Nutrition in Clinical Practice

Book · September 2014with 5,437 Reads
Publisher: 3rd
Publisher: ISBN-10: 1451186649 | ISBN-13: 978-1451186642
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
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Abstract
(FREE LOOK: http://amzn.to/1uK6Msp) Practical and evidence-based, chapters address the effects of diet on health and a comprehensive array of illnesses, making it a vital and timely addition to any caregiver’s library. CHAPTER LIST BELOW (Click "[more]" to expand). Chapters: 1-carb 2-fat 3-prot 4-micro 5-wt 6-DM 7-CV 8-HTN 9-hemostasis 10-stroke 11-immunity 12-cancer 13-anemia 14-bone 15-resp 16-renal 17-hep 18-GI 19-PUD 20-rheum 21-neuro 22-derm 23-wound 24-allergy 25-eating disorders 26-malnutrition 27-pregnancy 28-menses 29-pediatric 30-adolescence 31-senescence 32-egogenic 33-phytoestrogens 34-sleep 35-cognition 36-vision 37-dentition 38-appetite 39-chocolate 40-ethanol 41-coffee 42-food subs 43-veg 44-culture 45-health promotion 46-behavior mod 47-counseling appendix
David L. Katz, MD, MPH, MS
Director, Prevention Research Center, Yale

Hospital; Clinical Instructor in Medicine,
Yale University School of Medicine;
Director, Integrative Medicine Center,

College of Lifestyle Medicine, Derby, CT
Rachel S.C. Friedman, MD, MHS
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Medicine, University of California,

Sean C. Lucan, MD, MPH, MS
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Bronx, New York
Nutrition in
Clinical Practice
ISBN: 9781451186642
Features:
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studies
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in Nutrition
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short chapters, links to current
online articles
 Contributors representing diverse
expertise and practical experience

in clinical practice, and preventive
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 
topics, such as, the effects of sugar;
health effects of obesity and the
‘obesity paradox’; health effects
of gluten and grains; nutritional
therapy
 
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xix
About the Authors vii
Contributing Authors ix
Preface xi
Preface to the First Edition xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
SECTION I Clinically Relevant Nutrient Metabolism ......................1
1 Clinically Relevant Carbohydrate Metabolism .........................3
2 Clinically Relevant FatMetabolism ................................. 14
3 Clinically Relevant Protein Metabolism.............................. 25
4 Overview of Clinically Relevant Micronutrient Metabolism ..............33
SECTION II Nutritional Management in Clinical Practice: Diet,
in Sickness and in Health ................................53
5 Diet, Weight Regulation, and Obesity ..............................55
6 Diet, Diabetes Mellitus, and Insulin Resistance ......................122
7 Diet, Atherosclerosis, and Ischemic Heart Disease.................... 151
8 Diet and Hypertension .........................................182
9 Diet and Hemostasis ...........................................192
10 Diet and Cerebrovascular andPeripheral Vascular Disease .............204
11 Diet and Immunity.............................................215
12 Diet and Cancer ..............................................227
13 Diet and Hematopoiesis: Nutritional Anemias .......................250
14 Diet, Bone Metabolism, andOsteoporosis .........................257
15 Diet and Respiratory Disease .................................... 270
16 Diet and Renal Disease .........................................277
17 Diet and Hepatobiliary Disease ..................................289
18 Diet and Common Gastrointestinal Disorders ....................... 296
19 Diet, Dyspepsia, and Peptic Ulcer Disease..........................311
20 Diet and Rheumatologic Disease ................................. 316
21 Diet and Neurologic Disorders ...................................327
22 Diet and Dermatoses ..........................................336
23 Diet and Wound Healing .......................................342
24 Food Allergy and Intolerance ....................................347
25 Eating Disorders ..............................................355
26 Malnutrition and Cachexia ......................................363
SECTION III Special Topics in Clinical Nutrition ........................375
27 Diet, Pregnancy, and Lactation...................................377
28 Diet and the Menstrual Cycle ....................................389
29 Diet and Early Development: Pediatric Nutrition .....................396
CONTENTS
xx Contents
30 Diet and Adolescence..........................................408
31 Diet and Senescence ..........................................416
32 Ergogenic Effects of Foods and Nutrients:
Diet and Athletic Performance & Sports Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
33 Endocrine Effects of Diet: Phytoestrogens..........................441
34 Diet, Sleep–Wake Cycles, andMood ..............................449
35 Diet and Cognitive Function .....................................459
36 Diet and Vision ...............................................468
37 Diet and Dentition ............................................475
38 Hunger, Appetite, Taste, and Satiety .............................. 485
39 Health Effects of Chocolate .....................................503
40 Health Effects of Ethanol .......................................514
41 Health Effects of Coffee ........................................ 521
42 Macronutrient Food Substitutes ..................................528
43 Vegetarianism, Veganism, and Macrobiotic Diets ....................537
SECTION IV Diet and Health Promotion: Establishing the Theme
of Prudent Nutrition ...................................547
44 Culture, Evolutionary Biology, and the Determinants
of Dietary Preference ..........................................549
45 Dietary Recommendations forHealth Promotion
andDisease Prevention ........................................564
SECTION V Principles of Effective Dietary Counseling ..................583
46 Models of Behavior Modification for Diet and Activity Patterns
and Weight Management .......................................585
47 Dietary Counseling in Clinical Practice .............................606
SECTION VI Controversies in Contemporary Clinical Nutrition ............619
48 The Calorie ..................................................621
49 The Search for Scapegoats and Silver Bullets........................624
50 Obesity as Disease ............................................628
SECTION VII Appendices and Resource Materials .......................631
APPENDIX A Nutrition Formulas of Clinical Interest ....................633
APPENDIX B Growth and Body Weight Assessment Tables ..............634
APPENDIX C Dietary Intake Assessment in the US Population ............644
APPENDIX D Dietary Intake Assessment Instruments ...................644
APPENDIX E Nutrient/Nutriceutical Reference Tables: Intake Range
and Dietary Sources ..................................646
APPENDIX F Resources for Nutrient Composition of Foods ..............703
APPENDIX G Diet–Drug Interactions ................................703
APPENDIX H Nutrient Remedies for Common Conditions:
Patient Resources .................................... 704
xxi
Contents
APPENDIX I Print and Web-Based Resource Materials for Professionals ....705
APPENDIX J Print and Web-Based Resource Materials for Patients ........706
APPENDIX K Patient-Specific Meal Planners .......................... 708
APPENDIX L Patient-Specific Supplement Guidelines...................709
Index 711
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Atomei, O., 2016, Beneficii și caracteristici ale micului dejun în dieta adolescentului, în Jurnalul medical de Bucovina, vol. II, nr. 3, p. 46-50. Nutritional and energy needs are greater during adolescence and can be achieved by eating foods from all groups respecting the number of meals and portions. Teens should consume more fruit, vegetables and whole grains and fewer foods high in calories, fat, sugar and salt. Skipping breakfast is a common habit in adolescents. In Romania, only 40% of boys and 30% of girls take daily breakfast and the habit of skipping breakfast increases with age. The benefits of adolescents’ regular consumption of breakfast are multiple: hunger and hypercaloric food intake curtailment, less fat, cholesterol and sodium bringing, better bringing of nutrients, especially micronutrients and fibers, stamina increase, mood and cardiometabolic parameters improvement, with indirect effects on school performance and body weight and health steadiness in general. As the first meal of the day, breakfast must be taken not later than 10 am. For adolescents, breakfast should provide about a quarter of daily caloric needs, have a low glycemic index, but high glycemic load and contain 1- 2 portions of at least three of the five food groups (grains, vegetables, fruit, milk and protein foods). A breakfast high in protein may be a useful strategy to combat obesity in young overweight. Keywords: breakfast, teenagers, diet, nutrition, meals, portions
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Background: Bone formation and peak bone mass determine with bone density in adulthood related with osteopenia or osteoporosis. It could be influenced by nutrition intakes, lean body mass, and physical activity. Objective: to analyze the correlation between nutritional adequacy, lean body mass, physical activity and bone mineral density in Udayana University Economic’s students, Denpasar. Methods: Cross-sectional study design was done to female students of Faculty of Economic and Business, Udayana University, Denpasar. Seventy five subjects were choosen by simple random sampling. Results: Research subjects were aged 20-25 years old. The mean t-score of bone mineral density is -0,363 ± 1,057. Research subjects were classified as low bone density (osteopenia) 26,7% and 73,3% are normal. Intakes of animal protein (p = 0,042) and lean body mass (p = 0,011) are related with bone mineral density protein (p = 0,955) but not on intakes of vitamin A (p = 0,249), vitamin C (p = 0,632), vitamin D (p = 0,864), calcium (p = 0,724), iron (p = 0,768), magnesium (p = 0,689), phosphorus (p = 0,716), and physical activity (p = 0,254). There were a positive trend on the level of protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, iron, magnesium and phosphorus sufficiency. Conclusions: Intakes of Animal protein, lean body mass and physical activity related with bone mineral density but not on protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, calcium, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus intake.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Backgound: Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus increases the production of superoxide that cause oxidative stress and decrease the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). SOD enzyme reduces superoxide to hydrogen peroxide to lessen the reaction between superoxide and nitric oxide (NO). To reduce hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus, diabetics are encouraged to consume diet with low glycemic index. Arrowroot chips is a product commonly used by the community as a snack. Arrowroot has low glycemic index (glycemic index = 14) so it can be used as an alternative snack for diabetics. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the beneficial effects of arrowroot chips to help controlling the blood glucose level, SOD activity and NO concentration in type 2 diabetes. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental research with a one group pre test - post test. Subjects were 14 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who regularly visited endocrine polyclinic of RSUP.Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta. The inclusion criteria were: aged 35-60 years, had suffered from diabetes mellitus for at least one year and currently on insulin injection therapy. The subjects were given 20 grams/day arrowroot chips to be consumed as a snack for four weeks. The blood samples were drawn before and after treatment. Glucose level were analyzed by GOD-PAP method, SOD activity was determined by Ransod kits and NO concentration was analyzed by colorimetric Gies reagent system. Finally, data were analyzed by paired t-test and correlation regression test. Results: There was an increased glucose level from 124,43 ± 33,56 to 139,00 ± 67,96 mg/dl after treatment (p=0,551), SOD activity decreased from 77,09 ± 19,33 to 43,99 ± 17,45 unit/ml whole blood after treatment (p=0,000), decreased NO concentration from 1,28 ± 1,32 to 1,15 ± 0,577 μM after treatment (p=0,875), and a positive correlation between SOD activity and NO concentration (p=0,151; r=0,405; R2=0,164). Conclusion: Arrowroot chips consumption as a snack for 4 weeks was unable to help controlling the fasting plasma glucose level, SOD activity and NO concentration in type 2 diabetics.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Program Description: The otolaryngologist may frequently deal with patients who present with atypical facial pain and headache, with no obvious anatomic, infectious, or inflammatory etiology. Such patients are challenging and require a multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis and treatment. In this miniseminar, we will review the definition, differential diagnosis, workup, and treatment recommendations for patients with atypical facial pain and headache. An integrative approach to the management of atypical facial pain will be outlined, including role for surgery, pharmacotherapy, complementary/alternative methods, mind-body approaches, and lifestyle changes. Challenging cases will be presented to the panel of experts for discussion.
  • Article
    Losing weight, and to an unfortunately lesser extent, finding health, are persistent fixations of modern culture. We have devised an almost perfectly obesigenic environment, making weight control ever more alluring even as we make it ever more elusive. The epidemiological result is, predictably, epidemic (or, perhaps more correctly now, hyperendemic) obesity, and its numerous sequelae, in adults and children alike.1 The corresponding cultural result, equally predictable, is a weight loss sellers’ market. Article see p 815 There is one additional element in the mix propagating the seemingly endless parade of weight loss remedies: the suspension of common sense. Most sensible adults know that get-rich-quick schemes are the stuff of scams and sitcoms. Those same sensible adults, however, routinely reach for their credit cards when an offer of get-thin-quick or get-healthy-quick comes along. In a market where buyers reject the tried and true in favor of false promises and pixie dust and in a culture where scapegoats and silver bullets2 are preferred over a prosaic blend of science and sense, the sellers respond accordingly. What ensues is a seemingly never-ending3,4 beauty pageant of dietary contestants, each emphasizing what differentiates it from the others and each contending to be the best. And along with each diet comes its entourage, singing its praises, disparaging the competition, and seeking the profits that come with wearing the tiara. These camps routinely include publishers, media of every variety, and the experts, pseudoexperts, and nonexperts who write the books, and devise the potions. But is any one of these diets truly best, either for losing weight, or finding health? That, ostensibly, is the question Atallah et al set out to answer5 in this issue of Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes . In their own words, the authors sought to assess the …
  • 631 APPENDIX A Nutrition Formulas of Clinical Interest 633 APPENDIX B Growth and Body Weight Assessment Tables 634 APPENDIX C Dietary Intake Assessment in the US Population 644 APPENDIX D Dietary Intake Assessment Instruments
    • Section Vii Appendices
    SECTION VII Appendices and Resource Materials....................... 631 APPENDIX A Nutrition Formulas of Clinical Interest.................... 633 APPENDIX B Growth and Body Weight Assessment Tables.............. 634 APPENDIX C Dietary Intake Assessment in the US Population............ 644 APPENDIX D Dietary Intake Assessment Instruments................... 644 APPENDIX E Nutrient/Nutriceutical Reference Tables: Intake Range and Dietary Sources.................................. 646
  • 703 APPENDIX G Diet–Drug Interactions 703 APPENDIX H Nutrient Remedies for Common Conditions: Patient Resources
    • Appendix Resources For Nutrient Composition Of Foods
    APPENDIX F Resources for Nutrient Composition of Foods.............. 703 APPENDIX G Diet–Drug Interactions................................ 703 APPENDIX H Nutrient Remedies for Common Conditions: Patient Resources.................................... 704
  • 227 13 Diet and Hematopoiesis: Nutritional
    • Cancer............................................. Anemias..................... Diet
    12 Diet and Cancer.............................................. 227 13 Diet and Hematopoiesis: Nutritional Anemias....................... 250
  • 416 32 Ergogenic Effects of Foods and Nutrients: Diet and Athletic Performance & Sports Nutrition
    • Adolescence . . Diet
    Diet and Adolescence.......................................... 408 31 Diet and Senescence.......................................... 416 32 Ergogenic Effects of Foods and Nutrients: Diet and Athletic Performance & Sports Nutrition.................... 428
  • 583 46 Models of Behavior Modification for Diet and Activity Patterns and Weight Management
    • Section V Principles Of Effective Dietary Counseling
    SECTION V Principles of Effective Dietary Counseling.................. 583 46 Models of Behavior Modification for Diet and Activity Patterns and Weight Management....................................... 585
  • 644 APPENDIX E Nutrient/Nutriceutical Reference Tables: Intake Range and Dietary Sources
    • Interest
    APPENDIX A Nutrition Formulas of Clinical Interest.................... 633 APPENDIX B Growth and Body Weight Assessment Tables.............. 634 APPENDIX C Dietary Intake Assessment in the US Population............ 644 APPENDIX D Dietary Intake Assessment Instruments................... 644 APPENDIX E Nutrient/Nutriceutical Reference Tables: Intake Range and Dietary Sources.................................. 646
  • 703 APPENDIX H Nutrient Remedies for Common Conditions: Patient Resources
    • Appendix G Diet-Drug . . Interactions
    APPENDIX G Diet-Drug Interactions................................ 703 APPENDIX H Nutrient Remedies for Common Conditions: Patient Resources.................................... 704