Article

C5 Reading Comprehension Difficulties

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Abstract

In this chapter we consider the nature and the source of difficulties experienced by children with a specific type of comprehension deficit, children who have developed age-appropriate word reading skills but whose reading comprehension skills lag behind. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, text comprehension is a complex task that involves many different cognitive skills and processes. Consequently, there are many different aspects of the reading process where difficulties may arise, which may, in turn, contribute to these children's poor comprehension. In this chapter, we examine the evidence that impairments at the word-, sentence-, and discourse-level play a causal role in this population's comprehension difficulties. In addition, we consider whether deficits in cognitive abilities such as memory skills and general intelligence, and factors such as amount of exposure to print, contribute to poor comprehension.

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... SegundoKintsch (1988), cada nodo possui um núcleo (head) e um número de posições (slots) para argumentos. Dessa forma, nodos são formalmente equivalentes a proposições, de maneira que proposições são representadas de forma similar a conceitos.Um exemplo é o processamento de anáforas, que são mecanismos que mantêm a continuidade dentro de um texto, como um pronome (Cain & Oakhill, 2004). Links anafóricos, tanto dentro quanto entre sentenças, são necessários à compreensão de leitura textual (Cain & Oakhill, 2004A hipótese da qualidade lexical de Perfetti (Perfetti, 2007;Perfetti & Hart, 2001Segundo a hipótese da qualidade lexical, a influência do processamento léxicosemântico sobre a leitura ocorre também na compreensão de leitura textual. ...
... Dessa forma, nodos são formalmente equivalentes a proposições, de maneira que proposições são representadas de forma similar a conceitos.Um exemplo é o processamento de anáforas, que são mecanismos que mantêm a continuidade dentro de um texto, como um pronome (Cain & Oakhill, 2004). Links anafóricos, tanto dentro quanto entre sentenças, são necessários à compreensão de leitura textual (Cain & Oakhill, 2004A hipótese da qualidade lexical de Perfetti (Perfetti, 2007;Perfetti & Hart, 2001Segundo a hipótese da qualidade lexical, a influência do processamento léxicosemântico sobre a leitura ocorre também na compreensão de leitura textual. Uma alta qualidade lexical permite uma maior disponibilidade de identidades de palavras para a integração de significados dentro de sentenças e entre elas (Perfetti, 2007;Perfetti & Hart, 2002). ...
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The aim of this study was to examine the role of lexical-semantic processing in models of visual word recognition and in reading comprehension. Dual-route and connectionist models of word reading are presented, and it is discussed how necessary lexical-semantic processing is for word recognition. Afterwards, the main reading comprehension frameworks are reviewed: The Construction-Integration model, the Lexical Quality Hypothesis and some connectionist models. For each model, the contribution of lexical-semantic processing for reading comprehension is evaluated. Finally, some themes for study are suggested for the investigation of the relationship between reading and lexical-semantic-processing.
... Another research by Cornoldi and Cornoldi [3] shows that teachers consistently encounter students who do not fully understand what they have read. While there is a campaign underway to improve reading comprehension in high school grades 10-12 in various subjects, the results of reading comprehension tests in the United States as well as in other countries do not indicate any actual improvement. ...
... Their findings show that today's high school students exhibit a serious deficiency in reading comprehension. Another research by Cornoldi and Cornoldi [3] shows that teachers consistently encounter students who do not fully understand what they have read. While there is a campaign underway to improve reading comprehension in high school grades 10-12 in various subjects, the results of reading comprehension tests in the United States as well as in other countries do not indicate any actual improvement. ...
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Conference Paper
This work deals with an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) for reading comprehension. Such a system could promote reading comprehension skills. An important step towards building a full ITS for reading comprehension is to build an automated ranking system that will assign a hardness level to questions used by the ITS. This is the main concern of this work. For this purpose we, first, had to define the set of criteria that determines the rate of difficulty of a question. Second, we prepared a bank of questions that were rated by a panel of experts using the set of criteria defined above. Third, we developed an automated rating software based on the criteria defined above. In particular, we considered and compared different machine learning techniques for the ranking system of the third part of the process: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), decision tree and naïve Bayesian network. The definition of the criteria set for rating a question's difficulty, and the development of an automated software for rating a questions' difficulty, contribute to a tremendous advancement in the ITS domain for reading comprehension by providing a uniform, objective and automated system for determining a question's difficulty.
... Essa referência, em um texto, pode ser feita através de palavras relacionadas àquelas que foram utilizadas na mesma sentença ou em sentenças anteriores. Um exemplo é o processamento de anáforas, que são mecanismos que mantêm a continuidade dentro de um texto, como um pronome (Cain & Oakhill, 2004). Links anafóricos, tanto dentro quanto entre sentenças, são necessários à compreensão de leitura textual (Cain & Oakhill, 2004 A hipótese da qualidade lexical de Perfetti (Perfetti, 2007; Perfetti & Hart, 2001) afirma que a representação de palavras no léxico pode ter maior ou menor qualidade, entendida como a especificação precisa e flexível da forma e do significado da representação mental de uma palavra. ...
... Um exemplo é o processamento de anáforas, que são mecanismos que mantêm a continuidade dentro de um texto, como um pronome (Cain & Oakhill, 2004). Links anafóricos, tanto dentro quanto entre sentenças, são necessários à compreensão de leitura textual (Cain & Oakhill, 2004 A hipótese da qualidade lexical de Perfetti (Perfetti, 2007; Perfetti & Hart, 2001) afirma que a representação de palavras no léxico pode ter maior ou menor qualidade, entendida como a especificação precisa e flexível da forma e do significado da representação mental de uma palavra. Essa qualidade engloba diversos traços: ortografia, fonologia, gramática e significado, além da ligação entre os componentes ortográfico, fonológico e semântico. ...
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Article
The aim of this study was to examine the role of lexical-semantic processing in models of visual word recognition and in reading comprehension. Dual-route and connectionist models of word reading are presented, and it is discussed how necessary lexical-semantic processing is for word recognition. Afterwards, the main reading comprehension frameworks are reviewed: The Construction-Integration model, the Lexical Quality Hypothesis and some connectionist models. For each model, the contribution of lexical-semantic processing for reading comprehension is evaluated. Finally, some themes for study are suggested for the investigation of the relationship between reading and lexical-semantic-processing.
... In a study examining the factors influencing syntactic awareness among poor and normal comprehenders, Nation and Snowling (2000) point out that "Although in the general population comprehension and reading accuracy are strongly correlated (with correlation coefficients varying between 0.3 and 0.6; see Juel, Griffith, & Gough, 1983), studies have shown that approximately 10% of children can be classified as having poor reading comprehension, despite possessing average-for-age reading accuracy (Nation & Snowling, 1997; Yuill & Oakhill, 1991, p. 230)." Language and literacy researchers (e.g., Bentin, Deutsch, & Liberman, 1990; Cain & Oakhill, 2004; Demont & Gombert, 1996; Leikin, 2002; Nation, Clarke, & Snowling, 2002; Stothard & Hulme, 1992; Yuill & Oakhill, 1991) generally agree that text comprehension is a complex task that involves a number of cognitive, linguistic, and sociocultural dimensions. This view is consistent with the model of reading comprehension articulated in the Rand Reading Study Group report (2001) in which comprehension is viewed as "the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language" and reading fluency is "conceptualized as both an antecedent to and a consequence of comprehension" (p. ...
... As such, they are at odds with some prior research work, which has suggested that poor syntactic awareness may be a by-product of poor phonemic awareness skills (e.g., Smith, Macaruso, Shankweiler, & Crain, 1989). On the other hand, they provide support for more recent research work, which has shown that students' poor syntactic awareness skills may not be sufficiently explained by phonemic weaknesses alone and that they must be looked at in relation to broader language skills such as syntax (e.g., Nation & Snowling, 2000 Scott, 2004, Cain & Oakhill, 2004). In fact, the importance and relevance of syntactic awareness and its relation to reading fluency and comprehension may have been obscured by an over-emphasis on decoding and phonemic awareness skills weaknesses. ...
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In this study, we assessed and analyzed 5 grade students’ levels of syntactic awareness in relation to their reading fluency and comprehension. The aim was to examine the role of syntactic awareness (children's awareness of the syntactic structure of sentences and their ability to reflect on and manipulate that structure) as a potential source of reading fluency and comprehension difficulty for these readers. We found that the students’ levels of syntactic awareness were significantly related to their reading fluency (r= .625) and reading comprehension performance (r= .816). These relationships indicate that lower levels of syntactic awareness correspond to poor reading fluency and poor comprehension among these readers. These findings have important implications for research and instruction addressing the relative contributions of broader language skills to the development of reading fluency and comprehension among struggling readers.
... Reading and comprehending complex connected school texts can be challenging for both firstlanguage (L1) (Cain and Oakhill, 2004;Lervåg et al., 2018) and second-language (L2) (Lesaux, et al., 2006;Melby-Lervåg and Lervåg, 2014) learners. Readers must draw upon linguistic knowledge and skills of different types: orthographic decoding, vocabulary, syntax, and discourse knowledge to rapidly create and update dynamic representations of meaning (Kintsch and Van Dijk, 1978;Perfetti and Stafura, 2014). ...
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Cross-linguistic influences (CLI) in first-language (L1) and second-language (L2) reading have been widely demonstrated in experimental paradigms with adults at the word and sentence levels. However, less is known about CLI in adolescents during naturalistic text reading. Through eye-tracking and behavioral measures, this study investigated expository reading in functionally English monolingual and Spanish (L1) - English (L2) bilingual adolescents. In particular, we examined the role of L1 (Spanish) sentence integration skills among the bilingual adolescents when L2 school texts contained challenging syntactic structures, such as complex clauses, elaborated noun phrases, and anaphoric references. Results of generalized multilevel linear regression modeling demonstrated CLI in both offline comprehension and online eye-tracking measures that were modulated by school text characteristics. We found a positive relationship (i.e., facilitation) between L1 sentence integration skills and L2 English text comprehension, especially for passages with greater clause complexity. Similar main, but not modulatory, effects of sentence integration skill were found in online eye-tracking measures. Overall, both language groups appeared to draw upon similar reading component skills to support reading fluency and comprehension when component skills were measured only in English. However, differential patterns of association across languages became evident when those skills were measured in both L1 and L2. Taken together, our findings suggest that bilingual adolescents’ engagement of cross-linguistic resources in expository reading varies dynamically according to both language-specific semantic knowledge and language-general sentence integration skills, and is modulated by text features, such as syntactic complexity.
... Ash & Baumann, 2017), and several studies have shown that explicit instruction of vocabulary contributes to reading comprehension for both primary and secondary students (Kamil et al., 2008;Nation & Snowling, 2004;Ouellette, 2006;Ouellette & Beers, 2010). If students have limited vocabulary knowledge, their comprehension is likely to suffer (Oakhill et al., 2019); thus, engaging students in activities that may increase their depth of vocabulary may help their comprehension (cf. Cain & Oakhill, 2014). ...
... In their SVR model, Gough and Tunmer (1986) suggested that measures of listening comprehension can preferably be used to assess linguistic comprehension, but later research has shown that vocabulary measures are reliable predictors of reading comprehension as well (e.g., Cain, Oakhill, & Bryant, 2004;Manolitsis, Georgiou, & Parrila, 2011;Ouellette, 2006;Torppa et al., 2006). Weak vocabulary knowledge can form a bottleneck particularly when reading comprehension requires comprehending complex words in order to make inferences (Cain, 2016). ...
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One of the aims for compulsory education is to diminish or alleviate differences in children’s skills existing prior to school entry. However, a growing gender gap in reading development has increasingly been documented. Regrettably, there is scant evidence on whether differences between genders (favouring girls) have their roots in pre-reading skills or whether determining mechanisms are related to factors to do with schooling. We examined the extent to which pre-reading skills assessed in Kindergarten (age 6) predict reading comprehension in Grade 9 (age 15) and, whether the gender difference in reading comprehension can be explained by gender differences in the Kindergarten pre-reading skills. A sample of 1010 Finnish children were assessed on letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid naming, vocabulary, and listening comprehension in Kindergarten and on reading comprehension using PISA Reading tasks in Grade 9. Path models showed that gender as well as Kindergarten pre-reading skills except for phonological awareness were significant predictors of reading comprehension in Grade 9 accounting for 28% of the variance. There were gender differences in most of the measures, but the prediction model estimates were similar for boys and girls except that for boys, letter knowledge was a somewhat stronger predictor of reading comprehension than for girls. The gender effect on reading comprehension was only partially mediated via pre-reading skills. The findings suggest that Kindergarten pre-reading skills are powerful predictors of reading comprehension in Grade 9, but the gender difference found in PISA Reading in Finland does not appear to be pronounced in Kindergarten but rather emerges during the school years.
... En la actualidad, las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación, las redes sociales, la especialización del conocimiento, demandan el procesamiento de grandes cantidades de información, y es en este proceso que la comprensión lectora, basada en hábitos de lectura profusos se hace imprescindible. La realidad nos da cuenta de una sociedad con bajo nivel de prácticas lectoras (Cain y Oakhill, 2003), (Cain y Oakhill, 2006), (Carretti, Borella, Cornoldi, y Beni, 2009), estudiantes con una falta de hábito desde sus primeros años de formación académica, situación que se agrava a lo largo de su educación regular, y pasa a ser un problema en su formación superior profesionalizante. En este contexto la comprensión lectora se manifiesta como una consecuencia y a la vez una causal; sumando una inevitable realidad en la juventud actual que relaciona la disminución de la lectura con el creciente uso de las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación. ...
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La comprensión lectora es un proceso cognitivo de orden superior. Los hábitos de lectura propician una mejor comprensión, y a la vez existe la presunción de que el uso profuso del internet y las redes sociales van en desmedro de la comprensión lectora. Es de esta forma que esta investigación pretende responder a las preguntas: ¿Cuáles son los hábitos de lectura en los estudiantes de secundaria? ¿Cuál es su grado de comprensión lectora? ¿Cuán profuso es su uso del internet y las redes sociales? Para tal cometido se consultó a estudiantes de secundaria sobre sus hábitos de lectura, el uso de internet y redes sociales, y se cuantificó su comprensión lectora mediante el test de Klose. Los resultados muestran, que los estudiantes de secundaria no logran superar el nivel de lectura independiente, categorizando su lectura como instruccional, de comprensión correcta pero dubitativa, donde no solo los hábitos de los estudiantes, sino también de sus padres afectan-de manera positiva-, y por el contrario la alta actividad de uso de internet y redes sociales afectan-de manera negativa-a los resultados de comprensión lectora. Los hallazgos, brindan la pauta para mejorar comprensión lectora en los estudiantes de secundaria, donde es importante la transmisión de hábitos de lectura, no solo en el estudiante, sino también mediante el ejemplo que brindan sus padres, manejando una administración prudente del uso del uso del internet y las redes sociales.
... General agreement has been established among researchers that comprehension occurs through both bottom- up (letter and word identification) and top-down (macro or global propositions) processes reflected in an interactive view of the meaning-creation process (Just & Carpenter, 1987;Kintsch, 1988;Verhoeven & Perfetti, 2008). An interactive per- spective of comprehension elucidates the understanding that while decoding words and fluently reading text is a necessary reading ability it does not guarantee one will be able to under- stand the words and comprehend the text (Cain & Oakhill, 2003). Nevertheless, there is an essential relationship between word reading and comprehension where those who are poor word readers are much more likely to be poor comprehenders (Perfetti & Hart, 2002). ...
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Considerable evidence supports that close to two thirds of all fourth-grade students read at less than adequate levels on reading achievement tests and that the problem has persisted for decades. This study of 1,064 third-grade students at risk for reading failure uses path analytic techniques to measure a hypothesized model linking developmental spelling, sight- and pseudo-word reading, and reading fluency to achievement on an end-of-year state reading test. While all hypothesized paths were found to be significant, paths not hypothesized were also significant. These paths included direct effects for spelling development on fluency and reading achievement, as well as the direct effect of sight-word reading on state reading achievement. In total, the model predicted 41.9% of the variance in state reading achievement and found that students proficient at foundational reading skills were 7 times more likely to be proficient on the state reading achievement assessment.
... As inferências são estabelecidas a partir da integração de informações intra e extratextuais, ou seja, de conexões entre as passagens do texto entre si, e entre elas e o conhecimento prévio do leitor (conhecimentos linguísticos e de mundo). Muitas das dificuldades de compreensão experimentadas decorrem de problemas no estabelecimento de inferências (Yuill & Oakhill,1991; Oakhill & Yuill,1996; Vidal-Abarca & Rico, 2003; Cain & Oakhill, 2004; Spinillo, 2008), sendo a capacidade de estabelecer inferências uma das características que mais diferem leitores habilidosos de leitores pouco habilidosos. As inferências decorrem do fato de que nem tudo está explicitado no texto, tendo o leitor que preencher as lacunas deixadas pelo autor. ...
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This study analyzed errors presented by children with difficulties in reading comprehension in two reading conditions. Children in Group 1 were asked to read a story with interruptions, and those in Group 2 had to read the same story without any interruptions whatsoever. After reading, the children answered questions about information of an inferential nature. Analysis of the answers led to the identification of four types of errors, regarding the way intra and extra-textual information is integrated. Although the errors were stable in both situations, the interrupted reading appears to favor attempts to establish inferences. The results contribute to a psychological understanding of the difficulties related to reading comprehension, specifically in the establishment of inferences, with possible educational implications.
... Therefore, it may not be surprising to find a strong and fundamental relationship between reading skill, text cohesion and subse- quent comprehension when reading about science. Indeed, evidence suggests that basic reading skills (word decoding and vocabulary) are strongly related to chil- dren's reading comprehension (Cain & Oakhill, 2004;Catts, Adlof, & Weismer, 2006). Moreover, the nature of the relationship between reading and comprehension may be mediated by text design, such that only skilled readers are thought to benefit from reading high cohesion texts (O'Reilly & McNamara, 2007;Ozuru et al., 2009). ...
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To explore the importance of text cohesion, we conducted two experiments. We measured online (reading times) and offline (comprehension accuracy) processes for texts that were high and low cohesion. In study one (n = 60), we manipulated referential cohesion using noun repetition (high cohesion) and synonymy (low cohesion). Students showed enhanced comprehension accuracy and faster comprehension responses for text that were high in referential cohesion. In study two (n = 52), we examined connective text designs (‘because’, ‘and’ and ‘no connective’). Students demonstrated enhanced reading times for text using a ‘because’ connective. Additionally, we examined the individual differences (reading ability, science self-concept and self-esteem) as predictors of achievement with science comprehension tasks. Across both experiments reading ability predicted comprehension with both high (noun-repetition text and ‘and’ text) and low cohesion text (synonym text and ‘no connective’ text). These findings highlight the importance of good reading abilities and text cohesion for promoting science comprehension and learning.
... The problem of reading comprehension in the second language (L2) is a universal phenomenon. Many students all over the world, experience comprehension difficulties (e.g. Cornoldi & Oakhill, 1996; Pressley, 2006), especially when reading in L2. A similar problem is a great concern for Malaysia. ...
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Reading comprehension is a complex process which lies upon three interrelated basic skills: decoding, lexical semantic knowledge and wordto- text integration processes. Decoding entails the reader's ability to recognize grapheme-phoneme correspondence. Lexical semantic knowledge refers to the knowledge of words in a given language, and it includes both word identification, i.e., visual processing of the graphemes' shapes and lexical activation; and semantic awareness, i.e., knowledge of meaning. Decoding and lexical semantic knowledge are deemed as pertaining to a lower level in relation to integration, in which category we include such skills as inferencegeneration. Previous research, notably in England, the United States of America and Argentina, has shown that difficulties in reading comprehension may be due to faulty decoding, poor lexical semantic knowledge and inferencemaking failures. Although each of these skills is necessary to achieve comprehension, none of them alone can guarantee it. It is considered that decoding and lexical knowledge are associated skills, and influence each other. The effects of decoding in text comprehension are mediated by knowledge about the meaning of words and the effects of compre hension in decoding depend on the achievement of sufficient word meanings. Thus, the aims of this paper were to study the relations among reading comprehension skills and to study how decoding skills and lexical semantic knowledge contribute to inference-making generation. In broad terms, the hypotheses were reading comprehension skills are interrelated and decoding skills and lexical knowledge are significant predictors of inference-making generation. This survey was conducted among 94 primary school children of an average age of 8 to 10 years old. They were given the Letter Recognition and Lexical Processes Tests from the PROLEC Test Battery, the Vocabulary Subtest from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) and the Inference-making Ability Assessments from Cain and Oakhill (Canet Juric & Burin, 2006). Results have shown that in the decoding assessment, the highest number of errors and correct answers are found in pseudo word reading. Regarding lexical knowledge, the highest average of right answers is found in word reading. As regards wordto-text integration, the average number of in ferences incorrectly drawn is 14.62. Since the tests we used measured right and wrong answers, indices of decoding and lexical knowledge were created. Moreover, our findings suggest significant and moderate-to-strong relations among reading compre hension skills. Decoding skills and lexical semantic knowledge have accounted for 51% of inferences. However, lexical knowledge alone has made the most significant contribution. The set of variables has accounted for 48% of coherence inferences and 45% of elaborative inferences. The only significant predictor of both types of inference-making was lexical knowledge. To conclude, as posited by international research and our first hypothesis, comprehension skills are interrelated. Taking into consideration our second hypothesis, our findings suggest that compre hension skills account for inference-making generation and that lexical knowledge reveals itself as a predictor of the children's potential ability for inference-making. In other words, vocabulary is a basic component of more complex skills such as inference. This is consistent with what international research suggests. As regards the performance of the general sample in the assessed comprehension skills, it resembles that of the child population of the same age, surveyed in Tucumán and in. Taking into consideration the way in which comprehension skills relate to and affect each other could allow us to develop intervention programs which would help improve the performance of children who demonstrate text comprehension difficulties.
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The simple view of reading describes reading comprehension as the product of decoding and listening comprehension and the relative contribution of each to reading comprehension across development. We present a cross-sectional analysis of first, second, and third graders (N = 123–125 in each grade) to assess the adequacy of the basic model. Participants completed multiple measures to inform latent constructs of word reading accuracy, word reading fluency, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, and vocabulary. In line with previous research, structural equation models confirmed that the influence of decoding skill decreased with increasing grade and that the influence of listening comprehension increased. However, several additional findings indicate that reading development is not that simple and support an elaboration of the basic model: A strong influence of listening comprehension on reading comprehension was apparent by grade 2, decoding skill was best measured by word and nonword reading accuracy in the early grades and word reading fluency in grade 3, and vocabulary skills indirectly affected reading comprehension through both decoding skill and listening comprehension. This new elaborated model, which provides a more comprehensive view of critical influences on reading in the early grades, has diagnostic and instructional ramifications for improving reading pedagogy. 阅读的简单观念描述阅读理解为单词解码和聆听理解这两个成分的相乘组合,而每个成分对阅读理解的相对贡献跨越发展阶段。为评估这基本模型的适当性,本文作者提供一个对小学一、二和三年级学生(各级人数为123-125名)的横向研究分析报告。研究参与者完成了多项测验,以厘定单词朗读准确性、单词朗读流畅度、聆听理解、阅读理解和词汇等五个潜在构念的变数。结果与先前研究相一致,结构方程式模型证实字词解码的影响力随年级晋升而减少,聆听理解的影响力则随之而增加。但本研究的另外几个结果亦显示,阅读发展并不是这样简单,因而支持一个较详细阐述的基本模型:就二年级学生而言,聆听理解对阅读理解的强烈影响是明显的;就低年级学生而言,有意义和无意义单词阅读准确性是测定单词解码的最佳方法;就三年级学生而言,单词朗读流畅度却是测定单词解码的最佳方法;词汇是通过单词解码和聆听理解而间接影响阅读理解。这个新的而经详细阐述的基本模型,对研究低年级阅读能力的关键影响提供一个较全面的观点,并在改进阅读教学方面具有诊断方法和教学方法的影响力。 La perspectiva simple de la lectura describe la comprensión lectora como producto del desciframiento y la comprensión auditiva y la contribución relativa de cada uno a la comprensión lectora a través de su evolución. Primero presentamos un análisis representativo de primer, segundo y tercer grados (N = 123-125 en cada grupo) para evaluar lo apropiado del modelo básico. Los participantes completaron múltiples medidas para informar constructos latentes de la precisión lectora de las palabras, la fluidez de la lectura de la palabra, la comprensión oral, la comprensión lectora, y el vocabulario. Al igual que en investigaciones previas, los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales confirmaron que la influencia de la habilidad de descifrar se reducía a medida que subían de grado y que la influencia de la comprensión oral incrementaba. Sin embargo, varios resultados adicionales indican que el desarrollo de la lectura no es tan simple y apoyan una elaboración del modelo básico: Una influencia grande por parte de la comprensión oral en la comprensión lectora era aparente ya en el segundo grado, la habilidad de descifrar se podía medir mejor por medio de la precisión lectora de palabras y hápax en los grados menores y la fluidez lectora en el tercer grado, y la habilidad de aprender vocabulario afectaba indirectamente la comprensión lectora tanto por medio de la habilidad de descifrar como de la comprensión oral. Este nuevo modelo elaborado, el cual provee una perspectiva más amplia de influencias importantes en la lectura en los primeros grados, tiene ramificaciones diagnósticas y didácticas para el mejoramiento de la pedagogía de la lectura. إن النظرة البسيطة للقراءة تصف استيعاب القراة منتجاً لحل الرموز واستيعاب الاستماع والمساهمة النسبية لكليهما في استيعاب القراءة عبر التنمية. ونقدم ها هنا تحليلاً مقطعياً للطلاب في الصف الأول والثاني والثالث (عددهم = 123-125 في كل صف) كي نقيم صلاحية النموذج الأساسي. لقد أخذ المشتركون عدة امتحانات للإفادة بتراكيب باطنة في دقة قراءة الكلام وطلاقة قراءة الكلام واستيعاب الاستماع واستيعاب القراءة والمفردات. وتماشياً مع أبحاث سابقة، أكدت نماذج معادلة هيكلية أن تأثير مهارة حل الرمول تناقص مع التقدم في الصفوف وأن تأثير استيعاب الاستماع ازداد. بيد أن بضع نتائج إضافية تشير إلى أن تنمية القراءة ليست سهلة إلى هذه الدرجة وتدعو لتوسيع النموذج الأساسي: اتضح تأثير قوي لاستيعاب الاستماع على استيعاب القراءة عند الصف الثاني، ويتم أفضل تقييم لحل الرموز في دقة قراءة الكلام الحقيقي والكلام الوهمي في الصفوف المبكرة وطلاقة قراءة الكلام في الصف الثالث، ومهارات المفردات أثرت على استيعاب القراءة تأثيراً غير مباشر في مهارة حل الرموز واستيعاب الاستماع. وهذا النموذج الموسع الذي يوفر نظرة أكثر شمولاً لتأثيرات نقدية على القراءة في الصفوف المبكرة له نتائج تشخيصية وتعليمية من أجل تحسين تعليم القراءة. Пpocтoe пpeдcтaвлeниe o чтeнии oпиcывaeт пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo кaк пpoдyкт yмeния дeкoдиpoвaть и вocпpинимaть тeкcт нa cлyx. Cчитaeтcя, чтo имeннo coвoкyпнocть этиx yмeний и cocтaвляeт ocнoвy для пoнимaния пpoчитaннoгo. Для oцeнки aдeквaтнocти тaкoгo пoдxoдa в cтaтьe пpeдcтaвлeны peзyльтaты пepeкpecтнoгo aнaлизa чтeния cpeди yчaщиxcя пepвыx, втopыx и тpeтьиx клaccoв (N = 123-125 в кaждoй вoзpacтнoй гpyппe). Учacтники тecтиpoвaния выпoлнили мнoгoчиcлeнныe зaдaния нa тoчнocть и бeглocть чтeния cлoв, вocпpиятиe нa cлyx, пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo и oцeнкy cлoвapнoгo зaпaca. Пoдтвepдилиcь вывoды paнee пpoвeдeнныx иccлeдoвaний: влияниe нaвыкoв дeкoдиpoвaния нa пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo c вoзpacтoм yмeньшaeтcя, a влияниe нaвыкoв вocпpиятия нa cлyx pacтeт. Oднaкo дoпoлнитeльныe peзyльтaты, пoлyчeнныe в xoдe иccлeдoвaния, пoдcкaзывaют, чтo нe вce тaк oднoзнaчнo и пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo тpeбyeт дaльнeйшeгo изyчeния, пocкoлькy cильнoe влияниe пoнимaния нa cлyx выявляeтcя кo втopoмy клaccy, нaвык дeкoдиpoвaния лyчшe вceгo зaмepяeтcя тoчнocтью чтeния cлoв и нe-cлoв y пepвoклaccникoв, бeглocть чтeния cлoв – в тpeтьeм клacce, a cлoвapный зaпac кocвeннo влияeт нa пoнимaниe пpoчитaннoгo чepeз дeкoдиpoвaниe и пoнимaниe нa cлyx. Этa нeдaвнo paзpaбoтaннaя мoдeль oбecпeчивaeт бoлee вcecтopoннee пpeдcтaвлeниe o фaктopax, кoтopыe влияют нa чтeниe млaдшиx шкoльникoв, и имeeт диaгнocтичecкoe и мeтoдичecкoe знaчeниe для coвepшeнcтвoвaния oбyчeния чтeнию. La conception simple de la lecture comme produit du décodage et de la compréhension orale, avec une contribution variable de chacune d'elles selon le moment du développement. Nous présentons ici une analyse transversale d’élèves de première, seconde, et troisième année de scolarité (N = 123-125 à chaque niveau) afin d’évaluer la pertinence de ce modèle de base. Les participants ont répondu à plusieurs évaluations afin de savoir ce que sont les constructs sous-jacents de la lecture exacte de mots, de la lecture courante de mots, de la compréhension orale, de la compréhension en lecture, et du vocabulaire. Dans le prolongement des recherche antérieures, les modèles d’équation structurale confirment que l'influence da la compétence à decoder diminue quand le niveau scolaire augmente et que l'influence de la compréhension en lecture augmente. Cependant plusieurs résultats supplémentaires indiquent que le développement de la lecture n'est pas si simple et plaident en faveur d'une révision du modèle de base: en 2e année, on observe un important effet de la compréhension orale sur la comprehension de la lecture; on évalue mieux la compétence à décoder par l'exactitude dans la lecture de mots et de non-mots dans les premières classes et par la lecture courante en 3e année, et les compétences en vocabulaire jouent indirectement un rôle dans la compréhension de la lecture par le biais à la fois de la compétence en décodage et de la comprehension orale. Le nouveau modèle élaboré, qui fournit une conception plus intelligente de ce qui influe sur la lecture pendant les premières années, a des ramifications pour l’évaluation et l'enseignement en vue de développer la pédagogie de la lecture.
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La présente étude porte sur la compréhension des contes, explorée chez des enfants en classes de CP et CE1, et a pour ambition d'examiner quelle est la nature des informations que les enfants privilégient pour se représenter mentalement l'histoire qui leur est contée. Quatre contes ont été utilisés, et quatre dimensions situationnelles que sont l'espace, le temps, les personnages et la causalité ont plus particulièrement retenu notre attention. La représentation mentale que les enfants des deux classes d'âge avaient élaborée à partir des contes présentés était évaluée au regard de ces dimensions situationnelles. Les enfants devaient dire s'ils étaient d'accord ou pas avec les énoncés (quatre énoncés par dimension) qui leur étaient proposés après la présentation de chacun des contes. Si les résultats révèlent que la dimension temps est peu suivie à 6 ans comme à 7 ans, le suivi des autres dimensions semble sensible à l'avancée en âge des enfants, avec notamment un meilleur suivi de la dimension causalité à 7 ans. Ces résultats seront interprétés au regard des considérations théoriques issues du modèle d'indexage d'événements (Zwaan, Langston & Graesser, 1995). Listening comprehension of tales : A study of the situational dimensions 1st and 2nd grade children use to understand the story ABSTRACT The present study deals with the understanding of tales, which was explored with children from six to seven years old. Our goal was to identify the nature of information children preferentially monitor to construct a mental representation from the tales that were Correspondance : Nathalie Blanc, Université Montpellier 3, Laboratoire « Développement, Cognition, Acquisition » (J.E. 2687), Route de Mende, 34199 Montpellier cedex 5.
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According to the Matthew effect model, interindividual differences in reading competence between poor and normal readers should become wider as students grow older. The second part of the model assumes that these differential pathways are mainly attributable to differential reading activities. The purpose of this study is to examine whether both assumptions can be verified in a sample of German elementary school students. Data from 1,124 students, participating in the BiKS longitudinal study with assessment starting in Grade 3 and two further points of measurement in Grade 4, were available for our analyses. Latent growth curve models showed a significant lower linear and quadratic trend on reading competence development for students with severe reading deficits in comparison with their better classmates. Further analysis indicates that differential reading behaviour seems to be a prominent factor in explaining these differential pathways whereas the students' general cognitive abilities seem to be of less importance.
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We examined the word-to-text integration processes of less skilled compre-henders using ERPs recorded during text reading. The first sentence of each text controlled the accessibility of an antecedent referent for a critical word, which was the first content word of the second sentence. In the explicit condi-tion, the critical word had occurred in the first sentence; in the paraphrase condition, a word or phrase similar in meaning had occurred in the first sentence; in the inference condition, a referent could have been established during the first sentence only if the reader made a forward inference; a base-line condition provided no obvious antecedent for the critical word. PCA, topographic results, and mean amplitude analyses converged on a picture of integration difficulty. Integration effects emerged in the expected mid-latency ranges for the explicit and inference conditions. The pattern of effects differed from that of skilled comprehenders, who, in another study, showed earlier in-tegration effects for explicit and paraphrase conditions, but not reliably for the inference condition. Paraphrase effects were especially weak and late occur-ring for less skilled comprehenders. Compared with skilled comprehenders, less skilled comprehenders show slow word-to-text integration processes. Difficulties in comprehension can arise from any one or more of the component processes that must be integrated to produce skilled comprehension (Perfetti, 1999). These sources of comprehension problems range from basic levels of word identification (Perfetti, 1985; Perfetti & Hart, 2001) up to the higher lev-els of inference processes (Long & Golding, 1993; Oakhill & Garnham, 1988) and comprehension monitoring (Baker, 1982; Garner, 1980). Within this broad range, specific problems in semantic processing at the word level may also be involved, for adults (Landi, 2005) as well as children (Nation & Snowling, 1998; for reviews, see Perfetti, Landi & Oakhill, 2005; Nation, 2005).
Article
This paper reports two studies that investigate differences in comprehension monitoring skills between good and poor comprehenders. Two groups of 9– to 10-year-olds, who were matched for reading vocabulary and word recognition skills but who differed in comprehension skill, were selected. In the first study, in which the children were required to find anomalous words and phrases, the skilled comprehenders engaged in more accurate monitoring of sentence level anomalies (but not word level anomalies) than did the poorer comprehenders. In the second study, the comprehension monitoring task required the children to detect pairs of sentences, in short texts, that were contradictory. In addition, the working memory demands of the task were varied by placing the two items of inconsistent information either in adjacent sentences, or in sentences that were separated in the text by several others. As in the first study, less-skilled comprehenders performed more poorly on the detection task, but the difference between the groups was considerably more pronounced when the sentences were separated than when they were adjacent. In addition, the children were given a numerical working memory test, and the poorer comprehenders performed more poorly on this test. However, although working memory performance was related to performance on some of the error detection tasks, comprehension ability was also a good, and sometimes better, predictor. The results are discussed in terms of the different cognitive abilities that might contribute to efficient comprehension monitoring.
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Fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children participated in a 2-year longitudinal study to determine the predictive validity of the Title Recognition Test (TRT) and the Author Recognition Test (ART), 2 checklist measures of individual differences in exposure to print. Multiple regression analyses confirmed the ability of the TRT to predict growth in receptive vocabulary, general information, spelling, sight vocabulary, verbal fluency, and reading comprehension even after controlling for age, recognition memory, and previous performance in the same cognitive competency area. The ART was found to be a less robust predictor. Although correlational, our results suggest that print exposure may be an independent contributor to cognitive growth in the verbal domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
1 Introduction.- 2 General Method.- 3 Decoding.- 4 Comprehension and Strategies.- 5 Overview of "Reading Skills" and Preview.- 6 Language, Memory, and Attention.- 7 Computed Scores: Results and Discussion.- 8 General Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- Appendices.- Author Index.
Article
Cette etude examine les differences individuelles dans la maniere dont les lecteurs integrent des mots successifs dans leur representation d'un texte. Elle met l'accent sur le role du travail mnemonique et sur son interaction avec les caracteristiques du texte a lire, etudiee par l'introduction de contradictions dans les elements du texte
Article
Two studies investigated whether there is a direct relation between children's reading comprehension, their knowledge about the goals and processes of reading, and their skill in applying such knowledge. An interview revealed that less skilled comprehenders differed from same-age skilled comprehenders in their knowledge about reading and reading strategies, but they did not differ significantly from a younger group of children of equivalent comprehension ability. In contrast, a reading task demonstrated that less skilled comprehenders were poorer than both control groups at adapting their reading style to achieve different goals. These data demonstrate that there are direct relations between comprehension skill and both knowledge about reading and reading strategies, when individual differences in word reading skill have been controlled for. Furthermore, the results of the second study rule out the possibility that the differences found between groups in their ability to set and reach suitable reading targets were simply a by-product of reading comprehension level. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
This paper reports two experiments that investigate skilled and less-skilled compre-henders' ability to understand pronouns. In the first experiment, the less-skilled group made more errors in answering questions about pronoun antecedents than did the skilled group, even when there was a gender cue to the correct referent, and when the clause containing the referents was available for them to refer back to. In the second experiment, the pronoun antecedents always differed in gender, and the children's attention was drawn to the pronominal link by requiring them to provide a pronoun appropriate to the sentence, before they answered a question about it. The difficulty of the pronoun resolution was manipulated by varying the inferential complexity of the pronoun-anaphor link. In both tasks, the difference between the groups was larger when a complex inference was required than when only a simple inference was needed. We conclude that the less-skilled comprehenders' difficulty in resolving pronouns may arise in part because they do not attend properly to cues such as gender of referent, and in particular because they have difficulty drawing necessary inferences, especially when the inferential processing is at all complex. The implications of these results for remediation are discussed.
Article
Three bodies of research that have developed in relative isolation center on each of three kinds of phonological processing: phonological awareness, awareness of the sound structure of language; phonological recoding in lexical access, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representational system to get from the written word to its lexical referent; and phonetic recoding in working memory, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representational system to maintain them efficiently in working memory. In this review we integrate these bodies of research and address the interdependent issues of the nature of phonological abilities and their causal roles in the acquisition of reading skills. Phonological ability seems to be general across tasks that purport to measure the three kinds of phonological processing, and this generality apparently is independent of general cognitive ability. However, the generality of phonological ability is not complete, and there is an empirical basis for distinguishing phonological awareness and phonetic recoding in working memory. Our review supports a causal role for phonological awareness in learning to read, and suggests the possibility of similar causal roles for phonological recoding in lexical access and phonetic recoding in working memory. Most researchers have neglected the probable causal role of learning to read in the development of phonological skills. It is no longer enough to ask whether phonological skills play a causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. The question now is which aspects of phonological processing (e.g., awareness, recoding in lexical access, recoding in working memory) are causally related to which aspects of reading (e.g., word recognition, word analysis, sentence comprehension), at which point in their codevelopment, and what are the directions of these causal relations?
Chapter
This chapter examines investigations of metacognition and text processing. The chapter is classified into three domains: metalinguistic, reading strategies, and comprehension monitoring. Metalinguistics is primarily concerned with the reader's objective knowledge of language characteristics, and the conscious manipulation of language independent of its meaning theories focused on metamemory. Comprehension monitoring, which is an object of experimental research for several decades before metacognition was invented, concerns readers' and listeners' awareness of and reaction to comprehension failures. Despite the growing body of research supporting the position of metacognition in cognitive theories, there continues to be disagreement surrounding its definition. The most widely accepted definition has two facets—namely, knowledge about and regulation of cognitive states and processes.
Article
School children appear to increase their vocabularies by thousands of words per year. Many have hypothesized that a large proportion of this growth occurs through incidental learning from written context. However, experimental research has until now failed to provide unequivocal support of this hypothesis. The present study attempted to determine whether students do acquire measurable knowledge about unfamiliar words while reading natural text. Fifty-seven eighth-grade students of average and above average reading ability read either an expository or a narrative text about 1,000 words in length. After reading, subjects completed two vocabulary assessment tasks on 15 target words from each passage (thus serving as controls for the passage not read), an individual interview and a multiple-choice test, both designed to tap partial knowledge of word meanings. Results of within-subject, hierarchical regression analyses showed small but statistically reliable gains in word knowledge from context. Tentative extrapolations from the results and current estimates of the volume of children's reading lead us to believe that incidental learning from context accounts for a substantial proportion of the vocabulary growth that occurs during the school years. /// [French] Les écoliers semblent augmenter leur vocabulaire de milliers de mots par an. Nombreux sont ceux qui ont pour hypothèse qu'une large proportion de cette croissance intervient grâce à une acquisition accidentelle à partir d'un contexte écrit. Cependant, la recherche expérimentale n'a pas pu jusqu'à présent fournir un soutient univoque à cette hypothèse. L'étude présente essaie de déterminer si les élèves acquièrent en fait des connaissances mesurables sur les mots qui ne leur sont pas familiers au cours de la lecture de textes naturels. Cinquantesept élèves de quatrième à compétence de lecture moyenne et au-dessus de la moyenne ont lu un texte d'exposition ou de narration d'environ 1000 mots. Après la lecture, les sujets ont complété deux tâches d'évaluation de vocabulaire sur 15 mots cibles à partir de chaque passage (servant ainsi de contrôles pour le passage non lu), un entretien individuel et un test à choix multipes, désignés à aborder la connaissance partielle des significations de mots. Les résultats des analyses de régression hiérarchique de sujet unique ont montré des gains moindres mais statistiquement sûrs en connaissance de mots à partir d'un contexte. Des extrapolations d'essai à partir des résultats et des calculs courants du volume de lecture chez les enfants nous ont menés à croire que la lecture accidentelle à partir d'un contexte compte pour une proportion substantielle de la croissance du vocabulaire qui a lieu au cours des années scolaires. /// [Spanish] Al parecer, alumnos incrementan su vocabulario con miles de palabras cada año. Muchos han avanzado la hipótesis que una gran proporción de este incremento ocurre por medio de aprendizaje incidental del contexto escrito. No obstante, investigación experimental no ha provisto evidencia irrefutable para esta hipótesis. Este estudio trató de determinar si los alumnos adquieren conocimiento medible de palabras desconocidas durante la lectura de textos normales. Cincuenta y siete alumnos de octavo grado, de habilidad normal y superior en lectura, leyeron un texto descriptivo o narrativo, de approximadamente 1000 palabras. Después de la lectura, los alumnos completaron 2 actividades de evaluación de vocabulario sobre 15 palabras específicas de cada pasaje (sirviendo así como control de los pasajes no leídos), una entrevista individual y un test de elección múltiple, ambos diseñados para descubrir conocimiento parcial de significado de palabras. Los resultados por individuo, utilizando análisis de jerarquía de regresión, mostraron pequeño pero estadísticamente fiable progreso en el conocimiento de palabras por medio de contexto. Extrapolaciones tentativas de los resultados y cálculos presentes del volumen de lectura de alumnos, nos llevan a deducir que aprendizaje incidental del contexto da cuenta de una proporción considerable del incremento de vocabulario que ocurre durante los años escolares.
Chapter
The ability to read is a traditional criterion of academic achievement and is basic to success in almost every aspect of the school curriculum. It is a prerequisite skill for nearly all jobs and the primary key to lifelong learning. Despite its importance, however, it is well documented that not all children attending school attain full literacy in their native language. With regard to monolingual English-speaking children it is estimated that somewhere between 10 and 15 percent of school children having no apparent visual, hearing, or mental deficits encounter unusual difficulty of one kind or another in learning to read [Downing and Leong, 1982]. A significant number of children never learn to read efficiently or effectively. For those of us who can read, it is hard to understand why anyone should have trouble acquiring the skill, since once acquired reading seems so easy and natural. But even the average child does not learn to read easily. Citing the results of standardized reading achievement tests as evidence, Gough and Hillinger [1979] argue that “children almost never learn to read without instruction and even when given explicit, devoted, daily instruction, the average child learns to read very slowly, and with great difficulty” [p.4].
Article
36 7th grade good and poor readers read one prose passage and listened to a 2nd one. They were tested, following each passage, for comprehension and recall of that passage. Under both reading and listening conditions, good readers recalled a greater proportion of the stories, and the likelihood of their recalling a particular unit was a clear function of the units's structural importance; poor readers recalled less of the stories, and their recall protocols were not as clearly related to variations in structural importance. Performance following reading was significantly correlated with performance following listening. Results indicate that poor readers suffer from a general comprehension deficit and that similar processes are involved in reading and listening comprehension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Three experiments were conducted to assess the effects of vocabulary instruction on word knowledge and reading comprehension. Treatments varied in the amount of direct instruction, ranging from meaning derivation from context to drill on synonyms. In Experiment 1, subjects were “average” fourth-grade readers, whereas subjects in Experiments 2 and 3 were learning disabled and remedial readers. Results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicated that the treatments were differentially effective in teaching synonyms for unfamiliar words. More meanings were acquired as a result of increased direct instruction. Average students learned some word synonyms under all conditions except a noninstructional control condition. However, learning disabled students acquired fewer meanings across all conditions and seemed to require more direct instruction in order to produce learning. In both experiments, procedures which were differentially effective in teaching synonyms also produced differential transfer to sentence comprehension. The third experiment examined the effect of vocabulary instruction on comprehension of connected discourse. Again, vocabulary training transferred to comprehension of single sentences; however, on two of three measures of passage comprehension no effects were observed that were attributable to vocabulary instruction.
Article
Previous research has shown that adults tend to infer particular meanings of words, according to their context, a process that has been termed instantiation. An experiment was carried out to investigate the relation between 7 to 8 year olds' skill at reading comprehension and their ability to instantiate. A cued recall paradigm was used: the subjects were presented with a series of short sentences, and either the general noun that had appeared in the original sentence, or a particular noun that fitted the context, was given as a cue. The results showed that both skilled and less skilled comprehenders recalled the original sentences equally well, given the original nouns, but that the performance of the skilled group was superior when they were given the particular word cues, indicating that the skilled comprehenders were instantiating more readily. An independent test showed that their superior performance was not attributable to their better general knowledge.
Article
Despite the perceived importance of time spent reading on reading growth, research supporting this notion is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of time spent reading at school and at home on intermediate grade students' reading achievement. One hundred and ninety-five students in Grades 5 and 6 kept daily reading logs from mid-January through mid-May. A stepwise multiple regression analysis, in which standardized reading comprehension scores prior to the study served as a covariate, revealed that amount of time spent on reading during the reading period contributed significantly to gains in students' reading achievement. Time spent on reading at home was not significantly related to reading achievement gains. Findings provide needed research support for the idea that time engaged in silent reading at school is beneficial to intermediate grade students.
Article
An interview schedule for assessing metacognitive awareness about reading was developed, based upon the work of Myers and Paris (1978). Scoring scales were developed for each item, which allowed for a variety of parametric statistical procedures. This interview schedule was administered to 88 children in grades 2, 4, and 6. Item-by-item results showed general increases in metacognitive knowledge with grade and a particularly high level of awareness in grade 6 children of above-average reading comprehension ability. A principal components analysis of the interview item scores yielded four metacognitive factors, which were labelled Withholding Closure, Reading Skill, Semantic Selection, and Use of Context. Further analyses showed that all factor scores increased with grade and, again, that high-ability sixth-graders had a particular advantage in the two semantic factors (Semantic Selection, Use of Context). Correlational analyses suggested that the Use of Context factor is the strongest contributor to comprehension in grade 6, but may be detrimental to comprehension in grade 4. Implications of these results for the measurement of metacognitive awareness, for a model of the development of reading skill, and for the improvement of instruction are discussed.
Article
This paper presents a follow-up study of JM, a developmental dyslexic first described by Snowling, Stackhouse, and Rack (1986b). Tests of phonological processing revealed that JM's deficit was primarily located at the level of output phonology (speech production). Further studies explored the mechanisms by which JM has managed to learn to read in the face of these deficits. Tests of nonword reading supported the view that JM has learnt to read by gradually expanding his sight vocabulary, supported by his intact visual and semantic processing skills.
Article
Two studies investigated whether there is a direct relation between children' s reading comprehension, their knowledge about the goals and processes of reading, and their skill in applying such knowledge. An interview revealed that less skilled comprehen- ders differed from same-age skilled comprehenders in their knowledge about reading and reading strategies, but they did not differ signié cantly from a younger group of children of equivalent comprehension ability. In contrast, a reading task demon- strated that less skilled comprehenders were poorer than both control groups at adapting their reading style to achieve different goals. These data demonstrate that there are direct relations between comprehension skill and both knowledge about reading and reading strategies, when individual differences in word reading skill have been controlled for. Furthermore, the results of the second study rule out the possibility that the differences found between groups in their ability to set and reach suitable reading targets were simply a by-product of reading comprehension level. The implications of these é ndings are discussed.
Article
Comprehension and memory skills of fourth grade good and poor readers were compared in two studies. Their ability to monitor comprehension of difficult and anomalous information was measured in three ways; by spontaneous self-corrections during oral reading, by directed underlining of incomprehensible words and phrases, and by study behaviors. Poor readers engaged in significantly less monitoring on all three measures and this was correlated with poorer comprehension and recall scores. An additional metacognitive measure of perceived reading strategy effectiveness indicated that poor readers are often unaware of the negative influences of some strategies. The patterns of responses on the multiple measures suggest that poor readers may adopt decoding rather than meaning comprehension goals during reading and they are less accurate in applying monitoring skills towards resolving comprehension failures.
Article
In this paper, we discuss the relative contribution of several theoretically relevant skills and abilities in accounting for variance in both word reading and text comprehension. We present data from the first and second waves of a longitudinal study, when the children were 7 to 8 years, and 8 to 9 years old. In multiple regression analyses, we show that there is a dissociation between the skills and abilities that account for variance in word reading, and those that account for variance in text comprehension. The pattern of results is very similar at both time points. Significant variance in comprehension skill is accounted for by measures of text integration, metacognitive monitoring, and working memory. By contrast, these measures do not account for variance in word reading ability, which was best accounted for by a phoneme deletion task. The implications of these findings for our understanding of the development of reading ability, children’s problems in text comprehension and for remediation will be discussed.
Article
This study examines children's reading awareness and comprehension skills as examples of the developmental and instructional relations between children's metacognition and performance. 8- and 10-year olds were interviewed about their knowledge of reading tasks and strategies in the fall and spring. A scale of reading awareness was constructed and related to children's performance on several reading tasks. During the year half of each group received 4 months of classroom instruction on how, when, and why to use reading strategies to enhance comprehension. Pretest correlations revealed a significant relation between children's level of reading awareness and comprehension skills. Furthermore, comparisons between pretests and posttests revealed that the metacognitive instruction significantly increased children's reading awareness and their use of comprehension strategies. The study clearly showed that (a) children who are more aware of the nature of reading tasks and strategies also score higher on tests of reading comprehension and (b) informed instruction in the classroom can enhance both awareness and comprehension skills.
Article
Children with specific reading comprehension difficulties were compared with control children on tests of language skill. The two groups performed at a similar level on tests requiring predominantly phonological skills, but the poor comprehenders performed less well on tests tapping semantic ability. Although the two groups were matched for decoding ability (as assessed by nonword reading), the poor comprehenders were worse at reading words with irregular spelling patterns and low-frequency words. These results show that despite having adequate phonological decoding skills, poor comprehenders have problems reading words that are typically read with support from semantics. These findings are related to connectionist models of reading development in which phonological and semantic processes interact.
Article
In two experiments, we investigated the influence of organizational cues on story comprehension by 7- to 8-year-old children, matched in age and decoding skills but differing in comprehension ability. In Experiment 1, children read abstract stories with titles and pictures that did or did not integrate story information. Providing integrative cues improved comprehension by poor, but not good comprehenders, but had no effect on verbatim recall. Both skill groups recalled more main ideas than subsidiary ones. In Experiment 2, two new groups read the stories without pictures or titles. Poor comprehenders trained to look for "clue words" to infer main story consequences, implicit in the stories, showed better comprehension than such children given no training. Good comprehenders performed at a uniformly high level regardless of training. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive control required to select and coordinate information in text. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
aims at examining some theoretical and methodological issues in the studies on reading difficulties, and the role played by some cognitive and metacognitive variables in reading comprehension difficulty / compared the results derived from 2 different methodologies, 1 contrasting groups of poor and good readers, and the other separately analyzing single cases of poor readers working memory, metacognition, and listening in reading [the research, comparisons between reading comprehension disabled Ss and controls, analysis of the single cases, some general observations, relationship (and lack of it) between variables derived from the analysis of single cases] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Children's metacognitive awareness of variables that influence reading was assessed in an interview study. 20 2nd and 20 6th graders answered questions about the effects of personal abilities, task parameters, and cognitive strategies involved in reading. Although 2nd graders were aware of the influence of some reading dimensions such as interest, familiarity, and length, they were less sensitive to the semantic structure of paragraphs, goals of reading, and strategies for resolving comprehension failures than 6th graders. Age-related differences in metacognitive knowledge may be correlated with the acquisition of efficient memory, problem-solving, and reading skills. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested a model of early literacy acquisition regarding the interrelation of word recognition, spelling, reading comprehension, and writing skills, using longitudinal data collected from 80 children who passed from 1st through 2nd grades. Incoming characteristics (i.e., ethnicity, IQ, oral language) and the rate at which each S progressed through his or her reading books were examined in relation to growth in phonemic awareness, spelling/sound knowledge, and lexical knowledge. The impact of these factors on development in word recognition and spelling was explored, along with the relation of word recognition and listening comprehension to reading comprehension, and the relation of spelling and ideation to story writing. It was hypothesized that poor reading achievement in minority students would be partially attributable to poorer phonemic awareness of school English due to dialect, 2nd language, and cultural differences. Results support the hypothesis, suggesting the strong importance of phonemic awareness in literacy acquisition. The relation between word recognition and spelling was strong due to reliance on similar sources of knowledge. The relation between reading comprehension and writing appeared less strong, suggesting that the generation of ideas involved in story production is not isomorphic to the processes involved in reading comprehension. (61 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated 24 7–8 yr olds' use of implicit inferences in understanding stories. Two groups of Ss, differentiated by their ability at text comprehension, read 4 short stories and were asked a series of questions after each one. Results show that skilled readers were better than less skilled readers at answering questions from memory shortly after reading a story, both when the questions could be answered directly from the text and when they required an inference. However, when the text was made available, the less skilled group remained poorer at answering questions that required an inference, although their performance on literal questions improved to the same level as that of the skilled group. Results support the idea that a major distinguishing characteristic of skilled readers is that they are good at making inferences that enable them to relate one idea in a text to another and to general knowledge. Results do not support the claim that differences in ability to make inferences can be attributed to differences in memory for prose. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Two experiments, with 64 undergraduates, demonstrated that individual differences in working memory capacity affected the probability of resolving apparent inconsistencies within sentences. Resolution was less likely for Ss with small working memories, as assessed by a reading span test that taxed both processing and storage functions. It is suggested that Ss with small spans devoted so many resources to reading processes that they had less capacity for retaining earlier verbatim wording in working memory. Ss with small spans had particular difficulty recovering from inconsistencies when a sentence boundary intervened, which suggests that end-of-sentence processes taxed the poor reader more. Reading times were used to model the time course of integration. Detection and recovery increased processing time. Furthermore, detection was apparent on the first inconsistent word, suggesting that Ss attempted to integrate a word immediately and did not buffer several words before processing them semantically. (62 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
From a model of learning as a generative process, it was hypothesized that familiar stories, in contrast to unfamiliar stories, facilitate the learners' generation of meaning for low-frequency, undefined words. In 3 experiments, 468 6th graders were randomly assigned to across-S treatments which applied the hypothesis. Across 3 levels of reading ability (determined by Science Research Associates Reading Placement and Listening Skills Tests), 4 elementary schools, and 2 modes of presentation, the hypothesis was supported (p < .0001) in each experiment. The familiar test stories facilitated the learning and retention of new vocabulary words. Data were consistent with the generative model and indicate that a meaningful context facilitates the learning of low-frequency words. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Good comprehenders were more efficient than poor comprehenders when they were required to locate specific pieces of information in a text, and there were qualitative differences in search strategies between the groups. However, the performance of the good comprehenders was more like that of poor comprehenders when they were required to search through a scrambled text, suggesting that their search was guided by their representation of the content of the text. Although the groups did not differ in performance on a test of spatial memory, or on their ability to remember the location of individual words in a text, the good comprehenders were better at remembering the order in which specific words appeared in a text. This finding again suggests that their superior search strategies may arise because of their better memory for the order of events in a text. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assessed the relation between children's comprehension skill and their knowledge about stories, as measured by their ability to tell stories from picture sequences vs title prompts. The performance of 16 7–8 yr old poor comprehenders was compared to that of 12 same-age skilled comprehenders matched for reading accuracy, and of 15 6–7 yr old skilled comprehenders matched for comprehension age (CAM Ss). All groups successfully used conventional story features, but differed in the quality of the story produced, especially in the topic prompt condition. Stories elicited with picture prompts were better structured overall. In this picture prompt condition, less skilled Ss still performed more poorly than the skilled group, but not significantly more poorly than CAM Ss. These results demonstrate that lack of story knowledge does not result from differential experience in reading comprehension, but may arise from discrepancies in comprehension skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses cognitive bases of verbal comprehension, emphasizing in particular the role in verbal comprehension of learning from context. A review of 3 alternative cognitive approaches to understanding verbal comprehension is provided: (1) the "bottom-up" or mechanistic approach, (2) the "top-down" or inference-driven approach, and (3) the knowledge-based approach. A developing theory of learning from context is described, and some empirical data supporting this theory are summarized. An attempt is made to relate these ideas to relevant earlier ones, describing a tentative componential framework for understanding verbal comprehension. It is concluded that understanding of verbal comprehension provides an important road to the study of what constitutes intelligent performance. (93 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
examine individual and age-related differences in acquiring word meanings through contextual inference and suggest how these skills might be related to reading comprehension skill building-block hypothesis lexical-efficiency hypothesis knowledge hypothesis verbal-intelligence hypothesis learning-from-context hypothesis vocabulary acquisition integration skill and working memory / empirical tests of the role of working memory / contributions to the learning-from-context hypothesis (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The authors concentrate on their own research with children who have comprehension difficulties as well as outlining other theoretical perspectives and how these theories relate to their own work. The focus is on young children who have developed good word recognition and can understand sentences and read aloud apparently fluently. The chapter outlines studies that support the view that comprehension deficits are, in many cases, related to deficits in the processes that are involved in constructing a representation of a text. The authors' view is that poor comprehenders often have difficulties at the level of inference and integration in text comprehension; they fail to build adequate mental models of text. Five areas of processing (lexical and semantic processes, inference making, understanding text structure, comprehension strategies, and working memory limitations) are discussed along with a consideration of how they might interact in an integrated model of comprehension and comprehension failure. An overview of the areas of word meanings and domain knowledge is provided, including suggestions on how the process and knowledge components of the comprehension model might be integrated within a working memory framework. It is shown that children with reading comprehension problems show deficiencies on a wide variety of tasks tapping processes and knowledge. It is argued that deficits in working memory provide an explanation for reading problems and difficulties on a range of other cognitive tasks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested the hypothesis that the experiences that a child has with rhyme before he/she goes to school might have an effect on later success in learning to read and write. Two experimental situations were used: a longitudinal study and an intensive training program in sound categorization or other forms of categorization. 368 children's skills at sound categorization were measured before they started to read and then related to their progress in reading, spelling, and mathematics over 4 yrs. At the end of initial testing and during the 4 yrs Ss' IQ, reading, spelling, and mathematical abilities were tested. There were high correlations between initial sound categorization scores and Ss' reading and spelling over 3 yrs. At the onset of study, 65 Ss who could not read and had low sound-categorization skills were divided into 4 groups. Two received 2 yrs of training in categorizing sounds. Group 1 was taught that the same word shared common beginning, middle, and end sounds with other words and could be categorized in different ways. Group 2 was also taught how each common sound was represented by a letter of the alphabet. The other groups served as controls. Group 3 was taught only that the same word could be classified in several ways. At the end of training, Group 1 was ahead of Group 3 and Group 2 was ahead of Group 1 in reading and spelling. This suggests that training in sound categorization is more effective when it also involves an explicit connection with the alphabet. Results support the hypothesis. (5 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[pays] substantial attention to how reading works and what learning to read is about, addressing individual differences in the context of basic reading and language processes [in children and adults] / describes a framework that places learning to read in the context of language / addresses reading failure and dyslexia / discusses individual differences in ordinary reading, with a focus on comprehension / selectively discusses theories of individual differences argue that reading is primarily a language process and that problems in learning to read arise primarily from linguistic processing problems (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Interviewed 30 good and poor comprehenders (as determined by the reading teacher) in the 7th grade concerning their approach to reading comprehension and had them read 2 narrative passages. One passage contained inconsistencies within a single sentence; the other had inconsistencies across the 5 sentences of the passage. In the interview, good comprehenders provided meaning-getting responses to questions about the reading process; poor comprehenders did not. Poor comprehenders were unsuccessful at demonstrating error detection. Good comprehenders were somewhat successful with between-sentence error detection and highly successful at within-sentence detections. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Children with specific reading disability fail to understand some complex spoken sentences as well as good readers. This investigation sought to identify the source of poor readers' comprehension difficulties. Second-grade good and poor readers were tested on spoken sentences with restrictive relative clauses in two experiments designed to minimize demands on working memory. The methodological innovations resulted in a high level of performance by both reader groups, demonstrating knowledge of relative clause structure. The poor readers' performance closely paralleled that of the good readers both in pattern of errors and in awareness of the pragmatic aspects of relative clauses. The findings suggest that limitations in processing account for comprehension difficulties displayed by some poor readers in previous investigations.
Article
Three bodies of research that have developed in relative isolation center on each of three kinds of phonological processing: phonological awareness, awareness of the sound structure of language; phonological recoding in lexical access, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representational system to get from the written word to its lexical referent; and phonetic recoding in working memory, recoding written symbols into a sound-based representation system to maintain them efficiently in working memory. In this review we integrate these bodies of research and address the interdependent issues of the nature of phonological abilities and their causal roles in the acquisition of reading skills. Our review supports a causal role for phonological awareness in learning to read, and suggests the possibility of similar causal roles for phonological recoding in lexical access and phonetic recoding in working memory. Most researchers have neglected the probable causal role of learning to read in the development of phonological skills. It is no longer enough to ask whether phonological skills play a causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. The question now is which aspects of phonological processing (e.g., awareness, recoding in lexical access, recoding in working memory) are causally related to which aspects of reading (e.g., word recognition, word analysis, sentence comprehension), at which point in their codevelopment, and what are the directions of these causal relations? (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This experiment investigated comprehension of four types of anaphor (reference, ellipsis, substitution and lexical) in 7 to 8−year-old good and poor comprehenders, matched in decoding skills but differing in reading comprehension skill. Poor comprehenders performed less well than skilled comprehenders both in identifying antecedents of anaphors in a story, and in answering questions on the text which required anaphor resolution. Both groups performed more poorly as distance between anaphor and antecedent increased, and poor comprehenders were more adversely affected by distance than good comprehenders for ellipsis. Children's errors are used to suggest differences between the groups in processes of resolving anaphors, in terms of scanning text for appropriate antecedents and integrating text with world knowledge.
Article
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