Antimicrobial Activities of the Extracts and Fractions of Allanblackia floribunda
Allanblackia floribunda is a tree employed in Nigeria and other countries to treat skin disease and other microbial diseases. The ethanol extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions of the leaves, stem bark and root bark were evaluated for antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus NCIB 8588, Bacillus subtilis NCIB 3610, Escherichia coli NCIB 86, Proteus vulgaris NCIB 67, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIB 950, Klebsiella pneumoniae NCIB 418, Candida albicans and Aspergilus flavus , using agar diffusion method to validate the ethnobotanical uses of the plant. Among the extracts, the ethanol extract of the leaf gave the most significant antibacterial activity. However, no extract showed antifungal activity. Generally, the fractions obtained from the extracts elicited better activity, including antifungal activity against C. albicans . The highest inhibitory effect was exhibited by leaf extract against Ps. aeruginosa NCIB 950, while the ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark gave the least inhibitory effect against B. subtilis NCIB 3610. The plant extract and fractions produced inhibition zone range between 5 and 35 mm.
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- "Its bark has long been used to cicatrize wound (Okunomo and Egho, 2010), and for the treatment of leprosy, dysentery, anaemia, spitting blood, debility, stiffness, tonsillitis and skin diseases (Dalziel, 1937; Hutchinson et al., 1963). The leaves are often crushed and the juice released to treat generalized skin diseases such as scabies, ringworm, rash and wound, while the stem or stem twigs are employed as chewing sticks for oral hygiene (Igoli et al., 2005; Ajibesin et al., 2008). When chewed with kolanut, its leaves serves as an antiemetic, while its leaf sap could be used for treating ear infections, fever, headache, malaria and cephalgy (Bouet, 1980). "
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ABSTRACT: African pear, Dacryodes edulis, seed extract has been used for the treatment of ailments in traditional medicine. However, the effect of boiling on its antioxidant properties is still poorly understood. Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of boiling on the antioxidant properties of D. edulis seed extract using in vitro parameters such as free radical scavenging ability against 2, 2-diphenyl -1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, iron (III) reducing and iron (II) chelating ability. Furthermore, the ability of both extracts (boiled and unboiled) to offer protective benefit against lipid peroxidation in cerebral and hepatic tissues of rat was assessed. Moreover, the effect of boiling on the phytochemical constituents (total phenolics, flavonoids and vitamin C) of the seed extracts was measured. Results indicate that boiling significantly (P < 0.05) potentiates the total phenolic [(Boiled 60.1 ± 0.88 mg/g (GAE); Unboiled 30.2 ± 0.68 mg/g (GAE)] and flavonoid [(Boiled: 50.02 ± 0.12 mg/g (QE); Unboiled: 35.8 ± 0.15 mg/g (QE)] content but mildly depleted the vitamin C content [Boiled: (36.9 ± 0.44 mg/g; Unboiled: 40.1 ± 0.21 mg/g]. Similarly, boiling markedly increased the antioxidant properties (free radical scavenging, iron (II) chelating, iron (III) reducing and inhibitory effect against pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation) of the seed extract. From the foregoing, the wide usage of African pear as remedy for ailment in folk medicine may be due to its phytochemical constituents which are potentiated by boiling. Hence, information from this study would create public awareness especially to traditional medical practitioners who are involved in the act of boiling the fruit to get the extract used for medicinal purposes.
Available from: Emmanuel Tshikalange
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ABSTRACT: Allanblackia floribunda Oliver (Guttiferae) is an African medicinal plant used traditionally to treat a variety of ailments.
We investigated the antitumor, radical scavenging, antimycobacterial, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the root bark extract of A. floribunda and three isolated phenolics, namely 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (1), morelloflavone (2) and 7'-O-glucoside of morelloflavone (3).
The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was used for antioxidant tests, while crown gall tumor assay was used for assay of antitumor activity. The p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (INT) colorimetry and Microplate Alamar Blue Assay (MABA) were used for antimicrobial investigations.
Moderate tumor reducing activity was observed with the extract, while better activities were recorded with compounds 2 and 3. The antimycobacterial and antitumor activities of the extract are being reported for the first time. The DPPH radical scavenging test showed that all the studied samples were able to scavenge more than 50% of the free radical, with compound 3 showing the best inhibitory activity (IC(50) of 49.08 µg/mL). Compounds 1 to 3 prevented the growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis and both extract and compound 2 were active on M. tuberculosis. The lowest MIC value for the extract (9.76 μg/mL) was recorded against Enterobacter aerogenes while the corresponding value for the compounds (4.88 µg/mL) was obtained with compound 2 on Trichophyton rubrum.
The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the potential use of the root bark extract of A. floribunda as an antimicrobial, antitumor and antioxidant phytomedicine.
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ABSTRACT: Dacryodes edulis is a dioecious, shade loving, evergreen tree, indigenous to the Gulf of Guinea and widely cultivated in other tropical parts of Africa for its fruit. The edible fruit to which the plant owes its principal values is a rich source of nutrients such as lipids, vitamins and protein. The fruit yields a high content of fixed and essential oils. The fruits are highly consumed and traded locally and internationally, conferring enormous economic value on the plant. The plant has long been used in the traditional medicine of some African countries to treat various ailments such as wound, skin diseases, dysentery and fever. The extracts and secondary metabolites have been found to show biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti sickle cell anemia. A wide range of chemical constituents such as terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins have been isolated from the plant. This review provides a comprehensive detail of the plant's ethnomedicinal uses, biological effects, chemical constituents and economic property as a medicinal plant.
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