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Abstracts and Exhibition Guide of the 8th INternational Bioerosion Workshop

8th International Bioerosion Workshop
24-30th of August, 2014
Eger, Hungary
Abstract Book
Exhibition Guide
of the 8th International Bioerosion
Edited by: Árpád Dávid
Rozália Fodor
Eszterházy Károly College
Eger, 2014
Institutional Organizers:
Eszterházy Károly College, Department of Geography
Mátra Museum of Hungarian Natural History Museum
Organizing Committee:
President: Árpád Dávid (Eszterházy Károly College, Eger, Hungary)
Members: Ilona Pajtók-Tari (Eszterházy Károly College, Eger, Hungary)
Rozália Fodor (Mátra Museum of NHM, Gyöngyös, Hungary)
Editorial work, typography and layout elaboration by Rozália Fodor
ISBN 978-615-5297-20-5
© Copyright by Eszterházy Károly College, Hungary 2014
Printed by ZebraDesign Bt., H-3300 Eger, Kapás út 54.
Program ..................................................................................................... 2
Abstracts .................................................................................................... 4
Piroska, BALASKA
Gastropod predation on Late Oligocene age molluscs a comparison
(Molluscan clay, Wind Brickyard, Eger) ............................................................. 5
Árpád, DÁVID
Hungary the land of bioerosion ........................................................................ 9
Rozália, FODOR
Bioerosion on Late Oligocene age leaves (Kis-Eged Hill, Eger, Hungary) ... 10
You are what you eat. Conspecific drilling predation among the Middle
Lutetian gastropod, Crassimurex calcitrapa (LAMARCK, 1803) ............................ 12
Shweta S. GURAV, Kantimati G. KULKARNI
Entobian bioerosion in the Early Eocene Naredi Formation of Kachchh
basin, India .............................................................................................................. 18
Bioerosion on Crassostrea orbignyi (IHERING, 1897) as an indicator of
paleoenvironmental conditions during the Early Miocene in southern
Patagonia, Argentina .............................................................................................. 20
Marine bioerosion of lapideous archaeological artifacts found in the Grotta
Azzurra - Capri island and in the Underwater Archaeological Park of Baiae
(Naples, Italy): role of microflorabiota, boring Porifera and Bivalvia ............ 23
Francisco J. RODRÍGUEZ-TOVAR, Alfred UCHMAN, Ángel PUGA-
Macroborings in gneiss boulders: a case from Miocene of SE Spain ............ 30
Georgina TARI
Bioerosion in Miocene age petrified wood remains from Hungary ............... 32
Macroborings in two Oligocene conglomerates of Liguria, Italy ................... 35
Bioerosion - posters, substrates and epoxy-casts Exhibition guide ..... 37
8th International Bioerosion Workshop
Sunday, 24th August
Registration - Hotel Imola Platán
Ice Break Party - Hotel Imola Platán
Monday, 25th August
Scientific session –Eszterházy Károly College, Lyceum (Building A)
Conference Room, 2nd floor
Árpád, DÁVID
Hungary the land of bioerosion
Francisco J. RODRÍGUEZ-TOVAR, Alfred UCHMAN, Ángel
Macroborings in gneiss boulders: a case from Miocene of SE Spain
Sandra RICCI, Barbara DAVIDDE PETRIAGGI, Carlotta
Marine bioerosion of lapideous archaeological artifacts found in the
Grotta Azzurra - Capri island and in the Underwater
Archaeological Park of Baiae (Naples, Italy): role of
microflorabiota, boring Porifera and Bivalvia
Coffe break
Shweta S. GURAV, Kantimati G. KULKARNI
Entobian bioerosion in the Early Eocene Naredi Formation of
Kachchh basin, India
Macroborings in two Oligocene conglomerates of Liguria, Italy
Piroska, BALASKA
Gastropod Predation on Late Oligocene age molluscs a
comparison (Molluscan clay, Wind Brickyard, Eger)
Bioerosion on Crassostrea orbignyi (IHERING, 1897) as an indicator of
paleoenvironmental conditions during the early Miocene in
southern Patagonia, Argentina
Georgina TARI
Bioerosion in Miocene age petrified wood remains from Hungary
Rozália, FODOR
Bioerosion on Late Oligocene age leaves (Kis-Eged Hill, Eger,
Árpád, DÁVID
Intra-workshop field trip preliminary remarks
Coffe break
Sightseeing tour in Eger
Dinner at Hotel Imola Platán
Tuesday, 26th August
8.00 17.30
Intra-workshop field trip in the Bükk Mountains
Conference dinner at Restaurant & Wine Bar “Macok”
Wednesday, 27th August
Scientific session –Eszterházy Károly College, Building D Room No. 231
Bioerosion - posters, substrates and epoxy-casts
Coffe break
Bioerosion - posters, substrates and epoxy-casts
Bioerosion - posters, substrates and epoxy-casts
Closing remarks and announcements
Coffee break
Visit to the Fortress of Eger
Dinner at Bolyki Winery
28th-30th August
Post-workshop field trip
Gastropod Predation on Late-Oligocene Age Molluscs a Comparison
(Molluscan Clay, Wind Brickyard, Eger)
Piroska Balaska
Eszterházy Károly College, Department of Geography; H-3300 Eger, Leányka u. 6.
The author examined two levels of the molluscan clay layer of the former
Wind Brickyard’s exposure. She collected 50-50 kg material from the two levels
marked Ma1 and Ma2. The aim of the examinations was to study and compare
the distribution of the activity of predatory gastropods on the Molluscan
remains (bivalves, gastropods, scaphopods) of the two levels
Level Ma1
670 specimens of 32 Bivalve taxa have been examined (BÁLDI 1973). The
ratio of the right valves is 51.6 percent. The preservation of the bivalve remains
is poor.
Drillholes of predatory gastropods occured on the remains of the following
taxa: Pecten sp. 1., Cardium praepapillosum, Ervilia sp., Venus sp., Clausinella sp.,
Corbula basteroti. The only muricid boring heve been found on a fragment of a
Pecten sp. indet 1.
In the case of the Gastropods 4372 specimens of 73 taxa have been found in
this level (BÁLDI 1973). Predatory gastropod drillings can be odserved on the
tests of the following taxa: Teinostoma egerensis, Turritella venus, Bittium spina agriense,
Cerithiella sp., Polinices josephinia olla, Hinia schlotheimi, Turris duchasteli, Turbonilla sp.,
Melanella naumanni depressosuturata (Table 1., 2.; Fig. 1.).
There were no any sign of gastropod predation on the Scaphopods have
been found in this level (10 taxa, 734 specimens).
Level Ma2
The second level contained 933 specimens of 24 Bivalve taxa (BÁLDI 1973).
The ratio of left valves is 53.4 percentage. Drillhole have been found on the
representatives of the following taxa: Astarte gracilis degrangei, Crassatella bosqueti,
Corbula gibba, Corbula sp. 1.
2204 specimens belonging into 43 Gastropod taxa have been studied (BÁLDI
1973). Their preservation is quite poor. Drilled specimens beonged into the
following Gastropod taxa: Teinostoma egerensis, Alvania sp., Turritella archimedis,
Bittium spina agriense, Cerithiella sp., Polinices catena helicina, Hinia schlotheimi, Turris
sp. 1., Turricula ilonae, Melanella naumanni depressosuturata.
726 specimens of 8 Scaphopod taxa have been examined (BÁLDI 1973).
Drillholes occured on the tests of Dentalium simplex 1., Dentalium simplex 2.
Scaphopod taxa (Table 1., 2.; Fig. 1.).
Table 1. Distribution of molluscan taxa in the examined levels of the molluscan clay
Table 2. Distribution of the drilled molluscan taxa according to number of species
and specimens and drillhole types at the two levels of the molluscan clay
The above mentioned data shows the dominace of the activity of naticid predators
The occurrence of the only muricid predation on a single Pecten valve fragmet could
have been the result of transportation. The activity of Naticidae almost the same in the
case of the bivalves of the two levels. While gastropods have been bored more
intensively at level Ma 1. But the difference is not significant. There is no unfinished
boring in the case of level Ma1. Multiplied borings and cannibalism have been observed
at both levels. Bored scaphopod remains occurred only at level Ma2. There could have
been enugh food source for the predators or the scaphopods were too small at level Ma
1998; KELLEY ET AL. 2001; KELLEY HANSEN 2003; DÁVID 2009).
The distribution of the activity of predatory gastropods refers to minor
environmental differences among the two levels of the molluscan clay of the locality.
Fig. 1. Naticid drillings on several Mollusc taxa; Wind Brickyard, molluscan clay
1. Complete naticid drilling on Pecten sp.; Ma1
2. Complete naticid drilling on Venus sp.; Ma1
3. Incomplete naticid drilling on Corbula basteroti; Ma1
4. Complete naticid drilling on Teinostoma egerensis; Ma1
5. Complete naticid drilling on Bittium spina agriense; Ma1
6. Complete naticid drilling on Cerithiella sp.; Ma1
7. Complete naticid drilling on Polinices josephinia olla; Ma1
8. Unfinished Naticidae fúrásnyomok Crassatella bosqueti, Ma2
9. Complete naticid drillings on Corbula gibba; Ma2
10. Complete and incomplete naticid drillings on Polinices catena helicina; Ma2
11. Complete naticid drilling on Hinia schlotheimi; Ma2
12. Complete naticid drillings on Dentalium simplex 1; Ma2
13. Complete naticid drillings on Dentalium simplex 2; Ma2
BÁLDI T. 1973: Mollusc fauna of the Hungarian Upper Oligocene /Egerian/. Akadémiai Kiadó,
Budapest, 511 p.
BOUCOT, A. J. 1990: Evolutionary Paleobiology of Behavior and Coevolution. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 371
DÁVID Á. 2009: Bioeróziós nyomok és patológiás elváltozások az egerien Mollusca faunáján. Disszertáció
az Eszterházy Károly Főiskola Földrajz Tanszékéről 3. 29 33.
KELLEY, P. H. - HANSEN, T. A. 2003: The Fossil Record of drilling Predation on Bivalves and
Gastropods. - In: KELLEY, P. H. KOWALEWSKI, M. HANSEN, T. A. (ed.) Predator-Prey
Interactions in the Fossil Record. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, Boston,
Dordrecht, London, Moscow, Chapter 5, 113-139.
KELLEY, P. H.-HANSEN, T. A.-GRAHAM, S. E.-HUNTOON, A. G. 2001: Temporal patterns in the
efficiency of naticid gastropod predators during the Cretaceous and Cainosoic of the United
States Coastal Plain. - Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 166, 165-176.
KOWALEWSKI, M. - DULAI, A. - FÜRSICH, F. T. 1998: A fossil record full of holes: the Phanerozoic
history of drilling predation. - Geology, 26(12), 1091-1094.
TAYLOR, J. D. - MORRIS, N. J. - TAYLOR, C. N. 1980: Food specialization and the evolution of
predatory prosobanch gastropods. - Paleontology, 23, 375-405.
VEREMEIJ, G. J. - ZIPSER, E. DUDLEY, E. C. 1980: Predation in time and space: peeling and drilling
in terebrid gastropod. Paleobiology, 6 (3), 352-364.
Hungary the land of bioerosion
Árpád Dávid
Eszterházy Károly College, Department of Geography; H-3300 Eger, Leányka u. 6.
The author gives detailed description about the bioerosion research in
Hungary, focusing on the bioerosion examinarions carried out at the Károly
Eszterházy College, Department of Geography during the last 25 years.
The history of the research can be divided into three periods.
1st period, (1990 -1997): It can be characterized by studying bioerosion occur
on the tests of Late Oligocene and Miocene bivalve, gastropod and scaphopod
remains. The activity of predatory gastropods were the main stream of the
2nd period, (1998 2004): The examination of bioerosion on molluscan test
have been continued. And we began to study new hard substrates, too. Tests of
solitary corals, Ostrea valves, ancient and modern rocky shores were the new
elements. And we began to make epoxy casts, too.
Carboniferous Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene age marine fossils have been
examined for bioerosion. The researc area escalated to almost the whole
territory of the country.
3rd period, (2005 2014): We crossed the borders. Fossil molluscs from
Austria and Rumania; recent gastropod operculas from New Zealand and
abrasion pebbles from Portugal have been examined.
Than we left the sea. Bioerosion on fossil petrified wood fragments and
fossil leaves became the new research areas. Beside these neoichnological
observations of modern bioeroders of xylic substrates also had been taken into
considerstion for comparison.
The results of the examinations have been published in one PhD thesis, nine
peer rewieved articles, forty-two abstracts and conference papers and almost
one hundred diplom works.
The number of bioeroded items is over 12 000 in the collection of the
Geography Department. The epoxy cast collection consists of 860 specimens.
Bioerosion on Lower Oligocene Age Leaves (Kis-Eged Hill, Eger,
Rozália Fodor
Mátra Museum of Hungarian Natural History Museum; H-3200 Gyöngyös, Kossuth u. 40.;
Insect ichnofossils represent diverse types of insect activities including
resting, jumping, crawling wood boring feeding on fungi and various plants
nesting in varied substrates, oviposition, digging, pupation in chambers, building
of protective shelters (Cum. lit. ZHERIKHIN 2003).
The Kis-Eged Hill is situated about two kilometres to Eger to the east. There
is a road-cut along the road to Noszvaj, where Lower-Oligocene age formations
belonging into the Kiscell Clay Formation are exposed. Plant remains can be
found in silty marls (PELIKÁN 2005).
The flora of Kis-Eged refers to tropical-subtropical climate, and its remote,
modern relatives now can be found in South-East Asia. This extremely exotic
flora flourished during the Early Oligocene at much lower latitudes than the
recent latitudinal position of Eger (ANDREÁNAZKY 1954). The great variety of
plants is manifested both in the high diversity and the morphological variability
of species.
These Early Oligocene age leaves have been studied and examined by the
author. The aim of the investigations was to study the occurrence and position
of insect trace fossils on the leaves and to introduce their producer organisms.
The examined plant remains are kept in the palaeobotanical collection of
Mátra Museum, Gyöngyös. There were 3395 leaf remains have been examined
and 202 specimens were bioeroded among them. Nine types of bioerosion have
been distinguished. Those were the following: hole feeding, margin feeding,
skeletonization, surface feeding, piercing, oviposition, mining, galling, incertae
sedis (SCOTT 1992; LABANDEIRA ET AL. 2007). There were subtropical plants
bioeroded dominantly.
The most frequently bioeroded plants were Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis
(ROSSMÖSSLER) WALTHER & KVAČEK, Dryophyllum sp. and Zizyphus zizyphoides
The observed trace fossils are feeding and breeding traces (Table 1.) showing
the activity of insects belonging into the Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera,
Diptera and Coleoptera ordo (Table 2.).
Type of trace fossils
Hole feeding
Margin feeding
Surface feeding
Incertae Sedis
Table 1. Etological classification of traces on the examined leaves (after SEILACHER
1953, ZHERIKHIN 2003)
Trace fossil
Hole feeding
Margin feeding
Surface feeding
Incertae sedis
Table 2. Taxonomical classification of the potential producers of studied trace fossils
ANDREÁNSZKY G. 1954: Ősnövénytan – Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 253 p.
LABANDEIRA, C.C. WILF, P. JOHNSON, K.R. MARSH, F. 2007: Guide to Insect (and Other) Damage
Types on Compressed Plant Fossils. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 25 p.
PELIKÁN, P. (szerk.) 2005: A Bükk-hegység földtana. - Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet, Budapest 102-105 p.
SCOTT, A.C. 1992: Trace Fossils of Plant-Arthropod Interactions. In: MAPLES, CH.G. WEST, R.R. 1992.
Trace fossils. Short courses in paleontology number 5. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA 197-
223 p.
SEILACHER, A. 1953: Studien zur Palichnologie. I. Über die Methoden der Palichnologie. – Neues Jahrbuch
für Geologie und Palaontologie, Abhandlugen, 96: 421-453 p.
ZHERIKHIN, V.V. 2003: Insect trace fossils; their diversity, classification, and scientific importance. Acta
zoologica cracoviensia, 46 (suppl. Fossil Insects): 59-66 p
You are what you eat. Conspecific drilling predation among the Middle
Lutetian gastropod,
Crassimurex calcitrapa
(LAMARCK, 1803)
Donald H. Goldstein1, Didier Merle2, Michael Mckinney1
1University of Tennessee, Knoxville
2Musèum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris
Boreholes made by drilling gastropods constitute a highly visible part of the
bioerosion process, and a clear record of predation in the geological record
2007). La Ferme de l’Orme, in Beynes, Yvelines, France, is a protected quarry
with sediments of the uppermost Middle Lutetian age (MERLE AND COURVILLE,
2008). The murecid gastropod, Crassimurex calcitrapa, is the sole drilling mollusc
in level 6 of the quarry. Random samples were collected from this level, at 10-
meter intervals across the face of the old quarry of La Ferme de l’Orme and at
one other location 150 meters west, also within the protected site, in 2011. In
the process of analyzing the material to determine the trophic relationship
between the C. calcitrapa and other species at the site, it became evident that we
had uncovered evidence of cannibalism among the C. calcitrapa. What we shall
attempt to set out here is a description and analysis of the nature of that
conspecific predation. Prior research on the feeding preferences of Murecids
(KENT 1981, GUTIÉRREZ AND GALLARDO, 1998) has dealt with predation on
other species, but not with conspecific predatory behavior. Confamilial and
conspecific predation among naticids has been reported in the fossil record
from the Cretaceous through the Holocene (KELLEY, 1991, KELLEY AND
HANSEN, 2007, KOWALEWSKI ET AL., 1998, MARTINELL ET AL., 2010) and the
present day (KITCHELL ET AL., 1981)
Range of prey and predation pressure (Chart #1):
The smallest specimen with signs of attack is 2.5mm in length. Only two
smaller specimens are in hand and they do not have boreholes but we cannot
rule out that individuals of smaller size are not also attacked, if not by larger
individuals then by others of the same cohort. The largest specimen drilled, an
18.47 mm adult, has an incomplete borehole, indicative of an interrupted drilling
process through an outside agency or higher level predator, defensive actions on
the part of the intended victim, or another unspecified interruption. As noted by
KOWALEWSKI (2004), this does not rule out a successful kill by other means, but
in this case of an adult being attacked, the danger to the attacker of soft tissue
injury from the radula of the “victim” must be considered. Slightly higher than
9% of all specimens are drilled during each growth period of the lifespan of the
C. calcitrapa, and that percentage is stable whether the transition to adult is set at
50% of the largest specimen, or at the inflection point of 7mm in chart 1.
Chart #1: Size distribution and boreholes 1mm bins
Relationship of the size of the victim, to the size of the attacker, (chart
Based on the borehole diameters, which can be correlated to the size of the
attacker (KOWALEWSKI 2004), individuals of all sizes drill conspecifics. Adults
are responsible for the attacks on 60% of conspecifics, and if one adds the holes
for the specimen drilled twice, are responsible for 63.6% of the attacks. For
smaller specimens of less than 5mm in length, however, we find that 57% of the
attacks are by other juveniles. The variation in numbers may be a result of the
small sample size of bored specimens (n=10). A future collecting trip should
increase the overall sample size and give us more confidence in the numbers.
Adults attack a range of conspecifics from 3.1mm to 18.47mm. Juveniles
(defined here as those yielding borehole sizes of less than 50% of the largest)
only attack other juveniles. The largest specimen exhibiting a borehole from a
juvenile is 3.43mm. The only borehole in a specimen classed as an adult was an
incomplete borehole, (see discussion above).
12345678910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
# of specimens
Specimen length mm
Total number of specimens Specimens bored
Chart #2: Drilled Specimens/Drilled by adult or juvenile?
Multiple boreholes (Fig. 1):
One specimen has multiple boreholes. Studies of multiple boreholes in
naticids (KITCHELL 1986, KOWALEWSKI) have led to the conclusion that they
are typically the result of interrupted attacks and that only one of the holes
represents a probable kill. CARRIKER (1981) noted that in cases where a murecid
was interrupted I the drilling process, they often went back to the same hole to
continue drilling. Murecids have also been known to attack their prey in groups
(KELLEY, CARRICKER). Our companion study of C. calcitrapa’s prey shows that
this is a frequent occurrence and that most swarming attacks involve predators
of various sizes, as determined by their borehole diameter; typically one adult
and several juveniles (GOLDSTEIN, MERLE AND MCKINNEY in progress). This
may indicate that soon after the metamorphosis of a cohort, large numbers of
juveniles put pressure on food resources which are at other times, adequate for
the standing population of C.calcitrapa, or it may simply be that the juveniles
present an easy target. It is notable that the typical prey for the adult C calcitrapa,
are larger gastropods such as Batillaria calcitrapoides which appear to provide a
significantly higher cost-benefit ratio. This may not be a clear-cut decision.
KELLEY (1991) has pointed out that naticid predators choose prey of different
sizes from two different confamilial prey species.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Borehole size, Adult =10 Juvenile=2 for display purposes, break point is <50%
of largest
Specimen length in mm
Fig. 1. 10.69 mm long specimen #5a with boreholes in the body whorl and below the
Borehole site selection (Table 1)
Three of the seven total boreholes drilled by adult C. calcitrapa are located at
the suture between the body whorl and whorl 2 of the victims. Some of the
holes drilled by juveniles are located near the same suture. This is consistent
with the overall drilling site selection of C. calcitrapa on several of their prey
species. Five boreholes are found on the body whorl (Fig. 2), including the
unsuccessful attempt, and three above the spines and below the sutures (see Fig.
1). No boreholes are found above whorl 2.
Small adult/ Unsuccessful hole in body whorl near aperture
Photographed at Smithsonian. Larger sub-adult, 2 boreholes,
body whorl and below suture between body whorl and whorl 2
Single hole drilled at suture of body whorl and whorl 2 leaving
two openings
Large hole drilled at upper part of body whorl.
Small specimen
Small specimen, smallest diameter hole, attacked by juvenile,
immediately below suture between body whorl and whorl 2
Photographed at Smithsonian. Body whorl borehole, Breakage
above drill hole, whorl 2
Single hole drilled at suture leaving two openings
Attacked by juvenile, borehole in upper part of body whorl
Single hole drilled at suture, leaving two openings whorls 2-3
Small specimen, small hole just below suture whorls 2-3
Table 1. Specimen length, borehole diameters, and notes on borehole sites
Fig. 2. Juvenile
C. calcitrapa
, specimen 39b, with borehole in body whorl
The borehole siting is similar to that found on other prey of the C. calcitrapa,
except that the boreholes tend to be on or near the body whorl in these cases of
conspecific predation. The upper whorls are bored on many of their other prey
species. Borehole siting with respect to whorl number however, may be
unimportant for the C. calcitrapa, because of the extensible proboscis of
murecids, illustrated beautifully in Carricker and Schaadt’s film, “Predatory
behavior of the shell-boring snail Urosalpinx cinerea”. The presence of multiple
boreholes in one of the conspecific victims, and the stable 9% predation rate
throughout the lifespan of the animals would seem to indicate that this
conspecific predation is simply a matter of utilization of an available resource,
but the distribution of which specimens are the aggressors across size cohorts
seems to indicate that there is more happening. We propose that the attacks on
juveniles by adult C. calcitrapa may not meet the criteria of the maximization of
net energy gain proposed by Kitchell et al., (1981) for prey selection, and may be
initiated instead, as an extreme method of competition for limited food
CARRIKER, M.R. 1981: Shell penetration and feeding by naticacean and muricacean predatory gastropods:
A synthesis. Malacologia, 20: 403-422.
CARRIKER, M.R., SCHAADT, J.G., 1973: Predatory behavior of the shell-boring snail Urosalpinx cinerea: A
sound, color, motion picture.” – MBL Woods Hole.
CARRIKER, M.R. YOCHELSON, E.L. 1968: Recent Gastropod Boreholes and Ordovician Cylindrical
Borings. Contributions to Paleontology. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 593B: B1-B26.
GUTIÉRREZ, R.M. GALLARDO, C.S. 1998: Prey attack. Food preference and growth in juveniles of the
edible murecid snail, Chorus giganteus. Aquaculture, 174: 69-79.
KELLEY, P. H. 1991: Apparent cannibalism by Chesapeake Group naticid gastropods: A predictable result
of selective predation. Journal of Paleontology, 65: 75-79.
KELLEY, P.H. HANSEN, T.A. 2007: A case for cannibalism: Confamilial and conspecific predation by
naticid gastropods, Creatceous through Pleistocene of the United States coastal plain. In Elewa,
A.M.T., ed., Predation in Organisms: A Distinct Phenomenon. Springer Verlag, Berlin, P151-170.
KENT, B.W. 1981: Feeding and food preferences of the Murecid Gastropod Ceratostoma Foliatum. The
Nautilus, 95: 38-42.
KITCHELL, J.A. BOGGS, C.H. KITCHELL, J.F. RICE, J.A. 1981: Prey selection by naticid gastropods:
Experimental tests and application to the fossil record. Paleobiology, 7: 533-552.
Anomolies in naticid predatory behaviors: A critique and experimental observations. Malacologia, 27:
KOWALEWSKI, M. 2004: Drill holes produced bt the predatory gastropod Nucella lamellose (Muricidae):
Paleobiological abd ecological implications. Journal of molluscan studies, 70: 359-370
KOWALEWSKI, M. DULAI, A. FÜRSICH, F.T. 1998: A fossil record full of holes: The Phanerozoic history
of drilling predation. Geology, 26:1091-1094.
MARTINELL, J. DOMÈNECH, R. AYMAR, J. KOWALEWSKI, M. 2010: Confamilial predation in Pliocene
gastropods from southern France: Utility of preexisting collections in quantitative paleoecology.
Palaios, 25: 221-228.
MERLE, D. COURVILLE, P. 2008: Ferme de l’Orme (Yvelines). In Merle, D. ed., Stratotype Lutétien,
Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Biotope, Paris, Orléans, P67-69.
Entobian bioerosion in the Early Eocene
Naredi Formation of Kachchh
basin, India
Shweta S. Gurav, Kantimati G. Kulkarni
Geology and Palaeontology Group, Agharkar Research Institute
G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411 004, INDIA
Rare preservation of natural steinkerns of sponge boring belonging to
ichnogenus Entobia Bronn is being reported for the first time from the Assilina
limestone Member of Naredi Formation (Early Eocene) sediments of Kachchh
basin of India. The entobian bioerosion is represented by four ichnospecies
Entobia cateniformis (Fig. 1.),
E. geometrica, E. ovula (Fig. 2.), and E. paradoxa where
moulds and casts of bivalves belonging to Family Carditidae served as substrate
for these sponge borings. In the area under study Entobia bearing Assilina
limestone Member abounds calcitic tests of larger benthic foraminifera Assilina.
This indicate that the seawater chemistry was favorable for the preservation of
calcitic tests and resulted into dissolution of the shells of aragonitic
composition. The borings cut across the lamellae of bivalve shells and some of
the shells are bored meticulously; suggesting post mortem emplacement of the
sponge borings. The study confirms that the sediments were deposited in
turbidity free, shallow water with nil or low rates of sedimentation.
Fig. 1.
Entobia cateniformis
MACS G 5217. Note the long cylindrical chambers
Entobia paradoxa.
Note very irregularly shaped network, resembling an amoeba marked
by an arrow. MACS G 5218b
Fig. 2.
Entobia ovula,
MACS G 5220. Note globose to ovoid shaped chambers.
Bioerosion on
(Ihering, 1897) as an indicator of
paleoenvironmental conditions during the early Miocene in southern
Patagonia, Argentina
Ana Parras1, Miguel Griffin2
1 INCITAP (CONICET-UNLPam). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad
Nacional de La Pampa, Uruguay 151, Santa Rosa, CP6300, La Pampa, Argentina.
2 CONICET División Paleontología Invertebrados-Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n,
La Plata, CP 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Bioerosion is an important feature to be considered in paleoenvironmental
reconstructions because it is a process closely tied to local environmental
conditions. Oyster shells are one of the substrates with the highest chances of
preservation and provide an excellent record of bioerosion structures. In
addition, the morphology of oyster shells is strongly influenced by ecological
factors. The shells also preserve other taphonomical features, providing
important clues to the prevailing environmental conditions and the processes
acting on them. The bottom of the Santa Cruz Formation (Burdigalian, early
Miocene) exposed along the coastal cliffs of southern Patagonia (Austral Basin,
Santa Cruz Province), Argentina contains monospecific oyster reefs of
Crassostrea orbignyi (IHERING, 1897). These oysters lived in southern Patagonia
during the final stages of the Atlantic transgression known, with the informal
name of Patagoniano”, occurring through the Paleogene/Neogene boundary.
Although these oysters have been mentioned since the late 19th century and early
20th century (IHERING, 1897, 1907; ORTMANN, 1902), studies on the bioerosion
traces they carry are lacking. In this contribution we studied bioerosion
structures on 80 specimens (left and right valves in the same proportion) of C.
orbignyi. The material comes from four localities (Cañadón Feruglio, Cerro
Monte León, Cerro Observación and Cerro Redondo), lying along ~80 km of
the coast, from Monte León National Park in the north to the mouth of Coyle
river in the south. The bioerosion structures were identified and Chi-squared
test was used to test bioerosion trace preferences for the outer or inner surface
and for different sectors of the valves. In addition, taphonomic processes and
the main paleoenvironmental conditions were analyzed.
Crassostrea orbignyi reefs show a bed- or lens-geometry from 0.20 to 1.5 m
thick and 10 m to over 100 m long. They are formed by mostly thin shelled
specimens of between 7 and 14 cm (exceptionally 20 cm) high, embedded in
fine silty sandstone to siltstone matrix. Specimens are both juveniles and adults,
in life position, forming nests of including two to ten specimens, or building
bioherms formed by clusters of successive generations of specimens.
Taphonomic observations indicate that the shells are very little altered by
disarticulation, bioerosion, encrustation and abrasion; there is no evidence of
high fragmentation of the shells.
Morphological analysis of different bioerosion structures preserved on these
oysters reveals the presence of structures attributed to clionaid sponges (Entobia
isp.), polychaete annelids (Maeandropolydora isp., Caulostrepsis isp.), endolithic
bivalves (Gastrochaenolites isp.), and predatory gastropods (Oichnus isp.). Of these,
only ploychaetes are abundant and were recorded in 62% of the valves. Sponges
are only present in less than 15% of the specimens. Bivalve and gastropod
bioerosion structures are very scarce and appear in only 2% of the valves. No
encrusters were observed other than oysters of the same species. Results
revealed that traces of bioerosion are more common on the outer surface of the
valves, and especially on that of the thinner right valves. The activity of
polychaetes is more significant at the ventral margin and in the central sector of
the valves. Sponge traces are very sparse, and occur indistinctly in different parts
of the valves. The only two valves with Oichnus are left and the trace is on the
central area of the external surface. Gastrochaenolites was recorded also in the
central sector of the exterior of a right and a left valve.
Bioerosion is positively correlated with primary productivity and negatively
with sedimentation rate and energy. Bioerosion abundance on Crassostrea orbignyi
is lower than that recorded in other Miocene species of Crassostrea (e.g.
that were interpreted as living in nearshore, shallow marine environments. The
low richness and abundance of bioerosion traces, together with sedimentological
and taphonomic features, indicate that the monospecific C. orbignyi reefs were
established in shallow low salinity water, probably subject to temporary
subaereal conditions. The absence of encrusters and the low abundance of
clionaid sponge bioerosion traces suggest moderate to high energy
environments and high sedimentation rates. The results suggest that conditions
prevailing during the early Miocene in the studied area were marginal marine
environments such as coastal plains or estuaries that favoured the
establishment of the oyster reefs. These conditions were short-lived and the
oyster reef environment was replaced by mostly fluvial environments that reveal
the onset of the frankly continental conditions occurring in southern Patagonia
during the deposition of the rest of the Santa Cruz Formation.
EL-HEDENY, M. 2005. Taphonomy and Paleoecology of the Middle Miocene oysters from Wadi Sudr,
Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Revue de Paléobiologie 24(2), 719-733.
FARINATI, E. AND ZAVALA, C. 2002. Trace fossils on shelly substrate. An example from the Miocene of
Patagonia, Argentina. Acta Geológica Hispánica 37, 29-36.
HOŞGÖR, I AND OKAN, Y. 2010. Bioerosion Structures on the Crassostrea gryphoides (Schlotheim, 1813)
Shells from the Salyan Formation (Upper Burdigalian-Lower Langhian), K. Maraş, Southeastern
Turkey. Geological Bulletin of Turkey 53, 45-62
IHERING, H. VON 1897. Os Molluscos dos terrenos terciarios da Patagonia. Revista do Museu Paulista 2, 217-
IHERING, H. VON 1907. Les Mollusques fossiles du Tertiaire et du Crétacé superieur de l’Argentine. Anales
del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, serie 3(7), 1-611.
ORTMANN, A.E. 1902. Tertiary Invertebrates. In Scott, W.B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expedition
to Patagonia 1896-1899, J. Pierpoint Morgan Publishing Foundation, Paleontology volume 4 (I),
Part 2, 45-332. Princeton.
Marine bioerosion of lapideous archaeological artifacts found in the
Grotta Azzurra - Capri island and in the Underwater Archaeological Park
of Baiae (Naples, Italy): role of microflorabiota, boring Porifera and
Sandra Ricci1, Barbara Davidde Petriaggi1, Carlotta Sacco Perasso1
1Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il Restauro, Via di San Michele, 23 00153 Rome
(RM) Italy
Underwater cultural heritage such as archaeological sites and historical and
artistic artifacts (remains of settlements, ports, spas, shipwrecks, etc.), is
subjected to bioerosion because the material of which they are formed can
provide a suitable growth substrate for many organisms (RICCI, 2004). In recent
years several studies on the characteristics of damage to archaeological artifacts
by macroboring and microboring organisms have been undertaken (RICCI ET
AL., 2007, 2008A,B; RICCI ET AL., 2013; DAVIDDE ET AL., 2010; RICCI AND
DAVIDDE, 2012). The borers or euendoliths are found mainly in natural
calcareous substrates where they live in tunnels excavated by themselves
(GOLUBIC ET AL., 1981). In marine environments the most damaging are
macroborers which include lithophagine bivalves, clionaid sponges and
polychaetes, capable of excavating cavities and tunnels of various dimensions.
Some data on microborer derive from experimental analyses on stone test
samples immersed in the marine area of Baiae (Naples, Italy): the data show a
considerable level of bioerosion after just five years on travertine, limestone and
white marble (CASOLI, 2014; SACCO PERASSO, 2011). The Superior Institute for
Conservation and Restoration in 2001 launched the project ‘Restoring
Underwater’ (conducted by the Underwater Archaeology Operations Unit) with
the aim of studyind and experimenting instruments, materials, methodologies,
and techniques for the restoration, conservation, and in situ display of ancient
submerged artefacts.
The project commenced with the restoration of the vivaria of the Roman
villa of Torre Astura (Nettuno, Rome). Since 2003 the main subject of
researches has been the submerged archaeological site of Baiae (Naples, Italy),
within the framework of the project “Comas: programmed in situ Conservation
of submerged archaeological sites”. This coastal region has been subject to
bradyseism, gradual changes in level of the coast in relation to the sea level
which may have been positive or negative. In its present state, the archaeological
remains are submerged to a depth ranging between one and 14/15 m below sea
ZEVI, 2008).
Fig. 1. Some artifacts and statues analyzed: A Statue of Young Triton (Grotta Azzurra,
Capri); B - Statue of Poseidon (Grotta Azzurra, Capri) ; C - Headless female
(Grotta Azzurra, Capri); D Statue of Ulysses (Archaeological Museum of
Baiae), E Skullcap; F slab of marble (Underwater Archaeologucal Park of Baiae)
In 2007, in 2009, and in 2010 three new archaeological targets have been
added to the research: a group of nine cast iron cannons discovered offshore the
coast of the Marettimo Island (Sicily, Italy), the Roman wreck carrying a load of
sarcophagi discovered off the coast of San Pietro in Bevagna (Taranto, Italy),
and the traditional fishing boat recently discovered off the cost of Martana
Island (Bolsena Lake, Italy). In 2011 started the project “Grotta Azzurra over
the blue” which includes the study of the state of conservation of the marble
statues recovered underwater in the 60s from the Grotta Azzurra. The project
consists of: the architectural-urban study of the Nymphaeum correlated to the
sea area of the imperial maritime villa, the archaeological study of statues for the
political and religious interpretation, the biological study of the damage of the
artefacts due to a typical cave environment and finally the geological study of
the submersion phases of the cavity via the observation of wave erosion and
possible spring waters that could carry water to the Nymphaeum.
This paper focuses on bioerosion phenomena responsible for biodegradation
and biodeterioration of submerged artifacts found in the Underwater
Archaeological Park of Baiae and in the Grotta Azzurra in Capri because these
sites are both interesting from the bionomical and conservative point of view.
The Underwater archaeological Park of Baiae presents both structures,
submerged pavements (the Villa con ingresso a Protiro, the Villa dei Pisoni, the
Via Herculanea, the Nimphaeum of Punta Epitaffio, and the Building with
porticoed courtyard near Portus Iulius) and artifacts recovered from the bottom
of this Protected Marine Area, now displayed in the Archaeological Museum of
Baiae (Bacoli, Naples). The Grotta Azzurra (known also as Blue Grotto) was the
cave used by Emperor Tiberius as nymphaeum and it has been observed only in
Dec 1975 and Jan 1976 during the resounding recovery of the statues lying on
the seabed. The statues were part of the sculptural furniture and among them
there was probably an underwater Thyasos.
The purpose of this paper is to present results obtained so far concerning the
biodegradation and bioerosion phenomena which characterized and still regards
these artifacts (Fig. 1.).
Detailed analyses permitted the study of bioerosion. In particular these
studies show that the endolithic biological colonization operated by
microorganisms, boring sponges and bivalvia is dangerous for the Underwater
cultural heritage. Different bioerosion traces have been observed both from a
visual-macroscopic and laboratory analyses; they were related to the time of
exposition and to the position of the artefact on the seabed. Some of the
artifacts of major sizes were partially covered by the sand and consequently they
have been subjected to a localized colonization; while small fragments exposed
the whole surface to the biological colonization because of their rotation caused
by the waves. Similar conditions were also observed on artifacts collected in the
Underwater Archaeological Park of Baiae (DAVIDDE ET AL., 2010; RICCI ET AL.,
Bioerosion process due to microborers has been observed in all samples. In
the case study of the Grotta Azzurra, results confirm the dark cave environment
in which photosyntetic were exposed (SACCO PERASSO ET AL., 2014).
Microborers (especially green algae and microfungi) in the marble were often
found associated to the body of the sponges: the microhabitat in the galleries
eroded by sponges had characteristics most appropriate both trophic and
physical, to their proliferation compared to the non-eroded material. The most
frequent microborer is the green alga Ostreobium quekettii BORN. & FLAH.,
identified through fingerprints as ichnospecies Ichnoreticulina elegans RADTKE,
1991 (Fig. 2.). In fact this species is cosmopolitan and has been extensively
studied in the colonization of coral reefs (TRIBOLLET, 2008).
Fig. 2. SEM photographs of microflorabiota colonizing marble artifacts. A- the
Ichnoreticulina elegans
(produced by the green alga
); B resin cast of fungal borings.
Boring sponges have a dangerous role inside the marble; they were found to
be widely spread on the archaeological artifacts with traces of bioerosion very
different in both size and spatial distribution. Two endolithic species have been
identified: Cliona janitrix and Dotona cf. pulchella mediterranea. In some cases (Jaspis
sp.) the erosion capacity of the sponge was only speculated, due to the small
portion of the examined samples that did not allow to study clear and complete
chambers of erosion and to detect any sponge papillae.
Bioerosion due to boring sponges appears as a superficial pitting, but inside
the limestone chambers and cavities are larger (Fig. 3.). As well as boring
sponges, marine boring bivalvia play an important role in the degradation and
bioerosion processes of submerged artifacts (Fig. 4.). Four different species have
been identified as bioerosive: Lithophaga lithophaga, Gastrochaena dubia, Petricola
lithophaga, Coralliophaga lithophagella.
Fig. 3. Mosaic roman tiles collected in the Underwater Archaeological Park of Baiae.
Damage caused by the endolithic sponge
Cliona celata
on limestone.
Fig. 4. A- holes belonging to the bivalves
Gastrochaena dubia
on a limeston tiles, B
Statue of Bajo (Underwater Archaeological Park of Baiae) with perforations caused by
boring bivalves; C specipens of Lithophaga lithophaga colonizing the marble statues;
D Specimen of Lithophaga lithophaga collected from an artifacts in the Underwater
Archaeological Park of Baiae.
The permanence on the seabed of some non-recoverable structures allowed
the in situ observation of the phenomenon of bioerosion, highlighting the
precariousness in which these artifacts are submerged, especially those of
carbonate nature (Fig. 5.)
Fig. 5. Mosaic pavements colonized by biofouling, bivalvia and sponges (Underwayer
Archaeological Park of Baiae).
The statues collected in the Grotta Azzurra present similar alterations,
although the bioerosion is due to species typical of sciaphilous habitats. In fact
light plays an important role and it is a critical factor in the depth distribution of
phototrophic endolithic microorganisms, whereas fungi are light-independent
and depend on organic sources (TRIBOLLET ET AL., 2011). Cyanobacteria, algae
and fungi constitute groups of specialized organisms capable of penetrating hard
calcareous substrates such as skeletons of live and dead animals, in particular
mollusk shells (NIELSEN, 1987; RAGHUKUMAR AND LANDE, 1988; RADTKE AND
GOLUBIC, 2005).
One of the aspects of bioerosion process is due to the colonization by
microflorabiota, which produces the microboring damage: this is a particular
type of decay produced by phototrophic and chemotrophic microorganisms
which actively penetrate, by biochemical dissolution, the interior of the hard
substrates (GOLUBIC ET AL., 1981). Microborers include cyanobacteria, algae and
GHIRARDELLI, 2002; TRIBOLLET AND GOLUBIC, 2005) and they occupy several
ecological niches from the supratidal coastal spray zone to the abyssal depths
(GOLUBIC ET AL., 1984, 2005).
On the basis of these studies it is clear that the long term of submersion of
these types of artifacts is extremely harmful for their conservation. The research
underlines the need to provide suitable methods for the in situ conservation of
submerged archaeological materials (DAVIDDE, 2002; PETRIAGGI AND
DAVIDDE, 2007), which have been protected by UNESCO Convention on the
Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage since 2001. Covering with
geotextile fabric or reburial, has up to date been the only intervention strategies
that their conservation permits (DAVIDDE ET AL., 2010).
CASOLI, E., RICCI, S., GRAVINA, M.F., BELLUSCIO, A., ARDIZZONE, G., 2014. Settlement and colonization
of epi-endobenthic communities on calcareous substrata in an underwater archaeological site.
Mar. Ecol-Evol. Persp. In press.
DAVIDDE, B., 2002. Underwater archaeological parks: a new perspective and a challenge for conservation:
the Italian panorama. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 31 (1), 83-88.
DAVIDDE, B., 2004. Methods and strategies for the conservation and museum display in situ of underwater
cultural heritage. Archaeologia Maritima Mediterranea 1, 137-150.
DAVIDDE, B., RICCI, S., POGGI, D., BARTOLINI, M., 2010. Marine bioerosion of stone ar- tefacts preserved
in the Museo Archeologico dei Campi Flegrei in the Castle of Baia (Naples). Archaeologia
Maritima Mediterranea 7, 75-115.
DI FRAIA, G., 1993. Baia sommersa. Nuove evidenze topografiche e monumentali. Studi, ricerche,
documenti, Archeologia Subacquea I, pp. 1-28.
GHIRARDELLI, L.A., 2002. Endolithic microorganisms in live and dead thalli of coralline red algae
(Corallinales, Rhodophyta) in the northern Adriatic Sea. Acta Geologia Hispanica 37 (1), 53-60.
GIANFROTTA, P.A., 1996. Harbor structures of the Augustean Age in Italy. In: Caesarea Maritima. A
Retrospective after Two Millennium. Leiden e New York e Koeln; Leiden, pp. 65-76.
GOLUBIC, S., BRENT, G., LE CAMPION-ALSUMARD, T., 1970. Scanning electron microscopy of endolithic
algae and fungi using a multipurpose casting-embedding technique. Lethaia 3, 203-209.
GOLUBIC, S., FRIEDMANN, I., SCHNEIDER, J., 1981. The lithobiontic ecological niche, with special reference
to microorganisms. Sedimentary Geology 51, 475-478.
1984. Microbial endoliths: a benthic overprint in the sedimentary record, and a paleobathymetric
cross-reference with foraminifera. Journal of Paleontology 58, 351-361.
GOLUBIC, S., RADTKE, G., LE CAMPION-ALSUMARD, T., 2005. Endolithic fungi in marine ecosystems.
Trends in Microbiology 13, 229-235. (Oxford: Elsevier).
LE CAMPION-ALSUMARD, T., 1979. Les cyanophycées endolithes marines. Systématique, ultrastructure,
écologie et biodestruction. – Oceanologica Acta 2, 143-156.
MINIERO, P., ZEVI, F., 2008. Museo Archeologico dei campi Flegrei. Catalogo Generale, vol. I, II, III.
Electa ed., Napoli.
NIELSEN, R., 1987. Marine algae within calcareous shells from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany
25, 425-438.
RAGHUKUMAR, C., LANDE, V., 1988. Shell disease of rock oyster Crassostrea cucullata. Diseases of Aquatic
Organisms 4, 77-81.
Ricci, S., 2004. La colonizzazione biologica di strutture archeologiche sommerse. I casi di Torre Astura e
Baia. Archaeologia Maritima Mediterranea 1, 127-135.
RICCI, S., DAVIDDE, B., 2012. Some aspects of the bioerosion of stone artifact found underwater:
significant case studies. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites 14, 1e2, 28-34.
RICCI, S., PRIORI, G.F., 2006. Aspetti del degrado biologico di pavimentazioni musive sommerse. In:
Pavimentazioni storiche. Scienza e Beni Culturali. Arcadia Ricerche srl, Marghera Venezia, pp.
RICCI, S., PRIORI, G.F., BARTOLINI, M., 2007. Il degrado biologico dei manufatti arche- ologici dell’Area
Marina Protetta di Baia. Bollettino ICR, Nuova Serie 14, 116-126.
RICCI, S., PRIORI, G.F., BARTOLINI, M., 2008A. Bioerosione di pavimentazioni musive sommerse ad opera
della spugna endolitica Cliona celata. Bollettino ICR, Nuova Serie 15, 7-18.
RICCI, S., DAVIDDE, B., BARTOLINI, M., PRIORI, G.F., 2008B. Bioerosion of lapideous objects found in the
underwater archaeological site of Baia (Naples). Archaeologia Maritima Mediterranea 6, 167e188.
RICCI, S., PIETRINI, A. M., BARTOLINI, M., SACCO PERASSO, C., 2013. Role of the microboring marine
organisms in the deterioration of archaeological submerged lapideous artifacts (Baia, Naples,
Italy). International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 82, 199-206.
SACCO PERASSO, C., 2011. Archaeological Artifacts Found in Marine Protected Area of Baia (Naples):
Analysis of Biodeterioration and Study of the Dynamics of Bio- logical Colonization of
Submerged Stone Materials. Unpublished dissertation in Marine Biology. Sapienza University of
Rome, Italy.
SACCO PERASSO C., RICCI S., DAVIDDE B., CALCINAI B., 2014. Marine bioerosion of lapideous
archaeological artifacts found in the Grotta Azzurra (Capri, Naples, Italy): role of microflorabiota
and boring Porifera. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. Under review.
TRIBOLLET, A., PAYRI, C., 2001. Bioerosion of the crustose coralline alga Hydrolithon onkodes by
microborers in the coral reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia. Oce- anologica Acta 24, 329e342.
TRIBOLLET, A., 2008. Dissolution of Dead Corals by Euendolithic Microorganisms Across the Northern
Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Microb. Ecolog. (55), 569-580.
TRIBOLLET, A., GOLUBIC, S., RADTKE, G., 2011. Bioerosion. In: Reitner, J., Thiel, V. (Eds.),
Encyclopedia of Geobiology. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer, Berlin, 117-133,
21 figs.
Macroborings in gneiss boulders: a case from Miocene of SE Spain
Francisco J. Rodríguez-Tovar1, Alfred Uchman2 & Ángel Puga-Bernabéu1
1) Departamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada,
18002 Granada, Spain;;
2) Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geological Sciences, Oleandry Str. 2a, PL-30-063 Kraków,
Macroborings are commonest in carbonate substrates and very rare in
crystalline rocks (e.g., WARME 1975; BROMLEY & ASGAARD 1993; JOHNSON
2006). In the latter, they are most frequent in weathered basaltoids and only a
few cases are noted in hard metamorphic or igneous rocks (e.g., MASUDA &
2011; SANTOS ET AL. 2012). Therefore, the occurrence of marine macroborings
in augen gneiss boulders in the Miocene (Upper Tortonian) of the Sorbas Basin
(Almería prov.) in SE Spain is exceptional. The borings occur at the top of a few
metres thick transgressive conglomerate that rests on a crystalline basement of
the Internal Zone of the Betic Cordillera, and is covered by sandstones followed
by coralline floatstones and rudstones (Azagador Mb of the Turre Fm). The
borings were mentioned by WOOD (1996) and DOYLE ET AL. (1998) but they
were not studied in detail. A new field research in vicinity of Los Castaños has
allowed distinguishing two types of macroborings. The most abundant are
regular, hemispherical depressions. They represent probably the basal part of the
mostly bivalve boring Gastrochaenolites which was truncated by erosion. The
second, less common type is a pouch-like depression, tapering downward,
elliptical in outline, clearly different to other non-circular in outline
macroborings of similar shape. Therefore, this is considered to be a new
ichnogenus and ichnospecies. The possible Gastrochaenolites and the pouch-
shaped borings can be produced by bivalves. The tracemaker of the latter, due
to non-circular outline, might be an endolithic or semi-endolithic bivalve, which
used chemical means to boring in weathered feldspar blasts and mechanically
removed quartz blasts. Only some (no more than a few percent) largest boulders
at the top of the conglomerate are bored. They provided a stabilized substrate in
a nutrient-rich environment during decreasing energy associated to advancing
transgression, allowing colonization by boring organisms. The further higher
energy conditions and increasing amount of fine-grained sediment suspension in
the water might kill the borers. The borings were abraded before final burial
under the overlying sediments. For details see Rodríguez-Tovar et al. (in press).
ALLOUC, J. - LE CAMPION-ALSUMARD, T. - LEUNG TACK, D. 1996: La bioérosion des substrats
magmatiques en milieu littoral: L’example de la pres-qu’ile du Cap Vert (Sénégal Occidental).
Geobios 29: 485-502.
BROMLEY, R.G. - ASGAARD, U. 1993: Endolithic community replacement on a Pliocene rocky coast.
Ichnos 2: 93-116.
BUATOIS, L. . ENCINAS, A. 2011: Ichnology, sequence stratigraphy and depositional evolution of an Upper
Cretaceous rocky shoreline in central Chile: Bioerosion structures in a transgressed metamorphic
basement. Cretaceous Research 32: 203-212.
DOYLE, P. - BENNETT, M.R. - COCKS, F.M. 1996: Borings in a boulder substrate from the Miocene of
southern Spain. Ichnos, 5: 277-286.
FISCHER, R. 1981: Bioerosion of basalt of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Senckenbergiana Mar. 13: 1-41.
JOHNSON, M.E. 2006: Uniformitarianism as a guide to rocky-shore eco-systems in the geologic record.
Can. J. Earth Sci. 43: 1119-1147.
MASUDA, K. - MATSUSHIMA, M. 1969: On the bivalves boring into volcanic rock at Cape Manazuru,
Kanagana Prefecture, Japan. Venus 28: 101-109.
RODRÍGUEZ-TOVAR, F.J. - UCHMAN, A. - PUGA-BERNABÉU, Á. (in press): Borings in gneiss boulders in the
Miocene (Upper Tortonian) of the Sorbas Basin, SE Spain. Geol. Mag..
LEDESMA-VÁZQUEZ, J. 2012: Extreme habitat adaptation by boring bivalves on volcanically
active paleoshores from North Atlantic Macaronesia. Facies, 58: 325-338.
WARME, J.E. - MCHURON, E.J. 1978: Marine borers: trace fossils and geologic significance. In: Basan,
P.B. (ed.): Trace fossil concepts. SEPM Short Course 5, p. 67-118,
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Basin (Abada Member and the Azagador Member). In: Mather, A.E., Stakes, M. (eds.): 2nd
Cortijo Urra Meeting, Southeast Spain; Field Guide: 14-23, Plymouth, England (University of
Bioerosion in Miocene Age Petrified Wood Remains from Hungary
Georgina Tari
Eszterházy Károly College, Department of Geography; H-3300 Eger, Leányka u. 6.
659 silicified wood remains have been examined by the author. Her aim was
to observe and evaluate the traces of bioerosion and the role of the producer
organisms in the former forest ecosystem. Almost the half of the examined
material (313 pieces) have been collected by the author partly at the vicinity of
Mikófalva (Szőke Hill), North-Hungary, partly at the gravel quarries situated SW
to Dunavarsány. While the other 346 silicified wood fragments are housed in the
palaeobotanical collection of Mátra Museum, Gyöngyös. The examined wood
fragments are Miocene in age.
Sixty petrified wood fragments contained traces of bioerosion came into
being among terrestrial and marine circumstances. The number of traces
produced among terrestrial circumstances is 865 and was found in 58 silicified
wood fragments. Two petrified wood fragments contained 1869 traces produced
by marine organisms. The bioeroded petrified wood remains belong into the
following taxa: Pinus sp., Carya sp., Platanus sp., Magnolia sp., Liquidambar sp.,
Populus sp., Aristolochia sp., Cupressaceae sp. and Quercus sp.
The producer organism of the terrestrial traces are insects dominantly,
belonging into the taxa of Coleoptera, Anobiidae, Cerambycidae, Scolytidae and
Siricidae (SCOTT 1992; GENISE 1995; CSÓKA KOVÁCS 1999; TAPANILA
ROBERTS 2012). Feeding and dwelling traces of Picidae (Aves) also have been
found.The trace fossils which refer to marine environment are feeding and
dwelling traces of Teredos and Isopods (KELLY BROMLEY 1984; BOUCOT
1990; BROMLEY 2004; DÁVID 2009) (Fig. 1.).
The shape, size and weathering status of the silicified wood fragments also
have been observed. On the course of the examination of the trace fossils their
size, shape, and position have been taken into consideration.
Each trace fossils, both terrestrial ones and both marine ones have been
classified according to their morphological characteristics, which were figured
and placed into a dendrogram.
According to the number and position of the observed trace fossils the
ancient woods after their decay remained among subareal circumstances at least
for 6-18 months leaving enough time for organisms (insects and birds) to create
their special traces in the xylic substrate. Teredos and Isopods bioeroded the
woods deposited in the littoral region.
Fig. 1. Several types of trace fossils in petrified wood fragments
1. Traces of Siricidae in Juglans sp. /MTM Mátra Museum Gyöngyös, Inventory number: 10/63/
2. Traces of Cerambycidae in Pinus sp. /MTM Mátra Museum Gyöngyös, I n.: 10/47/
3. Traces of Cerambycidae in Platanus sp. /Karoly Eszterhazy College, Eger; I n: 18 /
4. Traces of Cerambycidae in Juglans sp. /MTM Mátra Museum Gyöngyös, I n: - /
5. Traces of Scolytidae in Juglans sp. /MTM Mátra Museum Gyöngyös, I n: - /
6. Traces of Scolytidae in Pinus sp. / Karoly Eszterhazy College, Eger, I n: 16 /
7. Traces of Anobium in Cupressaceae sp. /MTM Mátra Museum Gyöngyös, I n: 10/23/
8. Traces of Picidae in Pinus sp. /MTM Mátra Museum Gyöngyös, I n: -/
9. Traces of Picidae in Magnolia sp. /MTM Mátra Museum Gyöngyös, I n: - /
10. Traces of Teredo (T) és Isopoda (I) in Pinus sp. /MTM Mátra Museum Gyöngyös, I n: - /
BOUCOT, A.J. 1990: Evolutionary Paleobiology of Behavior and Coevolution. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 371 p.
BROMLEY, R.G. 2004: A stratigraphy of marine bioerosion. In: MCILROY, D. (ed.) (2004): The
Application of Ichnology to Palaeoenvironmental and Stratigraphic Analysis. The Geological
Society, London, 462 p.
CSÓKA, GY. KOVÁCS, T. 1999: Xilofág rovarok. – Agroinform Kiadó és Nyomda Kft., Budapest, 19 22
DÁVID, Á. 2009: Bioeróziós és patológiás elváltozások az egerien Mollusca faunáján. – Disszertáció az
Eszterházy Károly Főiskola Földrajz Tanszékéről 3. 29 33.
GENISE, J.F. 1995: A new insect trace fossil in Jurassic wood from Patagonia, Argentina. Ihnos, v. 4, 15.
KELLY, S.R.A. BROMLEY, R.G. 1984: Ichnological nomenclature of clavate borings. Palaeontology, 27, pp.
793 807 pp.
SCOTT, A.C. 1992: Trace Fossils of Plant. Arthropod Interactions. In: MAPLES, C. G. WEST, R. R.
(eds.) 1992: Trace Fossils, Short Courses in Paleontology 5. 197 210.
TAPANILA, L. ROBERTS, E.M. 2012: The Earliest Evidence of Holometabolan Insect Pupation in Conifer
Wood. PloS ONE, v. 7, e31668
Macroborings in two Oligocene conglomerates of Liguria, Italy
Alfred Uchman1, Bruno Rattazzii2
1 Institute of Geological Sciences, Jagiellonian University, 30-063 Kraków, Poland, e-mail:
2 Museo Paleontologico di Crocefieschi, Via alla Chiesa 12, 16010 Crocefieschi (Genova), Italy
In many places in the Northern Apennines and Alps in Liguria, Italy, folded
and overthrusted units covered unconformably by Oligocene conglomerates,
which are the lowest molasse deposits of the Po Plain Foredeep Basin.
The Savignone Conglomerate occurs north of Genova in the region of Val
Borbera. It is at least a few hundred meters thick and overlies the Monte Antola
Formation (Campanian-Paleocene), Pagliaro Formation (Paleocene) and
Ranzano Formation (Oligocene), It is overlain by turbiditic sediments of the
Monastero Formation (Oligocene). The lowermost part of the conglomerate
contains a lot of boulders built of marls and limestone from the Monte Antola
Formation. In a few localities, the boulders contain macroborings. The presence
of borings at the base and the transition do deep-water facies suggest that the
Savignone Conglomerate was accumulated as a large fan delta.
The boulders are bored with Gastrochaenolites, including G. lapidicus, G. cf.
cluniformis, G. orbicularis, G. torpedo, Caulostrepsis, Trypaniets, and with various
surface grooves. Inside the borings, shells of bivalves belonging to Pholadidae
(Leiosolenus, Parapholas, Jouannetia) and Gastrochaenide (cf. Spengleria), Myidae
(?Sphenia), Mytilidae (Lithophaga, Botula), Petricolidae (Petricola), Pholadomyidae
(Pholadomya) and others (determinations of bivalves by Karl Kleeman) are
common. Jouannetia is clearly inside G. orbicularis. Some of the borings are re-
occupied by other bivalves.
The Molare Formation (Oligocene) overlies mostly ophiolites or Mesozoic
carbonates. It is composed of various siliciclastic sediments, which in the lower
part is represented mostly by conglomerates, which are mainly fan delta
deposits. In an abandoned quarry near Ceva, the conglomerates cover uneven
topography built of the Triassic dolomites. Large boulders, which may attain 1
m in diameter, contain Gastrochaenolites, including. G. torpedo, G. orbicularis, G.
cluniformis, G. ?ampullatus, Phrixichnus phrix, Entobia isp., and chamber borings
with shallow cuspate depressions. The bivalve borings do not contain shells
inside. Above, a coarsening up, fine- to coarse-grained conglomerate unit
occurs. A few bored pebbles were found at the top of this unit. Conglomerates,
generally fining up continue up the section for at least 15 m, but they do not
contain borings.
The borings from the Savignone Conglomerate and from the Molare
Formation point to marine depositional environment of the conglomerate, what
is not obvious from other features. They belong to the Entobia ichnofacies,
which is typical of shallow marine environment and suggests longer time (at
least several months) of residence of the bored pebbles on the sediment surface.
Common preservation of bivalve shells in Gastrochaenolites from the Savignone
Conglomerate suggests rapid burial, probably after redeposition down the slope.
Gastrochaenolites from the Molare Formation does not contain bivalve shells. This
suggests that the shells were crushed and washed out before burial, probably
without significant redeposition of the boulders. Such differences can be helpful
in determination of depositional environment of the conglomerates.
Acknowlegements. A.U. was supported by the Fondazione Luigi, Cesare e Liliana Bertora and
the Jagiellonian University (DS funds).
Bioerosion - posters, substrates
and epoxy-casts
Guide for the
Paleoichnological Exhibition
of Geography Department
of Eszterházy Károly College
Dávid Á.: About the epoxy cast collection of the Geography Department at the
Eszterházy Károly College (Eger, Hungary) .................................................... 40
Tari G., Dávid Á.: Traces of Cerambycidae larvaea on miocene petrified wood
fragments ............................................................................................................... 40
Tari G., Dávid Á., Fodor R.: Feeding and nesting holes of woodpeckers (Aves,
Picidae) in Middle Miocene age pertified woods from North-Hungary ...... 41
Dávid Á.: Teredolites Ichnofacies in Egerian age formations (Hungary)............. 41
Fodor R.: Bioerosion in Late Cretaceous Corals (Gerecse Mountains, Hungary)
................................................................................................................................ 42
Fodor R.: Corals as hard substrates from the Late Oligocene of Hungary ...... 42
Dávid Á., Brecz M., Horváth J.: The Entobia ichnogenus in Hungarian Tertiary
formations ............................................................................................................. 42
Dávid Á.: Bioerosion on Eocene age oyster valves from Lybia ......................... 43
Pázmándi E.: Taphonomy of Egerian age bivalves (Wind Brickyard, Eger,
Hungary) ................................................................................................................ 43
Trestyánszky A.: Bioerosion on Early Miocene oyster valves - a comparaison
................................................................................................................................ 44
Dávid Á., Szabolcs B., Fodor R.: Bioerosion on Early Miocene oyster shells
(Tardona Hills, Hungary) .................................................................................... 44
Dávid Á.: Bioerosion on Mollusc shells – Andornaktálya, sandpit ................... 45
Dávid Á.: Traces of Naticid predation on Late Oligocene Molluscs................. 45
Dávid Á., Fodor R.: Clionaid boring in opercula of Turbo sp. (Gastropoda,
Protobranchia), (Mathesons Bay, New Zealand) ............................................ 46
Balaska P.: Taphonomy of Late-Oligocene Scaphopod fragments (Wind
Brickyard, Eger) .................................................................................................... 46
Dávid Á., Kovács B., Fodor R.: Bioerosion of the Shells of Early Miocene
Balanidae (Bükk Mountains, Hungary) ............................................................. 47
Kovacsik É.: Trace fossils and overgrowths on Late Carboniferous Crinoid
fragments (Nagyvisnyó, Bükk Mountains) ....................................................... 47
Dávid Á., Apró A.: Bioeroded Bone Fragments from the Late Miocene of
Hungary ................................................................................................................. 48
Dávid Á., Várhegyi Á., Fodor R.: Palaeoichology of a Late Eocene rocky shore
(Bükk Mountains, Hungary) ............................................................................... 48
Dávid Á.: Late Oligocene (Egerian) age rocky shore in the Bükk Mountains,
Hungary ................................................................................................................. 49
Dávid Á., Fodor R.: Occurence and distribution of Gastrochaenolites ichnogenus
in Early Miocene (Karpatian) age abrasion pebbles of two localities a
comparasion (Nagyvisnyó and Dédestapolcsány, Bükk Mountains, Hungary)
................................................................................................................................ 49
Bozsik Á., Dávid Á., Fodor R.: Paleoichnological observations on Early
Miocene (Karpatian) age abbrasion pebbles and oyster valves (Lamport
Valley, Felsőtárkány, Bükk Mountains) ............................................................ 50
Dávid Á., Lengré Sz., Fodor R.: Occurence of Semidendrina from traces at a
Dalmatian coastal area (Croatia, Island of Solta)............................................. 50
Dávid Á.: About the epoxy cast collection of the Geography Department
at the Eszterházy Károly College (Eger, Hungary)
(in Hungarian: Az Eszterházy Károly Főiskola Földrajz tanszékének epoxigyanta öntvény
14th Hungarian Paleontological Conference, 2011
Bioerosion have been studied at the Geography Department of the Karoly
Eszterhazy College since 1990. Todays, here can be found the largest trace fossil
collection of Hungary. This collection contains 796 epoxy casts. The substrates,
what we study, are fossils, abbrasion pebbles and modern mollusc shells. The
used two-component epoxy is Araldit AY103 and Haerter HY 956. Grouping
the substrates according to their age the result is: Eocene 15,9%, Oligocene
20,5%, Miocene 57,3%, recent 6,3%.
Tari G., Dávid Á.: Traces of Cerambycidae on miocene petrified wood
(in Hungarian: Cerambycidae lárvák bioeróziós nyoma miocén kovásodott fák maradványain)
17th Hungarian Paleontological Conference, 2014
Sixhundred fifty-nine petrified wood remains have been investigated by the
authors. The aim of their examinations had been to study the occurrence,
position and distribution of trace fossils on the trunk fragments. The petrified
wood remains have been found in Miocene age siliciclastic sediments and in
Pleistocene age coarse grained fluvial formations. Bioerosion of Cerambycidae
have been found on 17 wood fragments: Aristolochia sp.(1), Juglans sp (5).,
Magnolia sp (1)., Pinus sp (5)., Platanus sp.(3), Populus sp.(1), Quercus sp
(1). (Number of wood remains.) The number of the borings of Cerambycidae
is 95. The majority of the borings occur in Platanus sp. and in Juglans sp.
Most of the borings are oval in shape. The larvae of Cerambycidae formed
their large and deep traces in living trees.
Tari G., Dávid Á., Fodor R.: Feeding and nesting holes of woodpeckers
(Aves, Picidae) in Middle Miocene age pertified woods from North-
The Third International Congress of Ichnology, 2012
The authors, while were examining the petrified wood collection of the
Matra Museum (Gyöngyös, Hungary) looking for traces of xylophagous insects
found two silicified stems bearing large cavities referring to the activity of
woodpeckers (Aves, Piciformes) Both of the petrified wood remains have been
foung in Miocene, coarse grained, sandy deposits. Woodpecker body fossils are
dated back to the Early Oligocene. According to the evolution of the group and
the morphology of the feeding and nesting holes of modern Picidae, we could
assume the presence of woodpeckers in the Middle Miocene forest ecosystem.
Dávid Á.:
Ichnofacies in Egerian age formations (Hungary)
(in Hungarian: A Teredolites ichnofácies magyarországi egri korú képződményekben)
7th Hungarian Paleontological Conference, 2004
Presence of Teredolites ichnogenus have been observed at three Egerian
(Late Oligocene) age localities. These localities are the following: 1) Eger, clay-
pit of Wind Brickyard, glauconitic sandstone and friable, limonitic sandstone. 2)
Andornaktálya, sand pit. 3) Máriahalom, sand pit. On the bases of the
morphology of the borings the following ichnotaxa have been determined:
Teredolites longissimus KELLY ET BROMLEY, Teredolites cf. longissimus
KELLY ET BROMLEY, Teredolites isp. 1., Teredolites isp. 2. In the case of
Teredolites isp. 1. the presence of the woody substrate is proved by the
elongated positive forms can be seen on an Ostrea valve. The animal might
have settled on a drift on a drift wood bored by Teredo bivalves. The
Teredolites isp. 2. seems to be the juvenile form of Teredolites longissimus.
Except of Teredolites isp. 1. the remains of the former wood can be
recognized excellently. The occurrence of Teredolites ichnogenus in different
marine facies refers to well agitated water (in the case of Máriahalom) and
shows that currents may drift plant remains considerable distance from the
shore before those could sink and embedded (in the case of Wind Brickyard
and Andornaktálya).
Fodor R.: Bioerosion in Late Cretaceous Corals (Gerecse Mountains,
6th International Bioerosion Workshop, 2008
The locality is situated at the northern slopes of Gercse Mountains at the
north-western part of Hungary. Thick conglomerate layers separated by
sandstone intercalations are exposed in the quarry. These formed as submarine
fan channel turbidites during the Late-Aptian Early Albian. Four subfacies can
be distinguished here. The “B” and “D” subfacies contain coral-bearing
“Urgon-type” limestone clasts abundantly. Corals of “B” subfacies have been
bioeroded by polychaetes and boring bivalves. hile corals of “D” subfacies have
been bioeroded by clionaid sponges only. These observation suuest that the
limestone clasts of the “D” subfacies have been transported from a shallower
marine environment to the place of accumulation.
Fodor R.: Corals as hard substrates from the Late Oligocene of Hungary
8th International Ichnofabric Workshop, 2005
1108 specimens of solitary corals have been collected from the glauconitic
sandstone of Wind Brickyard’s exposure, Eger, Hungary. 549 specimens bear
traces of bioerosion among them. These belong into Enobia, Caulostrepsis,
Maeandropolydora, Trypanites and Terebripora ichnogenera. Entobia and Caulostrepsis
ichnogenera are the dominant. The thickness and surface area of the theca
determine the position and morphology of trace fossils.
Dávid Á., Brecz M., Horváth J.: The
ichnogenus in Hungarian
Tertiary formations
North American Paleontological Convention, 2001
Occurrence and distribution of Entobia ichnospecies at eight Hungarian
Tertiary localities have been examined. The age of localities are Middle Eocene
(Lutetian), Early Miocene (Egerian, Ottnangian, Karpatian) and Middle Miocene
(Badenian). Oyster shells, gastropod tests and abrasion pebbles served as firm
substrate for the Clionaid larvae. One hundred twenty epoxy-casts have been
made from the collected material. From these epoxy casts, seven Entobia
ichnospecies have been identified.
Dávid Á.: Bioerosion on Eocene age oyster valves from Lybia
(in Hungarian: Bioeróziós nyomok osztrigákon a líbiai eocénből)
7th Hungarian Paleontological Conference, 2004
Eocene age Ostrea valves have been collected by the members of the
Hungarian Geological Institute during their geological mapping works in Lybia.
Bioerosion on oyster shells have been examind by the author. Both side of the
valves have been bioeroded. Boring sponges (Clionaidae), polychaete worms
and lithophagid bivalves were the producer organisms. The most significant
trace fossil had been the Gastrochaenolites lapidicus.
Pázmándi E.: Taphonomy of Egerian age bivalves (Wind Brickyard,
Eger, Hungary)
(in Hungarian: Egri korú kagylók tafonómiai vizsgálata (Wind-féle téglagyár, Eger)
14th Hungarian Paleontological Conference, 2011
The aim of the author had been to examine the bivalve remains of two layers
of Wind Brickyard’s exposure from taphonomical point of view. The two
formations were the aleuritic sandstone (‘x’ layer) and the limonitic sandstone
(‘k’ layer). The number of examined bivalve shell was 1415. The animals had
been suspension filters and deposit feeders. Bioerosion occurred on the 5,2
percentage of the valves. The ratio of the bioeroded suspension filters was
higher. The producer organisms belonged into the following groups: sponges,
predatory gastropods, worms, bryozoans, Decapod crustaceans and Balanidae.
The diversity of trace fossils is higher in the case of the limonitic sandstone
layer. The position and the distribution of trace fossils refer to minor intervals
of sedimentation and short distance of transportation.
Trestyánszky A.: Bioerosion on Early Miocene oyster valves - a
(in Hungarian: Bioeróziós nyomok kettő kora-miocén feltárás osztrigáinak mészvázainak
14th Hungarian Paleontological Conference, 2011
The occurrence of bioerosion on the valves of oyster shells of the Lower
Miocene age localities are compared. The localities are situated at the northern
flanks of the Bükk Mountains at the vicinity of villages Uppony and Bánhorváti.
The number of ichnotaxa is 24 in the case of the two localities. The traces were
produced by clionaid sponges, muricid gastropods, boring bivalves, polychaete
worms and cirripeds. In the case of the Uppony locality the bioerosion occurred
on the outer side of the valves, dominantly and the two-valved-fossilization had
been common. The diversity of the traces had been high, but the rate of the
bioerosion was low. At Bánhorváti bioerosion occurred on larger surfaces of the
Ostrea valves. The higher growth phases of the Entobia ichnotaxa refer to very
small rate of sedimentation and the valves could spend longer period laying on
the surface.
Dávid Á., Szabolcs B., Fodor R.: Bioerosion on Early Miocene oyster
shells (Tardona Hills, Hungary)
The Second International Congress on Ichnology, 2008
The locality is situated in North Hungary in the vicinity of the village
Sajólászlófalva where a transgressive sequence of the Salgótarján Lignite
Formation is exposed at a road cut. A huge oyster bed covers the top of the
exposure. One hundred bioeroded oyster valves have been collected at the
locality. The following ichnogenera have been observed on and in the oyster
shells: Entobia, Gastrochaenolites, Caulostrepsis, Maeandropolydora, Trypanites,
Radulichnus, Centrichnus and Renichnus ichnogenus. The position, distribution and
preservation of the traces refer to short transportation and allochtonous
Dávid Á.: Bioerosion on Mollusc shells Andornaktálya, sandpit
(in Hungarian: Bioeróziós nyomok az andornaktályai homokbánya puhatestűinek
The locality is situated along the road between Eger and the village
Andornaktálya; around two kilometres to the south from Eger. Its sequence
exposes the upper, sandy facies of the Eger Formation in 60 m thickness. There
were 533 specimens of 25 Molluscan taxa have been collected at the sandpit.
Most of the molluscan fossils preserved as impressions or moulds. Trace fossils
occurring almost exclusively on the valves of Ostrea cyathula and Ostrea sp.
belonging into eight types, and their number is 54. Most frequent are the
polychaete worm borings and the borings of clionaid sponges. muricid borings
also have to be mentioned. Driftwoods bioeroded by teredos can be found at
the upper third part of the lower sandpit in coarse grained limonitic sandstone.
Dávid Á.: Traces of naticid predation on Late Oligocene molluscs
The Second International Congress on Ichnology, 2008
Occurrence of naticid predation on Late Oligocene (Egerian) age molluscs
originated from various formations of six localities from Hungary have been
examined. The number of the studied naticid drillholes were 1499. These
occurred on the representatives of 66 molluscan taxa. The activity of Naticidae
increases from the deeper Hinia-Cadulus community to the shallower
Tympanotonus-Pirenella community. On the basis of naticid borings site
selectivity have been proved in the case of four bivalve taxa, five gastropod
species and three scaphopod species using chi-squared distribution.
Dávid Á., Fodor R.: Clionaid borings in opercula of
(Gastropoda, Protobranchia), (Mathesons Bay, New Zealand)
5th International Bioerosion Workshop, 2006
The Turbo species are common intertidal gastropods. This occurs at low tide
levels and below to 20 meters. Eighty-two opercula of Turbo sp. have been
collected at Mathesons Bay, New Zealand. The diameter of the opercula is 7-17
mm. Forthy-three specimens are bioeroded, bearing traces of clionaid sponges.
Generally both sides of the opercula show the degradation caused by sponges.
The trace fossils in the opercula resemble to Entobia cateniformis, E. ovula and E.
retiformis ichnospecies.
Balaska P.: Taphonomy of Late Oligocene Scaphopod fragments (Wind
Brickyard, Eger)
(in Hungarian: Tafonómiai megfigyelések késő-oligocén Scaphopodákon (Eger, Wind-féle
16th Hungarian Paleontological Conference, 2013
Tests of scaphopods collected from two levels of the molluscan clay (Ma1,
Ma2) of Wind Brickyard’s exposure, Eger have been examined and compared by
the author. The distribution of the findngs was the following: Level Ma1 9
taxa, 734 Scaphopod remains. Level Ma2 7 taxa, 726 Scaphopod remains. The
preservation state of the examined material is poor. Most of the remains are
weathered and fragmentary. In the case of the level Ma1 algal borings are the
most characteristics. While in the case of level Ma2 drillings of predatory
gastropods (Naticidae) also occur. The ratio of the complete, incomplete and
unfinished drillholes is similar. According to the differences in the types,
occurrence and distribution of trace fossils environmental alterations can be
Dávid Á., Kovács B., Fodor R.: Bioerosion of the Shells of Early Miocene
Balanidae (Bükk Mountains, Hungary)
6th International Bioerosion Workshop, 2008
Early Miocene (Karpatian) semi-unconsolidated limonitic sandstone layers
are exposed by an abandoned sand-pit at the north-western part os the kk
Mountains, near to Nagyvisnyó. These strata are abundant in poor preserved
barnacle test remains. The collected 1738 cirriped shell fragments have been
ranked into four species. The number of the bioeroded tests is 726. Traces of
clionaid sponges and polychaete worms are dominant. Traces of sipunculid
worms, vermetid gastropods and bryozoans also occur.
Kovacsik É.: Trace fossils and overgrowths on Late Carboniferous
Crinoid fragments (Nagyvisnyó, Bükk Mountains)
(in Hungarian: Életnyomok és epőkiás jelenségek felső-karbon tengeri liliomok maradványain
(Bükk-hegység, Nagyvisnyó))
1st Hungarian Paleontological Conference, 1998
Upper Carboniferous shales can be studied at numerous railroad cuttings
along the railroad between Nagyvisnyó and Nekézseny at the NW edge of Bükk
Mountains. Most of the exposures are rich in crinoid stems. There were 1082
crinoid stem fragment collected by the author to examine the occurrence and
distribution of trace fossils and the presence of epizoans on the stems.
Bryozoan encrustation, imprints of epizoans, cysts of parasite worms, trace of
fracture repair have been observed on the collected material. On the basis of the
position, the presence or lack of the traces and epizoans the former
paleocommunity of crinoids can be divided into three levels.
Dávid Á., Apró A.: Bioeroded Bone Fragments from the Late Miocene of
Second Latin American Symposium of Ichnology, 2013
2472 vertebrate bone remains, collected at the sandpit of Danitz-puszta,
have been examined. The fossils could be divided into two main groups
regarding their age and environment. The first one is the bones of marine
animals older than Late Miocene. The second group contains the bones of
Pliocene and Pleistocene age terrestrial animals. Bioerosion structures have been
observed on the poorly preserved teeth and limb fragments in all cases. The
observed traces of bioerosion have been clustered into six groups according to
their shape, size, and state of preservation: 1, Cubiculum cf. ornatus; 2. Breeding
trace of necrophagous insects; 3. Feeding trace of necrophagous insects; 4.
Wearing marks on the surface of teeth; 5. Chewing marks 1; 6. Chewing marks
Dávid Á., Várhegyi Á., Fodor R.: Palaeoichology of a Late Eocene rocky
shore (Bükk Mountains, Hungary)
5th International Bioerosion Workshop, 2006
The locality is situated in the south-eastern part of Bükk Mountains in the
vicinity of Bükkzsérc. Late Jurassic limestones are exposed here in a road-cut.
These limestones were bioeroded by marine invertebrates during the Late
Eocene. Two hundred bioeroded boulders and pebbles have been collected and
examined from here. Poor preserved traces of clionaid sponges, pholadid
bivalves, polychaete and sipunculit worms have been found in the collected
Dávid Á.: Late Oligocene (Egerian) age rocky shore in the Bükk
Mountains, Hungary
The Second International Congress on Ichnology, 2008
Late Oligocene (Egerian) age formations are exposed at the vicinity of
Csókás at the margin of Small Plateau of northern Bükk Mountains. We have
collected and examined 77 limestone and limeston conglomerate boulders in
order to give more detailed palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental
evaluation of the territory. We managed to identify the traces of the activity of
clionaid sponges, polychaete worms, boring bivalves and boring cirripeds in the
collecte material. On the basis of the abundance, position and measure of the
trace fossils we can conclude on two local transgressions during the Late
Oligocene at the territory.
Dávid Á., Fodor R.: Occurence and distribution of
ichnogenus in Early Miocene (Karpatian) age abrasion pebbles of two
localities a comparasion (Nagyvisnyó and Dédestapolcsány, Bükk
Mountains, Hungary)
North American Paleontological Convention, 2001
Abrasion pebbles from two localities (Nagyvisnyó and Dédestapolcsány,
Bükk Mountains) have been examined for the presence, abundance and
distribution of Gastrochaenolites ichnospecies. The age of the black Permian
limestone and dolomite pebbles is Early Miocene (Karpatian). The observed
bioerosional traces of boring bivalves could be attributed to six ichnospecies.
The frequency of G. lapidicus and G. torpedo is significant at both localities.
Bozsik Á., Dávid Á., Fodor R.: Paleoichnological observations on Early
Miocene (Karpatian) age abrasion pebbles and oyster valves (Lamport
Valley, Felsőtárkány, Bükk Mountains)
(in Hungarian: Paleoichnológiai megfigyelések kora-miocén (kárpáti) korú abráziós kavicsokon
és Ostrea vázmaradványokon (Bükk-hegység, Felsőtárkány, Lamport-völgy))
10th Hungarian Paleontological Conference, 2007
The locality is situated at the SW part of Bükk Mountains, three kilometres
from the village Felsőtárkány to the west. Early Miocene (Karpatian) age sandy
pebble and friable limonitic sandstone are exposed at the territory. Characteristic
fossils of the region are shells of Balanidae, Ostrea valves and bioeroded Triassic
limestone pebbles. The limestone pebbles have been bioeroded by clionaid
sponges, polychaete and sipunculid worms, and boring bivalves. While on the
oyster shells worm borings are dominant. On the basis of the distribution, the
presence and the ecological conditions of the producer organisms we can
conclude on gradually deepening shallow marine environment during the Early
Miocene (Karpatian) period. The bioeroded pebbles mark the littoral region and
the vicinity of the former rocky coast. It was bordered seaward by sandy-
bottomed shallow marine setting. The bioeroded pebbles and the fragments of
Ostrea valves have been redeposited to here, to the upper part of the sublittoral
Dávid Á., Lengré Sz., Fodor R.: Occurence of
form traces
at a Dalmatian coastal area (Croatia, Island of Solta)
5th International Bioerosion Workshop, 2006
The authors have been collected 100 bioeroded pebbles at a recent rocky
shore in Croatia. Late Creataceous limestone pebbles have been collected from
1-3 m waterdepth, approximately 10 meters from the shore. Two pebbles
contained dendriform borings attributed to foraminifera determined as
‘Semidendrina-form’. Borings formed groups in the flat part of the pebbles
covering 2 square centimetres. The diameter of borings varied between 1-2.1
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Novocrania anomala occurrences at Baie and at the Blue Grotto (Naples, southern Italy). Importance of "currents" for the mass-blooming of recent (and fossils) brachiopods
Because predation by drilling gastropods is uniquely preservable in the fossil record, it represents important evidence for the study of coevolution. Previous studies of drilling gastropod predation have been largely descriptive and sometimes contradictory. We formulate and test a model of prey selection by naticid drilling gastropods. The model adequately predicts both prey species selection and prey size selection. Prey preferences parallel prey profitabilities, determined by calculating prey species-specific and predator size-specific cost-benefit functions. The model also specifically suggests the evolution of potential refugia from predation and the evolution of potential predatory attributes. Application of the model to several Miocene and Pliocene assemblages studied by Thomas (1976) corroborates the feasibility and utility of this approach in examining the evolutionary record of naticid predation, which extends from the Late Mesozoic. Apparent evolutionary stasis and convergent morphological trends among prey species may be consistent with continuous selection pressures against predation.
Revised terminology is proposed that describes the ecological niches of microorganisms within hard, mineral substrates. Organisms attached to the external surfaces of the rock are termed epiliths, while those in the interior of the rock are all termed endoliths. The latter are called chasmoendoliths if they inhabit fissures in rocks, cryptoendoliths if they dwell within structural cavities, and euendoliths if they actively penetrate calcareous substrates. -Authors