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Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities of Persicaria chinensis leaves

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Abstract

The scientific basis of medicinal plants often claimed that the valuable ethnobotanical medicinal-related information was true. Hence, researchers always develop deep interest in finding natural resources like medicinal plants to combat infectious diseases instead of using modern pharmaceutical drugs that can lead to vast antibiotic resistance issues. In this present study, various leaf extracts of Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross were investigated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The aqueous, chloroform, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of P. chinensis leaves were prepared by cold maceration technique and preliminary phyto-constituent investigation was carried out on the extracts. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were assessed by measuring the diameter of the zone of inhibition, and the results were compared with standard antibiotics, amoxicillin and fluconazole respectively. All leaf extracts possessed antibacterial and antifungal activity against the selected pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Nevertheless, methanol and aqueous extracts and reference drugs (amoxicillin and fluconazole) showed comparable efficacy in inhibiting certain microbial growths. The zone of inhibition signified antibacterial and antifungal potencies of P. chinensis leaf extracts and it might be due to the presence of secondary metabolites. INTRODUCTION: Medicinal plants have been used to sustain human health and to treat various maladies including infectious diseases since antiquity 1 . Infectious diseases, caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites have led to significant morbidity and mortality to population worldwide 2, 3 .

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... Major constituents: Flavones and flavanones, phenol compounds and tannins (Shu et al., 2012). ...
... Pharmacodynamic uses: Antihelmenthic (Shu et al., 2012). ...
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Generally, weeds are considered as nuisances in the garden and enemies to the farmer, as there is a misconception that they are useless. Many of the herbs used in Indian traditional medicine and tribal medicine are considered weeds by agriculturists and field botanists (for example, Phyllanthus amarus L., Eclipta alba L., Centella asiatica (L.) etc.). Even though many of these weeds have high ethnopharmacological importance, they are being destroyed and there is a lack of scientific knowledge and guidance. In the Nilgiris many medicinally valuable weeds like Achyranthes bidentata Blume., Artemisia nilagirica Clarke., Centella asiatica L., are very prominent having good therapeutic values like diuretic, antimalarial and brain tonic. The main aim of this review is to expose the important pharmacodynamic and ethnomedicinal values of 50 prominent weeds belongs to 26 different families that grow wild in the Nilgiris. It is possible that some of these weeds could provide an additional income to farmers. There is increasing evidence to support that weeds are relatively high in bioactive molecules thus very important for new drug discovery. Innovative research should be encouraged and scientific workshops conducted by government bodies to communicate the medicinal value of weeds, make weeds economically important and to fill the gap between weeds, farmers and the economy.
... The Malaysian Chinese community and Tamang community of Nepal have been known to prescribe this plant to treat various lung diseases [18,19]. Malaysian communities and Indian tribes have used the methanolic extract of leaves to cope with infectious diseases and ulcers [17,20]. In addition, numerous previous studies have reported the importance of P. chinensis as an anti-inflammatory plant [18][19][20], but the molecular ethnopharmacological evidence is still ambiguous. ...
... Malaysian communities and Indian tribes have used the methanolic extract of leaves to cope with infectious diseases and ulcers [17,20]. In addition, numerous previous studies have reported the importance of P. chinensis as an anti-inflammatory plant [18][19][20], but the molecular ethnopharmacological evidence is still ambiguous. Recently, we demonstrated that 95% methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant (Pc-ME) can effectively ameliorate inflammatory responses in HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis and TLR4-activated macrophages through the suppression of Syk/Src/NF-B [17]. ...
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In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME) against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP-) 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN-) induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events.
... The Malaysian Chinese community and Tamang community of Nepal have been known to prescribe this plant to treat various lung diseases [18,19]. Malaysian communities and Indian tribes have used the methanolic extract of leaves to cope with infectious diseases and ulcers [17,20]. In addition, numerous previous studies have reported the importance of P. chinensis as an anti-inflammatory plant [18][19][20], but the molecular ethnopharmacological evidence is still ambiguous. ...
... Malaysian communities and Indian tribes have used the methanolic extract of leaves to cope with infectious diseases and ulcers [17,20]. In addition, numerous previous studies have reported the importance of P. chinensis as an anti-inflammatory plant [18][19][20], but the molecular ethnopharmacological evidence is still ambiguous. Recently, we demonstrated that 95% methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant (Pc-ME) can effectively ameliorate inflammatory responses in HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis and TLR4-activated macrophages through the suppression of Syk/Src/NF-B [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME) against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP-) 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN-) induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events.
... Traditionally, Chinese people have used whole plants to reduce fever and eliminate toxins, and to treat dysentery, inflammatory skin disease, eczema, and corneal nebula ( Wan et al., 2009). The methanolic extract of leaves has been also used as antibacterial and antifungal activities in Malaysian communities (Lai et al., 2012), leaves juice used against ulcer by Paniya, Kuruma, and Kattunaikka tribe in India (Narayanan, 2012), orally administration of leaves extract used by chakma tribe in Bangladesh to treat allergies and snakebites (Rahman et al., 2007). ...
... Although the medicinal significance of Persicaria chinensis has been reported previously ( Lai et al., 2012;May, 2012;Luitel et al., 2014), the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of this plant has not been elucidated. In the present study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of Pc-ME in LPS-activated primary macrophages and a mouse gastritis model based on the traditional uses of this plant for eczema and stomachache. ...
... Traditionally, Chinese people have used whole plants to reduce fever and eliminate toxins, and to treat dysentery, inflammatory skin disease, eczema, and corneal nebula (Wan et al., 2009). The methanolic extract of leaves has been also used as antibacterial and antifungal activities in Malaysian communities (Lai et al., 2012), leaves juice used against ulcer by Paniya, Kuruma, and Kattunaikka tribe in India (Narayanan, 2012), orally administration of leaves extract used by chakma tribe in Bangladesh to treat allergies and snakebites (Rahman et al., 2007). ...
... Although the medicinal significance of Persicaria chinensis has been reported previously (Lai et al., 2012;May, 2012;Luitel et al., 2014), the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of this plant has not been elucidated. In the present study we investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of Pc-ME in LPS-activated primary macrophages and a mouse gastritis model based on the traditional uses of this plant for eczema and stomachache. ...
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Vegetables; in terms of vitamins, nutritional fiber, phenolic component and mineral matter has an important role in human nutrition. There are many species of purple-red vegetables, some of which are well-known, such as red beet (Beta vulgaris), black carrot (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef), black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. niger), purple cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata f. rubra). Purple or red vegetables have higher antioxidant potential compared to other vegetables, which have many beneficial properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and liver protection. Each of vegetables which is black carrot, beetroot, black radish and purple cabbage contains p-coumaric acid, betaxanthin, ellagic acid and indole-3-carbinol respectively. In this study, Antifungal effect of ethanol extracts obtained from red beet, black carrot, black radish which are inner and peel part, purple cabbage against 7 different subspecies of Penicillium, 6 different subspecies of Aspergillus and Mucor racemosus, Botrytis cinerea, Geotrichum candidum, Cladosporium claudosporioides, Rhizopus nigricans species were determined by using disk diffusion method. As a consequence; it was determined that 7 different samples had antifungal effect on 18 different mold species at various rate. The highest antifungal effect was observed with 23.05±0.05 mm zone diameter against A. fumigatus in black radish inner part ethanol extract. This value was pursued by red beet inner part ethanol extract against M. racemosus with 21.44±0.12 mm zone diameter. It was concluded that the lowest antifungal effect on mold species except for P. citrinum, P. solitum and B. cinerea in purple cabbage extract.
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In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity.
Medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections Lana DC and Julia SW: Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases
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Mahady GB: Medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of bacterial infections. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2005; 11(19): 2405-2427. 3. Lana DC and Julia SW: Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases. Journal of Dietary Supplements 2008; 5(4): 349-372.
Hideaki O and Chong-wook P: Polygonum Linnaeus
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Li A, Alisa EGB, Suk-pyo H, John M, Hideaki O and Chong-wook P: Polygonum Linnaeus. Flora of China 2003; 5: 278-315.
Antifungal activity of essential oils from Indian medicinal plants
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Sunita B and Mahendra R: Antifungal activity of essential oils from Indian medicinal plants. World Journal of Medical Sciences 2008; 3(2): 81-88.
Potential antibacterial and antifungal activity of aqueous extract of Cynodon Dactylon
  • Sr Amita
  • Ak Nayanatara
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  • S Arjun
  • B Arunkumar
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Amita SR, Nayanatara AK, Rashmi KS, Arjun S, Arunkumar B, Bhavesh DV, Kishan K and Sheila RP: Potential antibacterial and antifungal activity of aqueous extract of Cynodon Dactylon. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 2011; 2(11): 2889-2893.
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