Article

Welfare at Slaughter of Broiler Chickens: A Review

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Currently, poultry plants are sacrificing between 140 to 180 broilers per minute; sometimes animals are not sacrificed properly, which makes manual sacrifice necessary. In the present study a review is provided on the most relevant aspects regarding different methods used for chicken sacrifice, these methods are analyzed and a comparison with Mexican regulations is given regarding the humanitarian sacrifice of domestic birds for human consumption. We conclude that the main objective of broiler sacrifice should be the well-being of the animal, it must also be economic, practical and safe for workers. In Mexico, research must be developed to justify adequate use of sacrificial methods and its effect on the quality of poultry meat such as ostrich, turkey and quail.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Today, initial efforts are underway to comply with the stipulations of this protocol (Mounier et al. 2010;Temple et al. 2011). Despite the current initiative to promote animal welfare, however, these four conditions are often still not met; due to inadequate knowledge, training and/or experience in animal handling (Gallo 2008;Mota-Rojas et al., 2008;Mota-Rojas et al., 2011a, b; International Journal of Pharmacology 8 (1): 141-151, 2012ISSN 1811-7775 / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2012.141.151 © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information Becerril-Herrera et al. 2009). ...
... The slaughtering of swine is carried out by slitting the arteries and veins of the brachiocephalic trunk to interrupt nutrient and oxygen supplies to the brain, thus causing death. Hence, any acceptable stunning system must first assure that the action does indeed render the animal unconscious quickly and without pain; and, second, that the unconscious state lasts until death (Quiroga and García 1994;Mota-Rojas et al. 2008Orozco-Gregorio et al. 2010). A stunning process produces insensibility by striking the animal or other means (Becerril-Herrera et al. 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
The principal objective of this review is to characterize the physiological and biochemical: events that occur in swine when stunned with carbon dioxide (CO2) prior to slaughtering, as they relate to issues of animal welfare. Stress responses promote the maintenance of homeostasis and adaptation to the physiological and psychosocial challenges of a changing environment, a complex process that involves the coordinated activation of behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. When respired, CO2 combines with water to form H2CO2 (carbonic acid), which generates elevated concentrations of H+ ions that result in a state of acidosis at the cellular level. Today, questions have been raised concerning animal welfare, as some fear that inhaling high concentrations of CO2 may cause distress in animals before they lapse into a state of unconsciousness. In particular, the bodily movements observed in the early phase of CO2-induced anaesthesia in swine have led to concerns about stress. Pigs exposed to 80% CO2 for 60 sec experience lactic academia and respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Lactate levels are an indicator of stress, while it has been shown that blood lactate concentrations associated with pre-slaughter stress factors (e.g., aggressive handling immediately prior to stunning) have detrimental effects on pork quality. From the perspective of animal welfare, 90% argon by volume, or the lowest possible CO2 concentration necessary to stun swine, is recommended. Argon is suggested as a welfare-friendly alternative to carbon dioxide for stunning/killing pigs and poultry.
... Additional measurements include the effects of transport-induced stress, weight loss suffered by broilers, higher circulating levels of catecholamines, cortisol and creatine phosphokinase, increased heart rate and cell volume, and evidence of dehydration in several cases, all of which evidence clinical, biochemical, hormonal and/or immunological aspects of animal welfare [2]. Currently, the accumulated knowledge related to metabolic profiles and blood gas exchange in slaughter animals provides an understanding of the repercussions of ante-mortem stressors [17,26]. In this context, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiological blood responses of broilers during arrival, post-lairage and exsanguination (at bleeding). ...
... Increases in hematocrit values were also observed with different trip times [22,28], which may suggest dehydration. In contrast, in this study no changes in this indicator were seen after transport, suggesting that transport-induced stress was tolerable for the birds associated, as mentioned above, with increased loading density. of respiratory alkalosis or hypocapnia, a phenomenon that has also been observed in hens subjected to caloric stress where the increase in respiration rates leads to a reduction in blood partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2 ) [6,17,32]. On the other hand, the effect of consuming and metabolizing the food offered during the rest period could negatively influence pCO 2 concentrations in the birds, due to the complete oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, such that CO 2 is transported at 80% by the erythrocytes, where it reacts with water in the presence of carbonic anhydrase to produce carbonic acid, a reaction that is reversed in the lungs to eliminate CO 2 and water [23]. ...
Article
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the physiometabolic blood responses of broilers during arrival, post-lairage and exsanguinations. Post-handling in each period ante-mortem was blood sampled to determine metabolic changes, acid-base balance, and blood gas exchange: pH, hematocrit (%), glucose (mg/dL), electrolytes [Na⁺, K⁺ and Ca⁺⁺ (mmol/L)], and lactate levels (mg/dL), partial carbon dioxide [pCO2 (mmHg)] and oxygen pressures [pO2 (mmHg)], total carbon dioxide [TCO2 mmol/L], excess base [BE(B) mmol/L], oxygen saturation [SO2c (%)], and total hemoglobin [THbc g/dL]. Results showed that the post-transport group had differences (P < 0.05) only for SO2c, PO2, K⁺ and Na⁺ compared to Control group. Glucose, Ca⁺⁺, PCO2, and Htc values during post-lairage differed (P < 0.05) from controls and the exsanguination values. Lactate concentrations were lower exsanguination compared to controls (29.39 mg/dL Vs. 41,11 mg/dL), respectively. In conclusion, transport generated physiological and metabolic imbalances; in contrast, the period of rest with food and water to be restored gas exchange and acid-base balance.
... Currently, many researchers study stress in animals under different approaches [4,9,12,15,18,19,27,28]. Transport is considered one of the principal stressors in animals, and it is associated with negative effects on their health and meat yield being consequently considered as an element that significantly alters animal welfare [2,3,14,16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the effect of the duration of the transport period on the acid-base equilibrium, energy profile and blood gases of 146 creole equines (CE), 66 of them females and 80 males. Animals, were divided into three treatment groups according to three different transport periods: 52 CEs were not transported and their data were considered as the baseline level (GB); while 49 were transported for two hours (h) (T 2), and the other 45 for 11 h (T 11). A marked hemodynamic profile decrease (P < 0.05) in blood pH from group T 11 (7.23 ± 0.01) and gave rise to a condition of acidemia. Also, a significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in the concentrations of pCO 2 , glucose and lactate, as well as in the percentage of hematocrit in group T 2 compared to group T 11. The conclusion reached on the basis of these results was that transport periods greater than 2 h cause hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia, hyperlac-tatemia, hyperpotasemia, metabolic acidosis and a more severe degree of dehydration in creole equines. RESUMEN El presente estudio evaluó el efecto de la duración del trans-porte sobre el equilibrio ácido-base, perfil energético y gaso-metría sanguínea de 146 equinos criollos (EC): 66 hembras y 80 machos. Los animales fueron distribuidos en tres tratamien-tos de acuerdo al periodo de transporte: 52 EC no fueron transportados y sus mediciones fueron consideradas como ni-veles basales (GB), 49 EC fueron transportados durante 2 ho-ras (h) (T 2) y 45 EC fueron transportados durante 11 h (T 11). Se observó una disminución significativa (P < 0,05) en el pH sanguíneo, siendo esto más evidente en el grupo T 11 (7,23 ± 0,01) originando un estado de acidemia. Asimismo, se observó un incremento significativo (P < 0,05) en las concentraciones de pCO 2 , glucosa, lactato y porcentaje de hematocrito en el grupo T 2 comparado con el grupo T 11. En base a los resultados obtenidos se concluye que, periodos de transporte mayores a 2 h originan hiperglucemia, hipercalcemia, hiperlactatemia, hi-perpotasemia, acidosis metabólica y un mayor grado de deshi-dratación en equinos criollos.
... Thereafter, laying hens were sacrificed by cutting the carotid artery and jugular vein followed bleeding as described previously by Mota-Rojas et al [14]. To collect the jejunum samples, the abdominal cavity was opened and exposed the gastrointestinal tract. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: An experiment was conducted to investigate the response of laying hens fed corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) that are naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON). Methods: One hundred and sixty 52-week-old Lohmann Brown Lite hens were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 8 replicates per treatment. The dietary treatments were formulated to provide a range of corn DDGS contaminated with DON from 0% to 20% (i.e., 5% scale of increment). All laying hens were subjected to the same management practices in a controlled environment. Body weight, feed intake and egg production were measured biweekly for the entire 8-week experiment. The egg quality was measured biweekly for 8 weeks. On weeks 4 and 8, visceral organ weights, blood metabolites, intestinal morphology, and blood cytokine concentrations were measured. Results: The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet did not alter (p> 0.05) the body weight, feed intake, hen-day egg production, egg mass and feed efficiency of the laying hens. No difference was found (p>0.05) in the egg quality of hens that were fed the dietary treatments. Furthermore, hens that were fed a diet containing corn DDGS contaminated with DON showed no change (p>0.05) in the visceral organ weights, the blood metabolites, and the cytokine concentrations. The crypt depth increased (p<0.05) as the amount of corn DDGS contaminated with DON increased. Proportionately, the villus height to crypt depth ratio of the laying hens decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing level of corn DDGS contaminated with DON in the diet. Conclusion: The inclusion of corn DDGS contaminated with DON up to 20% in layer diets did not cause changes in egg production performance and egg quality, which indicates that DON is less toxic at the concentration of 1.00 mg DON/kg. Keywords: Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles; Deoxynivalenol; Egg; Laying Hens
... Animal and Poultry Production furnished cages and aviary systems (Mota-Rojas et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This current investigation was conducted to evaluate the potential effects of housing system (battery cages versus litter floor) on growth performance, some blood parameters and carcass characteristics of broilers. A total number of 224 unsexed one day old Evian broiler chicks were randomly distributed into two treatment groups (112 per each group). Chicks of the 1st group were raised in cages, while those of the second one were raised on litter floor. The results of the present work could be summarize as follows: broilers reared on litter floor exceeded (P≤0.05 and 0.01) those kept in battery cages in each of body weight, daily body weight gain and feed consumption in most of the studied intervals. Each of feed conversion ratio, carcass characteristics, some blood parameters and some immunity agents were not significantly changed between broilers kept in batteries and those reared on litter floor. The present work revealed a better performance and an increase in carcass yield of birds reared on floor system, which could be recommended to increase broilers performance under Sharkia Governorate conditions.
... Ketidakpuasan peternak khususnya aspek penentuan insentif dan besarnya marjin tanpa alasan yang jelas Indarsih et al. (2010). Dampak negatif lain contract farming, menurut Rojas et al. (2008) memberikan pengaruh terhadap kualitas daging, karena kurangnya pengawasan perusahaan (inti) ke peternak plasmanya. Namun Areerat et al. (2012) menemukan bahwa ekspansi yang cepat dalam produksi ayam broiler meningkatkan jumlah partisipasi peternak, namun sebagian besar peternak mengeluh tentang panjangnya waktu menunggu siklus berikutnya. ...
Article
Full-text available
English Small farmers’ participation in the high-value product market aims to improve quality and income. They are involved in the contract farming for supply improvement, increased production, risk reduction, and profit enhancement. Contract farming types are various as well as the motives of the actors. This study aims to analyze contract farming in broiler farms in Malang Regency, East Java Province. The methods of analyses are logit function, technical efficiency, and performance index. Implementation of contract farming benefits the broiler farms. The farms are technically efficient. Incomes of the farmers are higher due to relatively lower production costs. Contract farming program is still the best option for farmers in order to increase income. Indonesian Partisipasi peternak kecil pada pasar produk bernilai tinggi, dengan tujuan meningkatkan standar kualitas, meningkatkan dan menstabilkan pendapatan adalah alasan rasional untuk memperluas contract farming karena kualitas persediaan, kuantitas produksi meningkat, transfer risiko dari petani ke perusahaan dan tujuan keuntungan meningkat. Contract farming dapat berfungsi sebagai sebuah alat manajemen risiko oleh karena terjadi sharing antara pelaku yakni perusahaan (inti) dan peternak. Partisipasi perusahaan dan peternak dalam program contract farming akan memberikan implementasi kontrak yang bervariasi, sebagai akibat adanya motif pemenuhan kontrak sehingga hal ini merupakan hal yang sangat penting untuk analisis. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis pelaksanaan contract farming usaha ternak ayam broiler di Kabupaten Malang Jawa Timur. Metode analisis digunakan fungsi logit, efisiensi teknis dan indeks kinerja. Temuan mengungkapkan bahwa penerapan contract farming memberikan manfaat pada peternak ayam broiler serta pelaksanaan usaha ternaknya efisien secara teknis. Pendapatan peternak kontrak lebih tinggi dengan biaya produksi yang lebih rendah, sehingga program contract farming masih merupakan pilihan terbaik bagi peternak dalam rangka peningkatan pendapatan.
... High voltage may also induce heart fibrillation, causing inefficient bleeding, increased hemorrhaging, and even death before exsanguination (Fernández-López et al., 2010;Gregory & Wilkins, 1989). High current increased the incidence of dislocation, broken bones, red wing tips and hemorrhaging of wing veins and of deep breast muscle in broilers (Ali, Lawson, Tauson, Jensen, & Chwalibog, 2007;Mota-Rojas et al., 2008). Similarly, Fernandez, Leprettre, Dubois, Auvergne, and Babile (2003) appraised the influence of different currents (30, 50 or 70 mA) on quality defects of carcass in geese. ...
Article
There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review.
... Of all the handling practices involved prior to the slaughtering of animals destined for human consumption , transport is one that often results in severe stress (Ishiwata et al. 2008a; Uetake et al. 2009; Mota-Rojas et al. 2012a) and that can lead to injury and even death, circumstances that cause considerable economic losses in the livestock industry (Carter & Gallo 2008; Minka & Ayo 2008; Mota-Rojas et al. 2008, 2010, 2012b Ishiwata et al. 2008b; Engelbrecht et al. 2009; Edwards et al. 2010). Recently, this situation has led some countries to focus more attention on the issue of the welfare of slaughter animals (Broom 2005; Blokhuis et al. 2008; Uetake et al. 2009 Uetake et al. , 2011 Edwards et al. 2010; Mota-Rojas et al. 2012c). ...
Article
This study assessed the effects of five different transport periods on physiometabolic responses and gas exchange in ostriches. It included 138 ostriches that were assigned to five experimental groups. G1 included 78 birds that were set aside as a reference group (RG). Each one of the four remaining experimental groups included 20 ostriches, which were transported in the following manner: G1 on one occasion for a period of 1 h; G2 on one occasion for 2 h; and G3 on one occasion for 3 h; G4a was made up of the ostriches from G1 but they were shipped on a second occasion, for 2 h (making a total of 3 h); finally, G4b was that same group, but after a third transport period, on this occasion during 3 h (for a total of 6 h). Groups G2 and G3 presented the most marked blood alterations (P < 0.05), including an increase in pH, hypocapnia (27.8 ± 0.80 mmHg), hypernatremia (171.75 ± 1.84 mmol/L), hypocalcemia (0.95 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and hyperglycemia (224.05 ± 3.94 mg/dL). Also, group G3 presented the lowest hematocrit values (26.5 ± 0.47 HTC%). Therefore, transporting ostriches with no prior experience for 3 h caused the most pronounced physiometabolic changes.
Article
Full-text available
The subject of halal slaughtering is one of the most widely discussed issues of animal cruelty and animal welfare in the public sphere. The discrepancy in understanding the contemporary and religious laws pertaining to animal slaughtering does not fully publicize to Islamic and Muslim majority countries especially with respect to interpreting the use of stunning in animals. The electrical stunning is the cheapest, easiest, safest, and most suitable method for slaughtering that is widespread and developed. However, stunning on head of poultry before being slaughtered is a controversial aspect among the Islamic sects due to regulations of the European Union and some other countries. The current review highlights the instructions of halal slaughtering, legal legislation, and the effect of this global practice on poultry welfare and the quality of produced meat.
Article
Las leguminosas tropicales ricas en proteínas son de interés por su valor nutricional y bajo costo, aunque su uso debe ser precedido por estudios biológicos y económicos que permitan establecer su eficiencia. En el presente trabajo se estudió el efecto de la incorporación de harina de poroto mucuna (Stizolobium deeringianum) en reemplazo parcial de la soja, sobre las variables productivas y rendimiento a la faena de pollos Campero INTA. La dieta control fue elaborada en base a maíz, soja y una premezcla para alimento terminador. En la dieta de prueba, el poroto mucuna tratado con Ca(OH)2 al 1% reemplazó el 30% de la harina de soja. El análisis comparativo se realizó mediante ANOVA en un arreglo factorial, con el sexo y tipo de alimento como efectos principales. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p<0,05) para ganancia de peso, con valores de 1.385,27 ± 281,52 g para los pollos alimentados con la dieta control y 1.258,63 ± 365,27 g para la de prueba. El consumo de alimento demostró una diferencia numérica a favor de los controles (410 g), aunque el grado de significancia solo manifestó una tendencia a la separación estadística (p= 0,08). Las variables de composición corporal no mostraron diferencias estadísticas entre los tratamientos. La inclusión de poroto mucuna tratado con solución alcalina produjo disminución de la ganancia de peso en pollos Campero INTA en fase de terminación. Se considera necesario profundizar los estudios sobre los métodos de eliminación de los factores antinutricionales, de tal manera que permitan la utilización de este tipo de alimento.
Article
Full-text available
The use of tropical legumes rich in protein is of interest for its nutritional value and low cost, but must be preceded by biological and economic studies to establish their efficiency. The effects of mucuna (Stizolobium deeringianum) bean flour incorporation as partial replacement of soybean in the finisher food on productive performance and yielding at slaughter in Campero INTA chickens were studied. The control diet was developed based on corn, soybeans and finisher feed premix. In the trial diet, mucuna bean treated with Ca(OH)2 1% replaced 30% of soybean. The comparative analysis was performed using a factorial ANOVA, with sex and type of food as main effects. The weight gain of the chickens fed with the control diet was statistically higher than the values of mucuna diet with 1.385,27 ± 281,52 g and 1.258,63 ± 365,27 g respectively. The feed intake of the control group showed a numerical difference, although the degree of significance only showed a trend towards statistical separation (p= 0,08). Body composition variables showed no statistical differences between treatments. Mucuna bean treated with alkaline solution causes a decrease of weight gain in Campero INTA chickens during the fattening phase. Further studies are necessary regarding the removal of anti-nutritional factors that may enable the practical use of new types of foods.
Article
Avian influenza (AI) is a highly contagious and zoonotic viral disease that affects several animal species. It causes heavy economic losses in the domestic poultry. A quick response is always desired in the event of any disease outbreak. The principal approach to control a contagious disease involves the killing of diseased animals along with the bio containment of infectious agent. Mass depopulation of the infected birds plays an important role in the eradication of the disease. The possible strategies for mass depopulation include maceration, electrocution, cervical dislocation, gassing and foaming. All of these procedures are much intensive and time consuming because it involves a lot of man power, biosecurity risks, applicability for all house types and suitability for large-scale emergency implementation. The basic objectives of these strategies include (1) To reduce pain and suffering to the birds, (2) To minimize disease spread and (3) To ensure of protection to human operators from potential biohazards. A suitable depopulation technique can only be suggested keeping in view the species and type of bird involved, and differences in husbandry practices like management, housing and stocking density. Mass depopulation is an important tool to control the spread of any disease but the selection of procedure depends upon the prevailing circumstances. In this paper, various mass depopulation strategies and their selection in different conditions is reviewed and discussed.
Article
The incidence of poor quality meat associated with acute ante mortem stress is a condition that severely affects the pork production chain, so preventing it must become a priority in the pork industry. The aim of this review was to assess the most relevant ante mortem stressors that affect pork quality. Stress-related factors during production, transport, stunning and slaughter must be carefully controlled so as to minimize the proportion of poor quality meat produced. One stress-related effect on pork is called Pale, Soft and Exudative (PSE) meat which occurs as a consequence of numerous factors, some extrinsic, others intrinsic. Thus, it is necessary to undertake a review like the one presented in this article, to discuss such extrinsic factors as: feeding, environmental conditions, types of production (extensive, intensive), farm management, transport, lairage, ante mortem handling at the slaughterhouse and inadequate stunning methods. Second, intrinsic factors must also be analyzed, especially genetic improvement and modified physiometabolic processes and their consequences on the sensory properties of pork meat. The variety of factors that affect pork quality during production, transport, stunning and slaughter must all be carefully controlled in order to minimize the frequency with which this defect occurs.
Article
Full-text available
This study was undertaken with the goal of assessing the responses to stress in ducks slaughtered by two different methods on the basis of measuring the critical blood variables of 90 White Peking ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) with a mean weight of 2200 +/- 30 g. Reference values were established by taking samples from 30 ducks at rest; another 30 birds were stunned electrically; while 30 more were slaughtered by decapitation without prior stunning. The physiometabolic profile assessed included the following critical blood variables. Results revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between lactate concentrations (72.13 +/- 21.71; 57.87 +/- 19.60; 57.31 +/- 25.91) and pCO(2) (44.27 +/- 8.31; 32.27 +/- 4.31; 31.52 +/- 4.38) and between the reference values and the levels obtained from the groups of ducks sacrificed using the different methods. The metabolic adjustments that occurred in these White Peking ducks at the time of sacrifice depended on the slaughtering process itself, regardless of stunning method. The birds that were slaughtered presented low values of Ca++ and lactate, two indicators of agony, sensibility to pain and stress that affect animal welfare. The values of CO2 and blood lactate statistically decreased when compared with baseline. The behavior of this physiometabolic profile in the duck is completely different from pork, lamb or beef. A better understanding of the physiometabolic processes of ducks will allow us to improve handling, prevent stress and comply with the Mexican Norms for humane treatment and prevention of pain during the slaughtering of animals.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stunning method on critical blood variables and their repercussions in four experimental groups on the physical-chemical characteristics of guinea pig meat (Cavia porcellus). Eighty Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs distributed in four experimental groups were used. Those in groups 1 and 2 (G1 y G2) were stunned using the dislocation method, while those in groups 3 and 4 (G3 y G4) were subjected to electrical insensibilization (80 volts/5 s). During bleeding, the critical blood variables were measured to evaluate metabolic changes, the acid-base imbalance, and blood gas exchanges (pH, pCO 2, pO 2, Na+, K+ and Ca 2, glucosa, lactato, hematocrito, tco 2, HCO 2-, BE(B) SO 2c and thbc). After refrigerating the meat for 24 h at 2°C, its physical-chemical characteristics were evaluated (pH, water retención capacity, colour and texture). The males stunned by electrical insensibilization presented a tendency towards acidity. The values registered for the pH variable in males and females in the groups (G 2: M = 7.47 ± 0.3 vs. G 3: F = 7.37 ± 0.07) were significantly different (P<0.05). With respect to the variable pCO2, significant differences were found (P<0.05) between groups (G 2: M = 35.00 ± 4.69 vs. G 4: M = 54.00 ± 5.04; G 1: F = 34.00 ± 3.55 vs. G 3: F = 53.00 ± 16.68) with higher values registered in the animals stunned by electrical insensibilization, G 3 and G 4, than those stunned by dislocation, G 1 and G 2. With respect to lactate, statistical differences were found (P<0.05) in the variables in groups G 1: F = 18.00 ± 11.40 vs. G 3: F= 62.40 ± 12.03 and G 2: M = 27.50 ± 5.80 vs. G 4: M = 76.20 ± 18.79, which resulted in higher values for the animals stunned with electric current, G 3 and G 4, than those who were dislocated, G 1 and G 2. In terms of the pH variable of the meat, significant differences were found (P<0.05) by sex in the pigs that were dislocated (G 1: F = 6.12 ± 0.09 vs. G 2: M = 5.95 ± 0.01). Also significant differences were seen in the pH of the meat of the animals in G 2: M vs. G 3: F, due to effects of gender and stunning method. Turning to the variable of water retention, significant differences were found (P<0.05) between G 1: F = 14.20 ± 0.57, G 2: M = 13.75 ± 0.55 vs. G 4: M = 11.35 ± 1.50, where a combined effect of sex and stunning method was observed.
Chapter
Introduction Well-being and transport Loading and space allowance Animal well-being and stress in broiler transportation Broiler chickens dead on arrival at the slaughterhouse Requirements during transport Effects of transport on meat quality Conclusions References
Article
Full-text available
Currently in Mexico there is no regulation ruling over transportation and the rest period before slaughtering quail. An experiment was carried out to evaluate transportation and rest period effects before sacrifice on the metabolic profile, blood gas, pH and meat quality of the Japanese quail carcass. Sixty quail ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) were transported to slaughter, on arrival they were randomly divided in 2 groups: with (4 hours) rest and without rest (slaughtered right away). A blood simple was taken before and post sacrifice. After transportation, the rested quail had significantly lower lactate levels (p<0.05), compared to the quail without rest (36.33±6.17 vs. 21.64±2.14, respectively). The results showed that when quail are stressed, pCO<SUB>2 </SUB>and lactate levels tend to diminish significantly (p<0.05) compared to mammals. Rest showed a direct effect on temperature (p<0.05), diminishing acidity, reflected though hot and cold carcass pH as compared to the group of quail without rest.
Article
Full-text available
The efficiency of bleeding of broilers (g blood/kg liveweight) was measured after stunning them with either 45 per cent carbon dioxide in air for two minutes or with 2 per cent oxygen (achieved by displacing air with argon) for two minutes or with an electric current (77 or 104 mA at 50 Hz for four seconds). The results indicated that the initial rate of bleeding was higher in the electrically stunned broilers with non-fibrillated hearts than in the gas stunned broilers and electrically stunned broilers with fibrillated hearts. This difference was significant up to 60 seconds after neck cutting (P less than 0.05) but after 140 seconds all the broilers had bled out to a similar extent (30 to 33 g/kg liveweight). It is concluded that after gas stunning the time interval between neck cutting and scalding should be 60 to 140 seconds.
Article
Full-text available
Five trials were conducted to determine the effects of various alternative stunning and restraining methods on the quality of chicken broiler meat. The stunning methods used were electrical whole-body and head-only stunning with different voltages (25 vs 100 V) and frequencies (50 vs 200 Hz), and mechanical captive bolt stunning. Before being stunned, the broilers were restrained either by shackling them by the feet, restraining their heads while they were standing, or placing them in a cone. Convulsions during and after stunning were subjectively scored. At 1 d post-mortem, the pH, color, and the intensity and number of hemorrhages, of breast and thigh muscles were measured. Convulsions were, in order of increasing intensity, observed after whole-body stunning using 50 Hz, whole-body stunning using 200 Hz, head-only stunning, and captive bolt stunning. No differences in ultimate pH were measured. A consistent difference in color was observed between whole-body and head-only stunning. Head-only stunning resulted in darker and more red (P ≤ 0.01) breast muscles. Head-only and captive bolt stunning resulted in hemorrhages that were located more distal in the breast muscle than those observed after whole-body stunning. Captive bolt stunning (in a cone) resulted in fewer (P ≤ 0.01) hemorrhages in breast and thigh muscles than whole-body stunning (100 V, 50 Hz, shackled), and in a similar level of hemorrhaging as electrical head-only stunning (25 V, 200 Hz, in a cone).
Article
Full-text available
Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of a high current (HC) stunning system to a low voltage (LV) stunning system on broiler carcass and meat quality. A total of 360 broiler chickens were individually stunned using either 125 mA, 50 Hz, constant AC for 5 s (HC) or using 10.5 V, 500 Hz pulsed DC for 10 s (LV). Birds were individually weighted, killed by conventional neck cut, bled for 150 s, and reweighed to determine blood loss. Breast fillets (Pectoralis major) were removed from the carcass immediately after picking (0 h) or after aging for 24 h in a static ice-water slush. Breast muscle pH was determined at both 0 and 24 h. Raw breast meat color (CIELAB) and cooked breast meat Allo-Kramer shear values were determined on samples held at 2 C for 48 h. The LV stunning treatment significantly increased (P < 0.05) blood loss (4.0 vs 3.7%) and significantly reduced initial muscle pH (6.47 vs 6.67) when compared to the HC stunning treatment. There were no significant differences between the stunning systems for 24 h pH, raw breast color, and Allo-Kramer shear. High current stunning reduced initial blood loss and delayed early rigor development compared to the LV treatment, but appeared to have little effect on final meat quality.
Article
Full-text available
Stunning and slaughter trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of stunning method (electrical 50 V alternating current, CO2 gas: 0 to 40% for 90 s or 40 to 60% for 30 s) on feather retention force (FRF) in commercial broilers. Feathers from the pectoral, sternal, and femoral feather tracts were sampled with a force gauge before stunning (ante-mortem) and contralaterally either after stunning (peri-mortem from 0.5 to 4 min) or after stunning and bleeding (post-mortem from 2 to 6 min). Prior to stunning, ante-mortem FRF values varied among assigned stunning methods only for the pectoral (7%) feather tract. After stunning, peri-mortem FRF values were higher only for the sternal tract (11% for 40 to 60% CO2 for 30 s); whereas after stunning and bleeding, post-mortem FRF values were lower than ante- or peri-mortem only for the sternal tract (10% lower for 40 to 60% CO2 for 30 s). Peri- and post-mortem FRF values did not differ among stunning methods for the pectoral and femoral feather tracts. Small changes in FRF values occurred from ante-mortem to peri-mortem (-1 to +12%), and from ante-mortem to post-mortem (-2 to +8%) across stunning methods. A significant increase was determined for only the pectoral tract (7%) from ante- to peri-mortem across stunning methods. Electrically stunned broilers that were not bled gained weight in excess of the 36 feathers removed (0.16%), apparently due to body surface water pickup during the brine-stunning process, whereas CO2-stunned broilers lost weight due to excretion of cloacal contents (-0.31 to -0.98%). The change in body weight among stunning methods was significant (P < 0.0233). Peri- and post-mortem FRF, in addition to bleed-out body weight loss, were not substantially influenced by electrical or CO2 stunning methods, and, therefore, carcass defeathering efficiency may not differ after scalding.
Article
Full-text available
Experiments were conducted to determine the combined effects of antemortem electrical stunning (STUN) and postmortem electrical stimulation (STIM) on breast muscle rigor development and meat quality attributes. Birds were either unstunned, stunned with low voltage (LV), or stunned with high current (HC) prior to conventional killing. Immediately after exsanguination, birds were either unstimulated, or were subjected to electrical stimulation with 12 1s on/1s off pulses of 440 V AC and allowed to bleed for 90 s to determine the effect of treatment on blood loss. Breast fillets (Pectoralis major) were removed from carcasses immediately after evisceration (0.25 h) or after aging in a static ice-water slush for 1 or 2 h, and analyzed for muscle pH, R-value (ratio of inosine to adenosine nucleotides), and sarcomere length. Raw breast meat color (CIELAB), cook loss, and shear values were determined on samples held at 2 C for 24 h. Results showed both STUN and STIM significantly affected blood loss, pH, R-value, sarcomere length, color, and shear, and there were significant STUN by STIM interactions. Blood loss was significantly lower for the HC STUN and all the STIM treatments. STIM at 440 V resulted in accelerated rigor development as measured by pH, R-value, and sarcomere length, similar to the unstunned or LV STUN samples, but different from the HC STUN birds. These results indicate that electrical stimulation may accelerate rigor most effectively following high current stunning, which tends to delay early rigor development.
Article
Full-text available
To compare the broiler breast muscle quality resulting from three different slaughter methods, 36 broilers in each of two replicates were randomly divided into three groups receiving CO2 stunning, electrical stunning (ES), or CO2 killing. Carbon dioxide stunning was accomplished in a tunnel with a gradient from 40 to 60% CO2 by allowing the broilers on shackles to pass through the tunnel for 25 s. Electrical stunning was done by passing the bird's head through a charged 1% brine solution (35 mA, 7 s). For CO2 killing, the birds were killed by asphyxiation in an atmosphere of less than 2% oxygen (air displaced by CO2) for 2.5 min. Following slaughter, all breast fillets were harvested at 1.25 h postmortem and analyzed for pH, R value, shear value (SV), expressible moisture, and color (lightness and redness at 1.25 and 24 h postmortem). There were no differences (P<0.05) between treatments in pH, R value, SV, 1.25-h color values, or expressible moisture. There was an increase (P<0.05) in lightness between 1.25 and 24 h postmortem in all treatments, with the CO2 stun exhibiting the greatest increase and resulting in a significantly greater L* value at 24 h postmortem than the CO2 killing treatment. These results suggest that the postmortem metabolism or characteristics of the meat from animals processed with these stunning or killing methods does not differ to a large extent.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of electrical and concussion stunning on meat and carcass quality of broilers were compared. Broiler chickens (n = 165) were subjected to treatments: 1) electrical stunning with no fibrillation, 2) electrical stunning with fibrillation, 3) concussion stunning with restraint, or 4) concussion stunning with no restraint. Electrical stunning (100 V, 80 mA, 50 Hz sinusoidal waveform alternating current) was applied for 3 s. Concussion was applied using a nonpenetrative captive bolt gun with or without restraint. We assessed broken bones, hemorrhages, meat quality defects, blood loss, pH at 10 min and 24 h, and texture from breasts filleted 3 h and 24 h postmortem. Electrically stunned birds showed a significantly higher incidence of broken bones (P < 0.0001), coracoid and furculum bone hemorrhages (P < 0.0001), and nonbone hemorrhages (P < 0.0001) than birds stunned by concussion. However, the incidence of red wing tips (P < 0.005) and shoulder hemorrhages was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in concussion-stunned birds than electrically stunned birds. Electrically stunned and nonfibrillated birds had the fastest blood loss rate. The pH value at 10 min was the lowest in concussion-stunned and unrestrained birds. Breast muscles from concussion-stunned birds that were filleted at 3 h postmortem were more tender than those from birds stunned electrically (P < 0.05). We concluded that concussion stunning could be advantageous for early filleting.
Article
Full-text available
The first experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying voltage, 20, 40, 80, and 100 V at 60 Hz, on stunning efficiency, blood loss, and carcass defects. In the second experiment, the same parameters were evaluated to determine the effects of varying frequency, 60, 200, 350, 500, and 1,000 Hz at 40 V. A control group for both experiments was not stunned. At 40V, 30 to 50 mA, 90% of the birds were unconscious, as shown by no response to comb piercing, and blood loss was maximized (55.3%). When varying the stunning frequency, maximum blood loss (73.1%), 90% of the birds were unconscious, and minimum carcass defects were observed at 1,000 Hz, 40 V. In the third experiment, birds were stunned at 40 V, 1,000 Hz and deboned immediately after defeathering (hot boning) and chilled or deboned after passing through all stages of a commercial abattoir operation (conventional boning). Control lots were unstunned and followed normal abattoir stages. Average shear value was significantly lower for stunned compared to unstunned birds (6.0 vs. 7.1 kg/g), although tenderness scores, as measured by a trained panel, were not significantly different (6.6 for stunned birds vs. 6.1 for unstunned). Scores for juiciness were also not significantly different (5.5 for stunned vs. 5.8 for unstunned). Average shear value was also significantly lower for conventionally boned birds (5.2 kg/g) than for hot boned birds (7.9 kg/g). Sensory analysis confirmed the shear value results. Conventionally boned breasts had an average tenderness score of 7.4 vs. an average of 5.3 for hot boned breast. No statistical differences were observed with respect to juiciness, although a score of 6.2 was observed for conventionally boned breast meat vs. a score of 5.1 for hot boned breast meat.
Article
Full-text available
Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of electrical stunning and decapitation on bird activity as well as carcass and meat quality. In Experiment 1, broilers were subjected to one of four stunning and killing methods: no stun and neck cut, stun and neck cut, no stun and decapitation, and stun and decapitation. Birds were scored for severity of physical activity on a scale of 1 to 4 with 1 being no activity and 4 being severe wing flapping and muscular contractions. Carcasses were also scored for red wing tips and broken bones. In Experiments 2 to 4, all birds were stunned prior to neck cut or decapitation. Carcasses were scored as described in Experiment 1 as well as measurements of blood loss, feather removal, and breast meat pH, color, cook loss, and tenderness. Based on carcass activity in Experiment 1, decapitation following stunning was similar to a conventional stun and unilateral neck cut, except there was almost no late activity (after 60 s) observed in the decapitated birds. Decapitation following stunning did not result in any consistent carcass quality defects compared to conventional killing in the four experiments. No differences were found in 24-h lightness values, yellowness, cook yield, tenderness, and ultimate pH between conventionally killed and decapitated birds. Blood loss and breast meat redness were inconsistent. These results indicate that high frequency stunning and decapitation may be an acceptable alternative to conventional slaughter based on carcass and meat quality and by ensuring an irreversible loss of consciousness.
Article
Full-text available
Three independent trials were conducted to determine the effects of high frequency electrical stunning followed by decapitation on broiler breast meat rigor development and meat quality. All birds were stunned and half of the birds were killed using a conventional unilateral neck cut, half were killed by decapitation, and both groups were allowed to bleed for 90 s prior to scalding and picking. New York dressed carcasses were chilled in a static ice-water bath for 90 min and held at 2 degrees C prior to deboning. Breast fillets were removed from the carcasses at 2, 4, and 24 h postmortem. From the right breast fillet, R-values and pH were determined at time of deboning. The left fillet was wrapped in plastic and held for 24 h at 2 degrees C prior to determining lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), cook yield, and Allo-Kramer shear. Deboning time affected raw meat pH, R-value, cook loss, and shear value but had no effect on color. The breast meat from the decapitated birds had significantly higher pH values at 2 and 24 h postmortem than the conventionally killed birds. Other than for the effect on breast meat pH, decapitation had no effect on rigor development, R-value, meat color, or meat quality as measured by cooked-meat yield and Allo-Kramer shear.
Article
1. Broilers and broiler carcases, sampled immediately before the stunner, at the end of the processing line and from a supermarket company, were physically dissected to determine the incidence of broken bones.2. Over 95% of the frozen broilers from the supermarket company had broken bones and there were between 3 and 4 breaks per carcase. Only 3% of live birds had broken bones so most of the carcase damage must have been caused by processing.3. The effect of 100, 200 and 300 V electrical stunning on the incidence of broken bones was investigated: increasing voltage resulted in an increase in the incidence of broken bones in the collar region.
Article
Átomos y Moléculas La industria avícola Identificación de la calidad Mantenimiento de la calidad Características químicas y nutritivas Características y medidas del rendimiento Microbiología de la carne de ave Suministro de agua, distribución en planta e higienización Procesado de aves frescas Envasado Almacenamiento refrigerado Productos a base de ave enlatada y procesado de sopas Deshidratación Curado y ahumado Conservación por irradiación Otros productos procesados Aves para cocinar en guisos y barbacoas Subproductos no comestibles Identificación de la calidad de los huevos Medida de la calidad de los huevos Mantenimiento de la calidad del huevo Huevos: características físicas, químicas, nutritivas y funcionales Microbiología de los huevos Procesado de huevos Métodos de análisis de huevos y productos derivados.
Article
A post mortem examination was made on 1324 broiler carcases which arrived dead after being transported to six processing plants. The carcases were dissected and evaluated for trauma and obvious cause of death. Of the birds sent to the plants on the day of collection 0.19 per cent arrived dead and 35 per cent of these were thought to have died as a result of trauma. Haemorrhage associated with dislocation of the femur at the hip was the most common cause of trauma. Ruptured livers and crushed heads were other important traumatic injuries.
Article
Argon, CO2, and N2 gasses were each evaluated in a broiler chicken gas killing system. Birds were killed by individual exposure to one of the three gasses for 2 min in a flow-through system. The gasses were evaluated by determining the time, in seconds, for the following responses: first reaction to the gas, loss of posture, eye closure, initiation of death struggle, and cessation of respiration. Percentage blood loss over a 3-min bleed time was determined by weight loss. Breast muscle pH values were determined at 15 min and 24 h post-mortem on the Pectoralis major muscle. Carbon dioxide resulted in the earliest first reaction, loss of posture, eye closure, and initiation of struggle. Argon and N2 exhibited a delayed first reaction, a less severe early reaction, but a more severe unconscious death struggle. All birds died in approximately 75 s. Results indicate that the flow-through gas system takes longer to kill broilers than the immersion systems previously reported. Gas killing resulted in lower (P < .05) blood loss. Initial breast muscle pH values were significantly highest for the birds killed with CO2, followed by the control treatment, which was significantly higher than the values for broilers killed with either Ar or N2. After 24 h of chilling, there were no differences in broiler breast muscle pH among the four treatments. These results indicated that a flow-through gassing chamber may be a feasible, although slower, method of performing gas killing as compared to an immersion system.
A comparison of 290-294. argon, carbon dioxide and N in a broiler killing Characteritation of rigor mortis system Efficiency o f chickens: a compassion in world farming trust. bleeding of broilers after gaseous or electrical Petersfield, Hants. stunning
  • G H Poole
  • D L Fletcher México
  • D F Stevenson
  • N G Gregory
Poole, G.H. and D.L. Fletcher, 1995. A comparison of 290-294. argon, carbon dioxide and N in a broiler killing Sams, A.R., 1991. Characteritation of rigor mortis system. Poult. Sci., 74: 1218-1223. development in four broiler muscles. Poult. Sci., 70: Quintana, J.A., 1999. Avitecnia, manejo de las aves 1003-1009. domesticas. Trillas, México, D.F. Stevenson, P., 1993. The welfare at slaughter of broiler Raj, M.A.B. and N.G. Gregory, 1991. Efficiency o f chickens: a compassion in world farming trust. bleeding of broilers after gaseous or electrical Petersfield, Hants. stunning. Vet. Rec., 128: 127-128.
Mexican Official Code of Practice Ciencia de la NOM-033-ZOO Humanitarian sacrifice o f carne de ave. Acribia, Zaragoza, España. domestic and wild animals (In spanish)
  • R J Richardsond
  • G C Mead
NOM-033-ZOO, 1995. Mexican Official Code of Practice Richardsond, R.J. and G.C. Mead, 2001. Ciencia de la NOM-033-ZOO, 1995. Humanitarian sacrifice o f carne de ave. Acribia, Zaragoza, España. domestic and wild animals (In spanish). Diario Sams, A., 1999. Commercial implementation o f Oficial de la Federación., 16 de julio de 1996. postmortem electrical stimulation. Poult. Sci., 78: