). Of these, changes in landscape, shoreline alignment, seabed contour, and coastal groundwater, as well as wave surges had only started to surface as impacts in the last two decades. Efforts to protect existing natural coastal and marine ecosystems, restore degraded ones, and fund endeavours that emphasize nature is needed to support sustainable development goals for the benefit of future generations.
... Although dugongs have been reported to graze at high human-use and urbanized areas (Marsh et al., 2011;Ng et al., 2022;Ponnampalam et al., 2022), coastal development represents a serious threat considering that many DFSs were mostly small and located in shallow nearshore waters. These are typically among the first areas drastically impacted by coastal development and other land-based anthropogenic activities (Marsh et al., 1999(Marsh et al., , 2002Ponnampalam et al., 2015Ponnampalam et al., , 2022Tol et al., 2016). ...
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Extensive home ranges of marine megafauna present a challenge for systematic conservation planning because they exceed spatial scales of conventional management. For elusive species like dugongs, their management is additionally hampered by a paucity of basic distributional information across much of their range. The Red Sea is home to a wide-spread, globally important but data-poor population of dugongs. We surveyed the north-eastern Red Sea in the waters of NEOM, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to locate feeding sites and determine priority areas for dugong conservation. We conducted large-scale in-water surveys of dugong feeding trails across 27 seagrass meadows that span 0.7 degree of latitude and recorded nine seagrass species and 13 dugong feeding sites. Spread over ∼4‚061 km² of nearshore and offshore waters, many of these sites clustered around five main core feeding areas. Dugong feeding trails were mostly recorded at sites dominated by the fast-growing pioneer seagrasses Halodule uninervis, Halophila ovalis and/or H. stipulacea. Multispecific meadows with pioneer seagrasses tended to be sheltered and shallow, reflecting a similar spatial pattern to the identified dugong feeding sites. Often close to hotels and fishing harbours, these high-use dugong areas are subject to high boat traffic, fishing, and coastal development which places considerable pressures on this vulnerable mammal and its seagrass habitat. The rapidly accelerating coastal development in the northern Red Sea directly threatens the future of its dugong population. Although our sampling focuses on feeding signs in early successional seagrasses, the results are valuable to spatial conservation planning as they will trigger overdue conservation interventions for a globally threatened species in a data-poor area. Urgent dugong conservation management actions in the northern Red Sea should focus on shallow waters sheltered by coastal lagoons, bays and the lee of large islands.
... (Johnstone and Hudson, 1981;Preen, 1992;Sheppard et al., 2006;Sheppard et al., 2008;Sheppard et al., 2010). Urbanization of coastal areas and the resultant increase in anthropogenic uses of sea spaces have been identified as key drivers of dugong population decline in Southeast Asia (Hines, 2002;Mustika, 2006;Hines et al., 2012;Ponnampalam et al., 2015). Land reclamation activities along the Johor and Singapore Straits started in the mid-1800s (Richards et al., 1994;Corlett, 2000), and peaked in the years after 1965 (Hilton and Manning, 1995). ...
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Coastal development and the increased anthropogenic use of sea spaces have rapidly degraded coastal habitats throughout Southeast Asia. We study how these activities impact dugong (Dugong dugon) population(s) along hyper-urbanized coastlines of the Johor and Singapore Straits through literature reviews and field surveys. Our review recovered sixty-nine live observations and carcass observations of dugongs between 1820 and 2021. The eastern Johor Strait is identified as a dugong hotspot. We observed peaks in observations coincident with the Northeast and Southwest monsoons. Distribution patterns of dugong observations were likely driven by a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors such as seasonality in seagrass abundance, tidal cycles, wind patterns and vessel traffic. Our field surveys ascertained active foraging sites along the anthropogenically disturbed Johor Strait and western Singapore Strait. Evident from our study is the importance of reef-associated seagrass meadows as refugia for foraging dugongs along areas of high anthropogenic use. This study provides an ecological baseline for dugong research along the Johor and Singapore Straits—within the data-poor western Malay Archipelago—, and aids in the design of sustainable management strategies and conservation programs for dugongs along areas where urbanization is commonplace.
... It is less abundant than before in terms of seagrass cover and is now dominated by smaller pioneer species. Should it continue to decline, there will be far-ranging impacts on its resident fish communities, including syngnathids as well as other charismatic fauna such as turtles and dugongs (Ponnampalam et al., 2015;. ...
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Pulau Sibu scientific expedition was conducted in 2018 by UMT researchers and published in 2019 by the Malayan Nature Journal.
... Aerial surveys around Talibong Island, Thailand during 2006-2010 divided sightings of dugongs into two categories, "calving herds" and "noncalving herds"; calving herds were clumped in space and averaged 8.8 dugongs (318 adults, 111 calf sightings in total), whereas mean group size in the latter category was 1.2 dugongs, with 69% of 155 individuals in non-calving herds solitary (Ichikawa et al. 2012). Aerial surveys off the Pulau Islands along coastal Johor and Pahang, peninsula Malaysia, in July 2010 yielded a mean group size of 1.3 dugongs (93 sightings of 124 individuals), range 1-5 per group (Ponnampalam et al. 2015). In the remote Palau Archipelago of Micronesia, mean group size were 2.0 dugongs in 1978 (34 sightings, Brownell et al. 1981Brownell et al. ), 1.4 in 1983Rathbun et al. 1988;Marsh et al. 1995), and1.4 in 1991 (26 sightings;Marsh et al. 1995). ...
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Sirenian social and reproductive behaviors lack much complexity or diversity. Whereas sirenians are usually sighted as solitary, or as cows with single calves, aggregations of many individuals can occur. Persistent social groupings are unknown. Home ranges are widely overlapping. Mating systems of dugongs (Dugong dugon) have been variously described as leks or as scramble promiscuity (mating herds ) and lone mating pairs have been observed in areas of low density, but further research into the hypothesized leks is needed (especially because scramble promiscuity has been observed in the same region). Dugongs and all manatees (Trichechus) show scramble promiscuity, wherein males form groups that escort single females with much physical contact for many days. The strongest social bonds are between females and nursing calves. Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) show natal philopatry for years after weaning. Socially transmitted knowledge (tradition) appears important to Florida manatees and perhaps all species of sirenians, particularly in regions where seasonal movements during winter are necessary for survival, such as in winter for Florida manatees, and dugongs at the high latitude limits of their range. Some populations of Antillean, Amazonian, and African manatees have regular movements in response to seasonal flooding and access to food, which also may be learned through tradition . Dugongs may rely on group movements based on traditional knowledge in response to regional loss of food supply from extreme weather events. Communication is most obvious through vocalizations, which can show individual distinctiveness. Vocal communication is most prevalent between mothers and calves. Allomaternal care occurs in Florida manatees at shared aggregation sites. Florida manatees occupying a given region can consist of multiple matrilines that develop through the early bonding of calves to mothers and subsequent natal philopatry. Population genetics research supports male-biased dispersal and possible female-based philopatry in other trichechids, but perhaps not as strongly in dugongids. Considerable further research is needed on these and related topics to more comprehensively understand sirenian social and reproductive behavior.KeywordsCommunicationDispersionGroup sizeMating systemsMother-youngMovementsNatal philopatrySireniansTraditionVocalizations
... Indeed, dugong grazing influences the biomass, species composition and nutritional quality of seagrass beds [16][17][18] , as well as their resilience 19 and dispersal 20 . Dugong regional distribution has mainly been documented through dedicated large scale aerial surveys in Mozambique, the Arabian Gulf, Australia, New Caledonia, and Malaysia 7,13,[21][22][23][24] or through fishermen questionnaires 25,26 . While the former is a lot more sophisticated and accurate both techniques are restricted in time (they represent snap-shots of daytime distribution) and analyzed at a coarse scale that limits the understanding of regional habitat use and spatio-temporal variations. ...
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Mobile marine species display complex and nonstationary habitat use patterns that require understanding to design effective management measures. In this study, the spatio-temporal habitat use dynamics of the vulnerable dugong (Dugong dugon) were modelled from 16 satellite-tagged individuals in the coral reef lagoonal ecosystems of New Caledonia, South Pacific. Dugong residence time was calculated along the interpolated tracks (9371 hourly positions) to estimate intensity of use in three contrasting ecoregions, previously identified through hierarchical clustering of lagoon topographic characteristics. Across ecoregions, differences were identified in dugong spatial intensity of use of shallow waters, deeper lagoon waters and the fore-reef shelf outside the barrier reef. Maps of dugong intensity of use were predicted from these ecological relationships and validated with spatial density estimates derived from aerial surveys conducted for population assessment. While high correlation was found between the two datasets, our study extended the spatial patterns of dugong distribution obtained from aerial surveys across the diel cycle, especially in shallow waters preferentially used by dugongs at night/dusk during high tide. This study has important implications for dugong conservation and illustrates the potential benefits of satellite tracking and dynamic habitat use modelling to inform spatial management of elusive and mobile marine mammals.
Area of the Coral Triangle (CT), namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, and Timor-Leste, comprises 5.7 million km2 of the Pacific Ocean. It is one of the most bio-diverse marine eco-regions on the planet, as well as a global hotspot for seagrass species. Many sea creatures of this eco-region rely on the seagrass ecosystem, especially dugong species extensively (a total number of 2279 individuals), sea turtles (4–6 species), benthic organisms, and fish. Apart from these ecological services, carbon sequestration (2.6 billion Mg CO2 storage) by the seagrass ecosystem is considerably higher in comparison to terrestrial vegetation. In this paper, we scrutinized previously acknowledged seagrass species distribution, the associated fauna in seagrass meadows, the total carbon sequestration in the Coral Triangle, past and present research conducted on seagrass and other aspects, and major threats to seagrass ecosystems within this biogeographic region. Depending on their different locations, the six CT countries have a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 19 seagrass species that belong to four distinct families (Hydrocharitaceae, Cymodoceaceae, Zosteraceae, and Ruppiaceae) and cover almost 58,550.63‬ km2. While a total of 21 species of seagrass have been found throughout this eco-region, very little research has been conducted to assess the overall status of the ecosystems within this eco-region. Seagrass ecosystems and services from these habitats within the Coral Triangle are also associated with 100 million human inhabitants, who are supported directly or indirectly by the resources of this ecosystem. These inhabitants may cause considerable disturbance to seagrass ecosystems. For the long-term sustainable management and conservation of these ecosystems, two types of threats, namely local human activities and global transboundary issues including climate change, have been identified and need to be taken into consideration. In terms of human activities, local threats include water quality deterioration due to sewage and pollutant discharge, agricultural activities mainly from palm oil plantations, over-exploitation of seagrass-associated resources, sediment runoff, and destructive fishing practices. Global threats comprise macro and microplastics, sea-level rise due to climate change, global warming, and acidification. Further study of social, cultural, and economic interaction between the local inhabitants and seagrass ecosystems is highly recommended for assessing the ecological and economic contribution of this habitat to the human societies of the Coral Triangle. Despite their importance for human food services and the maintenance of the food web for marine and coastal animals, human activities have a negative impact on seagrass ecosystems around the world, particularly in the Coral Triangle.
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We present a comprehensive checklist of scleractinian (hard) corals for the Mersing Islands, Malaysia based on surveys conducted at 24 reefs across protected and unprotected marine areas. A total of 261 species of corals from 16 families and one incertae sedis ( Pachyseris spp.) were recorded, along with ten records that are new for the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Compared against the IUCN Red List, 46.7% of coral species found in the Mersing Islands were of Least Concern (LC), 29.5% as Near Threatened (NT) and 16.4% Vulnerable (V). Only one recorded species, Pectinia maxima (Moll & Best, 1984), was listed as Endangered (EN). Baseline species diversity data are essential for the monitoring and management of marine biodiversity, especially within marine protected areas. With both protected and unprotected coral reef areas in the vicinity of the widely scattered Mersing Islands, the diversity and distribution of coral species can be used as the basis for area-based conservation and management strategies. The diversity and abundance of scleractinian corals of each island or area should be surveyed periodically to ensure the appropriate level of protection is afforded to retain scleractinian biodiversity in this region.
While the occurrence of Dugong (Dugong dugon) has been examined by visual surveys, their habitat use is still not fully understood, since the continuous observation of their behaviour is challenging. Passive acoustic monitoring enables the observation of dugongs’ vocal behaviour, which is one of the key components of their social behaviour, but the temporal and spatial scale of previous studies were limited. In this study, we aimed to examine where dugongs actively vocalised, using multiple underwater recorders that were deployed along the coastline of Talibong Island, Thailand, through one-month observation in both rainy and dry seasons. Dugong calls were automatically detected and false detections were subsequently removed by manual scrutiny. Observations of 1,933 and 2,719 hours were obtained for each season, with a total of 21,340 and 16,337 detected calls, respectively. We found that an elevated rate of detected calls was consistently observed at a few certain monitoring locations in both seasons. These locations should be paid attention in the process of marine spatial planning for their conservation, in addition to the examination of their distribution by visual observation.
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Dugongs are generally shy animals, so observing their existence is very limited to hundreds of meters. In contrast to the behavior of Dugong who lives in the coastal waters of Mali, Kabola Regency, Indonesia. Its uniqueness can interact with humans at a very close distance and can even be on the back. It is, therefore, necessary to explore other behavioral patterns and habits and biophysical habitats of Dugongs as information to maintain their survival. This research aims to find out the behavior and biophysics of dugong habitat in the coastal waters of Mali, Kabola Subdistrict, Indonesia. The study uses direct observation methods in the form of observing the characteristics and biophysical conditions of dugong habitats including (1) determining dugong activity areas using GPS coordinates; (2) observe habitat characteristics and biophysical conditions by observing biotic and abiotic conditions, and (3) measuring physicochemical parameters, namely temperature, salinity, and pH. Next, to observe the daily behavior of dugongs when interacting with their habitat environment in the form of time: breathing, going around the boat, swimming at the bottom, swimming on the surface, swimming in the water column, resting at the bottom, eating and exposing the back. In the observations, dugongs swimming around the ship immediately responded and then approached and rubbed his body to the leg then through the pectoral fins that tried to hug to get a leg on the model being tested. Then turn under the boat and remove the penis. In general, the biophysical conditions of sandy and dense habitats are overgrown with seagrass.
Technical Report
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Seagrass surveys were conducted in the Sibu-Tinggi Group of Islands and the Sungai Johor meadows to identify meadows that are vital for dugong conservation. Field visits to the Sibu-Tinggi Islands were done from 11 to 14 April 2007, and from 25 – 27 November 2007 in the Sungai Johor Area. The first trip involved dive SCUBA surveys while the latter involved work in intertidal seagrass areas. In the Sibu- Tinggi Group of Islands, seagrass leaf cover and biomass were low but a dugong mother and calf were consistently sighted during the survey around the Pulau Sibu Hujung area. In the Sungai Johor area, leaf cover and biomass were considerably higher in the Tanjung Kopok meadow where numerous dugong feeding trails were found. This corroborates the Phase I report where feeding trails were observed in Tanjung Kopok in the 2005 survey. This provides strong evidence that this meadow in particular, is consistently used by the dugong population in Johor. Our recommendations for future plans associated with the dugong conservation objectives of this project are discussed.
Technical Report
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Surveys were done for three sites in Johor (South East Coast of Johor, Sibu-Tinggi Group of Islands and Sg Johor) looking for dugongs and their vital seagrass beds. Numerous field visits were done from April to September 2005 using aerial, boat and questionnaire surveys. Dugongs were sighted during our aerial surveys in the Sibu-Tinggi Group of Islands and secondary proof of dugong presence in Sg Johor through feeding trails was documented. Extensive seagrass beds were mapped where eight species of seagrasses and seventy taxa of seaweeds (2 Cyanophyta, 31 Chlorophyta, 24 Rhodophyta, 13 Phaeophyta) were collected from the 16 locations in the three sites that were surveyed. A dugong skeleton was also recovered in Tanjong Surat where numerous reports of dugongs were collected during our questionnaire surveys. The issues of concern for all sites and our recommendations were given after extensive literature reviews and discussions with relevant stakeholders. Priority should be given in setting up dugong protected areas with the help of local stakeholders especially for Sg Johor.
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Protected areas are a cornerstone of global efforts to conserve biodiversity. The Protected Planet Report 2012 reviews progress towards the achievement of international protected area targets through analysis of status and trends in global biodiversity protection. The resulting synthesis is a key source of information for decision makers and the conservation community.
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Obtaining the information needed to inform management strategies for rare wildlife species at appropriate scales is costly and logistically demanding. Using coastal aerial surveys we obtained qualitative information on the distribution and abundance of the dugong Dugong dugon at the geopolitical scale of the state of Sabah in east Malaysia. At a local scale, interview surveys and a monitoring program were carried out at 2 sites: Mantanani Island and Banggi Island. A total of 53 dugongs were observed from the air, concentrated around Labuan Island-Brunei Bay and Sandakan Bay. The interview reports and monitoring program indicated that the residents of Mantanani Island and Banggi Island had local knowledge of the distribution and abundance of dugongs and, thus, an ability to participate in monitoring at that scale. Dugong populations in Sabah are small and clumped, and urgently require management intervention at local scales in the regionally important habitats identified by the aerial surveys. This combination of regional-and local-scale initiatives has a more generic application in the monitoring of other rare species of wildlife.