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Abstract

The biogas is obtained from organic materials in decomposition. Among its components in energy terms, the methane is the most important, in particular for the combustion process in internal combustion engines. This article discusses the potential use of biogas produced from municipal solid wastes (MSW) of sanitary landfills from all Brazilian states to supply the current urban bus transportation fleet with great environmental, economic and social benefits. According to this study, Brazil generates about 16,131,857 N m3/h of biogas, which could supply the actual bus fleet, estimated in 107,000 vehicles. The use of methane derived from sanitary landfills to substitute the mineral diesel guarantees the minimization of environmental impacts providing a significant reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Still from a socioeconomic point of view, the use of the potential energy of the sanitary landfills enables the biogas utilization for the urban transport sector, reducing fuel costs and decreasing the spread of many diseases related to the human respiratory system.

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... Similarly, MSW has been studied as a feedstock to produce biogas (Abad et al., 2019;Barros et al., 2018;Yong et al., 2021) being the electricity generation, in this case, the most common end-use (Barros et al., 2018;Nadaletti et al., 2015;Yong et al., 2021). Di Maria et al. (Di Maria et al., 2013) estimated a value for energy recovery from LFBG ranged from approximately 11 to 90 kWh per ton of disposed mechanically sorted organic fraction of MSW. ...
... At a macro level, the LFBG would benefit the Brazilian energy system by supplying an additional 79.4 MW of electricity each month (Lino and Ismail, 2011). The viability in the use of liquefied or compress biogas to replace diesel in urban bus fleet was also determined by Nadaletti et al. (2015). In the mentioned study, Brazil has the potential to generate about 16,131,857 Nm 3 biogas .h ...
... The main biodegradation products are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), water and heat for the aerobic process (early stage up to 2 years) and methane (CH 4 ) and CO 2 for the anaerobic process (stationary stage reached in mid-term). An interesting fact is the landfills useful life, that is about 15-20 years (Nadaletti et al., 2015). The daily biogas production from OFMSW was estimated according to the Tier 1 methodology recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change -IPCC (Equation (2)) (IPCC, 2006). ...
Article
Diversifying the energy components of a country's transport sector is essential to guarantee the fuel supply to consumers and increase the market dynamics and competitiveness. Among the known alternative fuels, biogas is a renewable source and after upgrading to biomethane, it presents a similar composition to natural gas (>90% of CH4; 35–40 MJ.m⁻³). In addition, it can be produced from a wide variety of biological resources and at different scales In this study, two scenarios have been developed that evaluate the use of liquefied biomethane (LBM) as a diesel replacement option in the freight sector of an area of 248,223 km² (equivalent to the area of the UK). Sugarcane vinasse (SVC) and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) were the sole feedstocks for biogas production. The first scenario, non-restricted scenario (NRS), covered the entire territory while, the second scenario, restricted scenario (RS), includes only the area where gas pipelines are available. An economic assessment of the entire biogas value chain including, biogas production units, purification, transport and end-use was performed. The minimum selling price (MSP) of biomethane throughout the biogas chain was then estimated. LBM is estimated to be a cost-effective and affordable fuel choice compared to diesel. The technical potential of biogas production by the sugarcane mills and landfills of Sao Paulo state can replace up to half of the diesel consumed in the territory. The minimum distances and optimal locations methodology indicated the need for 120 liquefaction plants in the NRS, 35 injection points in the RS, and 7 refueling stations to supply LBM throughout the state of Sao Paulo. The units for CO2 removal had the greatest influence on capital costs (∼60%) in both scenarios. Expenditure associated with the gas injection operation and its transport comprised more than 90% of the operating costs of the RS. Electricity purchasing represented the highest share of the operating costs at biogas purification (20%–30%) and biomethane liquefaction (65%–91%) units. Personnel costs are observed along the entire biogas chain, especially, in the biomethane transport step (40%), indicating an opportunity to generate wealth, jobs, and income. Despite our projections for the cost-effective and competitive supplies of LBM as a diesel replacement fuel, policy support measures such as a feed-in tariff, are likely to be necessary in order to overcome non-technical barriers and gain wider acceptability.
... Even for smaller cities consortia, it is important to study the LFG and biogas from AD generation potential since they can be bus fleets fuel. According to Nadaletti et al. [15], Brazil could generate approximately 16,131,857 Nm 3 /h of biogas, supplying the current bus fleet of approximately 107,000 vehicles. Another way to maximize the LFG energy use was studied by Lopes et al. [16]. ...
... In São Paulo, there is SPSW law n o . 12300/2006 [15], and decree n o . 57817/2012 [16]. ...
... Law n o . 12300/2006 [15], Article 5, Item II, defines pollution prevention or pollution reduction as encompassing processes, practices, Table 14 Impact of waste generation variation on the potential of power from LFG in Minas Gerais. ...
Article
This study seeks to evaluate the potential electric power generation using biogas derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) stations in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, that operate under two systems, using landfill technology and anaerobic digesters. We analyzed these ventures' economic viability by accounting for sales of surplus energy at Energy Auction, while also taking the compensation system set up for Distributed Generation into account using an algorithm developed in Scilab® by Silva et al. [1]. The sum of optimum power for each landfill for São Paulo and Minas Gerais, respectively was 139.5 MW (977,778.8 MWh/year) and 14 MW (82,218.4 MWh/year). The estimated power generated using anaerobic digesters in São Paulo was 130 MW (878,307.5 MWh/year) for case A and 160.4 MW (1,085,480.1) for case B. In Minas Gerais, these values were 15 MW (100,938.2 MWh/year) for case A and 17.5 MW for case B (116,162.9 MWh/ year). The energy results were positive for both systems analyzed. The financial results were favorable for a considerable portion of the ventures, particularly for systems using biogas derived from sanitary landfills. The scenarios that took the energy compensation system into account had the best results for both systems.
... Kennedy and collaborators [29] argue that the challenge is to design sustainable cities according to their urban metabolic processes. The use of renewable technologies within a city can help to reduce transmission losses and energy production and avoid the construction of energy generation and transport infrastructures [34], decrease pollution, reduce the heat island effect, improve quality of life [35,36], avoid power outages and meet demand [37]. The study by Hassan and Lee [38] concludes that the key to achieving urban sustainability is reducing energy consumption, either by using energy efficiently or expanding the use of RE resources. ...
... In terms of the total energy requirement, this decrease does not exceed 1%. In studies carried out in Tartu (Estonia) and in Brazilian cities [36,56], biogas could replace between 54.5% and 100% of urban transport fuels, respectively. Although those results are not comparable with the 3.9% obtained for Cuenca, they are considered acceptable since in Tartu and Brazil, the amount of biogas from landfills was determined to be much higher than that obtained from wastewater. ...
... Given the above circumstances, it would seem that the creation of self-sustaining urban areas is not feasible; however, there are serious approaches that point to a change in the energy model [36]. These proposals have arisen precisely because of technological developments that would allow the use of the resources available to the city. ...
Article
Cities are responsible for more than three quarters of greenhouse gas emissions due to their intensive use of fossil resources. Hence, proposals to modify the current urban energy model have been established. The comprehensive inclusion of renewable energies in the urban area of the intermediate city of Cuenca will be analysed. In previous studies, it was established that five renewable technologies have the greatest opportunities for implementation in the city. Therefore, this research proposes a methodological approach to establish the impact of the inclusion of each of these technologies, and the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model is used to establish the urban energy balance. Through the construction of scenarios and the evaluation of energy balances, it is concluded that it is possible to reduce the energy flows that enter the city by applying these five energy sources. The results indicate a self-supply potential of up to 33.9% of the total urban consumption; however, due to the type of local energy matrix, only 13% of this energy could be consumed under current conditions, and the remained would be surplus power. Photovoltaic (PV) technology has a significantly higher potential than the other technologies as it exceeds the electricity demand 3.19-fold. The conclusion is that the conversion of currently fuel-powered services to electrical power is necessary to maximize clean self-generation.
... Landfills, according to the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), represent a technique for the final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a field that does not cause damage to the environment while preventing discomfort and health risks. This method requires the use of engineering principles to confine waste within the smallest possible area, i.e., minimizing its volume [17]. ...
... Biogas from urban solid waste is related to the composition and quantity of the latter. [13,17]. In developing countries where waste reduction is not consolidated (by reuse, recycling, or prevention), waste disposal is expected to increase, at least in the medium term [29]. ...
... Another option for biogas in Brazil is the provision of fuel for a bus fleet approximately nine times the size of the existing urban fleet (107,000 units) [17]. The positive effects, not yet fully valued, would be a reduction in the emissions and pollutants that affect the health of urban residents. ...
Article
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This work evaluates the biogas production potential of the Ceibales landfill for feeding a power plant in the southern region of Ecuador. Biogas production is estimated through mathematical models that consider energy generation and technologies available to supply electricity plants. Characteristic landfill data are accounted for to analyze and develop these mathematical models. Once the generation capability of each source is identified, a decision can be made on the most suitable electricity generation technology. A local model (Ecuadorian model) is applied to calculate the potential of biogas and is compared with other models commonly used for evaluating this type of project. This type of renewable energy is attractive because it produces electricity from waste; however, it is not an attractive option unless its application is encouraged, as hydro has been encouraged through the investment of taxpayer resources. Technologies require a boost to become profitable, and even more so if they compete with traditional technologies.
... Recent studies present the potential ranging from 23 [14] to 40 [15] million m 3 per day based on agricultural, livestock, industrial and urban residues. Among their benefits in Brazil, biogas technologies reduce carbon emissions, mitigate local pollution and promote local development [16][17][18][19][20]. Moreover, experimentation with biogas technologies dates back from the late 1970s and comprises distinct technological schemes, e.g. for power generation and vehicle fuel and from manure and sugarcane residues. ...
... sanitation regulations, agricultural market rules and environmental legislations; and a variety of material aspects, such as sewage, organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), manure, vinasse, UASB 11 reactors, landfills and dunghill lagoons. The downstream side introduces energy utilities, engineering companies, power and natural gas sectors regulations, ICE 12 generators, compressors and power and natural gas systems to name some actors, institutions and materials [19,20,22,[71][72][73][74]. Consequently, biogas technologies have evolved across different technological trajectories or technical routes. ...
... 18 Power sector regulatory agency. 19 Electricity National Chamber of Commercialisation. 20 National Power System Operator. ...
Article
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Although biogas technologies in Brazil have a huge potential and a long history few studies have examined biogas in Brazil as a technological field. Accordingly, this paper aims to understand which conditions enabled or constrained the diffusion of biogas technologies. More specifically, this research applies and adapts the Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework to examine biogas-specific and context-related conditions as well as their interplay. Data were collected by performing an event history analysis from 1979 to 2016 along with 24 in-depth expert interviews. Our findings indicate that the evolution of geographically embedded sectoral regulations and infrastructures as well as their interactions have been responsible for major changes in the biogas field in Brazil. By demonstrating how this occurred, this research has opened up new possibilities to promote biogas technologies in Brazil. This study also provides an important analytical method that focuses on exploring activities and their background conditions to consider contextual influences in TIS. Consequently, three major ways of contextual influences for TIS studies are suggested – evolution of contextual structures, interaction of contextual structures and translation of external events by these interactions.
... Like hydrocarbons, biomass has its origin in living organisms [81]. The residual biomass obtained from the operation of urban pruning can be used in industrial applications for the production of steam, power generation or transport [65,81]. Biomass for energy may cause severe environmental damage or impact on the provision of food, while biomass coming from urban area waste is an alternative, because urban waste would have less ecological value or agricultural importance [52]. ...
... Biogas from municipal solid waste is related to its composition and quantity [64,65]. In developing countries, where waste reduction is not consolidated (by re-using, recycling or prevention), an increase in waste disposal is expected, at least in the midterm [86]. ...
... Another option for the biogas in Brazil is fuel provision for approximately nine-times the fleet of existing urban buses (10,700 units) [65]. However, using this fuel would require a modification of the combustion system of the vehicles. ...
Article
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Cities are human creations requiring large amounts of materials and energy. Constant consumption of resources exerts pressure on the environment not only due to its exploitation, but also because once processed, the resources produce waste, emissions or effluents. Cities are responsible for more than three quarters of the emissions of greenhouse gases. It is anticipated that the urban population will increase by up to 80% by the mid-21st century, which will make the current energy model unsustainable, as it is based on the intensive use of fossil resources. A change in urban planning is required to meet the energy requirements of cities. Several studies mention that renewable energy must be used in cities, but they do not identify the resources and technologies that can be used to promote circular urban metabolism. A review of the literature establishes that there are eleven renewable technologies with different degrees of maturity that could reduce the import of energy resources, which would contribute to changing the metabolic linear model into a circular model. However, the applicability of the different possibilities is conditional upon the availability of resources, costs, policies and community acceptance.
... Recent studies present the potential ranging from 23 (ABiogas, 2015) to 40 (EPE, 2016) million m³ per day based on agricultural, livestock, industrial and urban residues. Among their benefits in Brazil, biogas technologies reduce carbon emissions, mitigate local pollution and promote local development (Bley Jr., 2015;Bley Jr. et al., 2009;Bruna S Moraes et al., 2015;Nadaletti et al., 2015; M. P. Querol et al., 2015). Moreover, experimentation with biogas technologies dates back from the late 1970s and comprises distinct technological schemes, e.g. for power generation and vehicle fuel and from manure and sugarcane residues. ...
... compressors and power and natural gas systems to name some actors, institutions and materials (FEAM et al., 2015;Jende and et. al, 2016;Nadaletti et al., 2015;Novak et al., 2016;Querol et al., 2015;Strassburg et al., 2015). Consequently, biogas technologies have evolved across different technological trajectories or technical routes. ...
Thesis
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Current societal challenges pose different problems, such as the need to change energy systems. New and emerging technologies or technological fields often have critical roles in solutions. Stimulating and accelerating the development and diffusion of new technologies are common agendas for public policy debates, which are informed by various analytical frameworks. For emerging technological fields, scholars have applied the Technological System Innovation (TIS) framework. However, TIS conceptual and analytical limitations have led to constraints in informing policies. This thesis advances this debate by demonstrating how a new TIS conceptualisation for systemic problems and blocking mechanisms (TIS hindering factors) improves policy recommendations. I propose a conceptual framework that enables the identification and analysis of policy mixes for the diffusion of emerging technologies. Despite TIS literature's long tradition, I show that a more accurate definition of TIS hindering factors enhances the framework explanatory power for a higher diversity of cases. This conceptual improvement depends on addressing the unclear or incomplete definitions, the lack of explanation of interdependent TIS hindering factors and the vague explanation of contextual influences. To this end, I propose a mechanism-based conceptual framework that understands blocking mechanisms as causal pathways linking systemic problems (causes) to poor system functioning (outcomes). I argue that detailing the causal pathway in activities and actors better explains system malfunctioning. Hence, it is possible to discuss interdependencies patterns of TIS hindering factors. The policy implications of the proposed framework entail that TIS can inform policy through systemic goals to mitigate systemic problems, activity goals to mitigate activities in blocking mechanisms and contextual goals to support the contextual influences of activities in blocking mechanisms. This mechanism-based framework is applied to the biogas case in Brazil. Although biogas technologies in Brazil have a huge potential and a long history, few studies have examined biogas in Brazil as a technological field. Besides, this case presents all the features to explore the new framework: several contexts and interdependent hindering factors. An innovative methodology was developed combining event history analysis and 24 in-depth interviews to describe systemic problems with a theory-building process tracing to unpack the blocking mechanisms. The empirical finds demonstrate that the evolution of geographically embedded sectoral regulations and infrastructures and their interactions have been responsible for major changes in the biogas field in Brazil. The findings also indicate that the low level of knowledge of biogas among players, the divergent frames and financial conditions and the limited spectrum of interactions are the primary causes of system hindrance. These causes manifested themselves in five blocking mechanisms, which elucidate the interdependence of systemic problems. Still, the results reveal the need for a national agenda composed of five systemic goals, the necessity of coordinating these systemic goals, and how macro or external factors may counteract goals. Finally, this thesis contributes to TIS and emerging technologies literature by providing a mechanism-based explanation of TIS hindering factors, an analytical method to consider contextual influences in TIS and discussing patterns of contextual influences and interdependence of TIS hindering factors.
... Figure 2 shows the biogas production profile in sanitary landfills over time. The daily volume of methane obtained from landfills can be estimated as the product of a city's population, daily per capita production of urban waste, the participation of organic material between the wastes, the volume of methane generated per unit of weight of organic material and the methane's recuperation relation on the sanitary landfills [42]. ...
... Characteristics of solid waste can be separated into two types, chemical and physical. Chemical characteristics of Figure 2. Biogas production in sanitary landfill over time [42]. ...
Article
As the population increases, energy demands continue to rise rapidly. In order to satisfy this increasing energy demand, biogas offers a potential alternative. Biogas is economically viable to be produced through anaerobic digestion (AD) from various biomass feedstocks that are readily available in Malaysia, such as food waste (FW), palm oil mill effluent (POME), garden waste (GW), landfill, sewage sludge (SS) and animal manure. This paper aims to determine the potential feedstocks for biogas production via AD based on their characteristics, methane yield, kinetic studies and economic analysis. POME and FW show the highest methane yield with biogas yields up to 0.50 L/g VS while the lowest is 0.12 L/g VS by landfill leachate. Kinetic study show that modified Gompertz model fits most of the feedstock with R 2 up to 1 indicating that this model can be used for estimating treatment efficiencies of full-scale reactors and performing scale-up analysis. The economic analysis shows that POME has the shortest payback period (PBP), highest internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV). However, it has already been well explored, with 93 % of biogas plants in Malaysia using POME as feedstock. The FW generation rate in Malaysia is approximately 15,000 tonnes per day, at the same time FW as the second place shows potential to have a PBP of 5.4 years and 13.3 % IRR, which is close to the results achieved with POME. This makes FW suitable to be used as the feedstock for biogas production.
... The use of mathematical models with the default parameters recommended to simulate gases generation in landfills may result in underestimation of values, with high relative errors. The parameters recommended by the models, which were most often obtained based on data from North American and European landfills, do not represent the climatic, operating and characteristics conditions of Brazil [3,51]. ...
... In August 2010 in Germany, 38 plants were already operating according to this principle [50]. Nadaleti et al. [51] discussed the potential use of biogas produced from municipal solid waste from landfills in all Brazilian states to supply the urban bus fleet. According to the authors, Brazil generates about 1.61E + 07 Nm3.h −1 of biogas, which could supply the real bus fleet, estimated at 107 thousand vehicles. ...
Article
Biogas is an important alternative source of energy in the National Interconnected System (SIN) of Brazil, being a strategic option that offers economic advantages and reduction of negative environmental impacts arising from the use of fossil fuels. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate biogas and methane gas generation in a landfill located in the municipality of Minas do Leão, in the south of Brazil. Methane gas volume was estimated using three first-order decay models: CDM Tool, LandGem, and IPCC. CDM Tool model estimation for methane gas was 28E05m³ for the year of the greatest generation, 2025. While for LandGem and IPCC Models, the peak generation was observed in 2026, and methane gas estimates were 107E05m³ and 23E05m³, respectively. CDM Tool and IPCC Models showed similar results, revealing greater precision and thus reliability. On the other hand, the LandGem model overestimated generation.
... For LFG energy use calculations, the values of CH 4 generation provided by IPCC software were considered. The power was calculated from the energy obtained data using equation (9) from the Landfill Manual [21] and elaborated by the national Company of Technology of Environmental Sanitation (CETESB) reported by Barros et al. [4], Ribeiro et al. [52], and Nadaletti et al. [46]. The produced power and energy were calculated using equations (9) and (10), respectively. ...
... Its peak history was $31.82, which suggests a strong decrease in market regarding the current scenario. If the same selling price of the Bandeirantes Project of Landfill Gas and Power Generation is considered, in June 2012 the price of $ 3.50 [5,46] could be negotiated. The value of $ 0.50 per tCO 2 [68] was used in this simulation. ...
Article
The appropriate management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a key issue in today's economy. In Brazil, this has been the subject matter of several studies, since the National Policy on Solid Waste in 2010 established the closure of dumps and encourages the implementation of more appropriate forms of MSW disposal. In order to contribute to the study of MSW management in Brazil, this paper presents a two-step analysis of the MSW management of São Lourenço microregion consortium (MG). In the first step, WARM (USEPA) software was applied in evaluating Green House Gases (GHG) emissions and energy consumption at three alternative scenarios, which were compared to a baseline scenario, where all MSW was sent to landfills. Scenario 1: Reprocessing of all recyclable waste and composting of organic fraction of MSW. Scenario 2: Reprocessing of all recyclable waste but with an organic fraction of MSW landfilling and scenario 3: Incineration of all solid waste. At the second step, the economic feasibility of a project to generate energy from the landfill biogas (LFG) was evaluated in terms of GHG emissions. The most advantageous alternative was scenario 1 because it allowed the reduction up to 90,000 tCeq in relation to the base scenario of MSW management. The economic feasibility of generating energy from LFG was only achieved for the scenarios in which the enterprise was considered as a form of microgeneration as regulated by the National Agency of Electric Energy (ANEEL, in Portuguese), which indicates the need for government incentives so as to reduce the costs of such projects and the need to incorporate new cities into the consortium analyzed, thereby expanding the mass of waste available and also increasing the production of landfill gas.
... However, for the application of biogas in internal combustion engines, it is necessary that it be purified, in order to reach the specifications of natural gas, and, finally, be used in vehicles adapted for this fuel (NADALETTI et. al, 2015). Table 11 shows the estimated values of methane production, in m³ / year, which can be generated between the years 2018 and 2050 by the MLWC and the number of vehicles that can be refueled in that International Journal for Innovation Education and Research www.ijier.net Vol:-8 No-12, 2020 International Educative Research Foundation and ...
Article
Full-text available
Biogas emerged as a renewable technology that converts waste organic matter into energy. Among its components, in terms of energy, methane is the most important chemical composition, particularly for the combustion process in vehicle engines. The use of methane derived from organic matter residues in landfills to replace fossil fuel minimizes the environmental impact, providing a significant reduction in the emission of greenhouse effect gases,as does the use of the amount of urban waste generated by the population in a planned way, with a specific technological focus at the forefront of generating solutions for ecological, social, economic and management challenges, which are themes that characterize smart cities. Thus, this study is based on the investigation and analysis of the potential of biogas generated by the theMunicipal Landfill West of Caucaia (MLWC - AterroSanitário Municipal Oeste de Caucaia/CE (ASMOC))with the objective of estimating the amount of methane gas produced in the referred landfill, based on data already published related to the amount of solid waste disposed at the landfill and applying it in the Biogas - Energy Generation and Use Aterro(version 1.0) software, developed by the Environmental Company of the State of São Paulo (ECSSP - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB)).As main outcomes, it was found that the landfill can generate, between the years 2018 to 2034, more than 3 million m³of CH4, capable of supplying more than 201,362 vehicles fuel.
... From a socioeconomic point of view, the use of the potential energy from sanitary landfills enables biogas usage in the urban transport sector, reducing fuel costs and decreasing the spread of many human respiratory diseases. Moreover, biogas combustion guarantees the minimization of environmental impacts providing a significant reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) [2]. ...
Article
The energetic use of biogas is limited by the presence of contaminants which hinder the process and generate excessive maintenance costs. This study aims to evaluate the H2S adsorption on nanostructured iron oxide (NIO), towards applications for landfill gas cleaning. The iron oxide utilized in this study is obtained from mining residues, which provides economic and environmental advantages compared to other recognized adsorbents. In order to determine the performance of NIO, adsorption tests were performed in a lab scale with the use of synthetic gas (H2S + N2) and a continuous up-flow reactor. Experiments produced data regarding the process efficiency as a function of different operating conditions including gas hourly space velocity, H2S inlet concentration and gas humidity. Fresh and sulfided samples were characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, EDX and XRD techniques. The characterization results suggest that under lower GHSV (1,250 h-1), lower H2S inlet concentrations (200 ppm) and dry gas, the highest breakthrough capacity was recorded at 2.5 mg H2S per gram of NIO. Due to the good efficiency in removing H2S under ambient conditions, NIO can be considered a cost-effective promising alternative for biogas desulfurization.
... Its main components are methane (40-70% of CH4) and carbon dioxide (30-60% of CO2) in addition to other gases (1-5% of H2, N2 or H2SO4). The gas composition depends on weather conditions, landfill characteristics or waste composition and treatment (Nadaletti et al., 2015). It is also important to emphasize that methane is the second largest contributor to global warming among GHG, after carbon dioxide. ...
Conference Paper
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Higher Education Research and Development Center (CHERD) at the University of Debrecen performed several basic and applied research on Higher Education. Debrecen is a typical regional HE institution with international attraction in the peripheral area of EU. We performed a series of student surveys during the last decade, and we had the opportunity to reveal the process of gaining ground of non-traditional students in HE. Our center provides an inspiring context for researchers, where they have opportunity to discuss their formulating new research directions and to interpretat data and research results together. The Center supports talent esplorations and -development. Both MA/PhD students and researchers with great experience work together as a learning community. Thus, the mutual transfer and exchange of experience makes possible a continuous teaching-learning process during the research. Further more the concentration of professional development increases a special form of social capital.
... Its main components are methane (40-70% of CH4) and carbon dioxide (30-60% of CO2) in addition to other gases (1-5% of H2, N2 or H2SO4). The gas composition depends on weather conditions, landfill characteristics or waste composition and treatment (Nadaletti et al., 2015). It is also important to emphasize that methane is the second largest contributor to global warming among GHG, after carbon dioxide. ...
Conference Paper
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Landfills are one of the most common ways to dispose the solid urban waste in many countries due to their relatively simple technical requirements, operational costs and low investment. Moreover, biogas produced in landfills can be used as a renewable energy source for power generation. The Valencian Region is one of the largest solid urban waste producers in Spain, and therefore, it has an unexplored potential of landfill biogas production. This paper aims to estimate the potential of biogas landfill production for power generation in the Valencian Region. Statistical data from solid urban waste in landfills in the provinces of Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia was gathered. Then the potential of landfill biogas production was estimated by means of waste classification for each province. To provide information related to the use of landfill gas as an alternative source of energy, results presented in this work show that the Valencian Region has an important potential to use landfill biogas from solid urban waste as a renewable source for power generation, and also provide information to the regional government, academic researches, policy makers and investors.
... Its main components are methane (40-70% of CH4) and carbon dioxide (30-60% of CO2) in addition to other gases (1-5% of H2, N2 or H2SO4). The gas composition depends on weather conditions, landfill characteristics or waste composition and treatment (Nadaletti et al., 2015). It is also important to emphasize that methane is the second largest contributor to global warming among GHG, after carbon dioxide. ...
Conference Paper
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The implementation of sustainable development and the associated values in consumer behavior is becoming more and more emphasized as well as increased attention to our health. In both of the two value dimensions, consumer interest is constantly increasing, and demand for healthy and sustainable products is growing. In our research, this trend was primarily investigated in the field of food consumption. The research was based on the segmentation theory of NMI’s LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability). The research consisted of three parts. First, in a representative national survey, we examined the attachment of Hungarian adult consumers to the aforementioned values (N = 1000), then high school students (N = 1000), and finally, university students (N = 298) were interviewed on the same topic. In each case, principal component analysis was used to isolate the individual value dimensions and then cluster analysis was used to identify the various segments. In all of the three studies, each group was significantly separated from each other by the values of health consciousness and sustainable development. Based on our results, it can be concluded that the younger age group is more strongly committed to the tested values than the older generation. As a result, younger generations can be considered a potential consumer market for products and services representing sustainability and health awareness. We believe that further European research of this topic would be useful for both the researchers and the business sector.
... Its main components are methane (40-70% of CH4) and carbon dioxide (30-60% of CO2) in addition to other gases (1-5% of H2, N2 or H2SO4). The gas composition depends on weather conditions, landfill characteristics or waste composition and treatment (Nadaletti et al., 2015). It is also important to emphasize that methane is the second largest contributor to global warming among GHG, after carbon dioxide. ...
Book
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Proceedings of the 5th CARPE conference held in Valencia 24-25th October 2015. The book covers the 4 tracks for the congress (Education, Innovation, Sustainability and Health) and the written contributions (peer-reviewed) proposing different research collaborations
... A produção de biogás é uma valiosa fonte de energia renovável, com potencial para aliviar parcialmente a dependência mundial de combustíveis fósseis, oferecendo uma solução integrada, competitiva e ambientalmente sustentável. Além disso, existem outros aspectos benéficos, como o tratamento de resíduos, produção de biofertilizantes e redução da emissão dos gases do efeito estufa (NADALETTI et al., 2017). O biogás é considerado como fonte renovável de energia, pois é produzido através da digestão anaeróbia, processo biológico que converte a matéria orgânica de resíduos provenientes da agricultura, da pecuária e de indústrias em biogás na ausência de oxigênio (ZHANG, HU e LEE, 2016). ...
... Biogas can be utilised in boilers [6], in direct thermal applications [7,8] such as ovens and sludge dryers, for the evaporation of leachate [9,10], for electricity generation using gas engines [11,12], hybrid organic Rankine cycle systems [13] or fuel cells [14,15], as cooking gas [16], or as fuel for vehicles [17][18][19]. Advances in these applications are affected by the assessment of LFG production capacity [20,21], regional characteristics of the landfill [22][23][24], effects of new technologies for the improvement of biogas generation [25,26] and changes in laws and taxes [19,27]. ...
Article
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The potential energy uses of landfill gas (LFG) are investigated herein, focusing on electricity generation and leachate evaporation. LFG generation is estimated with the application of the GasSim method, using real data on the municipal solid waste disposal at the Metropolitan Sanitary Landfill of João Pessoa (Northeast Brazil). The results show significant LFG generation, with an estimated peak production of 11,277.28 t in 2028, and LFG generation until 2042. Commercially available biogas-operated equipment were analysed for electricity production in situ, considering production and operation restrictions at the landfill. It was verified that after 2018, a cogeneration facility can generate electricity and the available heat is sufficient to evaporate leachate. Positive net economic results are obtained, with an internal rate of return over 30% after 26 years, demonstrating that the cogeneration facility is profitable and self-sustainable.
... Hence, despite the by now well-documented problems of foul-smelling and toxic gas emissions, water and soil pollution caused by the leachate, explosion and fire hazards, and contribution to global warming, [82,97] landfills will continue to be used widely for urban waste disposal for want of a better option [14,24,48,62,107,115,132]. No other solid waste management technology can handle substances of such varied characteristics as sanitary landfills can nor is any other technology as inexpensive, for each tonne of assorted waste handled, as sanitary landfills. ...
Article
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Background Any manner of development can be sustainable only if the waste generated by it is not allowed to accumulate but is fully reused/recycled/recovered. Among the strategies to attain this goal have been the attempts to recover energy from municipal solid waste (MSW). About 60% of MSW is carbonaceous, consisting of materials which can either be biodegraded into fuels like methane or incinerated, thereby generating utilizable energy. MSW also contains several components—like metallic scrap and glass pieces—which can be reused or recycled, thereby achieving energy conservation. Given these attributes, MSW appears to be a potential source of energy and resources. Indeed, this belief that MSW is usable if only we try sincerely enough to do so prompts most of us to keep generating much more MSW than is warranted. But how realizable really is the energy potential of MSW? What perils loom into view when we actually set out to utilize MSW as an energy source? The present study addresses these crucially important questions. Methods The work is based on a critical content analysis of the prior art. Results The generation of MSW has consistently outpaced the world’s efforts to dispose of it cleanly, and the energy (and material) recovery from MSW is easier said than done. In most instances, what is technically feasible is economically unfeasible. And what is economically feasible—such as setting the waste on fire as is often done in developing countries—is exceedingly harmful to the environment and the human health. Measures such as sanitary landfilling and incineration create as many new problems as the old ones they solve. Moreover, despite the use of these less-than-adequate technologies, a major portion of MSW generated in the world lies untreated. Conclusions As the MSW output is expected to double by 2025, this situation is only set to become worse. Rising tides of E-waste would compound the problem even further. Hence, enormous stress should be put on the reduction of MSW generation by controlling wanton consumerism and wastage, rather than continuing with it in the false hope that technology will soon provide a magical solution and eliminate the problem.
... Due to this tendency, several authors have analyzed the possibility of energy generation from landfill gas in Brazil. Nadaletti et al. (2015) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.10.015 Received 17 April 2018; Received in revised form 11 September 2018; Accepted 6 October 2018 explored the potential use for fueling buses, providing energy for up to 107,000 vehicles. ...
Article
The search for alternative energy sources and increasing concerns over the generation of municipal solid waste are two widely discussed themes in contemporary academic literature. A possible alternative for solving both of these problems is through electrical energy generation through the use of this waste material. Although this practice is encouraged by the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy, energy production through such methods still requires improvement. Given these considerations, this study aims to evaluate the generation of electric energy from solid waste in three different systems (biogas from sanitary landfills; methanization of organic fraction in anaerobic digesters; and combustion in incinerators) through economic and energy analysis. Economic analysis was performed with the parameters Net Present Value and Levelized Cost of Electricity. Economic viability was only seen in the cases which considered landfill biogas energy recovery, demonstrating a need for incentives and support policies to enable technologies that are environmentally more advantageous than landfills.
... No Brasil, nota-se nos últimos anos uma maior tendência para fazer o aproveitamento energético do gás metano nos aterros sanitários, principalmente pela queima em motores de combustão interna (BARROS, 2013;TIAGO FILHO;LEME et al., 2014;SOUZA et al., 2014;NADALETTI et al., 2015). O dimensionamento de projetos de aproveitamento do metano em aterros sanitários para a geração de eletricidade baseia-se normalmente em modelos cinéticos de primeira ordem exponencial (SPOKAS et al., 2006;MACHADO et al., 2009;MACIEL & JUCÁ, 2011;ABREU, 2014;WANGYAO et al., 2010). ...
Article
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This work evaluates the kinetic parameters of first order (exponential) models for methane generation in sanitary landfills in the subtropical region of São Paulo, SP. Specially for this purpose, a test cell was built. The temporal response function for the test cell’s methane generation was obtained over 600 days due to placement of municipal solid waste (MSW). The time required to start the methane generation was 190 days. Between the 400th and 500th day after the MSW placement there was a period of high methane generation rate, and after the 560th day it began to decrease. The kinetic parameters methane generation potential (L) and biodegradation constant for methane generation (k) were inferred through fittings of the first order model to the experimental response function and using MSW composition information. The values obtained for L and k for fast biodegradation were respectively 1,481±1,072 mol t-1 MSW and 0.18±0.13 year-1. The values obtained for L and k considering fast and slow biodegradation were 3,835 mol t-1 MSW and 0.069±0.002 year-1 and 5,027 mol t-1 RSU and 0.052±0.002 year-1, respectively, depending on the methodology used for determining L. The results obtained in the test cell indicate that the biodegradation of municipal solid waste in Caieiras occurs rapidly, i.e., with higher values for k and lower values for L than those suggested in the literature. These results indicate a possible reduction in the longevity of energy generation projects through methane recovery in landfills located in tropical and subtropical regions. Finally, we present recommendations for choosing L and k for sizing energy recovery projects and for undertaking environmental assessments and remediation.
... In São Paulo, for example, there are two landfills where LFG has been used to produce electricity" [27]. Further, the first experiences in the region of using the biogas for the urban bus fleet have begun in Campinas' city, involving the sanitary landfill of Santa Barbara [186]. At the same time, other studies found out that the biogas obtained from landfills can also significantly contribute to the energy matrix of Brazil [187]. ...
Conference Paper
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Organic waste to energy (OWtE) technologies have been already developed and implemented in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, but are still far away to significantly contribute not only to manage and treat the ever-increasing waste volumes in the region but also to supply its energy demand and meet national GHG reduction goals. The technical complexity of these technologies, dearth of research, high investment costs and political deficiencies have not allowed for an appropriate implementation of relevant OWtE in the region, where the applicability of large-scale treatment plants remains to be demonstrated. This research presents the state-of-the art of OWtE technologies in the context of LAC countries’ based on archival research method. The main findings show that OWtE have the potential to improve waste management and energy systems in the region by reducing environmental impacts, along with a series of social and economic benefits, such as increasing sustainable energy supply. However, there is still a lack of investment and participation of stakeholders aligned with other challenges, which inhibit the implementation and diffusion of OWtE in LAC.
... No Brasil, nota-se nos últimos anos uma maior tendência para fazer o aproveitamento energético do gás metano nos aterros sanitários, principalmente pela queima em motores de combustão interna (BARROS, 2013;TIAGO FILHO;LEME et al., 2014;SOUZA et al., 2014;NADALETTI et al., 2015). O dimensionamento de projetos de aproveitamento do metano em aterros sanitários para a geração de eletricidade baseia-se normalmente em modelos cinéticos de primeira ordem exponencial (SPOKAS et al., 2006;MACHADO et al., 2009;MACIEL & JUCÁ, 2011;ABREU, 2014;WANGYAO et al., 2010). ...
Article
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RESUMO O presente trabalho avalia os parâmetros cinéticos de modelos de primeira ordem (exponenciais) para geração de metano em aterros sanitários na região subtropical de São Paulo (SP). Construiu-se uma célula experimental especialmente para esse objetivo. A função resposta temporal da célula para geração de metano devido a uma deposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU) foi obtida ao longo de 600 dias. O tempo necessário para iniciar a geração de metano foi de 190 dias. Entre o 400º e o 500º dia após a deposição dos resíduos houve uma fase de elevada taxa de geração de metano e, após o 560º dia, esta começou a diminuir de forma relevante. Os parâmetros cinéticos potencial de geração de metano (L) e constante de biodegradação para geração de metano (k) foram inferidos por meio de ajustes do modelo de primeira ordem à função resposta obtida experimentalmente e utilizando informações de composição dos RSU. Os valores obtidos para L e k para biodegradação rápida (nos primeiros 3 anos) foram, respectivamente, 1.481±1.072 mol t-1 RSU e 0,18±0,13 ano-1. Os valores obtidos para L e k considerando biodegradação rápida e lenta (até dezenas de anos) foram 3.835 mol t-1 RSU e 0,069±0,002 ano-1 e 5.027 mol t-1 RSU e 0,052±0,002 ano-1, respectivamente, dependendo da metodologia utilizada para a determinação de L. Os resultados obtidos na célula experimental indicam que a biodegradação dos RSU em Caieiras (SP) ocorre rapidamente, isto é, com valores maiores para k e menores para L do que aqueles sugeridos na literatura. Esses resultados indicam possível redução da longevidade dos projetos de aproveitamento energético do metano em aterros sanitários em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Ao final são feitas recomendações para a escolha de L e k para dimensionamento de projetos de aproveitamento energético e para avaliações e remediações ambientais.
... For example, São Paulo, the largest Brazilian city, could produce 637 GWh of energy each year from landfill gas, 2368 GWh/year by incinerating MSW and 1177 GWh/year by incinerating refuse-derived fuels [22]. According to [23], Brazil could generate approximately 16,131,857 Nm 3 /h of biogas, which could supply the actual bus fleet of approximately 107,000 vehicles. ...
Article
This project aimed to simulate a sanitary landfill cell at the pilot scale and used a lysimeter to assess and quantify the volume of biogas produced by municipal solid waste (MSW), with a composition similar to that disposed in municipal sanitary landfill, in Itajubá, Brazil. The methodology of this study included: the preparation and filling of an experimental cell landfill; the measurement of the biogas pressure, temperature and volume; the determination of the potential for methane generation (in m³ of CH4/kgMSW); and the determination of the MSW substrate parameters before and after closing the lysimeter (including COD, BOD, TS, VS, etc.). The results obtained by demonstrating the potential for methane generation ranged from 25.95 m³ CH4/tMSW in PHASE I to 291.79 m³ CH4/tMSW in PHASE II and 0.87 m³ CH4/tMSW in PHASE III. All of the values that resulted from these PHASES studies matched the USEPA values for the lysimeters operated from 1 to 3 years (0.2–400 m³/t), including the low production value of PHASE III. The PHASE II value was more consistent with the default USEPA LandGem L0 value (170 m³/t).
... On the other hand, Nadaleti et al. [8,9] pointed out that Brazil can generate clean energy by landfills and hydroelectric plants (biogas and hydrogen) about 5,57Eþ09 Nm 3 /year and 2.76Eþ6 ton/year in 2016, respectively. For the authors, this potential can supply different fleets of vehicles that operate with diesel in the country, especially using blends of these gases. ...
Article
Our planet has been experiencing abrupt climate changes in recent years. The major contributor to this phenomenon is, without doubt, emissions of gases derived from petroleum-based fuels, compared to their high consumption, especially diesel and gasoline. In Brazil, the sum of all motorized trips shows that more than half of them (60%) is based on public transport, with buses carrying 94% of all those who use this service. These vehicles, in their vast majority, use the technology of Compression Ignition (CI) engines. On the other hand, studies have shown that the country has a high biofuel production potential from various sources, such as landfills and hydroelectric plants, with an extensive production of biogas and hydrogen, that can be used, for example, in Spark Ignition (SI) engines. Nevertheless, SI engines have lower efficiency than CI engines. Part load operation of SI engines is conventionally achieved by the use of a throttle to control the airflow or air-fuel mixture into the engine. When operating at partial load the throttle causes exergy losses what affecting on decreasing engine efficiency. With the objective of analysing the emission of pollutants and the efficiency of conversion of fuel chemical energy, this work presents an analysis on the use of blends of hydrogen (H2), biogas (BIO60) and methane (BIO95) using an SI engine. The system was operated in partial load and the addition of H2 was an attempt to increase efficiency by reducing the pumping work through the throttle, once it was possible increasing the lambda value. The tests were performed at different ignition angles and air/fuel ratio. The value of ignition advance angle has been adjusted to obtain maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of the engine. It was possible to recognize that the addition of H2 allowed the combustion limits to be extended. On the other hand, reduced values of CO and NOx emissions could be achieved.
... Therefore, the distribution of buses powered by biogas can help reduce the diesel consumption. In the city of São Paulo, the average consumption of Diesel by a bus is 0.16 m³ per day (Nadaletti, 2015), therefore the current average price of Diesel in this city is 0.887 USD/l (ANP, 2017c), saving about 746 million USD/year from diesel which can be reinvested in the acquisition of buses powered by biomethane. However, as in the case of electricity generation, economic factors characterize the main obstacle for the use of biogas buses in the country, because the cost of each vehicle is about 413,000 USD (Nurhadi et al., 2014), which implies a high investment in fleet modernization is required. ...
Article
The anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste is one of the mechanisms for sustainable development, which allows for an appropriate disposal of solid waste and the energy exploitation of biogas. Brazil has a significant organic waste production and consequently a great potential for biogas production yet to be exploited. Therefore, this study presents an evaluation of the potential energy and the emissions avoided by the utilization of biogas energy produced from the bio-digestion of seven types of organic wastes. In general, this evaluation was conducted by considering the volume of wastes generated in the country and the average biogas production of each waste. From this study it was discovered that the potential power for 2015 was between 4.5 and 6.9 GW which would have reduced CO2 emissions by 4.93% per year. In addition, over 180,000 buses can be powered using the biogas generated in Brazil. Limitations such as economic feasibility, absence of incentive policy, and the poor development of business models, are factors that prevent the successful implementation of biogas projects.
... Brazil has a high capacity of producing biofuels from waste and alternative sources. In a study published by Nadaleti et al. [7] and Nadaleti et al. [8], the generation of biogas from sanitary landfills and hydrogen from secondary hydroelectric power in the 27 national states was 5,57Eþ09 Nm 3 /year and 2.76Eþ6 ton/year in 2016, respectively. The authors also raised the potential supply of the bus fleet of 107,000 vehicles and concluded that using H 2 and biogas from these sources, more than 200,000 buses can be supplied with clean energy from the isolated use of these biofuels or blends HBio95 (20% H 2 þ 95 methane by vol.) and HBio60 (20% H 2 þ 60% methane by vol.). ...
Article
Partial load operation of SI engines is conventionally achieved by the use of a throttle to control the airflow or air-fuel mixture into the engine. When the engine operates at partial load the throttle causes high pumping losses which has an effect on decrease of the engine efficiency. One of the possible ways to decrease the pumping losses during partial loads is to operate the engine under lean mixture condition. The limitation in this case can be misfiring of used fuel. The combustion limits can be extended by addition of hydrogen to the regular fuel. This work presents an analysis of use of hydrogen-methane taking into account aspects related to the efficiency and emission of pollutants. To carry out this study an experimental system composed of a SI engine was used. Two important differentials were used. First, the engine was supplied with simulated biofuels according to the typical biogas composition of the Brazilian landfills (Bio60); second, the system was operated in partial load, with the addition of H2, forming the HBio60 blend, in an attempt to increase efficiency and reduce pumping losses by increasing lambda value and variation in trottle position. The same aspects were evaluated with the engine operating with biogas composed of 95% of methane (Bio95) and in mixture with hydrogen (HBio95). The tests were performed at different ignition angles and air/fuel ratio. The results showed that adding H2 allows the combustion limits to be extended, with an effective increase of indicated efficiency. On the other hand, the reduction of NOx emissions was greater than 95% in the lean mixture provided by the presence of H2. The idea is to encourage change in the control algorithm of SI engines typically fueled with natural gas and use the H2-methane blends as fuel. Furthermore, diesel-powered buses in Brazil could be converted to SI gas engines without the loss of efficiency.
... El biogás es una mezcla de metano (CH4) de 40 a 70%, dióxido de carbono (CO2) y otros gases (hidrogeno, sulfuros, trazas de otros gases) generado por la acción de los microrganismos especializados para descomponer la materia orgánica dentro del relleno sanitario en un entorno sin presencia de oxigeno 1,2 . En la actualidad, los vertederos o rellenos sanitarios son generadores de biogás que es el resultado del proceso de descomposición de los residuos sólidos especialmente aquellos que son de origen orgánico, el cual se encuentra compuesto por gas metano (CH4), dióxido de carbono (CO2) y trazas de compuestos orgánicos volátiles en donde, el metano es el mayor contribuyente al efecto invernadero 3 . ...
Article
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Objective: Compare the Mexican, EPA and IPCC methodologies for estimating biogas in a prediction horizon of 20 years applied in a case study in the landfill Doña Juana in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: A descriptive study for the development of prediction methodologies was carried out by examining the secondary information obtained from the initial data biogas production in the landfill, within a homogeneous phenomenon. Results: The average production of biogas (m³ / year) for Mexican, EPA and IPCC methods is 2.48E + 05, 2.14e + 05 and 6.71E + 05, respectively. The method with lower standard deviation and root mean square error is the Mexican. Conclusions: The application of the EPA, Mexican and IPCC models in the estimation of biogas in a landfill, believes that the trend of the first two exposed methods exhibit is decreasing exponentially, while the IPPC has exponentially growing trend, evaluated for a prediction period of 20 years. With the determination of the amount of biogas by different methodologies, the possibility of exposure of risk in the long term with adverse effects on public health of the adjacent community landfills is reduced.
... There are several applications for biogas: heating the digester itself, as temperature is a limiting factor for the production of biogas, and heating buildings in cold countries (Nuvolari, 2003); use in internal combustion engines to generate electricity; power boilers; use in combined heat and power generation processes (Salomon and Lora, 2009); treated biogas injection into gas grids (whose use is now standard in some European countries, such as Sweden, Switzerland, Germany, France, etc.) (Appels et al., 2008); and vehicular use, such as use in urban bus fleets (Nadaletti et al., 2015). According to Lantz (2012), the new large-scale biogas plants in Sweden are all oriented toward vehicular fuel production. ...
Article
Energy recovery from waste is one of the strategies that can assist the expansion of renewable energy in Brazil. Among the various types of waste, vinasse, which is a residue that contains a high organic load, originates from the sugarcane industry, which is a very important industry for the Brazilian economy. Due to high levels of sugarcane harvesting in the country and the production of large amounts of ethanol, vinasse is produced at high levels in Brazil. In this context, this paper presents an energy analysis of the avoided carbon dioxide emissions and economic viability associated with the combustion of biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of the vinasse that results from the use of sugar cane planted in Brazil. Based on the literature review, data related to the process of biogas production from anaerobic digestion of the vinasse were collected and used for the calculation of the energy potential associated. The results show that to achieve economic viability for the use of this waste for energy, the following plantation areas would be required, considering their processed sugarcane equivalents: 14,580 ha (if considering the processing of sugarcane in attached plants), and 6,000 ha (if considering the processing of sugarcane in autonomous plants). The total energy potential of this use may reach 3.26 TWhe/y, which represents 0.52% of all domestic energy consumption in 2014. The potential to avoid emissions from the same use could reach 1.9 Mt CO2/y, which is approximately 2.1% of the emissions for the whole industry in Brazil in 2014. These results demonstrate the environmental and energy benefits that can be obtained via power generation from biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of vinasse and highlight the need to include the use of such residue for energy in expansion plans for the Brazilian energy matrix.
... El biogás es una mezcla de metano (CH4) de 40 a 70%, dióxido de carbono (CO2) y otros gases (hidrogeno, sulfuros, trazas de otros gases) generado por la acción de los microrganismos especializados para descomponer la materia orgánica dentro del relleno sanitario en un entorno sin presencia de oxigeno 1,2 . En la actualidad, los vertederos o rellenos sanitarios son generadores de biogás que es el resultado del proceso de descomposición de los residuos sólidos especialmente aquellos que son de origen orgánico, el cual se encuentra compuesto por gas metano (CH4), dióxido de carbono (CO2) y trazas de compuestos orgánicos volátiles en donde, el metano es el mayor contribuyente al efecto invernadero 3 . ...
Article
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ResumenObjetivo: Realizar la comparación de las metodologías mexicano, EPA e IPCC para la estimación de biogás en un horizonte de predicción de 20 años, aplicado en un caso de estudio, en el relleno sanitario doña Juana, Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo para el desarrollo de la predicción de las metodologías, examinando la información secundaria obtenida de los datos iniciales de producción de Biogás en el relleno sanitario, dentro de un fenómeno homogéneo. Resultados: La producción promedio de biogás (m3/año) para los métodos de mexicano, EPA e IPCC, es de 2.48E+05, 2.14E+05 y 6.71E+05, respectivamente. El método con menor desviación estándar y error cuadrático medio es el mexicano. Conclusiones: La aplicación de los modelos de la EPA, Mexicano e IPCC en la estimación del biogás en un relleno sanitario, considera que la tendencia de los dos primeros métodos expuestos, es exponencial decreciente, mientras que el IPPC presenta tendencia exponencial creciente, evaluados en un periodo de predicción de 20 años. Con la determinación de la cantidad de biogás por las diferentes metodologías, se reduce la posibilidad de exposición del riesgo de largo plazo de efectos adversos en la salud pública de la comunidad adyacente a los rellenos sanitarios. Abstract Objective: Compare the Mexican, EPA and IPCC methodologies for estimating biogas in a prediction horizon of 20 years applied in a case study in the landfill Doña Juana in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: A descriptive study for the development of prediction methodologies was carried out by examining the secondary information obtained from the initial data biogas production in the landfill, within a homogeneous phenomenon. Results: The average production of biogas (m3 / year) for Mexican, EPA and IPCC methods is 2.48E + 05, 2.14e + 05 and 6.71E + 05, respectively. The method with lower standard deviation and root mean square error is the Mexican. Conclusions: The application of the EPA, Mexican and IPCC models in the estimation of biogas in a landfill, believes that the trend of the first two exposed methods exhibit is decreasing exponentially, while the IPPC has exponentially growing trend, evaluated for a prediction period of 20 years. With the determination of the amount of biogas by different methodologies, the possibility of exposure of risk in the long term with adverse effects on public health of the adjacent community landfills is reduced.
... The energy from biogas can be recovered in many different technologies. Landfill biogas use is proposed for: boilers for residential heating [19], direct thermal applications [19,20] (kilns, sludge dryers, etc.), leachate evaporation [21,22], electricity generation with internal combustion gas engines (ICE) [23,24], micro gas turbines [24], steam turbines [25], combined cycles [26], hybrid systems integrating ICE-ORC [27], hybrid systems ICE-fuel cells [28,29], cooking [30], fuel for vehicles [31] or using oxy-fuel combustion conditions [32]. ...
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This study presents a comprehensive energetic (thermal efficiency, mass flow rate), economic (environmental cost of the life cycle) and environmental (ecological efficiency) analysis that was carried out to promote the possible replacement of the conventional internal combustion engine operation mode by ignition compression with the dual fuel mode, promoting the use of biofuels, namely: biodiesel, biogas and hydrogen in the proportion of 70% when applied to road cargo transportation. Three methods; energetic analysis, environmental life cycle costing assessment and ecological efficiency are used to obtaining the highest economic profitability from the alternative fuels with the minimum environmental impact for Brazilian road cargo transportation. A truck model delivery 6.160 Volkswagen is selected as the case study. The values of mass flow rate, thermal efficiency, environmental cost of the life cycle and ecological energy efficiency were estimated using their respective equations and indicators. The energetic analysis showed values of mass flow rates for biodiesel+hydrogen and biodiesel+biogas, equals to 6.45 kg / h and 26.94 kg / h respectively, and for conventional diesel of 33.88 kg / h. In the economic analysis, an environmental life cycle cost equal to 10.21 R $ / km was obtained for biodiesel + hydrogen produced through electrolysis with photovoltaic energy,5.10 R $ / km for biodiesel + Hydrogen produced through electrolysis with wind energy, 2.83 R $ / km for biodiesel + Hydrogen produced through methane steam reforming without CCUS, 3.02 R $ / km for biodiesel + Hydrogen produced through biomass gasification, 3.98 R $ / km for biodiesel + biogas and 2.11 R $ / km for diesel scenarios. Finally, in environmental analysis, the energy-ecological efficiency achieved for the operating modes of diesel, biodiesel + biogas and biodiesel + hydrogen were 32.2%, 52% and 64% respectively. Considering the results found, it is pertinent to highlight that the most promising scenario is for the use of the biodiesel + hydrogen produced from biomass gasification proportions, which achieved greater efficiency, lower long-term cost and emissions close to zero greenhouse gases, however, it is still an expensive technology and worthy of attention, government plans and guidelines to become a competitive alternative in the market for biofuels and environmentally friendly technologies.
Article
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The systems for recovering energy from biogas in landfills represent a solution for solid waste treatment and the growing demand for renewable energy. However, landfill biogas recovery in Brazil is not efficient considering that the impact of the operational factors is unknown. To cope with this problem, this study presents a model to measure the impact of the various factors of landfills in the production of biogas. The study focused on improving the generation of methane. The modelling of the impact factors was supported by the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), which was employed to build the strategic map of the cause-and-effect relationship between the factors and the biodegradation. To complement the diagnostic, the performance of biogas companies was evaluated using the Key Performance Indicators (KPI). The results showed that the operational factor that most impacted the methane generation system was the coating process (23.8%), followed by the gas drainage (23.3%) and liquid management (19.6%). On the other hand, site characteristics such as landfill extension and depth had the lowest impact, about five times smaller than that of the coating system. Meanwhile, the factors that most impacted the biodegradation were the moisture content and the fraction of organic carbon. Combined, these two factors had an impact of nearly 40% on the biodegradation process. One of the companies evaluated presented a fully satisfactory performance (80.6%), while the others achieved potentially satisfactory performance concerning the level of achievement of the operational factors. The difference among the companies’ performance was found up to 12.5%.
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The expanding and highly greedy Algerian transport sector is totally depending on petro-products, due to the rising numbers of automobile fleets and the excessive dependence on road transportation. Irrecoverable Greenhouse gases GHGs emitted by this sector are constantly increasing. As a result, consumption of diesel and gasoline reached record levels. Consequently, there is a strong need of cleaner, eco-friendly and economically viable alternative fuels. Biofuels, electric, compressed natural gas CNG, liquefied petroleum gas LGP vehicles, are expected to play a crucial role in meeting energy and environmental policies targets. In this paper, the Algerian transport sector perspectives and Greenhouse gases mitigations, in different shaped scenarios based on semi-empirical models, are analyzed and discussed. For adequate policy shaped in a scenario, in 2050, annual Algerian consumption could decrease up to 35%, 43% of CO2 emissions and 73% of NOx emissions could be mitigated compared to no-intervention scenario. These promising findings indicate the huge potential of resource diversification on the transportation sector. Therefore, implementing such policies is fundamental for a durable Algerian’s transportation sector transition policy.
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The availability of alternative fuels for transportation means using renewable energy is an essential factor for achieving sustainable development. Natural gas use is increasing, and it ranks as one of the most often consumed alternative fuels for public transportation and is leading to improved air quality in urban areas, enabling cleaner production in the transport sector. The investment and maintenance costs for buses fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are higher than for diesel buses. Notably, the use of CNG buses can reduce fuel costs. These factors have a significant influence on the financial effectiveness of deploying CNG buses for public transport. Replacing diesel buses with CNG buses in urban transport reduces the emission of toxic substances and greenhouse gases and contributes to reducing the negative impact from the transportation sector on the environment. Fuelling the buses with a renewable energy source also results in reduced external costs, a crucial factor in determining the economic effectiveness of investments in the transport sector. This paper considers the costs and benefits associated with the purchase and use of CNG buses for public transport and presents the results of an evaluation of their financial and economic effectiveness. Additionally, the benefits resulting from reducing the negative impacts of the public transport sector on the environment, which is a crucial factor for cleaner production in the transport sector and fulfilling the aims of the sustainable development strategy, are calculated. On this basis, economic policy recommendations were formulated.
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The article presents an overview of the Brazilian energy sector through up-to-date statistics regarding the evolution of the domestic supply of energy up to the year of 2020. In particular, it addresses the electricity sector, showing the current situation and development of the installed capacity. It also addresses the issues of petroleum, natural gas and biofuels. The article makes it clear that it would not have been possible to maintain the high Brazilian economic growth that has occurred over the past years without a growing supply of energy. For this reason, many and diverse long-term investments have been made, such as the construction of hydroelectric and thermal power plants; wind farms; pipelines; energy conservation measures; and the expansion of electricity transmission systems, among other ventures.
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Contextualized overview of the Biodiesel Production Chain, from the lab bench to the industry, with critical evaluation of state-of-art and technological development through scientific articles and patents, focusing on feedstock, reaction/production, first and second generation processes, specification and quality, transport, storage, co-products (effluents and sub-products), and emissions. Challenges are identified and solutions are proposed based on the Brazilian feedstock, edaphoclimatic conditions, process monitoring in remote regions, state policy, and environment preservation, among others. Forecasts are made based on the technology assessment, identifying future trends and opportunities for R&D&I.
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Contextualized overview of the Biodiesel Production Chain, from the lab bench to the industry, with critical evaluation of state-of-art and technological development through scientific articles and patents, focusing on feedstock, reaction/production, first and second generation processes, specification and quality, transport, storage, co-products (effluents and sub-products), and emissions. Challenges are identified and solutions are proposed based on the Brazilian feedstock, edaphoclimatic conditions, process monitoring in remote regions, state policy, and environment preservation, among others. Forecasts are made based on the technology assessment, identifying future trends and opportunities for R&D&I.
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In recent years, numerous studies showed that exposure to environmental air pollutants affected reproductive functions and, in particular, produced adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, fertility, and fetal health. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that exposure to ambient levels of air pollutants are associated with low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, neonatal death, and decreased fertility in males. Experimental animal data supported these findings and indicated that female fertility was also disturbed. Although there are various mechanisms of action suggested to show the manner in which air pollutants alter pregnancy and the reproductive systems in both genders, further studies are needed to correlate causal relationships. This information would serve to better understand the underlying physiologic changes in the reproductive system induced by exposure to air pollutants and possibly establish a link between the dose and response of individual or mixture of air pollutants.
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This paper presents a comparative study on the use of three after-treatment technologies: i) EGR + DPF, ii) SCR + Urea and iii) 3-way catalyst when implemented in urban buses, to determinate the energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), direct Land Use Change (dLUC), abiotic depletion of fossil energy by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).The process of production, conditioning and transporting of the fuels used by the buses (diesel, biodiesel (B100), a blended biodiesel at 20% (B20) and natural gas) were also analyzed (Well-to-Tank analysis) along with the environmental impact due to its combustion in the bus (Tank-to-Wheel analysis). The environmental impact of the manufacturing, maintenance and recycling process of the urban buses and exhaust after-treatment systems has also been evaluated.Main results shows that Life Cycle of SCR + Urea technology reduces environmental impact to a greater extent than its global Life Cycle increases it when gasoil is used resulting in a final balance more efficient than the other options, the same behavior is observed with the use of B20 and B100 but only when 0%dLUC is assumed since if the percentage of dLUC increases the effectiveness of the SCR + Urea technology in the reduction of environmental impact tend to decrease.
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Over decades, Thailand energy consumption has been concentrated in three main sectors, namely manufacturing, power and transportation. Energy consumption in transportation sector has also been dominated by road transport due to limited coverage by rail and water transportation. Hence, road transport has been a major contributor for greenhouse gas emission in Thailand over recent years. Along with global warming concern throughout the world, Thailand has taken various adaptation and mitigation measures, especially the strong policy push to use carbon–neutral biofuel in transportation sector due to Thailand competitive advantage in agriculture sector. National Renewable Energy Plan (2008–2022) has set challenging targets of 9 and 4.5 million liters/day of ethanol and biodiesel consumption by 2022, respectively. Various blends of ethanol in gasoline (10%, 20% and 85%) and biodiesel in diesel (up to 5%) have been commercially available. However, since current consumption of diesel is twice as much of gasoline, ethanol blend in gasoline would widen the imbalance consumption of gasoline and diesel. The present study however offers an insight into a possibility to use ethanol as diesel substitute. A case study of ethanol bus technology was investigated by recourse to energy demand modeling. Necessary data, such as a number of vehicles (NVs) for various vehicle types, vehicle kilometer of travel (VKT) and fuel economy (FE) were collected, with reasonable assumptions made for those unavailable data, to construct predicative energy demand model. Scenario analysis on ethanol bus introduction was conducted to assess reduction of fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emission by increasing the use of ethanol to achieve ethanol consumption target in 2022. Successful demonstration of ethanol bus operation in Thailand will be briefly mentioned to give confidence for larger project implementation in the future.
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This paper investigates the role of comparative advantage on biofuel policy adoption. Results show that different countries have different drivers to create biofuel policies. GDP proves to be more significant for OECD countries, while arable land and feedstock prices are more significant for non-OECD countries. Land allocation may also be of importance. We speculate that a naturally endowed comparative advantage may not necessarily equate to a successful biofuel industry.
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Biogas is obtained from decomposing organic material. Among its components, methane is the most important one, particularly for the combustion process in vehicle engines. Biogas can be obtained from several sources. This paper discusses the potential use of biogas from municipal landfills to fuel urban transport busses in some Brazilian cities, with large environmental benefits.
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Performances of gas engines operated with landfill gas (LFG) are affected by the impurities in the LFG, reducing the economic viability of energy recovery. The purpose of this study was to characterize the trace compounds in the LFG at the Odayeri Landfill, Istanbul, Turkey which is used for energy recovery. Composite gas samples were collected and analyzed for trace compounds (hydrocarbons, siloxanes, and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons) over a 3-year period. Trace compounds entering the gas engines, their impact on the engine performance were evaluated. The operational problems included deposit formation in the combustion chamber, turbocharger, and intercooler of engine before the scheduled maintenance times. High levels of hydrogen sulfide, as well as chlorinated and fluorinated compounds cause corrosion of the engine parts and decrease life of the engine oils. Persistence of siloxanes results in deposit formation, increasing engine maintenance costs. Pretreatment of LFG is necessary to protect the engines at the waste-to-energy facilities with persistence levels of siloxanes and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons.
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Biodiesel is an alternative fuel with growing usage in the transportation sector. To compare biodiesel and petroleum diesel effects on particle emissions, engine dynamometer tests were performed on a Euro II engine with three test fuels: petroleum diesel (D), biodiesel made from soy bean oil (BS) and biodiesel made from waste cooking oil (BW). PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon and quartz filters with a Model 130 High-Flow Impactor (MSP Corp). Organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of PM2.5 were quantified by a thermal-optical reflectance analysis method and particle size distributions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI). In addition, the gaseous pollutants were measured by an AMA4000 (AVL Corp). The biodiesels were found to produce 19–37% less and 23–133% more PM2.5 compared to the petroleum diesel at higher and lower engine loads respectively. On the basis of the carbon analysis results, the biodiesel application increased the PM2.5 OC emissions by 12–190% and decreased the PM2.5 EC emissions by 53–80%, depending on the fuel and engine operation parameters. Therefore OC/EC was increased by three to eight times with biodiesel application. The geometrical mean diameter of particles from biodiesels and petroleum diesel had consistent trends with load and speed transition. In all the conditions, there is a shift of the particles towards smaller geometric mean diameter for the biodiesel made from waste oil.Research highlights► We compared PM emissions from an engine burning biodiesel and petroleum diesel. ► PM2.5 mass emission decreased with biodiesel application at high engine load. ► Biodiesel combustion increased OC emissions and decreased EC emissions. ► Finest particles were found with biodiesel from waste oil among all tested fuels.
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The economic progress and sustainable developments are linked to the optimization and energy conservation. Conventional methods of production and energy utilization usually embed harmful environmental impacts, and hence the challenge to scientists to seek for mechanisms of energy production and use which are less harmful or better still free of unfavorable environmental impacts. Studies point out that municipal solid waste has great energy potential and its reuse, specifically the production of biogas from landfills and the recycling of solid waste presents a favorable mechanism to optimize energy use and preserve it. The present investigation includes the energy savings and the avoided emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere as a result of recycling and production of biogas from landfills in one metropolitan with more than one million inhabitants and in Brazil. The results show that the rate of CH4 production from the Brazilian waste landfills can avail for Brazil about 41.7Â MW and the reuse of recyclables can avail to the energy system an additional quantity of 286Â GJ/month enough for the consumption of 318,000 families.
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Anaerobic digestion of dewatered-sewage sludge using continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) in duplicates was evaluated under thermophilic (50 °C) and mesophilic (37 °C) conditions over a range of nine solid retention times (SRTs). The 35- and 30-day SRTs were designed to simulate a full-scale plant operation while 25-, 20-, 15- and 12-day SRTs were planned to evaluate process performance at the various SRTs. The 9-, 5- and 3-day SRTs were performed to push the reactors to extend their degradation capacity and test the threshold for process imbalance. The corresponding organic loading rates (OLR) varied from 1.6 to 20.5 kg VS m−3 day−1. Biogas production rate could be tripled when the SRT was shortened from 30 to 12 days and more than doubled from 35- to 15-day SRT because of a concomitant increase in OLR. In general, higher biogas productivity was realized under thermophilic, but methane yields were comparable due to the higher methane content in the biogas under mesophilic digestion. The methane content in biogas fluctuated between 55 and 65% and the methane yield ranged from 0.314 to 0.348 Nm3 CH4 kg VSadded−1 day−1 for both thermophilic and mesophilic digestion. The VS-reduction at 12- and 15-day SRT ranged from 45 to 52% and there was no accumulation of VFAs. Increasing concentrations of VFAs, decreasing concentration of partial alkalinity and decrease in pH were noted as signs of reactor instability. Process imbalance started at 9-day SRT, souring of the reactors, cell wash-out and foaming was noted as the principal causes of process failure under both thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. This study projected the possibility of using CSTRs in treating dewatered-sewage sludge at a shorter SRT to achieve reasonable biogas production and VS-reduction without encountering adverse operation conditions as foaming and wash-out of cells.
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The use of biofuels has been given much attention by governments around the world, especially in increasingly energy-hungry OECD nations. Proponents have argued that they offer various advantages over hydrocarbon-based fuels, especially with respect to reducing dependence on OPEC-controlled oil, minimizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and ensuring financial and lifestyle continuity to farmers and agriculturally dependent communities. This paper adds to the continuing technical debate by addressing the issue from a holistic public policy perspective. In particular, it looks at the proposed benefits of biofuels, yet also addresses the implications of increased demand on the global and regional environment, in addition to the economic welfare of developing nations. Furthermore, it posits that short-term reliance on biofuels vis-à-vis other alternative energy sources may potentially inhibit the development and maturation of longer-term technologies that have greater potential to correct the harmful effects of fossil-fuel dependence. In light of this, the manifold policy instruments currently employed or proposed by governments in developed nations to promote biofuels emerge as questionable.
Article
Microalgae, as biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuel oil and gas. This paper presents a brief review on the main conversion processes of microalgae becoming energy. Since microalgae have high water content, not all biomass energy conversion processes can be applied. By using thermochemical processes, oil and gas can be produced, and by using biochemical processes, ethanol and biodiesel can be produced. The properties of the microalgae product are almost similar to those of offish and vegetable oils, and therefore, it can be considered as a substitute of fossil oil.
Article
Energy recovery from waste represents an important way to reduce the amount of electric energy to be produced using fossil fuels, i.e. non-renewable sources of energy. Moreover, the energy recovery practice can present interesting economic revenues. Since, at the present time, a large amount of waste is disposed in landfills, it is clear how the use of end life products as fuel can present a noticeable relevance. In the present study, different landfill gas (LFG) energy recovery systems, including traditional and innovative technologies, are analyzed through a technoeconomic and an environmental comparison.
Article
Anaerobic digestion (AD) technology for rice straw conversion to biogas was investigated for biomass utilization and bioenergy generation. The effects of solid concentration in different temperatures on AD efficiency were conducted in bottle-tests, these tests showed that higher biogas production was achieved at the mesophilic temperature. Biogas production was inhibited under thermophilic conditions, and lowest biogas production was achieved in dry thermophilic conditions. According to bottle-test results, the dry AD at ambient condition was selected for 1 m3 experiment. For pilot-test, the highest methane content, total methane production and methane yield rate were 62%, 9.5 m3 and 239.7 L/kg VS, respectively. And sour poisoning was effectively avoided by the circulation of leachate. This study could provide useful parameters for the energy utilization of rice straw in South China.
Article
A thermo-economic method for the promotion of the efficient use of exergy resources is proposed, named carbon exergy tax (CET). It is based on the evaluation of the cost of the exergy destroyed and rejected, and connected with the CO2 emissions of an energy system. The CET and the carbon tax (CT) formulations are both applied to different conventional energy systems, to show how the CET strongly improves the economic suitability of systems which make a better use of exergy. Finally, the CET contribution to the widespread utilization of advanced energy systems (with the example of a solid oxide fuel cell+gas turbine plant) is presented and discussed.
Article
In the last few years, the recent regulations of the Energy and Environment Policy of the European Union (EU) Energy Policy, together with the new Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have been aiming to increase the integration of renewable resources, and in particular of biogas, into the EU energy system thanks to the adoption of new tools for their promotion. The production of biogas from animal waste, both on a European and national level, still represents only a small percentage of the total amount deriving from anaerobic digestion of organic matter. In this context, it was deemed opportune to evaluate the state of the art in the use of biogas in Italy and its production potential, with regard to animal sewage, in the light of the current technical-economic and legislative obstacles.
Article
The literature has been critically reviewed in order to assess the attenuation processes governing contaminants in leachate affected aquifers. Attenuation here refers to dilution, sorption, ion exchange, precipitation, redox reactions and degradation processes. With respect to contaminants, focus is on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals. Laboratory as well as field investigations are included. This review is an up-date of an earlier comprehensive review. The review shows that most leachate contamination plumes are relatively narrow and do not in terms of width exceed the width of the landfill. The concept of redox zones being present in the plume has been confirmed by the reported composition of the leachate contaminated groundwater at several landfills and constitutes an important framework for understanding the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable when the volatile organic acids are gone, apparently acts as substrate for the microbial redox processes. Several xenobiotic organic compounds have been found to be degradable in leachate contaminated groundwater, but degradation rates under anaerobic redox conditions have only been determined in a few cases. Apparently, observations in actual plumes indicate more extensive degradation than has been documented in the laboratory. The behavior of cations in leachate plumes is strongly influenced by exchange with the sediment, although the sediment often is very coarse and sandy. Ammonium seems to be subject to anaerobic oxidation, but the mechanisms are not yet understood. Heavy metals do not seem to constitute a significant pollution problem at landfills, partly because the heavy metal concentrations in the leachate often are low, and partly because of strong attenuation by sorption and precipitation. Although complexation of heavy metals with dissolved organic matter is significant, the heavy metals are in most cases still strongly attenuated in leachate-polluted aquifers. The information available on attenuation processes has increased dramatically during the last 15 a, but the number of well-documented full scale leachate plumes are still few and primarily from sandy aquifers. Thus, the diversity of attenuation processes in leachate plumes is probably not yet fully understood. Apparently, the attenuation processes in leachate plumes may for many contaminants provide significant natural remediation, limiting the effects of the leachate on the groundwater to an area usually not exceeding 1000 m from the landfill.
Article
Public service fleets offer an attractive option for introducing new renewable fuels on a large scale, which allow for the reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust air pollutants. This study examines the use of biomethane (bio-CNG) and compressed natural gas for part of the bus fleet in Dublin, Ireland. The emissions produced from the 2008 fleet based at one of the city’s seven bus depots are compared to use of new diesel and bio-CNG buses. The optimum feedstock for bio-CNG production in Ireland was then investigated, as well as the quantity of feedstock needed to produce the required bio-CNG to fuel the bus fleet examined. As expected the results showed a substantial decrease in all exhaust emissions from the use of bio-CNG buses compared the 2008 fleet. Grass silage was chosen as the optimum feedstock for production of bio-CNG in Ireland.
Article
When treating municipal wastewater, the disposal of sludge is a problem of growing importance, representing up to 50% of the current operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant. Although different disposal routes are possible, anaerobic digestion plays an important role for its abilities to further transform organic matter into biogas (60–70 vol% of methane, CH4), as thereby it also reduces the amount of final sludge solids for disposal whilst destroying most of the pathogens present in the sludge and limiting odour problems associated with residual putrescible matter. Anaerobic digestion thus optimises WWTP costs, its environmental footprint and is considered a major and essential part of a modern WWTP. The potential of using the biogas as energy source has long been widely recognised and current techniques are being developed to upgrade quality and to enhance energy use. The present paper extensively reviews the principles of anaerobic digestion, the process parameters and their interaction, the design methods, the biogas utilisation, the possible problems and potential pro-active cures, and the recent developments to reduce the impact of the problems. After having reviewed the basic principles and techniques of the anaerobic digestion process, modelling concepts will be assessed to delineate the dominant parameters. Hydrolysis is recognised as rate-limiting step in the complex digestion process. The microbiology of anaerobic digestion is complex and delicate, involving several bacterial groups, each of them having their own optimum working conditions. As will be shown, these groups are sensitive to and possibly inhibited by several process parameters such as pH, alkalinity, concentration of free ammonia, hydrogen, sodium, potassium, heavy metals, volatile fatty acids and others. To accelerate the digestion and enhance the production of biogas, various pre-treatments can be used to improve the rate-limiting hydrolysis. These treatments include mechanical, thermal, chemical and biological interventions to the feedstock. All pre-treatments result in a lysis or disintegration of sludge cells, thus releasing and solubilising intracellular material into the water phase and transforming refractory organic material into biodegradable species. Possible techniques to upgrade the biogas formed by removing CO2, H2S and excess moisture will be summarised. Special attention will be paid to the problems associated with siloxanes (SX) possibly present in the sludge and biogas, together with the techniques to either reduce their concentration in sludge by preventive actions such as peroxidation, or eliminate the SX from the biogas by adsorption or other techniques. The reader will finally be guided to extensive publications concerning the operation, control, maintenance and troubleshooting of anaerobic digestion plants.
Article
Este trabalho aborda o desenvolvimento do Biodiesel como combustível de fontes renováveis na matriz energética brasileira. Em especial será abordada a flexibilidade de utilização entre o Diesel tradicional de origem petrolífera e o Biodiesel de origem vegetal. Será feita a avaliação do valor da flexibilidade de um equipamento com motor ciclo diesel quando da possibilidade de utilização de Diesel mineral ou Biodiesel. A valoração da flexibilidade operacional será feita utilizando a Teoria de Opções Reais. Por fim, será comentado o potencial de ganho no agregado para um país como o Brasil, com um modal de transportes predominantemente rodoviário movido a Diesel.
Article
The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical relevance of chronic exposure to ambient levels of traffic derived air pollution on the ocular surface. A panel study involving 55 volunteers was carried out in São Paulo, Brazil. We measured the mean individual levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure for 7 days. All subjects answered the Ocular Symptom Disease Index (OSDI) and a symptoms inventory. Subsequently, subjects underwent Schirmer I test, biomicroscopy, vital staining and tear breakup time (TBUT) assessment. Subject's mean daily exposure to NO(2) was categorized in quartiles. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD and Chi-Square tests. A dose-response pattern was detected between OSDI scores and NO(2) quartiles (p<0.05). There was a significant association between NO(2) quartiles and reported ocular irritation (Chi(2)=9.2, p<0.05) and a significant negative association between TBUT and NO(2) exposure (p<0.05, R=-0.316, Spearman's correlation). There was a significant increase in the frequency of meibomitis in subjects exposed to higher levels of NO(2) (p<0.05). Subjects exposed to higher levels of traffic derived air pollution reported more ocular discomfort symptoms and presented greater tear film instability, suggesting that the ocular discomfort symptoms and tear breakup time could be used as convenient bioindicators of the adverse health effects of traffic derived air pollution exposure.
Perspectivas e Planejamento do Setor energético no Brasil
  • Mt Tolmasquim
Tolmasquim MT. Perspectivas e Planejamento do Setor energético no Brasil. Estud. av. 2012;26:74.
Implementação e Avaliação de um Biodigestor de Produção Descontínua
  • Neto Edd
  • Alvarenga
  • Lh
Neto EDD, Alvarenga LH, et al. Implementação e Avaliação de um Biodigestor de Produção Descontínua. Revista eletrônica E-xacta 2010;3(2):36–43.
Implantação de uma unidade demonstrativa de geração de energia elétrica a partir do biogás do tratamento residencial de esgoto da USP -estudo de caso. (Master´s thesis in Engineering) Interunities Graduate Program in Energy (PIPGE) of the Institute of
  • V Pecora
Pecora V. Implantação de uma unidade demonstrativa de geração de energia elétrica a partir do biogás do tratamento residencial de esgoto da USP -estudo de caso. (Master´s thesis in Engineering). Interunities Graduate Program in Energy (PIPGE) of the Institute of Electrotechnics and Energy (IEE) of the University of São Paulo. USP; 2006; 153 p.
Landfill and digester' gas purification by water extraction: a case study of a commercial system -Baltimore's back river wastewater treatment plant
  • Ra Henrich
Henrich RA. Landfill and digester' gas purification by water extraction: a case study of a commercial system -Baltimore's back river wastewater treatment plant. In: Proceedings of the symposium on energy from biomass and wastes, Florida, USA; 1983, p. 877–906.
The biodegradability method to determine the production of methane in the landfill of Santa Barbara, in the CiQ of campinas (in Portuguese). CPFL, Campinas
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Lima LMQ.The biodegradability method to determine the production of methane in the landfill of Santa Barbara, in the CiQ of campinas (in Portuguese). CPFL, Campinas; 1985.
Utilização do onibus a gás natural comprimido na frota de onibus urbanos como alternativa para a redução da poluição atmosférica na região metropolitana de São Paulo
  • Machado
  • Fthf
Machado FTHF A. Utilização do onibus a gás natural comprimido na frota de onibus urbanos como alternativa para a redução da poluição atmosférica na região metropolitana de São Paulo. IEE/University of São Paulo -USP, Biblioteca Digital USP; 1996; 176p (M.Sc. thesis).
Uso do GNV em ônibusurbano para operar em linha comercial – Projeto piloto Gasbus. (Master thesis in Mechanical Engineering)
  • Ss Nogueira
Nogueira SS. Uso do GNV em ônibusurbano para operar em linha comercial – Projeto piloto Gasbus. (Master thesis in Mechanical Engineering). Porto Alegre-RS: Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS; 2006; 176p.
Substituição de Diesel por Gás Natural em ônibus do Transporte Público Urbano. (Master thesis in Energy) São Paulo-SP
  • Oliveira Filho
Oliveira Filho AD. Substituição de Diesel por Gás Natural em ônibus do Transporte Público Urbano. (Master thesis in Energy). São Paulo-SP, Biblioteca Digital USP: Universidade de São Paulo – USP; 2006; 144p.
Brasileira de Empresas de Limpeza Pública e Resíduos Especiais. Panorama dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil
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