Three hundred and fifty broiler chickens (Anak, 2000) were used to study the effect of partial replacement of soya bean meal (SBM) protein with cassava and or leucaena leaf meals. Diet 1 was the control diet with soyabean meal but no leaf meal. Diets 2 and 3 had 30% and 60% SBM protein respectively replaced with cassava leaf meal (CLM) protein. In diets 4 and 5, 30% and 60% of the SBM protein respectively, were replaced with leucaena leaf meal (LLM) protein. The SBM protein in diets 6 and 7 was substituted at 30% and 60% respectively with 50:50 CLM and LLM protein. The birds were assigned to the experimental diets at 10 birds per replicate and 5 replicates per treatment. The energy to protein ratios of the diets were similar. The response criteria measured were feed intake, weight gain, nitrogen retention, shank and skin pigmentation, selected carcass, organ and muscle characteristics and economics of production. The results showed that weight gain (WG, 52.1Ã‚Â±1.00 g/day) and feed intake (134Ã‚Â±4.37 g/day) were higher (P<0.05) in birds fed the control diets. On other diets, WG were 44.4Ã‚Â±4.18 g (Diet 2), 43.7Ã‚Â±2.10 g (Diet 6), 40.2Ã‚Â±4.32 g (Diet 4), 37.2Ã‚Â±4.13 g (Diet 3), 34.9Ã‚Â±1.04 g (Diet 7) and 26.0Ã‚Â±4.86 g (Diet 5) per day. Nitrogen retention was apparently highest (P>0.05) for birds on the control diet. Shanks of birds on leaf meal diets were more pigmented (P<0.05) than the control. Carcass, organ and muscle characteristics were not affected (P<0.05) by dietary treatments. Cost of feed per kilogram weight gain were similar for broiler on Diets 1, 2 and 6 ( 110, 108 and 109 respectively) and highest for Diet 5 ( 150). It was concluded that 30% replacement of soyabean meal protein in a 14% soyabean meal ration with cassava (10.50% of diet) or 50:50 cassava and leucaena (9.55% of diet) leaf meal protein would optimize growth performance and economic returns from broiler production especially during periods of high cost and scarcity of soyabean meal.
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"The results of economic analysis (Table 4) indicated that the cost of feed reduced with increasing levels of MLM in the diets. Onibi et al. (2008) also reported a reduction in the cost of feed consumed at higher inclusion of leaf meals. However, the net revenue from birds dropped as the level of MLM in the diets increased. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A six-week feeding trial involving 180 2-week old Cobb broiler chicks was conducted to assess the effects of partial replacement of fishmeal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf meal on broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) to four dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, and 15% Moringa leaf meal (MLM). Each treatment was replicated three times giving 15 birds per replicate. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. The parameters measured were feed intake, initial weight, final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, carcass traits, hematology, serum biochemistry and meat quality. Final weight, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency significantly (p<0.05) declined with increasing level of MLM. None of the carcass traits measured was significantly affected by addition of MLM. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) was the only hematological parameter that showed significance (P<0.05) difference in treatment groups. Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) differed significantly (P<0.05). Also incorporation of MLM significantly (P<0.05) affected the moisture, crude protein and crude fat of the meat of experimental birds. Cost benefit analysis showed that incorporation of MLM resulted in reduced feed cost. However, the net revenue from birds fed diets containing MLM reduced as a result of poor weight gain. Based on the data obtained in this study it is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal when partially used to replace fishmeal may hamper growth rate of broiler chickens. Nonetheless, addition of MLM does not adversely affect mortality, carcass traits and blood variables.
"are all lower than that of our study (11.7%), whilst that (19- 22% DM) of Nuhu (2010), Kakengi et al. (2007) and Makkar and Becker (1996) were the highest. Compared to Leuceana (Onibi et al., 2008; Dhar et al. 2007; Reyes and Fermin, 2003; Aletor and Omodara, 1994; Hussain et al. 1991; Akbar and Gupta, 1985), Cassia (Nuha et al., 2010; Ousman et al., 2005; Mbaiguinam et al. 2005; Boussaid El Hadj, 2004), Gliricidia (Ige et al. 2006; Odunsi et al., 2002), cassava (Iheukwumere et al., 2008; Onibi et al., 2008) and A. pinnata leaves (Alalade and Iyayi, 2006; Basak et al., 2002; Becerra et al., 1995), Moringa leaves contained less CF, but more CP, EE and ME. However, except Leuceana, Adansonia and Cassia leaves which were the richest in calcium (1.8-3.1%) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to assess the nutrient composition of some unconventional and local feed resources available in Senegal so as to use them as protein supplement sources in the diets of indigenous chickens to enhance their productivity. Ten (10) unconventional and local ingredients from Senegal including leguminous leaves (Leuceana leucocephala, Cassia tora, Moringa oleifera, Adansonia digitata, Sesbania rostrata), cucurbit (Citrullus vulgaris) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds, red and white cowpea (Vigna unguiculata seeds) and cockroaches (Biatta oriental is) were collected, sun-dried, processed into meal and analyzed for their chemical and macro-mineral composition using internationally established procedures. The results showed that the samples Dry Matter (DM) percent ranged from 89.3% (red cowpea) to 94.9% (C. vulgaris). The Crude Protein (CP) content ranged from 24.7% (white cowpea) to 61.9% (cockroaches meal), with A. digitata leaves having the lowest value (12.9%). Citrullus and Hibiscus seeds meal recorded the highest (38.8% and 18.9%) Ether Extract (EE) values, followed respectively by cockroaches (11.1%), Moringa (9.8%), Leuceana (6.4%) and Sesbania leaves meal (5.1%), while the others were below 4.5%. The crude fiber (CF) content was globally high in the leaves, ranging from 11.7% (M. oleifera) to 16.8% (C. tora) while that of seeds and cockroaches ranged from 1.9% (white cowpea) to 19% (Citrullus seeds). A. digitata leaves gave the highest ash content (25.2%), followed by Cassia (15.2%), Moringa (13.6%), Leuceana (11.4%) and Sesbania leaves (7.1%), while the others were below 5.6%. The metabolizable energy (ME) value calculated for seeds and cockroaches meal ranged from 3161 kcal/kg DM (cockroaches) to 4270 kcal/kg DM (C. vulgaris) and that of leaves from 1873 (A. digitata) to 2888.9 kcal/kg DM (M. oleifera). Cassia leaves contained the highest level of calcium (3.1%), followed by Adansonia and Leuceana (1.81%), Moringa and Sesbania leaves (1.41%), whilst cockroaches, Hibiscus and Citrullus seeds meal recorded respectively 0.93, 0.81 and 0.55% of phosphorus. These results showed that all the ingredients samples contained appreciable quantities of all dietary nutrients tested for which more or less make them partial or complete substitutes for the conventional feed sources.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the prospect of the Leuceana leucocephala leaves meal using as a protein ingredient source for indigenous Senegal chickens diets, a study was carried out to determine their nutrient utilization and nutritional value when incorporated at various levels in the diets. Twenty adult indigenous chickens with an average body weight of 1.22 kg were conducted in metabolic cages and allocated in four groups of five birds each. The groups were corresponded to four dietary treatments (LL0, LL7, LL14 and LL21) containing respectively 0, 7, 14 and 21% of Leuceana leaves meal. During the trial, birds were weighed at the beginning and at the end. Feed offered and refused, collected fresh excreta were weighed daily and the droppings were oven-dried at 60<SUP>o</SUP>C and ground per bird for six days. The ingredients and experimental diets used and collected excreta were subjected to chemical analyses. Results showed that the Leuceana leaves were relatively rich in protein (24.9% DM), ether extract (6.4% DM), crude fiber (14.2% DM) and Neutral detergent fiber (22.4% DM). It contained respectively 43.1% and 11.4% DM of nitrogen free extract and ash, particularly calcium (1.8%) and potassium (1.1% DM) and 2573.8 kcal/kg DM of metabolizable energy. The results of the trial showed that the inclusion of L. leucocephala leaves meal in the diet at 21% level, has no significant adverse effect on feed intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and nutrients utilization (except ether extract) of adult indigenous Senegal chickens. It has significantly (p<0.05) improved the crude protein and metabolizable energy utilization in birds fed the 7% level inclusion diet (LL7).
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · International Journal of Poultry Science