Article

Effect of Nitrogenous Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Garlic

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Abstract

Field experiment were conducted to assess the effect of different nitrogen levels on the growth and yield of garlic on clay loam soil. Eight nitrogen levels viz. 0, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110kg nitrogen ha -1 , respectively were tested. Results demonstrated that increasing nitrogen level up to 100kg ha -1 resulted in longer leaves (64.83), greater number of leaves per plant (17.90), maximum single bulb, weight (42.60g), and bulb yield per plant (7.08kg) and Bulb yield ha -1 (6746.03kg) . Further more, increase in nitrogen levels had no appreciable effect on the performance of garlic.

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... Adequate application of N plays an important role in the production of vigorous vegetative and optimum leaf expansion of garlic and influences garlic bulb size produced (Stork et al., 2004). Kakar et al. (2002) reported that N fertilization is necessary for ensuring successful vegetative growth of garlic. Similarly, Tadesse (2015) also reported that application of N significantly increased leaf width in comparison with lower dose and nil application of N fertilizer. ...
... Similarly, Betewulign and Solomon (2014) reported that leaf length of garlic increased with increased rate of mineral N fertilizer. Kakar et al. (2002) also reported that N accounts for a higher percentage of the variation in leaf area when it was increased from 50 to 200 kg ha -1 . The leaf area is due to increased leaf length and width. ...
... The author indicated that as N level increased, dry weight per plant increased up to the highest N level. Kakar et al. (2002) reported that N accounts for a higher percentage of the variation in dry plant mass when it was increased from 50 to 200 kg ha -1 . Alemu et al. (2016) also figured out that bulb dry matter percent was increased by 14.21% due to increased level of N rate from 0 to 46 kg ha -1 . ...
... But to get optimum utility of nitrogen application, a precise quantity should be applied as most of the time the response of the crop is very much dose dependent (Hegde, 1987, Kang and Wan, 2005, Singh et al., 2011, Ghosh et al., 2014. Similarly, it has been reported that increasing nitrogen level at the rate of 100 kg/ha may increase the leaf size by 60% (Kakar et al., 2002) and produces 20% more leaves (Ali et al., 2006). ...
... This positive correlation is mainly due to excessive storage of carbohydrates due to increased photosynthetic activity in the plant (Usuda and Shimogawara, 1998). The same finding have been reported earlier in other horticultural crops such as garlic (Kakar et al., 2002) where incremental nitrogen application have significantly improved the leaf numbers per plant and leaf sizes. Since gradual increment of nitrogen can only help the plants to increase physiological parameters to improve yield up to a certain level, beyond which negative impact is observed (Kakar et al., 2002). ...
... The same finding have been reported earlier in other horticultural crops such as garlic (Kakar et al., 2002) where incremental nitrogen application have significantly improved the leaf numbers per plant and leaf sizes. Since gradual increment of nitrogen can only help the plants to increase physiological parameters to improve yield up to a certain level, beyond which negative impact is observed (Kakar et al., 2002). Similar results have been noticed here in the current study where nitrogen applied at the rate of 250 kg ha -1 made less improvement in physiological yield improving parameters compared to relatively less amount (see Table 1) and had significantly lower yields. ...
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Healthy eating habits in urban lifestyles can be encouraged by mobilizing communities to grow vegetables in kitchen gardens. This study focuses to economically optimized dosage for radish production in our backyards. Nitrogen fertilizers at the six different rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg ha-1) were tested in kitchen gardens of radish. A direct relation of quality and yield of radish with rate of nitrogen application was identified. Although the highest yield of radish was obtained with the application of 200 kg ha-1 nitrogen (99.98 t ha-1), the most effective dose of nitrogen was identified to be 150 kg ha-1 because at this rate highest increase in yield per unit fertilizer applied (25.78%) was recorded where as nitrogen application at 250 kg ha-1 had the least yield increase ratio (14.21%) with a negative MRR. A direct correlation was observed between rate of nitrogen applied number of leaves and root-shoot which ultimately increased the yield. Hence it is concluded that application of nitrogen at 150 kg ha-1 could be a best both in terms of biological and economical yield of radish in backyards.
... Bulb growth also responded significantly to applied nitrogen[20]. Increasing nitrogen rates to 100 kgN/ha resulted in longer leaves and greater number of leaves per plant[21]. In another trial[2], the growth and yield parameters increased with increasing nitrogen rates up to 150 kgN/ha. ...
... Some of the major constraints include inadequate fertilizer, weeds, chemicals, storage, and transportation facilities. However, the per-hectare yield of garlic can be increased by adopting proper package of practices like timely planting, proper spacing, and judicious application of irrigation water, and besides these balance application of nitrogen plays a vital role in the development of garlic[21]. There is dearth of information on garlic production in Nigeria, except for some works done at Samaru on spacing, fertilizer, and irrigation requirements[24]. ...
... This depicts that the increase in number of leaves per plant as a result of an increase in nitrogen indicates the positive role of nitrogen in increasing the rates of leaf initiation and extension in early growth. This finding is in harmony with the study of[21]that reported that application of nitrogen significantly increased number of leaves per plant. Similarly, further increment of nitrogen dose above 50 kgN/ha has led to a reduction in the leaf area. ...
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A study was conducted under irrigation during dry season at the Katsina State Irrigation Site, Ajiwa. The aim of the experiment was to enhance the productivity of garlic through the choice of appropriate levels of nitrogenous fertilizer and suitable cultivar which maximizes yield. The experiment consisted of two varieties (ex-kofa and ex-sokoto) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, and 150 kgN/ha). They were arranged in a randomized complete block design in three replications. The variety ex-sokoto was found superior to ex-kofa with respect to plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, and days to maturity, number of bulbs, bulb diameter, bulb weight, and number of cloves per bulb, cloves weight per bulb, and fresh and cured bulb yield. Application of 50 kgN/ha significantly increased plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, leaf area, number of bulbs, and the total yield of the garlic. Significant effects of interaction between variety and nitrogen on leaf area and number of cloves per bulb of the garlic were observed. The combination of ex-sokoto variety and 50 kgN/ha was found to increase garlic yield. Maximum growth and yield could be realized using a combination of ex-sokoto variety and 50 kgN/ha at Ajiwa.
... Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the most important crops for local consumption and exportation. Nitrogen fertilization greatly affected garlic plants growth, bulb yield and its quality (Setty et al., 1989, Kaker et al., 2002and Kilgori et al., 2007on garlic, El-Desuki, 2004and Nasreen et al., 2007 on onion and Avdienco et al., 2003, Murashev 2003and Zidan and Daiob 2005. ...
... In this regard, such increasing in morphological parameters of garlic plants as a result of increasing the level of nitrogen application may be attributed to the main role of nitrogen in increasing the merstematic activity, cell division and cell elongation as well as formation of protoplasmic bulk which consequently affected growth of plants. Obtained results are in agreement with those recorded by Kaker et al., (2002), Setty et al. (1989) and Kilgori et al., (2007) on garlic and El-Desuki (2004) and Nasreen et al., (2007) on onion who reported that nitrogen fertilization greatly affect garlic and onion plants growth. ...
... Such parameters, which are genetically connected, were not affected by nitrogen application. Contra results were recorded by Setty et al., 1989, Kaker et al., (2002 and Kilgori et al. (2007) on garlic who reported that number of cloves /bulb, bulb diameter and length were gradually increased with increasing nitrogen fertilization from 0 up to 120 kg N/ha. ...
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Two field experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Research Station (Kaha), Kalyoobia Governorate Egypt., during the two winter seasons of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 to study the effect of nitrogen levels and spraying with different growth stimulants on growth, yield and chemical composition of garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Seds 40. The obtained results show that increasing the nitrogen fertilizer level from 60 up to 120 kg-N/fed. significantly increased all the studied growth traits i.e., plant height, number of leaves fresh and dry matter of leaves but such increments did not reach the level of significancy in case of dry matter percentage during the first season and number of leaves/plant during the second one. Obtained data indicate also, that spraying the plants with Peptone at 0.5 g/l. exhibited the highest value in all measured growth aspects followed by using Hammar at 0.25 g/l compared with Mega power at (1.5 cm/l.) and the control treatment. Application of 120 kg-N/fed. combined with spraying the plants with either Peptone at 0.5 g/l. or Hammer at 0.25 g/l. reflected the highest values for growth rate during both seasons of study. All the studied bulb parameter were not significantly affected due to the increasing nitrogen level from 60 up to 120 kg-N/fed. during both seasons of study. Meanwhile foliar spray of Peptone at 0.5/l. reflected the highest values in this concern. Application of 90 or 120 kg-N/fed. combined with spraying the plants with Peptone at 0.5 g/l. three times during the growing season reflected the highest values of average clove weight, fresh and dry matter percentage for produced bulbs as well as total produced yield per feddan. Application of 120 kg-N/fed. recorded the highest values of chemical composition of garlic bulbs, during the both seasons of this study . Spraying garlic plants with Hammar at 0.25 g/l increased phosphorus concentration during both seasons of study compared with the control and other tested growth stimulants. Application of high level of nitrogen (120 kg-N/fed.) combined with spraying plants with either Hammar or Peptone reflected the highest concentration in all determined chemical constituents in garlic bulbs (total nitrogen, phosphorus, protein and nitrate-N).
... Turkey's HSD mean± standard deviations of morphological characters are present in table no.2 and figure 2. The highest leaf length was recorded from the treatment T2 with highest dose of N having 30.03±12.49 which is significantly different from the rest of the treatment and least was recorded in the T1-control having 24.13 ±9.03(table no.2, figure 2).It has been observed that with the increase of N dose there is increase in the leaf length.The similar result was obtained (13). If we see the result of three way ANOVA (table no.5), the treatment alone was not showing the significant result with f = .599, ...
... Turkey's HSD mean ± standard deviations of morphological characters are present in table 2 and figure 3).Data for the number of leavesin T2 for the N @ 110% with 26.35± 13.39 with the highest value and minimum number of leaves was recorded in treatment T1 for the NPK 000%with 22.49±22.49 data was not significant from other treatments (table 2).Similar result was reported by (13), who noted that significant effect of nitrogen upto certain limits on the number of leaves. Maximum number of leaves was obtained, when 150 kg N per hectare was applied in carrot (2), incase of cultivar the value was highly significant with f=47.111 and p=0.000, the treatment with f= 1.342, p= .263 ...
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This study was conducted to assess the effect of different ratio of organic FYM and inorganic fertilizer on yield, quality of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and to ascertain the doses of NPK fertilizers for getting higher yield under high hills dry temperate conditions of Ladakh in trans-Himalaya region. Radish has a shelf life of about 6-7 month, which plays an important role during the scarcity of vegetables in the area of Ladakh which remain cut off from the rest of the world for 5-6 month a year due to harsh climatic condition. During winter the temperature falls to-20 to-25°C where no plants can survive in open, so during this time vegetables having shelf life plays an important role. Keeping the importance of organic manures in view, the present experiment was undertaken to study the effect of different organic manures ratios (FYM)and inorganic fertilizers ratioson yield and quality of radish. It was observed that the highest leaf length was observed in the T2-110%:50%:90% NPK 30.03±12.49, while the least was observed in the T1-000%:00%:00%NPK 24.13±9.03, i.e control without any treatment.The treatment T2 was also proved to be better for the root length and yield 25.17±7.45 and 53.96±36.32 ton /ha respectively, hence it is proved that with the high dose of N there is increase in the yield and quality. In case of organic treatment, it has been observed that higher the dose higher is the yield with 41.34±28.20 for the T5.The growth,yield and quality of radish which is directly related to the judicious application of FYM and fertilizers.
... Nitrogen (N) has a positive effect on all the components responsible for higher yield, whereas Phosphorus (P) helps in uptake of nutrients which is further accelerated by Potassium (K) [1]. Nitrogen is of major importance in building up of proteins and nucleic acid molecule. ...
... It is also integral part of chlorophyll responsible for photosynthesis [2]. Potassium also improves the vigor by increasing the immunity against plant diseases and also may improve dry matter yield dealing with yield component [1]. Sulphur (S) is also an essential nutrient in consequent crop production [2]. ...
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Garlic (Allium sativum) is an important crop used as spice. It’s a close relative to onion. It was known to Ancient Egyptians and till date is used as both food flavoring and traditional medicine. India is the second largest producer of garlic following China. Garlic can be easily propagated asexually by planting individual cloves in the ground. It can be grown year round in mild climates. It can easily grow in loose, dry and well-drained soil. These crops are usually pest and disease resistant. Use of fertilizer like NPK helps in producing higher yield. Bio-fertilizers are microbial preparation of various microorganisms (VAM-Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza, PSB-Phosphate solublizing bacteria) which convert unusable components of soil to usable nutrients through biological process. In recent years eco-friendly fertilizers are gaining importance in comparison to chemical fertilizers. In this article we have studied the effect of bio-fertilizer on Garlic (Allium sativum) cultivation.
... Used in folk medicine since prehistoric times, Allium cepa L. and Allium sativum L. are valued throughout the world not only as spice or food (Afzal et al. 2000;Kakar et al. 2002;Mahmood et al. 2002;Bhuiya et al. 2003;Rahman et al. 2003;Islam et al. 2004) but also as medicinals (Pooler and Simon 1994;Afzal et al. 2000;Sata et al. 2001;Yamashita et al. 2002;Haque et al. 2003;Rahman et al. 2004;Islam et al. 2007;Khan and Hanif 2006). Onion is the second most valuable vegetable in the world preceded only by tomato (FAOSTAT 2011). ...
... On account of their importance in the day-to-day life and consequently in the economy of both the farmers and the common people and the countries, agronomical aspects of A. cepa and A. sativum have been studied throughout the globe, especially in the prime onion and garlic producing countries (Ahmad and Iqbal 2002; Kakar et al. 2002;Mahmood et al. 2002;Bhuiya et al. 2003;Haque et al. 2003a, b;Rahman et al. 2003Rahman et al. , 2004Islam et al. 2004Islam et al. , 2007. Because of the varied nature of propagation available in different cultivated taxa of this genus, both agronomical practices and prospects of improvement vary from species to species. ...
Chapter
The genus Allium L. is an assemblage of about 780 species distributed all over the world. Two species, Allium cepa L. and Allium sativum L., are valued throughout the world not only as spice or food but also as medicinal herbs. Both are important and nearly indispensable seasoning agents in most of the kitchens. More than 40 species of this genus are widely distributed across the temperate and alpine regions of the Indian subcontinent. Nearly all these are edible and used as vegetables, spices and condiments. While most of these are used in folk medicine some are repositories of important genes. Although no significant pest or insect problems have been recorded in the wild taxa, cultivated species are susceptible to many diseases that drastically affect their productivity. Besides diseases, physiological features like asynchronous seed maturation and shattering of seeds from the mature capsule are major problems that require remediation. For a commodity worth millions in world trade the limitations acquire great significance and need immediate attention. To mitigate these common problems, attempts have been made, within and outside the Indian subcontinent, to tailor genetic makeup of cultivated taxa by introducing useful genes from wild species. Intervarietal and interspecific hybridizations have been effective in producing new races in short period of time with desirable traits transferred from one species to another, directly or through bridge species. F1 hybrids obtained in many of these crosses are superior to regular cultivars in vigour, flavour, productivity and insect, pest and disease resistance. Techniques like protoplast fusion coupled with GISH, mutagenesis, marker assisted breeding and in vitro and/or biotechnological interventions, can help Allium breeders in making important breakthroughs through rapid multiplication and disease eradication in these taxa of high economic value. Further with the increasing awareness and availability of the databases of traditional knowledge many lesser known and underutilized species are, now, gaining attention for their potential in food, pharmaceutical and horticultural industry. The chapter, while providing a general overview of the species of Allium available in India, focuses mainly on the work done on the cultivated species.
... Gaviola and Lipinski (7) revealed that garlic cultivars have high nitrogen requirements, especially in early vegetative period and obtained the highest productions with 300 kg/ha of nitrogen. Kakar et al. (10) observed that 100 kg/ha N responded to maximum growth, yield components and yield followed by higher (110kg/ha N) and lower (90 kg/ha N) nitrogen in garlic. ...
... Present results are also in line with the results of Smatanova et al. (20) who noted increased yields in spinach by 54 percent after application of nitrogen and sulphur in the soil. Kakar et al. (10) also reported that 100 kg N per hectare gave best results for maximum growth and yield as compared to higher (110 kg/ha N) and lower (90 kg/ha N) level of nitrogen application. Present findings are also in close conformity with those of Yadav (22) The cultivar Italian was found significantly high yielder (5.09) as compared to rest of cultivars (Table 4). ...
Article
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Effect of different levels of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (NPK) combinations on yield and its component in various garlic (Allium sativum L.) genotypes was studied at Horticultural Research Institute, NARC, Islamabad during 2009 and 2010. The experiment was laid out in a RCBD factorial design with three replications. The experiment comprises five NPK treatments (T1 = 140-0-60, T2 = 140-60-0, T3 = 150-60-50, T4 = 180-90-90 and T5 = 220-90-120 kg/ha) which were applied as basal dose and top dressing on four garlic genotypes (Italian, Irarian, MJ-84 and Chinese). Data were recorded on number of leaves per plant, plant height (cm), number of cloves per bulb, bulb weight (g) and bulb yield (t/ha). Maximum leaves per plant (7.92), plant height (58.97cm) bulb weight (52.83g) and yield (5.54t/ha) were recorded in plot fertilized with T4 (180:90:90). Among genotypes higher yielder (5.09t/ha) with maximum bulb weight (58.78g) and plant height (57.89cm) as compared to rest of the cultivars. The effect of interaction between cultivars x fertilizer levels was significant only for plant height (61.40cm). Cultivar x year interaction was significant for number of leaves, plant height and number of cloves per bulb, while the interaction effect between fertilizer x year was significant for number of leaves per plant, plant height and yield.
... Bulb development in garlic depend on an increase in total soluble carbohydrate in photosynthetic activity of the leaves which depend on light and nutrition [26]. [27] reported that increasing nitrogen level upto 100 kg resulted in the maximum single bulb weight (42.60 g) of garlic. The result was in conformity with the findings of [28] that reported the application of both potassium and sulfur either individually or in combined increased fresh bulb weight of gralic. ...
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A field experiment was conducted at the horticulture farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka during October 2019 to July 2020 to study the effect of different levels of vermicompost and macro nutrients on the growth and yield of garlic. Garlic variety 'BARI Rashun-3' was used as planting material in this study. The experiment consists of single factor. Twelve treatment combinations were tested in this experiment: T 0 = Control, T 1 = 2 t ha-1 vermicompost, T 2 = 4 t ha-1 vermicompost, T 3 = 6 t ha-1 vermicompost, T 4 = 50% NPKS (RDF), T 5 = 100% NPKS (RDF), T 6 = 2 t ha-1 vermicompost + 50% NPKS (RDF), T 7 = 4 t ha-1 vermicompost + 50% NPKS (RDF), T 8 = 6 t ha-1 vermicompost + 50% NPKS (RDF), T 9 = 2 t ha-1 vermicompost + 100% NPKS (RDF), T 10 = 4 t ha-1 vermicompost + 100% NPKS (RDF) and T 11 = 6 t ha-1
... However, the potassium status of the soil available to plants significantly affects nitrogen absorption by crops. The obtained results agree with those recorded by Kaker et al. (2002); Kilgori et al. (2007) and El-Zohiri and Abdou (2009) who reported that all garlic growth traits were increased with increasing nitrogen application. Similarly, Arisha et al.( 2017) and Rad and Alam (2019) suggested that the highest garlic plant growth, plant height and the maximum leaves number/plant, TSS, and potassium uptake were significantly enhanced due to the applications of higher levels of potassium fertilizer. ...
... However, the potassium status of the soil available to plants significantly affects nitrogen absorption by crops. The obtained results agree with those recorded by Kaker et al. (2002); Kilgori et al. (2007) and El-Zohiri and Abdou (2009) who reported that all garlic growth traits were increased with increasing nitrogen application. Similarly, Arisha et al.( 2017) and Rad and Alam (2019) suggested that the highest garlic plant growth, plant height and the maximum leaves number/plant, TSS, and potassium uptake were significantly enhanced due to the applications of higher levels of potassium fertilizer. ...
Article
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Two field experiments were conducted under Egyptian conditions at Kaha Vegetables Research Farm, Horticulture Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre to study the effect of the high nitrogen and potassium levels and two growth regulators, Cytokinin at 2.5 ppm and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) at 100 ppm on the growth and seed yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Sids 40. The obtained results showed that increasing nitrogen and potassium fertilizer up to 150 % NK. of the recommended rate (120 kg N + 72 kg K2O fed-1), significantly improved most studied growth traits (plant length, number of leaves, leaf area, total fresh weight, total plant dry weight), bulb characters, chemical constituents, yield, and yield components. Moreover, 150 % NK combined with GA3 + CPPU foliar spraying resulted in the highest average bulb weight, average glove weight and bulb. The obtained results confirm that garlic seed yield could be improve by N, K nutrition and foliar application of GA3 and CPPU
... The result of this study is in close conformity with the findings of Farooqui et al., (2009) and Aregawi (2006) also reported that amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied increased plant height significantly. Similarly, Kakara et al. (2002) and Gebrehawaria (2007) had also reported significant effect of N on plant height. However, the effect of N on plant height was more pronounced at early growth phase, which was 21.76, 20.16 and 16.21% at 50, 70 and 90 DAE, respectively. ...
... The low application of inorganic fertilizers to crops may stem from reluctance of farmers to apply fertilizers due to anticipated low response of the crop because of climatic uncertainty (particularly erratic rainfall) during the main growing season [51]. It may also be attributed to lack of knowledge as to which kinds and rates of fertilizers are recommended for their specific crops, soils, and agro-climatic conditions [54]; or to existence of disparities in access to fertilizers or purchasing power among farmers as a result of varied resource endowments [55,51]. ...
... Better photosynthetic activity might have result higher neck diameter. Similar results were reported by Kakar, A.A., M.K. Abdullahzai, M. Saleem and S.A. Qaim, (2002) [8] . ...
... Therefore, it has such an effect on promoting vigorous plant growth. Kakar et al. (2002) reported that N accounts for a higher percentage of the variation in plant height when it was increased from 50 to 200 kg ha -1 . Hore et al. (2014) also reported that plant height increased from 53.98 cm to 69.14 cm with increasing level of N from 50 kg ha -1 to 200 kg ha -1 . ...
... The published articles declare that adding an appropriate quantity of nitrogenous fertilization during sprouts stage, leads to promote vigorous vegetative growth and optimum leaf expansion (Stork et al., 2004). Kakara et al. (2002) reported that increasing nitrogen units from 50 to 200 kg per/ha exhibited a positive effect on the mean values of plant height, leaf area, leaf count, and fresh and dry plant mass. Therefore, use of nitrogenous fertilization is necessary for establishing successful vegetative growth of garlic. ...
Research
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Garlic is a worldwide important vegetable crop, and increase its growth and productivity a crucial objectives especially via good agricultural practice; i.e., mineral nitrogen fertilization and bio-stimulants. Two field experiments were conducted to study the influence of nitrogen fertilizer sources (ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate), rates (90 and 120 kg N/fed.) and bio-stimulants (Halex-2, yeast extract, Halex-2 + yeast extract and without bio-stimulants) as well as their interactions on vegetative growth, productivity, bulb quality and chemical constituents of garlic (Allium sativum, L.). Moreover, garlic extracts were tested against two pathogen activities (Fusarium oxysporium and Alternaria alternate). Garlic cloves were planted during two winter seasons of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 at a newly reclaimed area at Sadat City, Egypt. Inoculation garlic plants with bio-stimulants showed superior effects on most of the studied characters especially for garlic productivity. Most of the studied vegetative characters, yield, yield components and bulb quality characteristics significantly affected with nitrogen sources, nitrogen rates and bio-stimulants as well as their interactions during the two seasons. Inoculation garlic plants with Halex-2 + yeast extract was found to have positive effective in reducing the mineral nitrogen fertilizer being applied by 25 % as compared with the commonly recommended dose. Data revealed that the fertilization combination treatments; 120 kg nitrogen /fed. at the form of ammonium sulphate + Halex-2 + Yeast extract and 90 nitrogen kg/fed. at the form of ammonium sulphate + Halex-2 + Yeast extract significantly gave the highest values for phenol content. The plant extracts obtained from the same two previous fertilization combinations gave the highest inhibition against Fusarium oxysporium and Alternaria alternate. The in vitro results showed that using concentration 2.5% of the selected extracts gave the highest mycelial growth inhibition for the tested pathogens. These results may contribute to develop environmentally safer alternatives antifungal agent against plant pathogenic fungi.
... Application of all essential nutrients through chemical fertilizers are known to have deleterious effect on soil fertility leading to unsustainable yields, while integration of chemical fertilizers with organic manures and biofertilizers are able to maintain the good soil health, productivity and fertility status of soil (6). An increase in sulphur make available is related to an increase in alliin content of leaves and bulbs of garlic (22), whereas nitrogen fertilization is necessary for ensuring successful vegetative growth of garlic (7). Biofertilizers are known to play an important role in increasing availability of nitrogen and phosphorus besides improving biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen and produce hormones and anti-metabolites (3). ...
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1 De part ment of Hor ti cul ture, SVP Uni ver sity of Ag ri cul ture and Tech nol ogy, Meerut, UP-250110 2 De part ment of Soil Sci ence, SVP Uni ver sity of Ag ri cul ture and Tech nol ogy, Meerut, UP-250110 *Cor re spond ing au thor ABSTRACT An experiment was carried out to assess the effect of integrated nutrient management on growth parameters of bulbous spice crop like garlic. Total ten treatments were tried including control with different combinations of inorganic fertilizers, organic fertilizers and bio-fertilizers. Among all the treatments, maximum plant height (80.07cm), number of leaves per plant (8.37), length of longest leaf (46.30cm), leaf width (2.12cm), collar height (6.27cm), collar width (1.44cm), fresh weight of plants (48.43g) and oven dry weight of plants (7.59g) were recorded with the application of 75% RDF + 40 kg sulphur + 3 ton FYM + 1 ton VC+ PSB +Azotobacter (T 7) and the minimum values were expressed under control (T 1). The maximum dry matter content (16.68%) was recorded in control and it was rated in minimum (15.54%) under T 2 (RDF (100:50:50) followed by T 5 (15.64%) and T 7 (15.68%). More over maximum days to maturity (136.87 days) were taken by the plants raised in the treatment T 1 (Control), whereas the plants fertilized with T 7 (75% RDF + 40 kg sulphur + 3 ton FYM + 1 ton VC+ PSB +Azotobacter) had gave earliness in maturity (127.07 days). Therefore, treatment T 7 (75% RDF + 40 kg sulphur + 3 ton FYM + 1 ton VC+ PSB +Azotobacter) was found to be superior in almost all the growth characters with comparison to the control.
... Ammonium assimilation requires less energy (5 ATP mol -1 of NH 4 + ) than nitrate assimilation (20 ATP mol -1 of NO 3 -), this mechanism of energy saving may be responsible for higher nitrogen use efficiency in NH 4 + -N (Salsac et al., 1987). Regarding to nitrogen fertilizer on garlic, most literatures focused on the effect of nitrogen levels (Kakar et al., 2002;Naruka and Dhaka, 2002;Naik and Hosamani 2003;Farooqui et al., 2009;El-Zohiri and Abdou 2009;Hore et al., 2014;Zaki et al., 2014), however a few literatures studied the effects of nitrogen sources (Nori et al., 2012). The results of Nori et al. (2012) indicated that no great differences between both examined sources (Ammonium sulphate and Urea) in the case of yield and nitrate content. ...
... Application of P to preceding rice significantly increased cane yield and sugarcane equivalent of rice-sugarcane system, total P uptake by sugarcane and soil P after harvest of sugarcane. Tabar (2012) observed that maximum yield of rice was recorded with application of 150 kg ha −1 P. Islam, Akmal, and Khan (2013) found that P and S application increased the chickpea drymatter upto 27 and 10% respectively. Soil P and S balance was positive in all treatments except control. ...
Article
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A study was conducted at Hyderabad during 2009–11 to determine phosphorus (P) dose for rice–rice and rice–sunflower. Available P increased when 100% recommended P dose (RDP) was applied. P applied to rice gave at par yield under 100 or 75% RDP. In rice–rice, grain yield of 5668 and 5775 kg ha⁻¹ in kharif (5654 and 5760 kg ha⁻¹ in rabi) were attained with P@75 and 100% RDP. Kharif P residual effect in rabi affected rice yield. P@100/75% RDP in kharif and rabi gave grain of 5916/5973 and straw 6230/6673 kg ha⁻¹. P applied to sunflower revealed that yield was similar with 100 or 75% RDP. Sunflower yield was at par with P@100 or 75% RDP. 25% RDP in rice and sunflower may be reduced to attain similar yield of 100% RDP. In rice–rice, grain yield attained by 100% RDP in both seasons was 11.42t ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹, while 75% RDP gave yield of 11.45t ha⁻¹yr⁻¹.
... Bulb development in garlic depend on an increase in total soluble carbohydrate in photosynthetic activity of the leaves which depend on light and nutrition (Arguleo et al., 2007). Kakar et al.(2002) reported that increasing nitrogen level upto 100 kg resulted in Khan et al. (2016) longer leaves (64.83), greater number of leaves per plant (17.90), maximum single bulb weight (42.60 g) and bulb yield per plant (7.08 kg) and total bulb yield (6746.03 kgha -1 ) of garlic. ...
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... Modern research regarding garlic reveals that it kills TB germs (Hussain et al., 2005). It is beneficial for treatment of lingering stomach disease, earache and sore ear (Saleem et al., 2002). ...
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The effect of potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) on morphological and biochemical characteristics of garlic (Allium sativum L.) was studied at Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), during the year 2011-12. Three levels of potassium (140, 175 and 210 kg K ha –1) and two levels of phosphorus (105 and 140 kg P ha –1) were applied alone and in different combination
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This chapter describes the various facets, from agronomy to marketing, of Nigerian root vegetables including garlic, onion, turmeric, ginger and carrot being the world’s most significant and vital root vegetables which have high culinary and medicinal value. The chapter commences with their origin and history, universal spread, production figures, areas under cultivation and goes on to explain the botany, diversity, conservation, production practices, pests and diseases management, utilization, post-harvest technology and their uses as nutraceuticals. This chapter also presents the socio-economic, market analyses, export potential of these crops in Nigeria. It would be an important reference material for researchers, agricultural and food science students at both undergraduate and postgraduate level and policy makers; and be of great interest to experts and industries involved in root vegetables and spices trade. The in-depth information and knowledge about the genetic conservation, socio-economics, production, pests and diseases management and post-harvest technology of root vegetables in Nigeria provided in this chapter would greatly help in efforts towards improving their production and utilization for enhanced nutrition and healthy living.
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