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The Oxford Companion to Food

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... Nettle leaves, are eaten like spinach, prepared as cooked leaves, the leaves boiled or added to soups and sauce are eaten as famine food in many parts of the world (Davidson and Jaine, 2006;Khatiwada et al., 2011). Nettle leaves have been used, particularly in rural areas of Africa, as a potherb, soup and herbal infusions (Kavalali, 2003;Moskovitz, 2009;Roberts, 2011). ...
... Nettle leaves are eaten like spinach; can be cooked fresh after harvest or dried and stored for later preparation. Young nettle shoots are eaten as famine food in many parts of the world (Davidson and Jaine, 2006;Khatiwada et al., 2011). In Ethiopia and elsewhere, an infusion is made by brewing the leaves. ...
Thesis
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Stinging nettle/common nettle (U. dioica L.) is known since ancient times as a wild source of food and a herbal medicine, but the plant remains underutilized. Drying of stinging nettle leaves not only allow their use when the plants are not physiologically active but also extend their consumption period and utilization at times of food shortage and for addressing micronutrient malnutrition. However, drying could result in decomposition of heat sensitive metabolites such as fatty acids, amino acids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and insoluble phenolic compounds present in the fresh stinging nettle leaves. These changes might lead to production of volatile compounds, non-volatile compounds, soluble phenolic compounds etc. The systematic description of the aroma, flavour and colour of cooked stinging nettle leaves and leaf infusions, prepared from fresh or dried leaves has not been published. With this study, the effects of using fresh or oven-dried leaves to cook a relish or to prepare an infusion on sensory and nutritional properties were measured. In addition, the effect of two infusion cycles on the sensory properties of leaf infusions was determined. Although the colour changed during heat processing, most of the characteristic green-related aroma and flavour notes of fresh nettle leaves were preserved in cooked leaves and leaf infusions prepared from dried leaves. When cooking the leaves, the use of dried leaves resulted in an increase in fermented aroma, earthy, burnt flavour, bitter and also salty taste compared to fresh leaves. In leaf infusions, a decrease of grassy, earthy and mint aromas as well as seafood and green-herblike aroma and flavour notes were observed. The first two brewed infusions from fresh or dried leaves provided similar aroma and flavour intensities. Further, the ∆E (total colour difference) value, showed variation in colour of fresh leaves compared to oven dried leaves. The ∆E value also showed variation in colour between the two infusion cycles as well as in uncooked and cooked leaves. The change in aroma, flavour and colour of leaf infusions and cooked leaves when oven dried leaves were used compared to fresh leaves, prompted an investigation into the effect of drying methods (i.e. freeze-drying and oven drying) on nutritional properties of stinging nettle leaf food products and food ingredient components. Oven drying of stinging nettle leaves resulted in a higher loss of β-carotene and ascorbic acid content compared to freeze drying. A typical serving portion of either fresh, freeze dried or oven dried nettle leaves could provide more than 20 % of the daily value of vitamin A (e.g. 870 µg per day); therefore, nettle leaves in all these forms are rich sources of vitamin A. In contrast, freeze dried and oven dried nettle leaves were found to be a good source of vitamin C while fresh leaves can be considered as a rich source of vitamin C. In general, dried stinging nettle leaves can be considered as a rich source of Ca, Mg and vitamin A; a good source of vitamin C, Fe, and Mn; and a source of Mg and K. In contrast to a decrease in β-carotene and ascorbic acid content, an increase in total phenol content and antioxidant activity were observed in oven dried leaves compared to fresh stinging nettle leaves. Dried stinging nettle leaves or leaf powder are used to make infusions and decoctions for human medicinal and nutritional purposes due to the antioxidant properties of its constituent vitamins A and C, and phenolic compounds. This led to further investigation into the effect of the type of extraction (i.e. infusion and decoction) on the ascorbic acid, β-carotene, total phenol content, antioxidant activity of stinging nettle leaf powder manufactured using freeze drying or oven drying. β-carotene and ascorbic acid was found to be higher in infusions compared to decoctions. The total phenol content and antioxidant activity of decoction samples were significantly higher compared to infusions (p < 0.01). This study provides evidence that stinging nettle leaf food products could potentially contributes to dietary intakes of minerals (i.e. Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg and K), protein, vitamins (i.e. A and C) and antioxidants and can potentially be incorporated in the diet for overcoming micronutrient malnutrition. Further consumer research is needed to determine which sensory characteristics of the products from stinging nettles drive liking or disliking by target consumers. All in all, this study contributes to the understanding of the potential of stinging nettle for addressing food and nutrition security.
... The earliest known depiction of a fat tail sheep is on an Uruk III stone vessel about 5000 years before present, approximately 4000 years after initial domestication [62]. Given that fat tailed breeds are now prevalent in the Fertile Crescent, where sheep were originally domesticated, while thin tailed sheep breeds are predominant in peripheral areas and that the wild ancestor of sheep is thin tail, it has been assumed that the first domesticated sheep were thin tailed and fat tail was developed later [62,63]. ...
... The earliest known depiction of a fat tail sheep is on an Uruk III stone vessel about 5000 years before present, approximately 4000 years after initial domestication [62]. Given that fat tailed breeds are now prevalent in the Fertile Crescent, where sheep were originally domesticated, while thin tailed sheep breeds are predominant in peripheral areas and that the wild ancestor of sheep is thin tail, it has been assumed that the first domesticated sheep were thin tailed and fat tail was developed later [62,63]. We have investigated this hypothesis through the classification of selected alleles in the core haplotypes of our regions of interest as ancestral or derived. ...
Article
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The fat tail is a phenotype that divides indigenous Iranian sheep genetic resources into two major groups. The objective of the present study is to refine the map location of candidate regions associated with fat deposition, obtained via two separate whole genome scans contrasting thin and fat tail breeds, and to determine the nature of the selection occurring in these regions using a hitchhiking approach. Zel (thin tail) and Lori-Bakhtiari (fat tail) breed samples that had previously been run on the Illumina Ovine 50 k BeadChip, were genotyped with a denser set of SNPs in the three candidate regions using a Sequenom Mass ARRAY platform. Statistical tests were then performed using different and complementary methods based on either site frequency (FST and Median homozygosity) or haplotype (iHS and XP-EHH). The results from candidate regions on chromosome 5 and X revealed clear evidence of selection with the derived haplotypes that was consistent with selection to near fixation for the haplotypes affecting fat tail size in the fat tail breed. An analysis of the candidate region on chromosome 7 indicated that selection differentiated the beneficial alleles between breeds and homozygosity has increased in the thin tail breed which also had the ancestral haplotype. These results enabled us to confirm the signature of selection in these regions and refine the critical intervals from 113 kb, 201 kb, and 2831 kb to 28 kb, 142 kb, and 1006 kb on chromosome 5, 7, and X respectively. These regions contain several genes associated with fat metabolism or developmental processes consisting of TCF7 and PPP2CA (OAR5), PTGDR and NID2 (OAR7), AR, EBP, CACNA1F, HSD17B10,SLC35A2, BMP15, WDR13, and RBM3 (OAR X), and each of which could potentially be the actual target of selection. The study of core haplotypes alleles in our regions of interest also supported the hypothesis that the first domesticated sheep were thin tailed, and that fat tail animals were developed later. Overall, our results provide a comprehensive assessment of how and where selection has affected the patterns of variation in candidate regions associated with fat deposition in thin and fat tail sheep breeds.
... Alginic acid is insoluble in water and in most organic solvents. One part of the alginic acid adsorbs 300 mass parts of water, which causes its use as a thickener in the food industry, in particular in the preparation of ice cream, syrups, sauces and cheeses [1][2][3][4]. ...
... where T m (R) is the melting temperature of ice localized in the pores of radius R, T m, is the melting temperature of bulk ice,  is the density of the solid phase,  sl is the interaction energy of a solid object with a liquid and H f is the volume enthalpy of melting. For practical use equation (1) can be used as ΔT m = (k/R), in which the constant k for many heterogeneous systems containing water is close to 50 degrees·nm [16]. Distribution by radii of the adsorbed water clusters for hydrated alginic acid in different environments is shown in Fig. 4. For hydrated alginic acid powders, high values of interphase energies are observed, that is due to the high hydrophilicity of the polymer studied. ...
Article
The effect of the medium on the parameters of water bound to the surface of alginic acid powder was studied by low-temperature 1H NMR spectroscopy. The aim of this work was to study the effect of hydrophobic environment on the binding of water with alginic acid and to compare the parameters of the interfacial layers of water in air, in chloroform and chloroform with the addition of hydrochloric acid. It is shown that when adsorbed on the surface (500 mg/g H2O), most of it is strongly bound. It is shown that for most dispersed systems, when replacing the air with chloroform, the interfacial energy of water increases from 11.8 to 15.2 kJ/mol, which is due to the capability of weakly polar organic molecules to diffuse on the surface of solid particles, thereby reducing the interaction energy with the adsorbed surface water clusters. It is concluded that chloroform molecules cannot diffuse on the surface of alginic acid particles and affect only the structure of water clusters localized in the outer adsorption layer. In the presence of hydrochloric acid on the surface of alginic acid, a system of water clusters is formed, most of which does not dissolve hydrochloric acid, and the radii of these clusters is 2 nm, which are likely to form in the gaps between the polymer chains of polysaccharide.
... Hemoglobin is usually estimated as 150 mg/g (15%) of blood. Blood is rich in iron, proteins, and bioactive compounds which are suitable for human and livestock use (Davidson, 2014). Blood proteins are easily accessible, edible, and available in different forms, mainly as a liquid, frozen and dried. ...
... Plasma product (spray-dried plasma) has been well integrated into the food industry due to its foaming and leavening properties (Hsieh & Ofori, 2011). Besides, many cultures also consume blood as food or in combination with meat and other ingredients such as in blood sausage, black puddings, and pancakes (Davidson, 2014). In the feed industry, blood is used in the production of blood meals for feeding livestock and pets (Bah et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
In the present climate change scenario, livestock encounter different stresses such as physical, nutritional, chemical, psychological and thermal stress. Among these, thermal and nutritional stresses are of utmost concern in the tropics. Stress causes reduced growth, reproduction, production and health at the expense of redistribution of body fat and protein. Even though small ruminants are relatively resistant to harsh environmental conditions, stress stimulates complex responses in them which are fundamental in the preservation of cellular activities. The different physiological responses to thermal stress are variations in rectal temperature, respiration rate, pulse rate; hormonal changes in terms of thyroxin, triiodothyronine, cortisol, electrolyte concentration. The haematological responses include changes in haemoglobin level and packed cell volume etc. Variations in concentrations of antioxidants, plasma or serum enzymes, metabolites like blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein etc. are the different biochemical changes when animals are under extreme stress. Expression pattern of heat shock proteins and many other proteins also undergo change to ensure protection at molecular level. These physiological, biochemical and molecular responses together help goats to thrive in harsh environment. Use of molecular techniques to better understand these mechanisms of adaptations help to identify and promote the best climate resilient breeds to maintain the production efficiency.
... Stinging nettle (Urtica simensis) leaves are eaten in many parts of the world as cooked leaves at times of famine [5,10,11]. The leaves are popular especially in poor countries and lower socioeconomic classes [12]. ...
... The leaves are popular especially in poor countries and lower socioeconomic classes [12]. It could be utilized as spinach like a cooked vegetable in the human diet [5,10,13,14]. For instance, the leaf of nettle is used as a wild source of vegetables in rural areas of South Africa [13,14], and some highland areas of Ethiopia [11,15]. ...
Article
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In Ethiopia, a few studies had been conducted to improve the nutritional values and sensory acceptability of maize-based flatbread. These studies did not address indigenous edible wild green vegetables like stinging nettle (Urtica simensis). Consequently, there was a scientific report gap on the effect of incorporating stinging nettle leaf flour into local staple foods like flatbread. Therefore, this study was intended to investigate the nutritional composition and sensory acceptability of unleavened maize (Zea mays L.) flatbread (Kitta) supplemented with stinging nettle (Urtica simensis) flour. The flatbread was developed from composite flour of germinated maize and nettle leaf in a ratio of 90 : 10, 85 : 15, 80 : 20, and 75 : 25, respectively. Hundred percent (100%) nongerminated maize flour flatbread was used as control. Proximate composition, minerals (Fe, Zn, and Ca), and vitamin C contents were analyzed. The sensory acceptability test was rated by a nine-point hedonic scale. The result revealed that crude protein and fat decreased from 11.02 g to 7.21 g and 1.12 g to 0.48 g, respectively, when the amount of nettle flour supplementation increased from 0% to 25%. On the contrary, total ash, crude fiber, and total carbohydrate slightly increased from 1.84 to 3.81 g, 2.19 to 3.05, and 75.53 to 80.05 g, respectively. The calcium, zinc, and iron content significantly (p
... The earliest known depiction of a fat tail sheep is on an Uruk III stone vessel about 5000 years before present, approximately 4000 years after initial domestication [45]. Given that fat tailed breeds are now prevalent in the Fertile Crescent, where sheep were originally domesticated, while thin tailed sheep breeds are predominant in peripheral areas and that the wild ancestor of sheep is thin tail, it has been assumed that the rst domesticated sheep were thin tailed and fat tail was developed later [45,46]. ...
... The earliest known depiction of a fat tail sheep is on an Uruk III stone vessel about 5000 years before present, approximately 4000 years after initial domestication [45]. Given that fat tailed breeds are now prevalent in the Fertile Crescent, where sheep were originally domesticated, while thin tailed sheep breeds are predominant in peripheral areas and that the wild ancestor of sheep is thin tail, it has been assumed that the rst domesticated sheep were thin tailed and fat tail was developed later [45,46]. We have investigated this hypothesis through the classi cation of selected alleles in core haplotypes of our regions of interest as ancestral or derived. ...
Preprint
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Background Fatness related traits are economically very important in sheep production and are associated with serious diseases in humans. The fat tail is a phenotype that divides domesticated sheep into two major groups. The objective of the present study is to refine the map location of candidate regions associated with fat deposition, obtained via two separate whole genome scans contrasting thin and fat tail breeds, and to determine the nature of the selection occurring in these regions using hitchhiking approach. Results Zel (thin tail) and Lori-Bakhtiari (fat tail) breed samples that had previously been run on the Illumina Ovine 50k BeadChip, were genotyped with a denser set of SNPs in the three candidate regions using a Sequenom Mass ARRAY platform. Statistical tests were then performed using different and complementary methods based on either site frequency (FST and Median homozygosity) or haplotype (iHS and XP-EHH). Results from candidate regions on chromosome 5 and X revealed clear evidence of selection with the derived haplotypes that were consistent with selection to near fixation for the haplotypes affecting fat tail size in the fat tail breed. Analysis of the candidate region on chromosome 7 indicated that selection differentiated the beneficial alleles between breeds and homozygosity has increased in the thin tail breed which also had the ancestral haplotype. These results enabled us to confirm the signature of selection in these regions and refine the critical intervals from 113kb, 201kb and 2,831kb to 28kb, 142kb and 1,006kb on chromosome 5, 7 and X respectively. These regions contain several genes associated with fat metabolism or developmental processes consisting TCF7 and PPP2CA (OAR5), PTGDR and NID2 (OAR7), AR, EBP, CACNA1F, HSD15B, SLC35A2, BMP15, WDR13 and RBM3 (OAR X), each of which could potentially be the actual target of selection. Study of core haplotypes alleles in our regions of interest also supported the hypothesis that the first domesticated sheep were thin tailed and fat tail animals were developed later. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive assessment of how and where selection has affected the patterns of variation in candidate regions associated with fat deposition in thin and fat tail sheep breeds. The hitchhiking mapping approach in this study was novel in the sense that most of the exploratory genome scan studies in domestic animals have not clarified the signal from the candidate regions, probably due to the lack of suitable genomic resources.
... Thus duck eggs were seldom eaten or sold. The reason obtained by the survey, basically on taboo, partially explains why duck eggs have not found favour with consumers [8][9][10][11]. ...
... Over the wings and thighs, the skin is more closely joined to underlying tissue than over the rest of the body. The epidermis is about 12 cells thick with the horny outer layer being about 5 cells, the transitional layer being about two and the inner, germinative layer being about 4-6 cells [11][12][13][14][15]. This work was therefore set out to evaluate the proximate compositions and other related parameters in the various organs of the Cairina moschata bird. ...
Article
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The proximate compositions of brain (A), eyes (B), tongue (E), liver (D), heart (F), gizzard (C), skin (H) and muscle (G) of Muscovy duck-hen were determined. The proximate composition values ranged as follows (values in g/100g on dry weight basis) ash (0.18 – 3.77 ± 1.40), moisture (0.50 – 4.78± 1.40), protein (3.24 – 79.9 ± 29.7), fat (0.23 – 5.60 ± 2.04), carbohydrate (6.19 – 95.8 ± 33.6), dry matter (95.22 – 99.5± 1.40) and organic matter (91.45 – 99.27± 2.63) with all the parameters being significantly different among the samples. Metabolizable energy contribution from protein, fat and carbohydrate in the samples ranged from (kJ/100g/kcal/100g): 740(180) – 7924(1864). Percentage energy contribution range was 5.53/5.70 – 59.2/59.1. Whereas the crude fat ranged from 0.23 – 5.60 g/100g, the total fatty acid (TFA) ranged from 0.217 – 5.08 g/100g or EPg/100g with corresponding energy of (kJ/100g versus kcal/100g): 8.51/2.07 – 207/50.4 and 8.03/1.95 – 188/45.7 respectively. UEDP% (assuming 60% energy utilization) range was 1.95/1.96 – 49.0/48.9. Approximate sample weight equivalents to the energy requirements of adults and infants had ranges of : for 2500kcal per day, sample range was 617 – 644g (adults) and at 3000kcal per day, requirement was 741 – 773g (adults); infant at 740kcal would require 183 – 191g. Water balance for protein metabolism had value range of 6.48 – 160ml. Correlational analyses of samples at r=0.01 gave these results: A/B (0.3024), B/E (0.1794), A/E (0.9916), C/D (0.9994), D/F (0.9892), C/F (0.9923) and G/H (-0.2014). Hence, Muscovy duck-hens are good sources of protein, metabolizable energy and low fat.
... There is no definitive composition of spices that makes up Ras el Hanout. The mixture usually consists of over a dozen spices, in different proportions [9]. ...
Article
Aims: Our study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ten spices in the composition of two spice blends named Ras el Hanout I and Ras el Hanout II. The spices studied are Alpinia officinarum, Cinnamomum cassia, Carum carvi, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma domestica, Foeniculum vulgare, Piper cubeba, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, mixtures were prepared well defined measures. Methodology: The contents of polyphenols were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. The antioxidant activities were determined in vitro through trapping evaluation tests of the free radical DPPH and iron reduction (FRAP). The dried crude extracts of spices were prepared in a water-methanol mixture. Results: Yields vary considerably from one spice to another with values ranging between 4.01% for Coriandrum sativum and 12.26% for Cuminum cyminum. The evaluation of the antioxidant activity by the scavenging of free radical DPPH and the iron reduction method (FRAP) showed that our extracts have an antioxidant potential. The extract of Cinnamomum cassia has better reducing capability of iron in comparison to all other spices and even compared with standard antioxidant ascorbic acid. Also, a stronger free radical scavenging activity was observed compared to that of ascorbic acid and BHA. On the other hand, the concentration which inhibits the 50% effect free radical DPPH is equal to 0.15±0.035 mg / mL for Ras el Hanout I and 0.51±0.07 mg / mL for Ras el Hanout II but which remains higher than that of 0.09±0.05mg /mL ascorbic acid. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that crude extracts of spices exhibit (individually and as a mix) significant antioxidant activity.
... Sesame seed, which is rich in nutrients (% oil and 25% protein), has long been used for immediate use and as a supply of high-quality oil due to antioxidants such as sesamin, sesaminol, sesamol, sesamolinal, and squalene, as well as a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids. (Davidson, 1999). Crop plant genetic diversity is important for sustaining high productivity levels. ...
... Pingali and Khwaja (2004) pronounced that fast-food is an up-and-coming trend whereby it is trickling down from the restaurant to street level, where fast-food is sold as street food. Davidson (2014) distinguished fast-food as a phenomenon characterized by the idea of going into a public eating space and requesting food items that will come rapidly and can be eaten speedily. Selvarajn (2012) added that ready-to-eat food is a foodstuff offered for sale without extra cooking or preparation, which is packaged on the property where they are sold and are ready for eating. ...
... WC[88,89]. Zarfari et al. indicated that WC extract significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity, reduced MDA and uric acid levels, and consequently led to a reduction of arsenite-induced renal toxicity[45].Karami et al. revealed that vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity increased serum uric acid, creatinine, and MDA in blood and kidney. ey showed that after administration of WC extract (500 mg/kg), MDA, creatinine, and uric acid levels in serum were significantly reduced[90].2.8. ...
Article
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Watercress (WC) is an aquatic vegetable that belongs to the Brassicaceae family, and it often grows near water. In traditional medicine, WC is a known remedy for hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, arthritis, bronchitis, diuresis, odontalgia, and scurvy. It also acts as an antiestrogenic and can be used as a nutritional supplement. It has been reported that these therapeutic effects are due to primary metabolites such as isothiocyanates, glucosinolates, polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids, and proanthocyanidins), vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, E, and C), terpenes (including carotenoids), and bioelements which exist in this plant. Many pharmacological studies confirm the antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, renoprotective, hepatoprotective, and antigenotoxicity effects of WC. The consumption of WC extract can be useful in reducing the complications of hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, the extract of WC could markedly augment the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. Interestingly, consumption of food rich in polyphenols such as WC extract can help reduce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cancer susceptibility. Several studies also showed that WC extract significantly reduced liver injury as a result of cholestatic hepatic injury, gamma radiation, arsenic, and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. In this review, the researchers focus on the phytochemical and biochemical characterizations of WC and its therapeutic effects in the treatment of human diseases.
... It belongs to family Apiaceae. It generally grows all over India especially in Rajasthan & Gujarat based on its traditional use [2]. ...
Article
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Trachyspermum ammi L. (Apiaceae) is commonly famous as Ajwain. Ajwain, Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague is an erect yearly herb with striate stem, India and eastern Persia is the origin of this plant. The most useful element of ajwain is the little fruit like caraway, which always especially admired in Indian delectable recipes, flavorful baked goods, and snacks. In Ayurvedic meds, it is utilized as a restorative plant for its stimulant, carminative, antispasmodic, and tonic properties. Ajwain is grown in arid or partially arid regions where concentration of salts is very high. Ajwain due to its typical odor and sharp tastes is employed in curries as a flavor. Its seed are utilized as flavoring agents in foods as preservatives, for the manufacture of vital oil in perfume industry, in medicine and Essential oil extracted from Ajwain especially thymol helps in relieving cholera. Ajwain seeds are also effective in treating aphrodisiac and premature ejaculation. Among external relieves, Ajwain is effective in treating asthma, delirium, colic earache and rheumatism. Along with the potent antioxidant activity, the Ajwain methanolic extract revealed to exhibit in vivo hepatoprotective activity with 80% defense against an in general deadly dose of paracetamol in pests. The bronchodilatory impact of the decocted concentrate of Ajwain on the asthmatic patients' airways was inspected in an ensuing examination ponders. According to the outcomes, the concentrate has a reasonably bronchodilatory impact on asthmatic airways assessed to the impact of Theophylline at fixations utilized.
... Черният пудинг е различен регионален тип кренвирши с произход от Обединеното кралство и Ирландия. Приготвя се от свинска кръв, със свинска мазнина или говеждо месо и зърнени храни, обикновено овесени ядки, овесени ядки или ечемичени [37]. Пчелният прашец може да се характеризира като функционален храна с различни подобряващи ефекти върху човешкото здраве поради неговите хранителни свойства [38]. ...
Article
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Recently, interest in bee pollen is growing due to the recognition of its nutritional and biological potential. The bee pollen has a valuable chemical composition that varies depending on the flora and climate in the latitudes from which it is collected. It contains carbohydrates, proteins and all essential amino acids. In the beehive, pollen is the only food for bees and larvae and is important for their survival. The collected pollen of bees attracts attention as a "functional food" due to its high content of bioactive substances. In the human nutrition it is most often used as a dietary supplement, providing a feeling of well-being and contributing to the functional and nutritional balance of the body. It is rich in polyphenols, flavanoids, β-carotene, vitamin C, as well as micro-and macroelements, as a result of which it has a wide range of pharmacological activities (anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antiallergic, etc.). All this predetermines the interest in this bee product and its great potential in its application to various areas of life such as pharmacy, alternative medicine, cosmetics, and the food industry. The study of detailed information about its chemical composition is important for both nutrition and medical cosmetics.
... Des recherches qui restent en marge de la microbiologie 24 Dans cette dernière partie, je développe l'idée que ces recherches participatives, largement exposées tout au long de l'article, restent toutefois minoritaires dans l'ensemble de la microbiologie française. D'une part, si elles ont contribué à une meilleure connaissance des écosystèmes microbiens laitiers, elles se sont déroulées sans les grandes industries fournisseuses de ferments, qui maîtrisent aujourd'hui le marché de l'ensemencement microbien fromager (Gibbons, 2016). D'autre part, ces recherches restent également minoritaires au sein même de l'Inra. ...
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Mountain environments have long been the site and target of partner-oriented research policies which favour approaches based on the co-construction of research problems between development actors, professionals and scientists. Research on the French dairy sectors in the Alps and the Jura is an example of this situation. Taking the example of dairy microbiology and the emergence of the notion of "microbial terroir” in the Alps and the Jura, I propose in this article to answer the following question: how does one produce knowledge in an Alpine context? In the first part, I will present the different forms that this collaborative research has taken since the 1960s. In the second part, I will show how the notion of "microbial terroir” has emerged within these research systems and I will develop the idea that this participatory research remains a minority form of knowledge production in microbiology. I will base this work on an analysis of the reflexive literature published by these different research projects as well as on scientometric analyses and archival work carried out between 2016 and 2020 in the Northern Alps.
... Thus, litchi cultivation is the livelihood security for a large population, especially in the state of Bihar. Because its perfume-like flavour is lost in the process of canning, the fruit is usually eaten fresh (Davidson et al. 2006). These fruits typically have a higher price as its flesh is highly edible (Courtney 2005). ...
Chapter
Lychee is an evergreen tree of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, mostly grown in China, India, Thailand, Vietnam, and the rest of tropical Southeast Asia, and commercially propagated through air layering by vegetative propagation. Lychee can successfully grow at higher altitudes with sufficient moisture and in an acidic soil environment but is prone to severe frost. Lychee has the ability to spread and produce good foliage growth in the presence of sufficient organic matter including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the soil. The lychee contains a good amount of polyphenolic compounds, pigments such as cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside (rutin), and quercetin glucoside, and tannins that include polymeric proanthocyanidins. The consumption of lychee in adequate amounts may help in fighting different types of body ailments as it protects from heart diseases, normalizes blood pressure and heart rate, prevents cancer, improves digestive system health, etc. Lychee is also provided with minerals (potassium and copper) that help in maintaining body fluid balance and heartbeat control and maintaining blood pressure. However, studies have also shown that it may also cause adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and encephalopathy.
... The diversity of adipocyte volume across breeds is influenced by diet and genetic effects. The genetic effects are considered the main determinants for the formation and structure of adipocytes (Cheng et al., 2016;Davidson, 2014). Therefore, none of the aforementioned methods have been able to significantly reduce the tail fat in fat-tailed sheep. ...
Article
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Tail fat content affects meat quality and varies significantly among different breeds of sheep. Ghezel (fat-tailed) and Zel (thin-tailed) are two important Iranian local sheep breeds with different patterns of fat storage. The current study presents the transcriptome characterization of tail fat using RNA sequencing in order to get a better comprehension of the molecular mechanism of lipid storage in the two mentioned sheep breeds. Seven (Zel = 4 and Ghezel = 3) 7-month-old male lambs were used for this experiment. The results of sequencing were analyzed with bioinformatics methods, including differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identification, functional enrichment analysis, structural classification of proteins, protein-protein interaction (PPI) and network and module analyses. Some of the DEGs, such as LIPG, SAA1, SOCS3, HIF-1 α , and especially IL-6, had a close association with lipid metabolism. Furthermore, functional enrichment analysis revealed pathways associated with fat deposition, including "fatty acid metabolism", "fatty acid biosynthesis" and "HIF-1 signaling pathway". The structural classification of proteins showed that major down-regulated DEGs in the Zel (thin-tailed) breed were classified under transporter class and that most of them belonged to the solute carrier transporter (SLC) families. In addition, DEGs under the transcription factor class with an important role in lipolysis were up-regulated in the Zel (thin-tailed) breed. Also, network analysis revealed that IL-6 and JUNB were hub genes for up-regulated PPI networks, and HMGCS1, VPS35 and VPS26A were hub genes for down-regulated PPI networks. Among the up-regulated DEGs, the IL-6 gene seems to play an important role in lipolysis of tail fat in thin-tailed sheep breeds via various pathways such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Due to the probable role of the IL-6 gene in fat lipolysis and also due to the strong interaction of IL-6 with the other up-regulated DEGs, it seems that IL-6 accelerates the degradation of lipids in tail fat cells.
... On the other hand, any other part of a plant; seed, bark, root, fruit, or flower, often used in the dried state is called a spice. Common examples of spices are cloves bud, turmeric rhizome, cinnamon bark, garlic bulb, ginger rhizome, peppercorn berries and cumin seeds (Figure 1) [2]. Each can be differentiated by their growing condition, taste, and part used [3]. ...
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Herbs and spices are plant parts (herbs from leaves and spices from other parts) that are conventionally used in their fresh or dried state for flavouring, natural condiments, preservatives and for medicinal purposes. Worldwide, most spices are classified on the basis of taste, season of growth, economic importance, growth habit and plant part used. Black pepper, chilies, small cardamom, ginger and turmeric are some of the widely used spices while common herbs include thyme, basil and bay leaves. These herbs are basically classified according to usage, active constituents and period of life. Secondary metabolites such as Eugenol, thymol, limonene, cuminaldehyde, curcumin, piperine, quercetin, luteolin in these plant parts have been found to be responsible for anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypocholesterolemic effects. Their application in water fortification, milk and cheese processing, production of beauty products and pesticides among others could not be underestimated. Finally, adulteration, toxicity and allergic reactions are some of the identified limitations and challenges often encountered in the use of herbs and spices.
... There is also low availability of the barley production due to this there is lack of utilization of barley flour for the biscuits industries. But when for investigations, biscuits from barley flour and wheat flour were made and consumed by humans there were really amazing effects of barley flour biscuits as a comparison between wheat flour biscuits and barley flour biscuits (Davidson, 1999). Now, the researchers are trying their best to make such biscuits which are from barley flour and are highly rich in β-glucan as this ingredient highly improves the human health and has well heart saving power and boosts up the energy level in people (Fedek et al., 2007). ...
... Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of filamentous fungi that grow above the ground, have long been a part of the human diet, and used as both foods and medicine (Alexopoulos et al., 1996;Davidson, 1999;. They are considered as vegetables and have been informally categorized among the "White Vegetables" from a culinary point of view (Weaver & Marr, 2013). ...
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To evaluate the nutritional impact of adding a serving of mushrooms on usual intakes and population adequacy of nutrients the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2016 dietary data for 9–18 years and 19+ years and a composite of commonly consumed raw mushrooms as well as oyster mushrooms (nutrient profiles from USDA data) were used for modeling. Usual intakes of nutrients and the percent population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or above the Adequate Intake (AI) were estimated before and after addition of mushrooms. Means with nonoverlapping 95th percentile confidence levels were used to assess meaningful differences. Addition of a serving (84 g) of mushrooms to the diet resulted in an increase in dietary fiber (5%–6%), copper (24%–32%), phosphorus (6%), potassium (12%–14%), selenium (13%–14%), zinc (5%–6%), riboflavin (13%–15%), niacin (13%–14%), and choline (5%–6%) in both adolescents and adults; and in iron (2.32%), thiamin (4.07%), folate (3.66%), and vitamin B6 (4.64%) in adults only, but had no impact on energy, carbohydrate, fat, or sodium. Addition of a serving of mushrooms also decreased the % below EAR for copper, phosphorus, and riboflavin for those 9–18 years and for copper, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamin B6 for those 19+ years and increased the % above AI for potassium for both age groups. Addition of oyster mushrooms additionally increased 12%–13% vitamin D, and 12%–15% choline in the NHANES 2011–2016 diets. Addition of mushrooms exposed to UV light to increase vitamin D levels to 5 µg/serving also almost doubled vitamin D intake (98%–104%) and decreased inadequacy. Addition of a serving of mushrooms would also add 2.2 mg ergothioneine and 3.5 mg glutathione to the diet. Addition of a mushroom serving to the diet would increase several micronutrients including shortfall nutrients, without having any impact on energy, sodium, or fat.
... In the Samar region, production of lettuce is just limited because of its fragile weather condition that affects the growth performance of lettuce. Generally, lettuce was eaten raw for salad recipes or "kinilaw" [2] which could be infected by Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica as a risk factor [3] especially, when grown in the field. Those problems can be overcome through a hydroponics system of production under the protected structure. ...
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Lettuce is cultivated as a leaf vegetable sometimes for seeds and stem. Most lettuce varieties are eaten fresh and commonly served as the base of green salads. Thus, this study employed an alternative of the fermented plant juice (FPJ) in an instance of intercepting something to banana peel (BP), Arachis pintoi (AP), and Trichantea gigantea (TG). The additives of coco-water (CW) appear in BP+AP+TG, and types of nutrient solution (CNS) with the outcome on the hydroponic system of growth and yield of lettuce. The experiment was laid out following a Simple Factor arranged in RCBD with three replications and have five (5) samples per treatment per replication. The following treatments were evaluated as T1-CW; T2-CNS; T3-BP+C; T4-AP+CW; T5-TG+CW; T6-BP+AP (1:1)+CW; T7-AP+TG(1:1)+CW; T8-TG+BP(1:1)+CW; and T 9-AP+BP+TG(1:1:1)+CW. The results a significant effect on the plant height (taller height), number of leaves (more leaves), the diameter of leaves (wider leaver), and length of leaves (longer leaves) of the treatments by nutrient solution (T2) of lettuce. The T2 was comparable effect T1 but among in the treatments of the BP, AP, and TG in lettuce. The root length and root dry weight were a significant effect on the longer of roots to length and denser of the dried weight roof of T2 in the treatment of lettuce, respectively. The yield that nutrient solution (T2) had achieved the more immeasurable yield of lettuce. It shows T2 and T1 were 11.14 and 7.98 ton/ha; respectively, acquired comparable effect in the treatments of high yield of lettuce.
... Normally species belonging to the genera Takifugu, Lagocephalus, Sphoeroides, and porcupine fish of the genus Diodon. Fugu can be lethally poisonous due to its tetrodotoxin; therefore, it must be carefully prepared to remove toxic parts and to avoid contaminating the meat (Davidson 2006). ...
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The silver-cheeked toad fish, Lagocephalus scleratus, was recorded for the first time on 25 September 2014. Two specimens of this fish species were collected from the by-catch landed by a commercial deep-sea trawler at Kasimedu Fishing Harbour, Chennai coast, Southeast India. The morphometric and meristic characters of the recorded specimens are described and discussed. The specimen was compared with earlier reports.
... Ceviche is a preparation that extends through the Pacific coast of Spanish-speaking America, from Mexico in the north to Chile in the south. It consists mainly of citruscured fish or seafood [1]. The origin of the dish is unclear, with competing interpretations establishing different histories for the dish; these attempts range from a Babylonian origin carried to Persia, Al-Andalus and only then to America by Spanish conquistadores [2]; or a humble Peruvian and Ecuadorian fishermen fare consisting of raw, salt and chili cured fish that evolved to a Passiflora (either Amazonic P. edulis or the Andean P. tripartita) acid denaturation that acquired its present form through the citrus fruits brought by the Spaniards; firstly Seville oranges and later lime and lemon [2]. ...
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Ceviche is present in all the Pacific coast of Latin America. Its origin and history are still debated. The consensus is that it arises from creolization between local and Eurasian ingredients and techniques. Ecuadorian ceviche is both traditional and iconic, present in one form or another in its twenty-four provinces, adapting to the availability of products and becoming part of the identity of regions, parishes, and cities. The objective of this work is to confirm ceviche as a traditional Ecuadorian dish, to assess the most popular types of Ecuadorian ceviche, condiments and sides, and also to glimpse the wide variety of preparations that appear through adaptation to ingredient availability and food customs. We performed a review of both scientific and gray literature, a relative search volume analysis and a survey among culinary professionals (n = 403). The most popular in Ecuador is shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) ceviche with 54% of the responses, followed by fish, regardless of species (29%), and both lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) and black clam (Anadara tuberculosa) with 5%. The most utilized condiments are onion, lemon juice and cilantro a "holy trinity" with more than 90% usage. These results are in good agreement with those provided by Web search volumes. The variety of main ingredients, condiments and sides is ample, though, and suggests further research. Sustainability concerns related to ceviche are the sustainability of shrimp farming and fish capture, and the preservation of mollusks and their ecosystems.
... In some regions, whipped cream, jelly, or fresh or canned fruit are added as a topping. It worth mention that the word Kunafa can be used to point to this dessert with all ingredients, or to the dough only (63). ...
... 14. Astringent Properties: An acid erudition from the seedpods is effective in treating stomach disorders like dyspepsia, vomiting, indigestion, costiveness, diarrhea and dysentery thus acts as astringent 97,143 . ...
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This purpose of the present study is to study the medicinal and dietary properties of Cicer arietinum. Cicer arietinum is found to have many pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, cardiovascular, anticancer, antimicrobial activities. Carbohydrates, Protiens, Amino acid, phytosterls, phenolic compounds, tannins, amino acids and flavonoids. The present review also focuses on the active ingredients of Cicer arietinum which impart the plant with with its medicinal and dietary properties.
... Pingali and Khwaja (2004) pronounced that fast-food is an up-and-coming trend whereby it is trickling down from the restaurant to street level, where fast-food is sold as street food. Davidson (2014) distinguished fast-food as a phenomenon characterized by the idea of going into a public eating space and requesting food items that will come rapidly and can be eaten speedily. Selvarajn (2012) added that ready-to-eat food is a foodstuff offered for sale without extra cooking or preparation, which is packaged on the property where they are sold and are ready for eating. ...
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Today, contamination of food by microbial agents is a worldwide concern. This study aimed to examine the presence of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) bacteria in foods served in the local fast-food restaurants in Alexandria (Egypt), investigate food safety handling practices in the local fast-food restaurants, besides, assess customer's awareness of the prerequisites of safe food at local fast-food restaurants. This study was based on two different methodologies; namely, survey methodology and laboratory examination methodology. Data for laboratory examination were collected from (90) food samples collected from (11) local fast-food restaurants within three tourist shopping malls located in Alexandria city in Egypt. Also, data from (387) customers were analyzed. The results of the microbiological examination revealed that one-third of collected food samples contain the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. The findings of the study also revealed a shortage in the application of personal hygiene standards in the local fast-food restaurants; besides, the customers do not have sufficient awareness of the prerequisites of food safety at local fast-food restaurants. This study deepens the understanding of the concept of food safety in local fast-food restaurants, consequently, could help ensure food safety and protect the tourists' health. Keywords: Food Safety; Shiga Toxin- producing E. coli; Laboratory Examination; Customers' Awareness; Local Fast-food Restaurants
... In Unani system of medicine, ajwain is used as a crude drug to enhance body resistance and is prescribed in amoebiasis. There is a need for selectively acting antimicrobial agents capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, while not negatively impacting the bulk gastrointestinal tract microflora 3 . ...
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Investigation on the photochemical and antibacterial properties of ethanol extracts of in vivo grown plants as well as in vitro generated plantlets of Trachyspermum ammi was carried out. Nodal explants of TA when placedon MS medium supplemented with 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP) at 4µg/ml resulted into multiple shoots. The success rate was found to be 95%. These shoots, on transfer developed bunch of branched roots in presence of Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 2µg/ml and BAP at 1 µg/ml. In order to study the phytochemical properties of both in vivo and in vitro plants Trachyspermum ammi, ethanolic extracts were prepared by soxhlet extraction method for this study. The results revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenols and tannins. Further the ethanol extracts of such regenerated in vitro plants along with that of natural in vivo garden plants on comparison were found to be more effective against gram positive bacteria when compared to gram negative bacteria
... The use of honey by ancient Egyptians can be traced as far back as 5500 BC. They not only used honey for offering gratitude to their gods but also employed it as an embalming material and a wounds' covering (Davidson, 2014). The ancient Greeks had a belief that regular consumption of honey increases lifespan and improves health. ...
... Three USDA Food Patterns were developed for DGA: 1) healthy USstyle food pattern (HUP) provides details on each of the food groups and other dietary components of public health importance and is based on nutrient dense types and proportions of foods typically consumed in the US; 2) healthy Mediterranean-style pattern (HMP) adapted from the HUP by modifying amounts from some food groups to more closely reflect Mediterranean-style diets associated with positive health outcomes in studies, and 3) healthy vegetarian pattern (HVP) adapted from the HUP, modifying amounts from some food groups (such as protein foods) to more closely reflect eating patterns of vegetarians (2). Mushrooms have long been a part of the human diet and used as both foods and medicine (3,4). They are the fruiting bodies of filamentous fungi that grow above the ground (4,5). ...
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Mushrooms are part of vegetables and are important source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. The objective was to assess the nutritional impact of adding a serving of mushrooms in USDA Food Patterns using a similar approach to that used by USDA for Dietary Guidelines. A composite of commonly consumed raw mushrooms (white, brown/crimini and portabella; at 1:1:1 ratio) and raw speciality mushrooms (oyster mushrooms) were used for modeling. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Data central database (https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/) was used to obtain nutrient profiles of mushrooms. Nutritional profiles of USDAs Food Patterns were obtained from the Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, Appendix E-3 (https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report/15-appendix-E3/) and dietary modeling was accomplished by adding nutrients from mushrooms. Addition of an 84 g serving of commonly consumed raw mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns resulted in about 1% increase in calories, less than 5% increase in macronutrients, 2-3% increase in fiber, 8-12% increase in potassium, 12-18% increase in riboflavin, 11-26% increase in niacin, 11-23% selenium and 16-26% increase in copper depending upon the pattern type and calorie level. Mushrooms exposed to UV light to increase vitamin D levels to 200 IU/serving also increased vitamin D by 67-90% in USDA Food Patterns. Addition of oyster mushroom also additionally increased 8-11% vitamin D and 10-16% choline in USDA Food Patterns. Addition of mushrooms had minimal effect on sodium (1% or less increase) and no effect on saturated fat or cholesterol in USDA Food Patterns. Based on published data, a serving of commonly consumed mushrooms would also be expected to add 2.2 mg ergothioneine and 3.5 mg glutathione to the USDA Food Patterns. Addition of mushrooms to USDA Food Patterns increased several micronutrients including shortfall nutrients (such as potassium, vitamin D and choline), and had a minimal or no impact on overall calories, sodium or saturated fat.
... Chickpea, Cicer arietinum is considered as "king of pulses" and also known as cici, bengal gram or garbanzo beans and old-world pulse because it was first time grown in the Levant and ancient Egypt, belongs to family Fabaceae [4] . The major chickpea producing countries are India (67.41%), followed by Australia (6.21%), Pakistan (5.73%), Turkey (3.86%), and Myanmar (3.74%). ...
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Screening of chickpea germplasm for identifying the biophysical and biochemical basis of host plant resistance were carried out against Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) under laboratory condition during 2017-18. Observation recorded revealed that the germplasm ICC39735 (57.33 eggs/100 seeds) was least preferred for egg laying, while maximum number of eggs were recorded on ICC6263 (177.67 eggs/100 seeds). Maximum developmental periods (29.83 days) for pulse beetle & minimum per cent adult emergence (11.89%), growth index (0.035) were recorded on ICC372351 showing considerable resistance pulse beetle. On the basis of morphological observation, the female beetle laid the minimum number of eggs on rough and medium sized seeds of ICC397375, however maximum number of eggs were found on smooth and black colored seeds of ICC6263. The germplasm ICC372351 with maximum phenol (1.63 mg/g), flavonoid (0.42 mg/g) & Protease inhibitors (3.31 IU/g) content recorded lowest growth index for pulse beetle.
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This chapter presents the assemblage of 874 mollusc shells, fossils and a coral, of both local and imported species, that were collected from all strata during the 2007–2009 excavation seasons at the Givati Parking Lot site.
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Slaughterhouses and meat processing industries produce large amounts of waste water with high fat, grease and protein content. Waste from animal by-products can be a significant source of physical and biological animal contamination. Waste material is also a potential source of food for pests, which may give rise to further microbiological contamination. These contaminations can pose a great impact on the health of consumers and hence must be prevented and reduced. By slaughtering and processing of animals for meat, large qualities of waste and by-products are generated, which need to be adequately processed and utilized. Animal by-products and wastes are a good source of renewable energy as well and its production is economically feasible. This chapter deals with the management of waste and utilization of by-products of meat, poultry and fish processing industries.
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Medicinal herbs have the special importance due its use since ancient times and gained popularity over conventional medicines owing to their reduced risk of side effects, effectiveness in chronic conditions, lower cost and widespread availability. Pudina (Menthapiperita L) is one of them and highly recommended herbal medicine for the Ta'dīl-i-Mizāj (normalization of temperament). It has the significant properties like Musakhkin, Mulaṭṭif, and Muqaww-ī-A'ṣāb, Mulatif, kasire Riyah, Mudre Baul wa Tams, Dafe Qai, Fadie zahar , Munzij, Muqawemeda, Qatile kirm, Jazib, Munzij Mawade Ghaleez, Daffe Taaffun Hazim etc. The present review highlights the traditional uses, therapeutic and pharmacological action in the light of available preclinical and clinical data.
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This book is depicting sufficient information on most popular indigenous vegetables account of the principles and its utility approach. The detailed index of the book gives a hope that it would be comprehensive, very rich in subject and well-organized. The book has been carefully compiled by the author and this would be helpful for the students, researchers, Home Scientists and people of the country. Each chapter is carefully laid out in a readable and easy to understand manner. The author has analyzed and drawn on a broad range of existing indigenous vegetables and on the basis of suitable material delivered in the compact form at one place in the form this book. The book based on appropriate information of crops which are not commonly known and in cultivation practices. The book is having systematic information regarding indigenous vegetables like their nutritional aspect, propagation, diversity and recipe of crop Content in tabular form and photographs of indigenous vegetables with recipes makes book more informative and it will help to identify the plants or vegetables easily.
Chapter
Herbs and spices are used for culinary purposes not only for their flavor, aroma, and color but also for their therapeutic effects on human health since ancient era without the knowledge of its bioactive compounds. Herbs and spices are used as extracts in paste form for external purposes to heal wounds and bruises. The phytochemicals in them are rich sources of antioxidants. Indian diets are enriched with such herbs and spices due to their medicinal values. The present study focuses on the role of herbs, spices, and dietary products such as green leafy vegetables, whole grains, pulses, cereals, and dairy products, which possess phytoconstituents such as carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids and secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and polyphenols that act as phytoantioxidants to expel reactive oxygen species (ROS) that is a key factor in disease generation.
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Bu makale, Türk lokanta işletmeciliği ve Isparta ili geleneksel kebapçı esnafı/lokanta işletmelerinin ve aşçılık mesleğinin sürdürülebilir rekabet anlayışını ve bu anlayışa yön veren temel yeteneklerin incelenmesine yönelik karma bir araştırmadır. Araştırma uygunluk örneklemi yoluyla belirlenen ve eşzamanlı dönüşümsel tasarım ile kadim kebapçılar olarak nitelenen, kuruluş tarihleri en az bir asra dayanan, atadan işletmeci üç kebapçı esnafı/lokanta işletmesi üzerinde gözlem, görüşme ve derinliğine mülakat tekniklerini içeren etnografik temelli nitel ve anket tekniği ile nicel analizi kapsar. Araştırmanın nitel bulguları, sözel tarihleme yöntemi ile irdelenmiş, nicel bulgularla desteklenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda kebapçı esnafı/lokanta işletmelerinin sürdürülebilir rekabet için daha fazla çaba göstermesi gerektiği tespit edilmiştir.
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The Apiaceae taxon is one of the most important families of flowering plants and includes thousands of species used for food, flavoring, fragrance, medical and industrial purposes. This study had the specific intent of reviewing the main genomics and transcriptomic data available for this family and their use for the constitution of new varieties. This was achieved starting from the description of the main reproductive systems and barriers, with particular reference to cytoplasmic (CMS) and nuclear (NMS) male sterility. We found that CMS and NMS systems have been discovered and successfully exploited for the development of varieties only in Foeniculum vulgare, Daucus carota, Apium graveolens and Pastinaca sativa; whereas, strategies to limit self-pollination have been poorly considered. Since the constitution of new varieties benefits from the synergistic use of marker-assisted breeding in combination with conventional breeding schemes, we also analyzed and discussed the available SNP and SSR marker datasets (20 species) and genomes (8 species). Furthermore, the RNA-seq studies aimed at elucidating key pathways in stress tolerance or biosynthesis of the metabolites of interest were limited and proportional to the economic weight of each species. Finally, by aligning 53 plastid genomes from as many species as possible, we demonstrated the precision offered by the super barcoding approach to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Apiaceae species. Overall, despite the impressive size of this family, we documented an evident lack of molecular data, especially because genomic and transcriptomic resources are circumscribed to a small number of species. We believe that our contribution can help future studies aimed at developing molecular tools for boosting breeding programs in crop plants of the Apiaceae family.
Thesis
p>Food is an important component of Jewish religion and culture, providing a fertile source for the making of Jewish identities'. The increasingly popular mantra 'you are what you eat' takes on a very specific meaning in the context of the practice of Judaism. The Jewish dietary laws, kashrut, impose a system of eating that embody the religion. Yet kosher food is not necessarily the same as 'Jewish' food. The thesis explores ideas of Jewish identity in Britain in relation to food, examining the period from the end of austerity in the mid-1950s until the beginning of the twenty-first century. The period starts with Britain's emergence from the strictures of rationing and the development of an era of abundance and choice that has led, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, to a complex and ambivalent relationship between food and society. The thesis explores food in relation to the histories of diverse British Jewish communities and individuals deploying a range of evidence including oral histories, memoirs, journalism and cookery books. It studies the practice of Jewish identity and food, looking at Jewish communities ranging from the strictly Orthodox to progressive Jews. Theories of place, displacement and circuitry in the context of a global food economy are central to the thesis as are ideas of memory, myth and ritual. The first two chapters study the religious, political and social context of kosher food practice in Britain, analysing relations between the ecclesiastical authorities, the kosher food industry and consumers in which issues of class and gender are pivotal. Non-Jewish responses to kosher food are also examined. The third chapter interrogates the culinary origins of Ashkenazi and Sephardi food in Britain in the context of the globalization of the food industry, questioning how this affects the 'Jewishness' of specific culinary practices. The final chapter investigates the meaning and development of Jewish food rituals with respect to Sabbath and festival observance. The thesis suggests that despite the particularity of Jewish practice in relation to food, and the specific circumstances of the Diaspora, the Jewish practice of identity through food should not be treated as exceptional. The concept of 'Jewish' food is as problematic and as valid as the identification of any other group with a specific cuisine. Studies of food history reveal there are no pure 'origins' or timelessly 'authentic' recipes that can fix national, religious or ethnic identity in time and space. Rather the practice of culinary identity is a proactive mission that creates its meanings as much in the present and for the future as it draws from the past.</p
Article
Baker’s yeast produces carbon dioxide during dough fermentation, which gives bakery foods with expanded volume. This review covers gas sources other than baker’s yeast according to information disclosed in patents and supported by scientific literature. Inventors had more interest in gas injection in dough, mainly carbon dioxide, than gas‐releasing agents available in chemical leavening, so‐called baking powder, with 58 and 43 patented inventions, respectively. For chemical leavening, 20 gas‐releasing agents were proposed, including 11 patented and 9 non‐patented agents like sodium bicarbonate, the most popular. Other gas‐releasing agents included miscellaneous salts of carbonate and bicarbonate (ammonium; calcium; magnesium; potassium) as well as compounds like hydrogen peroxide and, more recently, glutamic acid. Coatings were patented to protect sodium bicarbonate towards moisture and delay its action in dough. Recent trends include aerosol dough and flavourful sodium‐free gas‐releasing agents.
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Celem rozdziału był przegląd rozwiązań systemowy dla błękitno-zielonej infrastruktury na obszarach zurbanizowanych. Ocena funkcjonowania błękitno-zielono infrastruktury, wymaga połączenia ocen jakościowych lub opisowych z ilościowymi, przy wykorzystaniu wkładu zarówno nauk ekologicznych, jak i społecznych. Ponadto w miastach coraz powszechniej dochodzi do przywracania wartości użytkowej terenów zielonych i ekosystemów wodnych, co może być zasadnym i ekonomicznie opłacalnym sposobem uczynienia terenów miejskich bardziej zrównoważonymi. Korzyści te można osiągnąć poprzez zmianę sposobu planowania, projektowania i finansowania systemów miejskich oraz sposobu projektowania, wykorzystania i zmiany przeznaczenia zasobów wodnych w obszarach zurbanizowanyc
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The scholarship on African foodways is reviewed in this chapter, noting its emphases on scarcity in favour of the study of skill and technique. Focusing on the cooking and eating practices of the Gold Coast (present-day Ghana) from the beginning of the nineteenth century to 2014, the chapter draws attention to how cooking, eating, and identity were and still are connected to the local microclimates and the resulting ecologies in each of Ghana’s three major eco-culinary zones. The argument is that the foodways of Ghana have been resistant to change over centuries of interaction and trade with the rest of the world. The chapter concludes with an explication of the theoretical foundations, the methodology, and an overview of the books organization.
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This chapter introduces buckwheat as a possible raw material for the production of designed foods. It includes the description of common buckwheat as a source of basic nutrients for food production and gives specificities of buckwheat as a source of biologically active substances. Processed buckwheat seeds are important from the point of view of rational nutrition as a source of energy, carbohydrates, fibre, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Buckwheat has also other nutritional advantages, especially the interesting content of polyphenolic compounds: phenolic acids, flavonoids, especially rutin, which are characterised by high antioxidant activity. This chapter describes how buckwheat can be processed into food products and discusses the results of the application of buckwheat to bread and pasta. Moreover, it includes the results of the clinical study. Based on the identified technological and sensory properties of bread products obtained during the baking experiment, the chapter summarises recommendations on the suitable added amount of buckwheat to get satisfactory results. Concerning pasta from buckwheat, it had very good technological, nutritional, and sensory qualities. The chapter concludes that, on the basis of findings, buckwheat is a raw material suitable for the production of designed foods.
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This Dissertation presents a first of a kind Critical Evaluation Framework for materials in Higher Education settings. The research is based on Critical Discourse Analysis that opted for the Critical School of Frankfurt while demystifying the neoliberal ideologies within the discourses constructed by the publishers. Lastly, this Dissertation considers the textbooks (first of a kind in the field) artefacts that play a role of More-Knowledgable-Other with reference to Vygotskyan Socio-Cultural Theory of Learning within classroom settings .
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Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Family: Apiaceae), commonly known as Ajwain, is widely grown in India, Afghanistan, Iran, Egypt, Pakistan, etc. Conventionally distillation of the Ajwain crop is done before the formation of the seed for extraction of the essential oil. The quality and quantity of essential oil production depend not only on genetic factors but also on the plant's developmental stage, post-harvest treatments, etc. Thus, the present study was undertaken to find out the effect of six factors like drying of the herb in the shade, sun, and oven (after seed formation), harvesting before and after seed formation, and powdering the material after seed formation on the essential oil yields and chemical composition. A marked difference was noted in the essential oil yields in all the experiments, with maximum yield being observed in the sun-drying method (3.2%). In contrast, a low yield was noted in the powdered material(0.3%). The chemical composition of the essential oil showed an interesting pattern. The major component -terpinene was observed more in the essential oil obtained in the after-seed harvest material (74.201%), whereas its low abundancy was noted in the oven-dried material (31.756%). Powdering the material has influenced the thymol content evident from the essential oil obtained from the unpowdered material (37.916%)to the powdered material (3.99%); both were done before seed harvest. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that the essential oil characteristics of Ajwain are greatly influenced by drying temperature, methods of sample preparation, and storage of herbage.
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Honey has been used for its nutritional and medicinal values since the Stone Age. Being one of the oldest foods known to humans, honey as a natural product has become an important part of food, economy and health care for most of the population. Honey stands as the most vastly discussed natural product across religions and civilizations. Traditional knowledge of these natural products has served as the base for many breakthrough discoveries, especially in the medicinal field. Today honey holds a strong position among its natural counterparts in terms of global market. This chapter provides an in-depth review of historical evidences of honey in different civilizations, religions and cultures, its use as an ethnomedicine, its application in different traditional system of medicine like Unani and Ayurveda, its physico-chemical properties, its modern application as antioxidant, antimicrobial, wound healing and antiviral agent, its application in ophthalmology, cough, diabetes and inflammation, intellectual properties and patent insights on honey, and industry and marketing insights of honey.
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