ArticlePDF Available

Moringa oleifera: Study of phenolics and glucosinolates by mass spectrometry

  • Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia agraria - Council for Agricultural Research and Economics
  • University of Salerno, Italy

Abstract and Figures

Moringa oleifera is a medicinal plant and an excellent dietary source of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and health-promoting phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates). Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates are known to possess anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant effects and have attracted great interest from both toxicological and pharmacological points of view, as they are able to induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes and to inhibit phase 1 activation enzymes. Phenolic compounds possess antioxidant properties and may exert a preventative effect in regards to the development of chronic degenerative diseases.The aim of this work was to assess the profile and the level of bioactive compounds in all parts of M. oleifera seedlings, by using different MS approaches. First, flow injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) fingerprinting techniques and chemometrics (PCA) were used to achieve the characterization of the different plant's organs in terms of profile of phenolic compounds and glucosinolates. Second, LC-MS and LC-MS/MS qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the identification and/or determination of phenolics and glucosinolates in M. oleifera. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Moringa oleifera: study of phenolics and
glucosinolates by mass spectrometry
Mariateresa Maldini,
Salwa A. Maksoud,
Fausta Natella,
Paola Montoro,
Giacomo Luigi Petretto,
Marzia Foddai,
Gina Rosalinda De Nicola,
Mario Chessa
and Giorgio Pintore
Moringa oleifera is a medicinal plant and an excellent dietary source of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and health-
promoting phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates). Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates are
known to possess anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant effects and have attracted great interest from both toxicological and
pharmacological points of view, as they are able to induce phase 2 detoxication enzymes and to inhibit phase 1 activation
enzymes. Phenolic compounds possess antioxidant properties and may exert a preventative effect in regards to the development
of chronic degenerative diseases.
The aim of this work was to assess the prole and the level of bioactive compounds in all parts of M. oleifera seedlings, by using
different MS approaches. First, ow injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) ngerprinting techniques and
chemometrics (PCA) were used to achieve the characterization of the different plants organs in terms of prole of phenolic com-
pounds and glucosinolates. Second, LC-MS and LC-MS/MS qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the identication
and/or determination of phenolics and glucosinolates in M. oleifera. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera; glucosinolates; PCA; LC-MS; MRM
Moringa oleifera Lam. (synonim: M. ptreygosperma Gaertn.)
(Moringaceae) is a tree native of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and
Afghanistan, widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas
of the world.
Moringa, the sole genus in the family Moringaceae,
consists of 14 species, among which M. oleifera is the best known
and most widely distributed and naturalized. M. oleifera, also called
Miracle Vegetable, is a multiuse plant used for human nutrition as
functional food, animal feeding and for medicinal purposes.
fact, a wide variety of nutritional and medicinal virtues have been
attributed to its roots, bark, leaves, owers, fruits and seeds. All
these parts are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various
ailments including the treatment of inammation and infectious
diseases along with cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, haematological
and hepatorenal disorders. In addition, extracts of various Moringa
tissues have been used for anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity
(M. oleifera seeds),
anti-inammatory and hepatoprotective
agents (M. oleifera fruits and bark),
while leaf extracts have been
shown to regulate thyroids status and cholesterol levels in rats.
Recently, this plant has attracted great interest as an important
food commodity because of its high nutritional value. Leaves,
owers and green pods are used traditionally as vegetable, whereas
the seed can be consumed fresh, fried, roasted or ground to meal.
The seed is also the source of a high quality edible oil known as
moringa oil, or ben oil, that can be used inseveral applications such
as cooking, cosmetics and as a lubricant.
M. oleifera is an excellent dietary source of micronutrients, vita-
mins and minerals, and health-promoting phytochemicals such as
glucosinolates and phenolic compounds.
The stem bark has also
been reported to contain alkaloids (moringinine and moringine).
In particular, this plant genus contains unusual sugar-substituted
hydroxy-aromatic glucosinolates.
Generally, glucosinolates
are structurally characterized by a β-D-glucopyranosyl unit and an
O-sulfated anomeric (Z)-thiohydroximate function connected to a
variable side chain depending on the amino acid metabolism of
the plant species.
M. oleifera contains several uncommon mem-
bers of the glucosinolates family with peculiar characteristics given
by the presence in their structure of a second saccharide residue in
the aglycon side chain.
The predominant glucosinolate in this
species is 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosiloxy)benzyl glucosinolate, known
as glucomoringin. Due to its atypical structure, this compound
could display biological properties distinctly different from those
of others GLs.
Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates are known to
possess anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant effects and have
* Correspondence to: Giorgio Pintore, University of Sassari, Department of
Chemistry and Pharmacy via F. Muroni, 23/b, 07100 Sassari, Italy. E-mail:
This article is part of the Journal of Mass Spectrometry special issue entitled 3rd
MS Food Dayedited by Gianluca Giorgi.
aUniversityof Sassari, Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy via F. Muroni, 23/b,
07100, Sassari, Italy
bUniversity of Cairo, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Egypt
cConsiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura, CRA-NUT, via
Ardeatina, 546, 00178, Roma, Italy
dUniversity of Salerno, Department of Pharmacy, via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084,
Fisciano, Sa, Italy
eConsiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura, CRA-CIN, via di
Corticella, 133, 40128, Bologna, Italy
J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Research article
Received: 21 February 2014 Revised: 1 July 2014 Accepted: 8 July 2014 Published online in Wiley Online Library
( DOI 10.1002/jms.3437
attracted great interest from both toxicological and pharmacologi-
cal points of view, as they are able to induce phase 2 detoxication
enzymes, and to inhibit phase 1 activation enzymes.
Since glucosinolates and their derivatives possess different rel-
evant biological activities, their identication and quantication
in plant tissues have become of great importance.
Several published indirect methods are based on the determina-
tion of their enzymatic volatile breakdown products by GC-MS
analysis, but unfortunately some glucosinolate breakdowns
products are unstable in the conditions applied, and they cannot
be correctly detected. Therefore, the current tendency is to
determine intact glucosinolates or desulfoglucosinolates by more
accurate and robust LC-MS methods.
LC coupled with tandem
mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an important tool that can be
used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis, especially in
the case of the characterization of GLs composition in less investi-
gated species.
Phenolics are a large class of secondary metabolites widely
distributed in plant kingdom. Previous phytochemical studies on
different tissues of M. oleifera reported the highest level of phenolic
compounds in leaves extracts, mainly avonoids and caffeic acid
Crypto-chlorogenic acid, caffeoylquinic acids (5- and
3-isomers), isoquercetin and astragalin were detected to be the
major compounds isolated and identied in the leaves of
M. oleifera.
Concerning avonoids, their proles were
found more complex and characterized by avonol glycosides
(kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, quercetin
3-O-glucoside and rutin). Amaglo et al.
reported leaves as the
tissue with the highest and most complex avonoid contents, while
in roots or seeds any phenolic compounds are detected. Phenolics
and avonoids are active antioxidant components in the leaves of
M. oleifera, responsible also for anti-inammatory, atherosclerotic
and anti-diabetics activities.
The aim of the present study was to determine the prole of
glucosinolates and phenolics, as well as to assess the glucosinolate
content in pulp seed, seed coat, leaves and roots of M. oleifera 12-
day old seedlings.
Furthermore, we investigated whether ESI-MS coupled to
statistical analysis (principal components analysis (PCA)) could be
used as a simple and reliable technique to distinguish extracts from
different tissues. Direct infusion ESI-MS offers several advantages
since it is a very fast, versatile, reproducible and sensitive
which requires little or no sample preparation and
provides almost instantaneous information. On the other hand,
PCA is a chemometric approach that combines mathematical,
statistical and computing methods which allows obtaining the
maximum information from chemical data analyses.
First, on the basis of ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS results, we described
the proles of glucosinolates, along with proanthocyanidins and
phenolic compounds, in M. oleifera tissues. Second, the occurrence
and level of glucosinolates were determined in pulp and coat of
dried seeds, as well as in roots and leaves of 12-day-old seedlings,
by LC-MS/MS analysis and a rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS
(MRM) method.
Solvents used for extraction, HPLC grade methanol, acetonitrile and
formic acid were from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Company (St Louis,
MO). HPLC grade water (18 mΩ) was prepared by using a Millipore
(Bedford, MA, USA) Milli-Q purication system. Glucoraphanin
potassium salt, glucoiberin potassium salt, glucotropaeolin potas-
sium salt, glucosinalbin potassium salt, glucobarbarin potassium
salt and glucoraphenin potassium salt were purchased from
PhytoLab GmbH & Co. KG (Vestenbergsgreuth, Germany).
Glucomoringin purication
Glucomoringin was isolated from M. oleifera Lam. (fam. Moringaceae)
seeds (cake powder PKM2 provided by Indena India Pvt. Ltd.;
Bangalore, India) according to a previously described method.
In brief, glucomoringin was puried by two sequential chromato-
graphic steps: isolation through anion exchange chromatography,
followed by gel ltration to achieve purication to homogeneity.
Glucomoringin was unambiguously characterized by
H- and
C-NMR spectrometry, and the purity was assessed by HPLC
analysis of the desulfo-derivative according to the ISO 9167-1
yielding glucomoringin with a purity of 99% based
on peak area value and 95% on a weight basis.
Plant material and growth conditions
M. oleifera Lam. seeds werekindly provided from Moringa society of
Egypt. A part of dried seeds was separated in coat and pulp,
whereas another part was kept 2days in water for imbibition and
then germinated in eld for 12 days. Afterwards, young leaves
and roots of 12-day-old seedlings were rapidly and gently collected,
immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and then stored at 80 °C
prior analysis.
Extraction and sample preparation
Each sample of M. oleifera (pulp seed, seed coat, leaves and roots)
was ground to a ne powder and extracted with methanol:water
(70:30 v/v; sample to solvent ratio 1:25 w/v)at7Cfor30minunder
vortex mixing to facilitate the extraction. The samples were succes-
sively centrifuged (4000 rpm, 30 min, 4 °C), the supernatants were
collected and the solvent was completely removed using a rotary
evaporator under vacuum at 40 °C. The dried samples were
dissolved in ultrapure water with the same volume of extraction
and ltered through 0.20-μm syringe PVDF lters (Whatmann
International Ltd., UK).
ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses
Full scan ESI-MS and collision-induced dissociation (CID) ESI-MS/MS
analyses ofsamples were performed on an ABSciex API2000 (Foster
City, CA, USA) spectrometer. The analytical parameters were opti-
mized by infusing a standard solution of glucomoringin (1μgml
in methanol 50%) into the source at a ow rate of 10 μlmin
optimized parameters were declustering potential 40 eV, focus-
ing potential 400 eV and entrance potential 10 eV. Data were
acquired in the negative ion MS and MS/MS modes.
Full scan ESI-MS, MS/MS and MS
analyses of standards and
samples were performed on an ABSciex API32000 Q-Trap (Foster
City, CA, USA) spectrometer. The analytical parameters were opti-
mized by infusing a standard solution of glucomoringin (1μgml
in methanol 50%) into the source at a ow rate of 10 μlmin
optimized parameters were declustering potential 73.6 eV,
entrance potential 4 eV, collision energy 39 eV and collision cell
exit potential 5 eV. Data were acquired in the negative ion MS and
MS/MS modes.
Moringa oleifera, glucosinolates, PCA, LC-MS
J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Qualitative on-line HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of extracts was per-
formed using an HPLC system interfaced to an Applied Biosystems
(Foster City, CA, USA) API3200 Q-Trap instrument in ion trap mode.
LC analyses were conducted using a system equipped with a 200
binary pump (Perkin-Elmer, USA). Samples were injected (10 μl) into
column (Phenomenex, USA) (150 × 2.1 mm i.d., 5 μmd)
and eluted at a ow rate of 0.3 ml min
. Mobile phase A was
O containing 0.1% formic acid, while mobile phase B was aceto-
nitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. Elution was carried out using a
gradient commencing at 100% A (gradient:1) and changing to
20:80 (A:B) in 55min (gradient: 4), then from 20:80 (A:B) to 100%:B
in 5 min (gradient: 1). The column was kept at 25 °C, using a Peltier
Column Oven Series 200 (Perkin Elmer). The ow from the chro-
matograph was injected directly into the ESI source. Qualitative
analysis of the compounds was performed using IDA (information
dependent acquisition). The IDA method created included an IDA
criteria (specify the charge state, mass range), enhanced MS scan,
enhanced resolution, enhanced product ion scan or MS/MS scan.
The source temperature was held at 450°C, and MS parameters
were those optimized for the ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses with
ion spray voltage at 4500. MS data were acquired using the
software provided by the manufacturer (Analyst software 1.5.1),
and extracted ion fragmentograms (XIC) were elaborated in order
to identify glucosinolates from their deprotonated molecular ions
and retention time.
Quantitative on-line HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses were performed
using the same LC-ESI-MS/MS equipment, but the mass spectrom-
eter worked with triple quadrupole analyzer in Multiple Reaction
Monitoring (MRM) mode. Elution was carried out using a gradient
commencing at 98% A (gradient:1) and changing to 88:12 (A:B) in
5 min (gradient: 4), then from 88:12 (A:B) to 75:25 (A:B) in 21min
(gradient: 1).
The API 3200 ES source was operated in negative ion mode
and was tuned by infusing solutions of standards (1 μgμl
methanol 50%) into the source at a ow rate of 10 μlmin
The optimized parameters, fragmentation reactions selected
for each compound, dwell time and retention times were
reported in Table 1. The voltage applied was 4500. Data
acquisition and processing were performed using Analyst
software 1.5.1.
Principal component analysis procedure
A m × n matrix (where m is the number of samples, and n is
the number of variables) was used in PCA. For the ow injection
ESI-MS matrix construction, the mass spectra were expressed as
the intensities of the individual [M H]
ions (variables) of the
most intense ions in the ngerprint of each sample. The data were
autoscaled and PCA was run. Thus, quantitative data of each chem-
ical marker were used to dene a data set with 12 observation and
545 variables. The resulting metabolomics data were processed
using SIMCA P+ software 12.0 (Umetrix AB, Umea, Sweden).
Calibration and quantication of glucosinolates
In order to prepare the calibration plot, a sample (1 mg) of each
standard was weighted accurately into a 1-ml volumetric ask,
dissolved in methanol 50% (v/v) and the volume made up to the
mark with methanol. The resulting stock solution was diluted with
methanol in order to obtain reference solutions containing 0.5, 1,
5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 μgml
of external standards.
A suitable amount of Internal Standard (IS), namely glucobar-
barin for glucomoringin, glucosinalbin and glucotropaeolin deter-
mination, and glucoraphenin for glucoraphanin and glucoiberin
analysis, was added to each reference solution to give a nal
concentration of 20 μgml
and 5 μgml
for glucobarbarin and
glucoraphenin, respectively. Calibration curves were constructed
by analyzing reference/IS solutions in triplicate at each concentra-
tion level. The ratios of the peak areas of the external standard to
those of the IS were calculated and plotted against the correspond-
ing standard concentration using weighted linear regression to
generate standard curves. All quantitative data were elaborated
with the aid of Analyst software (Applied Biosystems).
Method validation
LC-MS/MS method was validated according to the European Med-
icines Agency (EMEA) guidelines relating to the validation of
Table 1. LC-MS/MS conditions for quantitation of glucosinolates by negative ion MRM
Compound t
Precursor ion
[M H]
Product ion
[A H]
time (ms)
Collision cell
exit potential
Glucomoringin 11 570 97 60 73.6 6.1 56.4 1.13
10.74 586 97 60 78 657 4
glucosinolate or4-(3-O-Acetyl-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate
benzyl glucosinolate
15.45 612 259 100 76 11 41 5.6
unknown (m/z 912) 10.8 912 570 200 49 4.1 30 8
Glucotropaeolin 17.6 408 328 60 44 420 9
Glucosinalbin 11.6 424 97 60 61.5 4.34 37 1.8
Glucoraphanin 9.3 436 178 60 51 537.8 4
Glucoiberin 8.8 422 358 60 48.5 426 11.6
Glucobarbarin (I.S.) 16.9 438 97 60 55 7.7 40 1.7
Glucoraphenin (I.S.) 9.6 434 259 60 56 4.8 35.1 6.5
M. Maldini et al. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910
analytical methods.
Precision was evaluated at three concentra-
tion levels for each compound through triplicate intra-day assays
and inter-day assays over 3 days;the intra-day precision (coefcient
of variance) was within 8%, while the inter-day was within 9% for all
analytes (Table 2). Specicity was dened as the non-interference
by other analytes detected in the region of interest. As regards
the LC-MS/MS method, which was developed on the basis of the
characteristic fragmentation of detected glucosinolates, no other
peaks interfered with the analytes in the MS/MS detection mode.
Accuracy of the analytical procedure was evaluated using the
recovery test. Pulp seed samples were added with three different
amounts of the eight standards, and recoveries were calculated
from the difference between the amount of analytes measured
before and after standards addition. The mean recoveries for each
standard and each concentration level are reported in Table 2.
The calibration graphs, obtained by plotting the area ratio between
the external and internal standards against the known concentra-
tion of external standards, were linear in the range used for the
analysis of all glucosinolates. The sensitivity of the method was
determined with respect to limit of quantication (LOD) and limit
of detection (LOQ). The LOQ (equivalent to sensitivity of the
quantitative method), dened as the lowest concentration of ana-
lyte that could be quantied with acceptable accuracy and
precision, was estimated by injecting a series of increasingly dilute
standard solutions until the signal-to-noise ratio was reduced to 10.
The LOD (equivalent to sensitivity of the qualitative method),
dened as the lowest concentration of analyte that could be
detected, was estimated by injecting a series of increasingly dilute
standard solutions until the signal-to-noise ratio was reduced to 2.
Linearity (calibration curves equations and regression), together
with LOQ and LOD for each of the ve compounds analyzed, is
reported in Table 3.
ESI-MS, ESI-MS/MS analyses and PCA.
Direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the
negative ion mode was initially used to obtain the ngerprints of
the extracts of the following different tissues: seed pulp and coat,
and leaves and root of 12-day-old seedlings of M. oleifera.Thefull
spectrum of each sample was recorded in triplicate with the aim
to rapidly provide a visual and statistical evaluation of similarities
and differences of secondary metabolites among tissues. The ESI-
MS ngerprints of samples were very characteristic, thus showing
distinctive sets of polar markers for each different tissue. Consider-
ing the large amount of data set obtained by negative ion ESI-MS
ngerprints of extracts under investigation, a chemometric ap-
proach was performed using PCA, to characterize the different
plants tissue and to evaluate differences in terms of metabolites.
The PCA, using SIMCA-P
Software, was applied to the matrix
obtained as described in the experimental section, resulting in the in-
tensity of each compared signal which shows the quantitative level
of each marker compound in each of the overall 12 samples
(4 tissues × 3 replicates). PCA is an unsupervised method and was used
to reduce the dataset in order to obtain the maximum variation
between the samples. Pareto scaling was chosen for scaling data.
Figure 1 shows the 2D projection plot of the 12 M. oleifera sam-
ples. The rst component (R1X) explained the 57% of variance
whilst, andthe second (R2X) the 16%. Principal components choice
was done on the basis of the tting (R
X) and predictive (Q
values for the PCA model. In our case, the second component gave
the closest value to 1 for both of them. Variance was evaluated by
signicance level for HotellingsT2.
The 2D diagram showed conned cluster areas, representing
each a link to a different part of the plant extracted; in fact, we
can observe separated regions related to samples of pulp seed,
seed coat, root and leaves.
In order to evaluate the inuence of each variable on the clas-
sication of the samples, the loading plot obtained for the same
dataset was then studied, and it is reported in Fig. 2. For each
region of the 2D space, the loading plot shows the m/z values
corresponding to the peak observed in the specicsamples.In
Table 2. Accuracy and precision of eight analytes at three concentra-
tion levels
Compound Concentration Accuracy Precision
(μg/ml) (% recovery)
Glucomoringin 5 112 1.8 3
50 101 1.2 4.3
100 99 4.7 3.6
Glucotro paeolin 1 87 8 8
10 99 2.4 1
50 98 4.4 2.2
Glucosinalbin 1 112 5.3 6.4
10 113 2.7 3.2
50 98 3.1 0.3
Glucoraphanin 1 109 6.3 4.6
10 110 5.1 2.2
50 101 3.6 9.8
Glucoiberin 1 106 4.1 8.2
10 110 3.5 6
50 100 5.4 1.9
Precision and accuracy were evaluated at three concentration levels for
each compound through triplicate intra-day assays and inter-day assays
over 3 days
Table 3. Linearity, LOQ and LOD of LC-ESI-QqQ-MS/MS MRM method for the analysis of standard compounds
Compound Calibration curve R
equation (μgml
Glucomoringin y = 0.0757x + 0.705 0.993 0.02 0.005
Glucotropaeolin y = 0.0241x + 0.0156 0.999 0.05 0. 0015
Glucosinalbin y = 0.149x0.00236 0.999 0.011 0.005
Glucoraphanin y = 0.883x+ 1.72 0.998 0.06 0.009
Glucoiberin y = 0.565x + 1.07 0.994 0.0019 0.05
Moringa oleifera, glucosinolates, PCA, LC-MS
J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 1. Principal component analysis score plot.
Figure 2. Principal component analysis loading plot.
M. Maldini et al. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910
particular, the variables that contribute most to the differentia-
tion of the samples and to their location in a specic area of
the space can be highlighted. Interesting, values like m/z 288.9
and m/z 577.0 are localized in the area corresponding to the
seed coat in the score plot, whereas values like m/z 570, m/z
612, m/z 407.9 and m/z 912, are conned in the area corre-
sponding to pulp seed, and leaves and roots of 12-day-old seed-
lings in the score plot.
As evidenced by PCA, the ESI-MS ngerprint obtained for seed
coat extract showed the [M H]
ions at m/z values of 289, 577
and 865 corresponding at catechin/epicatechin and dimeric and tri-
meric procyanidins, respectively (Fig. 3A). We conrmed the
presence of these compounds by opportune ESI-MS/MS experi-
ments (data not shown). To our knowledge, this is the rst study
showing the proling of proanthocyanidins in seed of M. oleifera;
in fact, previous published works reported just the total
proanthocyanidin content.
The full negative mass spectrum recorded for seed pulp ex-
tract (Fig. 3B) revealed a major intense ion peak at m/z of 570,
relative to the glucosinolate glucomoringin together with 3-
hydroxy-4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate (m/z 586)
and three glucosinolates with close structure similarity to
glucomoringin, except for the presence of an acetyl group in the
compound located at C-2, C-3and C-4on the α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl unit (m/z 612). The identity of the revealed
glucosinolates was veried by the comparison of the MS
recorded for each compound with those of the standards and/or
with those reported in literature.
in this spectrum at m/z value of 912. Fragmentation experi-
ments were performed with the aim to individuate the nature
of this compound. MS
spectrum (Fig. 4A) evidenced only one
major ion peak at m/z value of 570 corresponding to the
deprotonated ion of glucomoringin. Sequential MS
of m/z 570 (Fig. 4B) displayed most intense fragment ions at
values of m/z 424, 328, 275 and 259. The rst two were
presumably generated by the subsequent loss of a
rhamnopyranosyloxyl moiety [M H146]
loss of sulfate ion [M H146 96]
. The last two fragments
resulted to be characteristic diagnostic ions typical of frag-
mentation pattern of glucosinolates. Comparing these results
with the fragmentation pattern obtained for glucomoringin
standard in using ESI-QqQ-MS and ESI-QqQ-MS/MS (Fig. 4C),
we could hypothesize that the ion at m/z 912 is a glucosino-
late structurally correlated to glucomoringin. Further studies
are needed to clearly identify this compound.
Figure 3. ESI-MS (negative ion mode) ngerprints of coat (A) and pulp seed (B).
Moringa oleifera, glucosinolates, PCA, LC-MS
J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The negative ion ESI-MS spectra of leaves and roots extracts were
more complicated, suggesting the high complexity of the mixtures
analyzed (data not shown).
The deprotonated spectrum of roots extract showed over all a
most intense peak at m/z of 408 corresponding to glucosinolate
glucotropaeolin, along with minor ion relative to glucomoringin
(m/z 570). The comparison of the MS
spectra recorded for each
compound with those of the standards conrmed the nature of
revealed compounds.
The ESI-MS spectrum of leaves extract showed, along with
major ion peak of glucomoringin (m/z 570), the acetyl-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate (m/z 612), glucotro-
paeolin (m/z 408)andanothermostabundantionatm/z
value of 353, ascribable to chlorogenic acid. The identity of
this compound was conrmed by the comparison of MS/MS
spectrum with that of the standard. As evidenced by PCA
(Fig. 2), this variable contributes to the differentiation of
leaves sample.
Moreover, negative ESI-MS spectrum evidenced other minor ion
peaks at m/z value of 447, 463, 593 and 609 corresponding to
kaempferol 3-O-β-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside, kaempferol
3-O-rutinoside and rutin, respectively. The identity of the revealed
phenolic compounds was veried by the comparison of the MS
spectra with those of the corresponding standards and/or with
those reported in literature.
By using IDA software, phenolics found in M. oleifera leaves were
characterized according to their retention time and their MS and
MS/MS spectra and by comparison with standard reference com-
pounds, when available (data not shown). Besides conrming the
presence of the revealed compounds, LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis
allowed to identify three chlorogenic acid isomers (m/z 353).
Focusing on glucosinolates, an opportune IDA method with
EMS survey scans, ER and EPI scans was developed to clearly
identify these compounds by comparison of both their MS
retention times with those observed for the analytical standards
in LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses (data not shown). Besides
glucomoringin, glucotropaeolin (benzyl glucosinolate), 3-hydroxy-
4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate, 4-(-2-O-acetyl-α-
L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate, 4-(-3-O-acetyl-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate and 4-(-4-O-acetyl-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate, LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses
allowed to evidence the presence of other glucosinolates at
m/z values of 424, 422 and 436. The comparison of MS
spectra and the retention times with those of reference
standards allowed us to identify these compounds as
glucosinalbin (4-hydroxybenzyl glucosinolate), glucoiberin
Figure 4. ESI-IT-MS/MS (A), ESI-IT-MS
(B) spectra of compound at m/z 912 and ESI-IT-MS/MS (C) of glucomoringin.
M. Maldini et al. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910
(3-methylsulnylpropyl glucosinolate) and glucoraphanin
(4-methylsulnylbutyl glucosinolate), respectively. Except for
glucosinalbin, these latter glucosinolates have never been
previously reported in M. oleifera.
In order to obtain accurate data concerning the amounts of
revealed glucosinolates in different tissue extracts, a quantitative
LC-ESI/MS (MRM) analysis was performed using a method previ-
ously described with the opportune modications.
MS/MS spectra of glucomoringin and 3-hydroxy-4-(α-L-rhamno-
pyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate showed the most intense
peak at specicproductionatm/z value of 97 corresponding to
the [SO
ion, while the MS
spectra of 4-(O-acetyl-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate and glucosinalbin
showed a major ion peak at m/z value of 259 due to a sulfated
glucose moiety. For the unknown compounds at m/z 912, the only
intense product ion generated was the ion at m/z 570.
On the basis of the results, the specic transitions from
deprotonated molecular ions to the corresponding fragment
ions for each compound were selected to develop an
MRM method. IS (internal standards) were characterized by
MRM through the transitions from precursor ion m/z 438.0
to product ion m/z 97.0 for glucobarbarin and from precursor
ion m/z 434.0 to product ion m/z 259.0 for glucoraphenin.
The structures of detected compounds and selected IS are
reported in Fig. 5. The calibration curves, obtained by
plotting the area ratios between the external standards
and internal standards against the known concentration of
each compound, were linear in the range of 0.5200 μgml
with r
values of >0.993 (Table 3). Retention times and
selected transitions for analyzed compounds are reported in
Table 1.
The method based on the characteristic fragmentation reac-
tions of glucosinolates was highly specic with no other peaks
interfering at the retention times of the marker compounds in
the MRM chromatograms (Fig. 6).
The quantitative analysis results are summarized in Table 4. It is
possible to observe that glucomoringin is the most abundant glu-
cosinolate in all parts of M. oleifera, particularly in the pulp seed,
followed by 3-hydroxy-4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl gluco-
sinolate in the pulp seed and seed coat, and by glucotropaeolin
in the leaves. In the pulp, we can also evidence, for the rst time
in M. oleifera, the presence of glucoraphanin and glucosinalbin
and minor quantities of 4-(-2-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)
benzyl glucosinolate, 4-(-3-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)ben-
zyl glucosinolate, 4-(-4-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl
glucosinolate, glucotropaeolin, glucoiberin and in addition two un-
identied compounds, most likely glucosinolates.
To our knowledge, this is the rst paper showing a direct
quantitative determination of predominant glucomoringin
and the other glucosinolates in seeds and different tissues
of M. oleifera 12-day-old seedlings. Previously, Bennett
et al.
reported the identication (by a LC-MS method)
and the indirect quantication (by LC-UV method) of the
major glucosinolates present in seeds
and in tissues of 1-
year-old plants of M. oleifera.
In another study, performed
by Amaglo et al.
a direct quantitative analyses of
glucomoringin and congeners in 100-, 320- and 380-day-old
plants is reported. Furthermore, the study of Bellostas et al.
measured the total glucosinolate level in leaves of 23-year-
old plants of three different Moringa species.
Despite showing similar patterns, the levels of glucosinolates ob-
tained in our study are different from those already reported.
These differences could be attributed to several reasons. In
addition to the different analytical methods used, difference in
the varieties examined, the growth conditions, as well as the plant
health and nutrition could represent important factors.
Figure 5. Molecular structure of glucosinolates.
Moringa oleifera, glucosinolates, PCA, LC-MS
J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Figure 6. LC/ESI(QqQ)/MS/MS XICs (extracted ion chromatograms) of MRM analysis of glucosinolates in M. oleifera.
M. Maldini et al. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910
Our data demonstrated that seed and seedlings of M. oleifera
can represent a good source of glucomoringin. This com-
pound, as well as its acetyl derivatives and hydrolyzed products,
can exert a broad biological activity, from antimicrobial to
antiproliferative properties,
as well as an effective
anticarcinogenic activity.
This paper describes for the rst time the MS proling of
proanthocyanidins in seed coat and the simultaneous determina-
tion of 11 glucosinolates in different M. oleifera tissues by using
mass spectrometric approaches.
ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS ngerprints of seed coat have not been
previously performed and allowed us to emphasize the presence
of dimeric and trimeric proanthocyanidins together with the
related monomer (catechin/epicatechin).
Furthermore, the use of the full ESI-MS spectra along with the
PCA approach proved to be a potentially useful and effective tool
to rapidly provide both visual and statistical evaluation of similari-
ties and differences in M. oleifera tissues.
The LC-ESI-MS/MS IDA method allowed us to individuate two
glucosinolates (glucoiberin and glucoraphanin) never reported in
M. oleifera before.Moreover, an LCMS/MS MRM method allowed
us to quantify all the identied glucosinolates in different tissues
of M. oleifera.
M. oleifera pulp resulted a very rich source of glucosinolates, in
particular of glucomoringin, an uncommon member of the
glucosinolate family with promising antimicrobial and anti-
carcinogenic properties. Finding of phenolic compounds is
interesting because they are active antioxidant components of
M. oleifera responsible for its anti-inammatory, atherosclerotic
and antidiabetic activities.
This work was supported by grants P.O.R. SARDEGNA F.S.E.
20072013Obiettivo competitività regionale e occupazione,
Asse IV Capitale umano, Linea di Attività l.3.1., Fondazione Banco
di Sardegna and EMAP (Edible Medicinal Aromatic Plants) IRSES
We thank Dr. Renato Iori (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la
sperimentazione in Agricoltura, CRA-CIN, Bologna, Italy) for his kind
support and all the volunteers for their participation.
[1] L. O. Manguro, P. Lemmen. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves. Nat.
Prod. Res. 2007,21, 56.
[2] Y. Kashiwada, F. A. Ahmed, S. Kurimoto, S. Y. Kim, H. Shibata, T. Fujioka,
Y. Takaishi. New α-glucosides of caffeoyl quinic acid from the leaves of
Moringa oleifera Lam. J. Nat. Med. 2012,66, 217.
[3] S. C. Verma, R. Banerji, G. Misra, S. K. Nigam. Nutritional value of
Moringa.Curr. Sci. 1976,45, 769.
[4] O. A. Oluduro, T. O. Idowu, B. I. Aderiye, O. Famurewa, O. O. Omoboye.
Evaluation of Antibacterial Potential of Crude Extract of Moringa
oleifera seed on Orthopaedics Wound Isolates and Characterization of
Phenylmethanamine and Benzyl Isothiocyanate Derivatives. Res. J.
Med. Plant. 2012,6,383.
[5] S. Cheenpracha, E. J. Park, W. Y. Yoshida, C. Barit, M. Wall, J. M. Pezzuto,
L. C. Chang. Potential anti-inammatory phenolic glycosides from the
medicinal plant Moringa oleifera fruits. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2010,18,
[6] F. Anwar, S. Latif, M. Ashraf, A. H. Gilani. Moringa oleifera: a food plant
with multiple medicinal uses. Phytother. Res. 2007,21, 17.
[7] M. Mbikay. Therapeutic Potential of Moringa oleifera Leaves in
Chronic Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia: A Review. Front
Pharmacol. 2012,3, 24.
[8] S. Sreelatha, P. R. Padma. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic
content of Moringa oleifera leaves in two stages of maturity. Plant
Foods Hum. Nutr. 2009,64, 303.
[9] R. N. Bennett, F. A. Mellon, N. Foidl, J. H. Pratt, M. S. Dupont, L. Perkins,
P. A. Kroon. Proling glucosinolates and phenolics in vegetative and
reproductive tissues of the multi-purpose trees Moringa oleifera L.
(horseradish tree) and Moringa stenopetala L. J. Agric. Food Chem.
2003,51, 3546.
[10] S. Faizi, B. S. Siddiqui, R. Saleem, F. Noor, S. Husnain. Isolation and
structure elucidation of a novel glycoside niazidin from the pods of
Moringa oleifera,J. Nat. Prod. 1997,60, 1317.
[11] N. Agerbirk, C. E. Olsen. Glucosinolatestructures in evolution. Phytoche.
m2012,77, 16.
[12] A. Smiechowska, A. Bartoszek, J. Namiesnik. Determination of
glucosinolates and their decomposition products-indoles and
isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables. Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 2010,
40, 202.
[13] M. Jahangir, I. B. Abdel-Farid, H. K. Kim, Y. H.Choi, R. Verpoorte. Healthy
and unhealthy plants: The effect of stress on the metabolism of
Brassicaceae. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2009,67, 23.
[14] D. Brunelli, M. Tavecchio, C. Falcioni, R. Frapolli, E. Erba, R. Iori, P. Rollin,
J. Barillari, C. Manzotti, P. Morazzoni, M. DIncalci. The isothiocyanate
Table 4. Quantitative results for glucosinolates detected in extracts of seed pulp, seed coat, roots and leaves of 12-day-old seedlings of Moringa oleifera
Glucosinolates (mg/100 g)
Compound Pulp Coat Roots Leaves
Glucomoringin 8619.44 ± 573.20 28.27 ± 0.6 3.99 ± 0.47 77.7 ± 8.07
3-Hydroxy-4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate
65.75 ± 10.85 3.3 ± 0.02 0.02 ± 0.01 0.45 ± 0.05
4-(2-O-Acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate
or 4-(3-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate
or 4-(4-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate
15.45) 0.29 ± 0.03 ND 0.01 ± 0.01 0.50 ± 0.01
16.01) 0.16 ± 0.01 ND 0.01 ± 0.01 0.35 ± 0.05
19.85) 0.39 ± 0.11 ND 0.02 ± 0.01 2.22 ± 0.26
Unknown (m/z 912)
10.8) 0. 14 ± 0.11 ND ND ND
11.3) 0. 14 ± 0.05 ND ND ND
Glucotropaeolin ND ND 0.27 ± 0. 03 15.66± 1. 04
Glucosinalbin 3.17 ± 0.67 ND 0.05 ± 0.01 0.84 ± 0.19
Glucoraphanin 3.57 ± 0.32 0.86 ± 0.22 0.58 ± 0.03 2.2 ± 0.27
Glucoiberin 0.09± 0.02 ND 0.02 ± 0.01 0.05 ± 0.02
Each data is the mean of three replicates (mean ± SD)
ND: not detected
Quantied as equivalent of glucomoringin
Moringa oleifera, glucosinolates, PCA, LC-MS
J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
produced from glucomoringin inhibits NF-kB and reduces myeloma
growth in nude mice in vivo. Biochem. Pharmacol. 2010,79, 1141.
[15] N.K.Amaglo,R.N.Bennett,R.B.LoCurto,E.A.S.Rosa,V.LoTurco,
A. Giuffrida, A. Lo Curto, F. Crea, G. M. Timpo. Proling selected
phytochemicals and nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose
tree Moringa oleifera L., grown in Ghana. Food Chem. 2010,122, 1047.
[16] B. Kusznierewicz, R. Iori, A. Piekarska, J. Namieśnik, A. Bartoszek.
Convenient identication of desulfoglucosinolates on the basis of
mass spectra obtained during liquid chromatography-diode array-
electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry analysis: method
verication for sprouts of different Brassicaceae species extracts.
J. Chromatogr. A 2013,1278, 108.
[17] R. N. Bennett, F. A. Mellon, P. A. Kroon, Screening crucifer seeds as
sources of specic intact glucosinolates using ion-pair high-
performance liquid chromatography negative ion electrospray mass
spectrometry, J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004,52, 428.
[18] M. Maldini, S. Baima, G. Morelli, C. Scaccini, F. Natella. A liquid
chromatography-mass spectrometry approach to study
"glucosinoloma" in broccoli sprouts. J. Mass Spectrom. 2012,47,1198.
[19] B. Vongsak, P. Sithisarn, W. Gritsanapan. Simultaneous HPLC
quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa
oleifera Lam. J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2013 4,1.
[20] L. O. A. Manguro, P. Lemmen. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves. Nat.
Prod. Res. 2007,21, 56.
[21] Y. Kashiwada, F. A. Ahmed, S. Kurimoto, S.-Y. Kim, H. Shibata, T. Fujioka,
Y. Takaishi. New α-glucosides of caffeoyl quinic acid from the leaves of
Moringa oleifera Lam. J. Nat. Med. 2012,66, 217.
[22] A. R. Verma, M. Vijayakumar, C. S.Mathela, C.V. Rao. In vitro and in vivo
antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves.
Food Chem. Toxicol. 2009,47, 2196.
[23] M. Ndong, M. Uehara, S. Katsumata, K. Suzuki. Effects of oral
administration of Moringa oleifera Lam. on glucose tolerance in
gotokakizaki and wistar rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007,40, 229.
[24] P. Chumark, P. Khunawat, Y. Sanvarinda, S. Phornchirasilp,
N. P. Morales, L. Phivthong-ngam, P. Ratanachamnong, S. Srisawat,
K. U. Pongrapeeporn. The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties,
hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of
Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008,116, 439.
[25] J. B. Fenn, M. Mann, C. K. Meng, S. F. Wong, C. M. Whitehouse.
Electrospray Ionization for Mass-Spectrometry of Large Biomolecules.
Science 1989,246, 64.
[26] P. K. Hopke. The evolution of chemometrics. Anal. Chim. Acta 2003,
500, 65.
[27] European Economic Community, Commisssion Regulation, EEC No.
1864/90. Oilseedsdetermination of glucosinolates high performance
liquid chromatography. Off. J. Eur. Comm. 1990,L170,2734.
[28] EMEA. Quality guidelines: Validation of analytical procedures: Text and
methodology (ICH Q2). Available at: http://www.emea.europa. eu/pdfs/
[29] W. R. Compaoré, P. A. Nikièma, H. I. N. Bassolé, A. Savadogo,
J. Mouecoucou, D. J. Hounhouigan and S. A. Traoré. Chemical
Composition and Antioxidative Properties of Seeds of Moringa
oleifera and Pulps of Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata
Commonly used in Food Fortication in Burkina Faso. Curr. Res. J. Biol.
Sci. 2011,3,64.
[30] N. Bellostas, J. C. Sørensen, A. Nikiema, H. Sørensen, D. Pasternak and
S. Kumar. Glucosinolates in leaves of Moringa species grown and
disseminated in Niger. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 2010,5, 1338.
[31] E. J. Park, S. Cheenpracha, L. C. Chang, T. P. Kondratyuk, J. M. Pezzuto.
Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and
inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by 4-[(2-O-acetyl-α-L-
rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.Nutr.
Cancer 2011,63, 971.
[32] Y.M.Lee,M.R.Seon,H.J.Cho,J.S.Kim,J.H.Park.Benzylisothiocyanate
exhibits anti-inammatory effects in murine macrophages and in
mouse skin. J. Mol. Med. 2009,87, 1251.
[33] N. Juge,R. F. Mithen,M. Traka. Molecular basis for chemoprevention by
sulforaphane: A comprehensive review. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 2007,64,
[34] U. Leuck, H. Kunz. Synthesis of active principles from the leaves of
Moringa oleifera using S-pent-4-enyl thioglucosides. Carbohydr. Res.
[35] J. W. Fahey. Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence for its
nutritional, Therapeutic, and prophylactic properties. Part 1. Trees for
Life J., 2005.
[36] M. Galuppo, G. R. De Nicola, R. Iori, P. DellUtri, P. Bramanti,
E. Mazzon.Antibacterial activity of glucomoringin bioactivated
with myrosinase against two important pathogens affecting the
health of long-term patients in hospitals. Molecules 2013,18,
[37] F. Anwar, S. Latif, M. Ashraf, A. H. Gilani. Moringa oleifera:a
food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytother. Res. 2007,
21, 17.
[38] A. P. Guevara, C. Vargas, H. Sakurai, Y. Fujiwara, K. Hashimoto, T. Maoka,
M. Kozuka, Y. Ito, H. Tokuda, H. Nishino. An antitumor promoter from
Moringa oleifera.Mutat. Res. 1999,440, 181.
[39] B. Dayal, V. R. Yannamreddy, R. Amin, M. A. Lea, A. B. Attygalle.
Bioactive Compounds in Moringa oleifera: isolation, structure
elucidation, and their antiproliferative properties. In Tropical and
Subtropical Fruits: Flavors, Color, and Health Benets,B.Patil,etal.,
ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington,
DC, 2013.
M. Maldini et al. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. J. Mass Spectrom. 2014, 49, 900910
... Compound 2 was characterized as a disaccharide (probably diglucoside) due to the neutral loss of 162 Da (341→ 179) and the characteristic fragments of hexoside moieties (m/z 179, 161, 143, and 119) [47]. Compound 3 was characterized as the glucosinolate glucomoringin, previously reported in M. oleifera [48]. Compound 5 exhibited deprotonated molecular ion at m/z 315 and suffered the neutral loss of 162 Da to yield dihydroxybenzoic acid at m/z 153, so it was characterized as its hexoside. ...
Full-text available
Moringa oleifera has been reported to possess a high number of bioactive compounds; hence, several food supplements are commercially available based on it. This work aimed to analyze the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of commercial food supplements. The phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn), and the antioxidant activity was assessed by ABTS·+ and DPPH assays. Thirty-three compounds were identified, and all the main compounds were quantified, observing that the main contribution to the phenolic profile was due to kaempferol and quercetin glucosides. The antioxidant activity in both assays agreed with the phenolic content: the higher the phenolic levels, the higher the antioxidant activity. The obtained results were compared with those previously published regarding Moringa oleifera leaves to establish the potential benefits of food supplement consumption in the diet.
... Due to its importance as food and medicine in most regions burdened by malnutrition, Moringa is referred to as "the miracle tree" (Palada, 1996;Fuglie, 1999;Kashyap, purposes (Senthilkumar et al., 2018). The dry pods contain about 54% oil (Somali et al., 1984), leaves and roots are high in mineral content, vitamins (Asghari et al., 2015), carotenoids, sterols, glycosides, alkaloids, antioxidants, flavonoids and phenolics (Anwar et al., 2007;Mariateresa et al., 2014;Abdulaziz et al., 2015;Karagiorgou et al., 2016;Nascimento et al., 2017), prescribed in remedies for the treatment of tumors (El-Alfy et al., 2011), cardiovascular and liver diseases (Rao and Misra, 1998), blood pressure (Al-Dabbas et al., 2010), diabetes, prostate, skin infections (Rahman et al., 2009) and Herpes Simplex Virus (Soltan and Zaki, 2009). Nevertheless, M. peregrina is still a neglected orphan tree, it is rare and endangered due to severe environmental factors, such as drought, over-exploitation, animal browsing (Hakham and Ritte, 1993;Hegazy et al., 2008) and anthropogenic pressure (Alatar, 2011). ...
Full-text available
Variation and diversity within wild Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori; seed size and shape ABSTRACT The Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori is a neglected super-food plant with tremendous medicinal properties, naturally growing at shorelines of the Red Sea region. Limited information is available about the genetic resources and diversity of this tree, which is under threat due to severe biotic and abiotic factors in the region. The search for genetic diversity within a species usually depends on the geographical distribution studies for such plant species. This study aims to explore the variation and diversity found within the progeny of Moringa peregrina, based on the size and shape of its seeds. Collected wild-type Moringa peregrina seeds were assorted according to its size and shape, analyzed for its moisture, protein, oil, minerals, total phenols, total flavonoids, protein, and germination rates. Germinated plants were evaluated for phenotypic characters and tissues, including leaves, roots, were analyzed for its minerals, protein, total phenols, and total flavonoids content. Tissues were subjected to callus generations, rooting, and shooting micro-propagation experiments and DNA RAPD marker analysis. Analyzed plant tissues have shown qualitative and quantitative variations in their minerals, oil, and phytochemical contents, which are statistically significant and correlated with the seed size and shape. Moreover, germination, plant height, leaf morphology and clonal response to growth regulators were also variant according to seed size and shape. The molecular RAPD marker analysis has shown that the genetic material had similarities and distances among the seeds of different sizes and shapes. Variation and diversity within wild-type Moringa peregrina species are found in its progeny, where seed size and shape are considered as indicator traits for genetic variation and diversity.
... The seed extract was found to have strong antimicrobial activity against various species of bacteria and fungi (Govardhan et al. 2013;Oluduro et al. 2010;Padla et al. 2012;Galuppo et al. 2013). The development of many pathogenic microorganisms responsible for human infections can be prevented by many of the phytochemical compounds isolated from the seeds (Bennett et al. 2003;Maldini et al. 2014;Jeon, 2014). For this reason, the use of these phytochemicals as an alternative to conventional therapies has been speculated by some scientists since they can be with low to no side effects and pharmacologically successful (Williams, 2013; ...
... y 0.16-3.92 mg g -1 de peso seco, respectivamente (Amaglo et al., 2010); taninos en cantidades de 20.7 mg g -1 de peso seco (Teixeira et al., 2014); 4-0bencilglucocinolato, mejor conocido por glucomoringa en cantidades de 78 mg 100 g -1 de tejido (Maldini et al., 2014); concentraciones de β-caroteno entre 23.31 y 39.6 mg 100 g -1 de peso seco (Glover-Amengor et al., 2017); sin embargo, se cuenta con muy pocas referencias acerca de la cuantificación de β-sitosterol y zeatina (Padayachee y Baijnath, 2019). ...
The species Moringa oleifera Lam. It is a deciduous tree that is used in food and treatment of human and animal diseases. The objective of the present study was to characterize the growth, production, development, stomatal morphology and biochemical composition of M. oleifera Lam. inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) (Bacillus niacini (Y11), Moraxella osloensis (Y13), Bacillus cereus (A11) and Azospirillum brasilense Cd (DSM 1843)) under greenhouse conditions. The stomatal morphology results, the leaves of plants inoculated with B. cereus presented smaller stomata, compared to the rest of the inoculums and control (CT). In the case of M. osloensis, this induced changes (P≤0.001) in the length and width of the stomata; the leaves were hypostomatic with wavy anticline walls and anomocytic stomatal apparatuses. In the evaluation of the growth and development of plants inoculated with PGPR, A. brasilense promoted a greater height in the plant (67.17 cm) (P≤0.01) compared to the control. (43.54 cm); M. osloensis and B. cereus as a whole, increased (P≤0.001) the number of leaves (11.45 and 11.85, Vs 8.68 of the TC, respectively). Regarding the dry biomass yield (DBY) of leaves and whole plant (WP). The plants inoculated with B. cereus led to higher (P≤0.01) yields of dry biomass of leaves (0.80 Vs 0.26 t DBY ha-1 of the control) and WP (12.92 Vs 5.52 t DBY ha-1 of the control). Regarding the morphophysiology of the plant, B. cereus promoted (P≤0.01) the development of leaf area (LA) (20.28 cm2); leaf area index (LAI) (21.13) and duration of leaf area (DLA) (4.78 cm2day-1) with respect to TC (13.9 cm2; 14.71; -1.57 cm2day-1, for LA, LAI and DLA, respectively), absolute growth rate (AGR) and relative (RGR) growth rate were higher with the A. brasilense and M. osloensis inocula in AGR (1.037 and 0.93 cm2 day-1 Vs 0.12 cm2 day-1 of the CT) and RGR (0.014 cm day-1 * 10-3 with both inoculums Vs 0.002 cm day-1 * 10-3 of the CT). Bacterial inocula did not promote differences (P≥0.05) in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments or total polyphenols, but did (P≤0.001) in the content of total flavonoids with respect to TC (6.22 mg equivalent of Quercetin g extract-1). Regarding the mineral composition of the plant, the concentration of mineral elements in leaves only showed significant differences (P≤0.001) in the content of Mg2+ and K+ promoted by B. niacini. Through principal component analysis (PCA) of the mineral content of roots, it was possible to explain 79.1% of the variance in two components, the PGPR facilitated the increase of the content of K+, Br+ and P3+, and for the analysis of leaves, it was observed in the PCA with three components and 80.24% of the variance explanation, the presence of Mn2+, Zn2+, Si4+ and Al3+. In conclusion, the inocula of PGPR inoculated to Moringa plants under greenhouse conditions modified the morphology of leaves and stomata, highlighting B. cereus, all the inoculars stimulated growth as a function of height with respect to CT, prevailing the effects of A. brasilense; in the diversification of the antioxidant profile B niacini promoted concentrations of total flavonoids and differentiated the content of Mg2+ and K+ in the order of minerals, in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and total polyphenols the PGPR were not effective.
... glucomoringin which is responsible for inducing apoptosis and anti-cancerous activities (Maldini et al., 2014). ...
Full-text available
... Currently, the extraction of phenolic compounds in moringa powder is carried out by destructive chemical methods, including mass spectrometry (MS) [13], high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [14], and gas chromatography [15]. The aforementioned wet chemistry methods are fast, efficient, precise, and can detect substances under examination in trace levels, i.e., ppm or ppb levels, but they have certain drawbacks: they are often time-consuming, destructive, require complicated experimental processes, and produce several chemical wastes, limiting real-time measurement. ...
Full-text available
This study performed non-destructive measurements of phenolic compounds in moringa powder using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy within a spectral range of 3500–700 cm−1. Three major phenolic compounds, namely, kaempferol, benzoic acid, and rutin, were measured in five different varieties of moringa powder, which was approved with respect to the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The prediction performance of three different regression methods, i.e., partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component regression (PCR), and net analyte signal (NAS)-based methodology, called hybrid linear analysis (HLA/GO), were compared to achieve the best prediction model. The obtained results for the PLS regression method resulted in better performance for the prediction analysis of phenolic compounds in moringa powder. The PLSR model attained a correlation coefficient () value of 0.997 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.035 mg/g, respectively, which is comparatively higher than the other two regression models. Based on the results, it can be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy in conjugation with a suitable regression analysis method could be an effective analytical tool for the non-destructive prediction of phenolic compounds in moringa powder.
Full-text available
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are sporadic maladies that affect patients’ lives with progressive neurological disabilities and reduced quality of life. Neuroinflammation and oxidative reaction are among the pivotal factors for neurodegenerative conditions, contributing to the progression of NDs, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Management of NDs is still less than optimum due to its wide range of causative factors and influences, such as lifestyle, genetic variants, and environmental aspects. The neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities of Moringa oleifera have been documented in numerous studies due to its richness of phytochemicals with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This review highlights up-to-date research findings on the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effects of M. oleifera , including mechanisms against NDs. The information was gathered from databases, which include Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid-MEDLINE, Springer, and Elsevier. Neuroprotective effects of M. oleifera were mainly assessed by using the crude extracts in vitro and in vivo experiments. Isolated compounds from M. oleifera such as moringin, astragalin, and isoquercitrin, and identified compounds of M. oleifera such as phenolic acids and flavonoids (chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, (-)-epicatechin, and isoquercitrin) have been reported to have neuropharmacological activities. Therefore, these compounds may potentially contribute to the neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory effects. More in-depth studies using in vivo animal models of neurological-related disorders and extensive preclinical investigations, such as pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and bioavailability studies are necessary before clinical trials can be carried out to develop M. oleifera constituents into neuroprotective agents.
Full-text available
Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), widely used in tropical and subtropical regions, has been reported to possess good anti-aging benefits on skincare. However, the potential bioactive components responsible for its anti-aging effects, including anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, and anti-hyaluronidase activities, have not been clarified so far. In this study, M. oleifera leaf extracts were first conducted for anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities in vitro by spectrophotometric and fluorometric assays, and the results revealed that they possessed good activities against skin aging-related enzymes. Then, multi-target bio-affinity ultrafiltration coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (AUF-HPLC-MS) was applied to quickly screen anti-elastase, anti-collagenase, and anti-hyaluronidase ligands in M. oleifera leaf extracts. Meanwhile, 10, 8, and 14 phytochemicals were screened out as the potential anti-elastase, anti-collagenase, and anti-hyaluronidase ligands, respectively. Further confirmation of these potential bioactive components with anti-aging target enzymes was also implemented by molecule docking analysis. In conclusion, these results suggest that the M. oleifera leaves might be a very promising natural source of anti-aging agent for skincare, which can be further explored in the cosmetics and cosmeceutical industries combating aging and skin wrinkling.
Full-text available
This work demonstrates the use of a triple detector for the screening of antioxidants in officinal plants. The triple detector consisted of a coulometric array (CAD), a diode array (DAD) and a mass spectrometer (MS) detector, which were connected to a HPLC system. DAD gave an overall profile of bioactive compounds. CAD allowed to select the most promising redox species and quantify their concentration based on the Faraday's law. Finally, MS was used for identification. The approach was applied to screen the main antioxidants in 19 officinal plants. Furthermore, the electron transfer properties obtained by CAD were highly correlated with the results of classical DPPH (r = 0.80), FRAP (r = 0.87) and ORAC (r = 0.90) assays and, thus, could be used to predict the antioxidant capacity of plant extracts by stepwise linear regression models (R² = 0.99). Overall, the triple detector system allows a comprehensive approach to screen and characterize the antioxidant compounds in natural plant extracts.
Full-text available
Moringa oleifera leaves have been widely used for the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other diseases, due to being rich in polyphenols. The main objective of this work was to largely separate the main polyphenols from Moringa oleifera leaves using the technique of high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The phenolic composition in Moringa oleifera leaves was first analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by UPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap/MS and UPLC-QqQ/MS, respectively, indicating that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, phenolic acid and apigenin are the main polyphenols in Moringa oleifera leaves, with quercetin and kaempferol derivatives predominating. Furthermore, the conditions of HSCCC for large-scale separation of polyphenols from Moringa oleifera leaves were optimized, which included the selection of the solvent system, flow rate and the sample load. Only by one-step HSCCC separation (within 120 min) under the optimized conditions, six quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, a phenolic acid and an apigenin could be individually isolated at a large scale (yield from 10% to 98%), each of which possessed high purity. Finally, the isolated polyphenols and phenolic extract from Moringa oleifera leaves (MLPE) were verified to have strong neuroprotective activities against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC-12 cells, suggesting that these compounds would contribute to the main beneficial effects of Moringa oleifera leaves.
Full-text available
This study aimed to identify the nutrient composition and antioxidant properties of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa. Crude proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, crude fibers, ashes and mineral elements were determined. Total phenols, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins of seeds and pulps were reported. The seeds of Moringa oleifera are particularly rich in proteins (35.37±0.07 g/100 g), lipids (43.56±0.03 g/100 g), and minerals (Mg2+ and Zn2+). Pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa have a relatively high carbohydrates content (67.8±0.05 g/100 g and 67.66±0.05 g/100 g, respectively). Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the main carbohydrates of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa. Seeds of Moringa oleifera have the highest proanthocyanidin and flavonoid content whereas pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa were characterized by the highest total phenol content. Seeds of Moringa oleifera had the strongest MBTH radicals scavenging activity (99.74%) compared to the pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa 94.98 and 79.40%, respectively. This study indicated that these pulps and seeds have a good potential in macro and micronutrients content and for its valorization; they can be effectively used to fortify staple food particularly for children and contribute to eradicate malnutrition due to micronutrients deficiencies.
Full-text available
The antibacterial activity of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera seed on some orthopaedic wounds isolates which include Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Burkholderia cepacia, Yersinia enterocolitica, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia rubidae, Salmonella pullorum and Klebsiella oxycota was investigated. Both the crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the seed demonstrated an appreciable inhibitory effects on the isolates with zone of growth inhibition ranging from 15 to 30.5 mm with aqueous extract and 9 to 20 mm with methanolic extract. Both extracts compared favourably with the reference standard antibiotics used. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the seed ranged from 0.875 to 5.0 μg mL-1 in aqueous extract and 0.875 to 2.5 μg mL-1 in methanolic extract. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the seed led to the isolation and identification of new benzyl isothiocyanate and phenylmethanamine derivatives named 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxyl)-benzyl isothiocyanate (4) and 4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy-N-glucopyranosyl-1→2-fructopyranosyloxy phenylmethanamine (5) along with three known compounds, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (1), O-methyl-4-(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl thiocarbamate (2) and 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxyl)-benzyl isothiocyanate (3). The structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses which include Infra Red, Ultra Violet, Mass Spectrophotometer, 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra as well as by comparison with literature data. Both the crude aqueous and methanolic extracts displayed broad spectrum of activity as they inhibited both the Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria tested.
Full-text available
Glucosinolates (GLs) are natural compounds present in species of the order Brassicales and precursors of bioactive isothiocyanates (ITCs). In the recent years, they have been studied mainly for their chemopreventive as well as novel chemotherapeutics properties. Among them 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate (glucomoringin; GMG), purified from seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam., a plant belonging to the Moringaceae family, represents an uncommon member of the GL family with peculiar characteristics. This short communication reports new evidences about the properties of GMG and presents a new innovative utilization of the molecule. The bioactivation of GMG by myrosinase enzyme just before treatment, permits to maximize the power of the final product of the reaction, which is the 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate (GMG-ITC). We tested the antibiotic activity of this latter compound on two strains of pathogens affecting the health of patients in hospital, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus casseliflavus, and on the yeast Candida albicans. Results show that the sensibility of S. aureus BAA-977 strain and E. casseliflavus to GMG-ITC treatment reveals an important possible application of this molecule in the clinical care of patients, more and more often resistant to traditional therapies.
Full-text available
Several epidemiological studies have shown that a high intake of cruciferous vegetables, for example cabbage, broccoli or Brussel sprouts has beneficial influence on human health. Consumption of these vegetables is related to a lower risk of several cancers. Bioactive compounds such as glucosinolates and products of their decomposition—isothiocyanates and indoles—have an influence on anti-cancer properties. However, there is poor information about methods of detrmination of these compounds present in cruciferous vegetables. A significant analytical challenge for scientists is to gain reliable data about the presence and quantity of compounds with anti-cancer properties in samples of vegetable material. The purpose of this review is to present and introduce advantages and disadvantages of different methods of determination of glucosinolates, isotiocyanates and indoles present in cruciferous vegetables. High-performance liquid chromatography is general technique of analysis of glucosinolates, indoles and total isotiocyanates content. Identification of isothiocyanates from plant samples is accomplished by gas chromatography.
A systematic study for the isolation and structure elucidation using thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of microwaved methanolic extract of different sections of the tropical fruit Moringa oleifera is described. Different tissues of Moringa oleifera such as seed coat (inner skin skeleton), pulp and seeds when subjected to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry provided 4-(±-L- rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl glucosinolate and its corresponding three mono acetyl isomers. Benzyl glucosinolate at m/z 408, its parahydroxy derivative and its higher homologue are also profiled. Biological active myrosinase hydrolyzed products, 1-iso thiocyanate-(5-methylsulfinylpentane), and 1-isothiocyanato-3- methylsulfonyl-propane presumably by the hydrolysis catalyzed by myrosinase were also characterized. The identification of O-ethyl-4-[a-L-rhamnosyloxy benzyl]- carbamate from M. oleifera pulp provided m/z 341 is also described. Collision-induced dissociation mass spectra of anions present in Moringa oleifera exhibited product ion at m/z 97, characteristic of sulfate moiety (HSO4-) in the molecular structure of glucosinolates. The proliferation inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera seed, seed coat, pulp (inner skin skeleton) and skin on human colon cancer HT-29 cells and Caco-2 cells are investigated in these studies.
Studies on the EtOH extract of fresh pods of Moringa oleifera have resulted in the isolation of a novel glycoside niazidin (1) possessing an O-nitrile thiocarbamate group, along with thiocarbamate, carbamate, and isothiocyanate glycosides. Their structures have been determined through spectral studies, including appropriate 2D NMR experiments and chemical reaction. Fatty acid esters, long-chain hydrocarbons, carbamic acid, isocyanates, isothiocyanates, phenolic esters, nitriles, nitrile ester (3), polysulfide sulfinate (4), and a benzyl thiocarbamate (5), along with elemental sulfur (S8), have also been identified through GC−MS.
Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2%. The recovery values of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in M. oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera.
Glucosinolates are an important class of secondary plant metabolites, possessing health-promoting properties. Young broccoli plants are a very good source of glucosinolates with concentrations several times greater than in mature plants. The aim of our study was to develop a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry qualitative and quantitative method for the measure of glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts. The described method provides high sensitivity and specificity, allowing a rapid and simultaneous determination of 14 glucosinolates. The proposed method has been validated for eight glucosinolates: glucobrassicin, glucoraphanin, glucoiberin, glucoerucin, progoitrin, gluconapin, sinigrin and glucocheirolin. The linear range was 1-150 µg ml(-1) , the intra-day and inter-day precision values are within 6% and 8% at the lower limit of quantification, while the overall recovery of the eight glucosinolates was 99 ± 9%. This validated method was used successfully for analysis of glucosinolates content of broccoli sprouts grown in different conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.