Article

Gifts, Bribes, and Development in Post-Soviet Kazakstan

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Beginning in the 1990s, development organizations launched a global anticorruption campaign. Throughout the world, including post-Soviet Kazakstan, widespread corruption is generally viewed as a serious threat to economic development and political stability. This article addresses the practical problem of distinguishing gifts from bribes in a society like Kazakstan, where some gifts function in part as bribes. The search for this nonexistent boundary reveals the limitations of categories such as 'gifts,' 'bribes,' and 'commodities.' In addition, by examining local perceptions of morality and corruption, this article provides insights for developing culturally appropriate development programs to fight corruption.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... But if the majority of a population engages in corrupt practices, it is probably policymaking that needs to be revisited (Polese 2006). Indeed, when an externally-imposed approach and a local ethos do not overlap, then the way citizens behave will diverge from the way they are expected to behave, generating what is technically defined as corrupt behavior (Gill 1998;Werner 2000citing Tanzi 1998). Informality debates from Eurasia have helped to reconsider some kind of informal payments as practices that happen to achieve something that would not be possible, or easy, using formal channels. ...
... As a consequence, it becomes important to study corruption from a variety of angles while taking into account the interplay between government institutions (at any level) and the business sector (Bratu 2018), together with extended linkages to the criminal world (Frederiksen 2015;Kosals and Maksimova 2015;Slade 2017). If, on the one hand, this has encouraged the call for more regulation, control and coercion (Dimitrova-Grajzl, Grajzl, and Joseph Guse 2012), it has also prompted a critical reflection on the normativity of some anticorruption measures and what may decrease their effectiveness (Kotkin and Sajó 2002;Werner 2000). As Sampson (2018b) warns, uncritical understandings of corruption have bred a growing anti-corruption industry that concentrates on a stereotyped range of transactions, usually money-based, often ignoring the fact that informality is also very present in places like Scandinavia where, however, its role is ignored or neglected (Sampson 2017). ...
... As Sampson (2018b) warns, uncritical understandings of corruption have bred a growing anti-corruption industry that concentrates on a stereotyped range of transactions, usually money-based, often ignoring the fact that informality is also very present in places like Scandinavia where, however, its role is ignored or neglected (Sampson 2017). This is why, it has been suggested, corruption can be regarded as a sub-case of informality (Polese and Stepurko 2016b) where social reciprocity rules, necessary for survival in a weak state, are applied between unknown people, in the short term, and with no intention of maintaining a social relationship (Morris 2019;Palmier 1989;Werner 2000). Stemming from this, attempts to define the boundaries between corruption and governance at the institutional level (Baez-Camargo and Ledeneva 2017) have pointed to the advantages of a better understanding of informality in the improvement of state management mechanisms (Fondevila and Quintana-Navarrete 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a growing number of studies featuring “informality” in their title, including many from the post-socialist region, little has been done to reach a consensus on what informality means, how to measure it and, more generally, to develop it into a widely agreed and shared theorization. Instead, and paradoxically, given that a significant number of studies rely on intuitive understandings of the phenomenon, often intended as “the opposite of formal”, this increased attention to informality has contributed to topical confusion rather than better defining what informality may be. By surveying and cross-comparing regional and world literature on informality, this article attempts to provide a coherent framework for delineating and understanding “informality studies”, outlining its main characteristics and eventually better understand its applicability and boundaries. While doing this, it calls for more attention to the political dimensions of informality and ways in which measurement of informality can be used both as a proxy for quality of governance and a deeper grasping of state–citizen relations.
... The notion that bribery and other corrupt activities are secluded activities is part of our everyday conceptions of corruption (cf., Jacobsson, 2005;Reisman, 1979;Werner, 2000). Georg Simmel (1907Simmel ( /1978 once argued that large bribes given openly may take on an 'official' nature and avoid being perceived as bribes. ...
... Knowing the double meaning of the word 'chai', an established euphemism for small bribes (cf., Gupta, 2005;Werner, 2000), is a way to present a certain amount of 'folk knowledge' and implies being informed about the local practices concerning bribes. Allusions and ambiguities are a way of solving the problem. ...
Article
Full-text available
How are bribes supposed to be given or taken? In this article, we study how individuals from countries with low tolerance of corruption learn, teach others and present themselves as knowledgeable about the etiquette of bribes. This involves the social practices of everyday corruption and petty bribes when working as ’strangers’ in countries where such exchanges are more common. Previous interviews on bribery with Swedish and Danish aid workers, and Swedish representatives from adoption organizations, were searched for descriptions of giving, receiving and avoiding petty bribes. We argue that an appreciation of the etiquette of bribes is important for understanding the social practices of giving and/or taking bribes. Such an etiquette is not ‘random’ but addresses and resolves practical and interactional concerns for the actors involved in those exchanges.
... The first, rooted in legal and economic studies of corruption, has examined the relationship between corruption and state failure in one or more spheres of management (Acemoglu and Verdier 2000;Rose-Ackerman 1999;Laffont 2006;Della Porta and Vanucci 1999;Heidenheimer and Johnston 2011;Kerikmäe and Särav 2016). The second, starts from a critique of the standpoint above, that is regarded as linked to a renewed "moralism" in political economy (Kotkin and Sajó 2002: 26) practices and situations leading to contextualization of a given transaction within a ritual form and emotional valence of the transaction (e.g., propriety vs. humiliation) (Werner 2000;Gupta 2005;Haller and Shore 2005;Polese 2008;Urinboyev and Svensson 2013). Indeed, the uncritical use of the World Bank's definition "the abuse of a public function for a private advantage" has pushed scholars, and definitions into a slippery territory. ...
... In addition, his perception of morality did not seem to take into account the fact that imposing, and pocketing, fines were somehow illegal, at least normatively. Rather than "objective" morality, we could discuss here perceptions of morality (Gill 1998;Wanner 2005;Werner 2000) in two specific contexts, one is when certain actions, considered illegal by state morality, help a citizen to survive (Blundo and Sardan 2013;Jávor and Jancsics 2016;Rasanayagam 2011;Urinboyev and Svensson 2013;) and the other, stemming directly from this, is the case when individual and state morality does not overlap. Our interview illustrates that informal practices may have different meanings and logic within different levels of society. ...
Chapter
To most, if not all, people active in the anti-corruption industry, this transaction that I witnessed has all the features of a bribe. The nurse could (or should) have refused the money since she had already a salary paid from the state and was not going to declare that extra income. But such a gesture has a different meaning in a hospital in London and Kyiv. In the latter context, doctors would work long hours for a salary that is a fraction of what they need to get to the end of the month.
... The second, starts from a critique of the standpoint above, that is regarded as linked to a renewed 'moralism' in political economy (Kotkin and Sajó, 2002: 26) and have inspired a thick analysis of "corrupted" practices and situations leading to contextualization of a given transaction within a ritual form and emotional valence of the transaction (e.g. propriety vs. humiliation) (Werner, 2000;Gupta, 2005;Haller and Shore, 2005;Polese, 2008, Urinboyev andSvensson, 2013). Indeed, the uncritical use of the World Bank's definition "the abuse of a public function for a private advantage" has pushed scholars, and definitions into a slippery territory. ...
... In addition, his perception of morality did not seem to take into account the fact that imposing, and pocketing, fines was somehow illegal, at least normatively. Rather than "objective" morality, we could discuss here perceptions of morality (Gill 1998;, Wanner 2005, Werner 2000 in two specific contexts, one is when certain actions, considered illegal by state morality, help a citizen to survive (Blundo and Sardan, 2013;Iavor and Jancsics 2016;Rasanayagam, 2011;Urinboyev and Svensson, 2013;Round, Williams, and Rogers 2008) and the other, stemming directly from this, is the case when individual and state morality do not overlap. Our interview illustrates that informal practices may have different meanings and logic within different levels of society. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Research into private businesses in post-Soviet Russia began with the collapse of the Soviet Union. This paper focuses on a specific segment of private entrepreneurs—semi-informal SME—and revises the concept of a ‘new entrepreneurship’ in Russia. The persons under study who entered into business were not always motivated by economic gain. Morality and loyalty play an important role in the modus operandi of such enterprises. In their activities, entrepreneurs are led by local social norms that often do not support the earning of direct profit. This attitude contradicts the dominant approach in academic writing, where private entrepreneurs in post-Socialist countries see entrepreneurship as a new perspective and an act of self-fulfilment. The strategy of the entrepreneurs under study is also oriented against constant expansion and innovation. Such practices are caused by the current economic climate in Russia, where the state shows little interest in the activities of small and medium-sized entrepreneurs. This article suggests that there is a need for new conceptual tools to analyse these facets of the private economy.
... The first, rooted in legal and economic studies of corruption, has examined the relationship between corruption and state failure in one or more spheres of management (Acemoglu and Verdier 2000;Rose-Ackerman 1999;Laffont 2006;Della Porta and Vanucci 1999;Heidenheimer and Johnston 2011;Kerikmäe and Särav 2016). The second, starts from a critique of the standpoint above, that is regarded as linked to a renewed "moralism" in political economy (Kotkin and Sajó 2002: 26) practices and situations leading to contextualization of a given transaction within a ritual form and emotional valence of the transaction (e.g., propriety vs. humiliation) (Werner 2000;Gupta 2005;Haller and Shore 2005;Polese 2008;Urinboyev and Svensson 2013). Indeed, the uncritical use of the World Bank's definition "the abuse of a public function for a private advantage" has pushed scholars, and definitions into a slippery territory. ...
... In addition, his perception of morality did not seem to take into account the fact that imposing, and pocketing, fines were somehow illegal, at least normatively. Rather than "objective" morality, we could discuss here perceptions of morality (Gill 1998;Wanner 2005;Werner 2000) in two specific contexts, one is when certain actions, considered illegal by state morality, help a citizen to survive (Blundo and Sardan 2013;Jávor and Jancsics 2016;Rasanayagam 2011;Urinboyev and Svensson 2013;) and the other, stemming directly from this, is the case when individual and state morality does not overlap. Our interview illustrates that informal practices may have different meanings and logic within different levels of society. ...
Chapter
In the recent years, Poland has emerged as an attractive migration destination and has witnessed a substantial growth of the migrant population, especially coming from Asian countries. This has been especially visible in the urban and suburban areas around big cities. The chapter discusses the visible shift to diversity in the character of a suburban neighbourhood of Warsaw, and tries to uncover what it means for the different migrant groups in terms of access to the labour market, the formal and informal practices they engage in, and the role it plays in the migrant imaginary of post-socialist Poland. Thus, we take a closer look at migrant networks that are the basis of migrant life in Poland and allow them to legalize their stay, find employment, and build a safe environment for themselves. Not being part of the Polish informal networks leaves migrants unable to use the local strategy of “załatwianie” (getting things done”), and thus not integrated into the official labour market. We argue that using informal migrant networks in order to cope with everyday life in a foreign country is a substitute to the local practice of “getting things done”. Thus, we analyse how migrants, excluded linguistically and socially from the Polish labour market, are also being pushed into ethnic niches. These businesses are concentrated in the food and beauty sector. The last strategy we describe is entering the grey zone economics through undeclared or half-legal work.
... Such projects, misrepresenting and reshaping local categories, have often heightened inequalities (Heathershaw and Megoran 2011;Reeves 2014, 94-100;Thompson and Heathershaw 2005). 4 This is broadly typical of aid to Central Asia and wider postsocialist space, which often exacerbated problems and entrenched elites (Babajanian et al. 2005;Pétric 2005;Wedel 1998, 86-7;Werner 2000). 5 Baltic herring had also survived, but, as a planktophage, did not compete with flounder. ...
... 10 I never saw anyone but Qydyrbai eat seagull eggs, which are tasty, but with a strong odour of fish. 11 For this combination of informal, personalised relations and financial transactions in post-Soviet Kazakhstan, see Oka (2015), Rigi (2004) and Werner (2000). ...
Book
The Aral Sea is well known for its devastating regression over the second half of the twentieth century, and for its recent partial restoration. Environment and Post-Soviet Transformation in Kazakhstan’s Aral Sea Region is the first book to explore what these monumental changes have meant to those living on the sea’s shores. Following the fluctuating fortunes of the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet fisheries, the book shows how the vast environmental changes the region has undergone cannot be disentangled from the transformations of Soviet socialism and postsocialism. This ethnographic perspective prompts a critical rethinking of the category of environmental disaster through which the region is predominantly known. Tracing how the sea’s retreat and partial return have been apprehended by diverse local actors in the former port of Aral’sk and surrounding fishing villages, as well as by scientists, bureaucrats and international development workers, William Wheeler draws out the multiple meanings environmental change acquires within different contexts. This study of how people make their lives amidst overlapping ecological and political-economic upheavals is rich in ethnographic detail that is both rooted in Soviet legacies and alive to the new transnational connections that are reshaping the region. Offering a rigorous political ecology of Soviet socialism and after, the book is a major contribution to the nascent environmental anthropology of Central Asia. It will be of interest to environmental anthropologists, environmental historians, and scholars of all disciplines working on Central Asia and the former USSR.
... 137). Perhaps especially in socialist and post-Socialist spheres, distinctions between gifts, trade, barter, and commodity exchange are problematic (Humphrey & Hugh-Jones, 1992;Werner, 2000). Informal exchange in these contexts had a spontaneous and undetermined character (Adloff, 2006). ...
... Being unneeded in the context of late Soviet exchange practices and cultural ideals of soulfulness and communion points to a lack of mutual recognition in post-Soviet society, at least for some. Exchange practices in the early 1990s were increasingly commodified, but gifts still offered possibilities for recognition in post-Soviet society (Rivkin-Fish, 2005;Werner, 2000). However, midlife Muscovites thrust into poverty, who had lost their pensions and would soon age out of employment in a new economy, were among those least able to grasp these possibilities. ...
Article
The problem of loneliness is receiving increasing attention in the popular media and among social scientists. Despite anthropology's rich engagement with emotions and experience, the anthropology of loneliness is still scant. In psychology, loneliness has been defined as relational lack. In this article, I reconsider one culturally specific form of relational lack—being unneeded among post-Soviet Muscovites. I draw on the anthropological literature on emotion, exchange, and morality to suggest that being unneeded is an ethical commentary on a lack of recognition. During Soviet times, recognition was secured through informal social exchange practices. Being unneeded among middle-aged and elderly post-Soviet Muscovites is therefore connected to a constricted ability to give and experience recognition. One avenue of analysis for an anthropology of loneliness is to consider social exchange practices and how these connect with societal and moral dimensions of loneliness.
... Given that traditions, moral codes, and social norms vary across cultures, it is possible that various cultures could have very different ideas of what constitutes corruption (Pani 2016). Likewise, what is termed corruption from an outsider's perspective is often linked to a code of values and behavior that is widely known and accepted from an insider's perspective (Lomnitz 1995, Pardo 1996, Werner 2000, Morris and Polese 2014. Challenging the mainstream view that tends to see any unrecorded transaction as corrupt, anthropologists have long recognized that the boundary between public office and the private sphere is not clear-cut and that even the meaning of the word abuse varies according to local legal and cultural standards (Gupta 1995, Haller and Shore 2005, Nuijten and Anders 2007, Polese 2008. ...
... Therefore, some social scientists see corruption in Africa as merely an infusion of a culture of traditional gift-giving into the bureaucracy (De Sardan 1999, Harrison 1999, Hydén 2006. Similar patterns have also been observed in post-socialist societies (e.g., Werner 2000, Rivkin-Fish 2005, Wanner 2005, Rasanayagam 2011, Humphrey 2012, Urinboyev and Svensson 2013. In her anthropological work, Humphrey (2012) showed that informality in places such as Russia also manifested as cultural and moral values, enabling actors to enhance a sense of self-worth within relevant social circles, and as a source of esteem for ordinary people in social settings. ...
... Critiques of the standpoint above have suggested this is linked to a renewed 'moralism' in political economy (Kotkin & Sajo, 2002, p. 26) and have inspired a thick analysis of "corrupted" practices and situations leading to the contextualisation of a given transaction within a ritual form and the emotional valence of the transaction (e.g. propriety vs. humiliation) (Gupta, 2005;Haller & Shore, 2005;Polese, 2008;Rivkin-Fish, 2005;Urinboyev & Svensson, 2013b;Werner, 2000). Indeed, the uncritical use of the World Bank's definition, "the abuse of a public function for a private advantage," has pushed scholars and definitions into a slippery territory. ...
... In addition, his perception of morality did not seem to take into account the fact that imposing and pocketing fines was somehow illegal, at least normatively. Rather than "objective" morality, we could discuss here the perceptions of morality (Gill, 1998;Wanner, 2005;Werner, 2000) in two specific contexts. One is when certain actions, considered illegal by state morality, help a citizen survive (Blundo & De Sardan, 2013;Jávor & Jancsics, 2016;Rasanayagam, 2011;Round, Williams, & Rodgers, 2008;Urinboyev & Svensson, 2013b) and the other, stemming directly from this, is the case when individual and state morality do not overlap. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork in Uzbekistan, this article looks at the way official state narratives are challenged by silent, unorganised, often unaware gestures of resistance at the bottom of a society. Footing on a framework suggested by Scott's definition of infrapolitics (2012), we propose to incorporate informal practices in a definition of informality that is more inclusive and better explains the anatomy of a modern state, whose functioning rests on a combination of formal and informal practices. We suggest that this everyday dimension is of particular importance here when trying to understand the governance trajectories, as it allows to look critically, and from a broader perspective, at situations where individual and state perception of events, but also individual and state morality, diverge. By doing this, we propose that governance in transition states and societies may be regarded as a space where formal institutions and citizens (or informal institutions) compete for power and resources and thereby produce informal, alternative 'legal orders' and mechanisms that regulate public life in a given area. We will suggest that such a space of informal negotiation is vital in contexts where collective mobilisation and public articulation of social claims is not a preferred, or even available, strategy for citizens.
... propriety vs. humiliation). 4 This chapter explores the nuances in how citizens in Uzbekistan understand corruption versus good (albeit informal) governance. ...
... We do not have fixed working hours. If you want to get a job with the traffic police, you have to pay a bribe, around 6,[0][1][2][3][4][5][6][7]000 USD,to To what extent do the stories of midwife and traffic policeman are comparable? In our opinion, they are comparable with respect to their "makingends-meet" character. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The issue of governance has become a fashionable topic of research in the study of post-Soviet societies. The key argument of this article is that there are multiple paradigms and understandings of ‘good governance’, some of which concur with the global (Western) understanding, while others offer alternative criteria. In this article, we explore the specifics of governance system in Uzbekistan and suggest the notion of ‘everyday life governance’ as shorthand for providing contextual understanding of good governance. This local Uzbek governance system consists of two important interrelated components: a government that heavily relies on coercive infrastructure for maintaining political stability and interethnic peace, but at the same time induces its citizens to engage in informal practices and networks as an alternative (to the formal) source of welfare. This article explores how this system emerged in the post-Soviet period and its impact on societal transformation, governance and development processes in Uzbekistan. These issues will be investigated with reference to observations and informal interviews from post-Soviet Uzbekistan. This study is based on three periods of ethnographic field research between 2009 and 2012 in the Ferghana Province of Uzbekistan.
... Many scholars identify the "anti-corruption" discourse as an assertion of hegemonic values and extension of the colonial legacy (Kapoor, 2008;Sampson, 2010;Steenberg, 2021). In particular, they criticize development organizations' tendency to overlook numerous instances of "corruption" in global north countries and to focus on endogenous factors in recipient countries rather than larger, structural inequalities, particularly in the capitalist global system (Graeber, 2015;Schneider & Schneider, 2003;Werner, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
International public finance plays an increasingly prominent role in global efforts to combat climate change and, as it grows, it faces a familiar challenge: governance. Global organizations not only disburse climate funding, but are also expected to ensure the “good governance” of climate programs in recipient countries. Many of these same organizations faced similar challenges in disbursing development finance. In what became known as the “institutionalist turn,” they sought to reform governance and build effective institutions in recipient countries. At first glance, the approach to governance in climate finance appears to be a continuation of these largely ineffective policies. I argue, however, that important structural differences between climate finance and development finance have been overlooked, and that these differences create space for alternatives approaches to governance. I first examine the literature on what led to the ineffectiveness of governance reforms tied to development finance, concluding that global organizations have been consistently unable to recognize and grapple with how power actually works in recipient countries, especially informal power. I then highlight three new principles underlying climate finance: (1) that it is restitution not aid, (2) that recipient countries should control resource allocation, and (3) that funding should support mitigation and adaptation. I demonstrate how each new principle has produced shifts in decision‐making authority away from contributors and toward recipient countries. I discuss how alternative approaches could emerge both from forums where recipient countries exercise newfound authority, and from experimentation on the part of multilateral organizations. This article is categorized under: Climate and Development > Social Justice and the Politics of Development Policy and Governance > Multilevel and Transnational Climate Change Governance
... The second (or 'alternative') view of corruption acknowledges that understandings of corruption depend upon norms and relationships of power that are often shaped by religious, communal and customary identities (Bratsis, 2016;Haller and Shore, 2005;Polese, 2008;Walton, 2018;Werner, 2000). For example, Polese (2008) argues that in Ukraine most transactions labelled 'bribes' could be understood as a form of gift exchange, while in the context of Papua New Guinea, Walton (2018) shows that marginalised citizens justify what some label 'corruption' due to economic, cultural and social pressures. ...
Article
Some scholars and practitioners argue that the key to addressing corruption in poor countries lies in citizens eschewing patronage ties and embracing civic nationalism. This view has led some to suggest that a corruption-busting nationalist sentiment can be encouraged by exposing elites from poor countries to the liberal values of relatively well-governed rich ones. However, thus far few scholars have attempted to understand the complex ways that different types of mobility shape perceptions about nationalism and corruption. This article examines the role mobilities play in shaping attitudes towards nationalism and corruption amongst stakeholders connected to anti-corruption reforms in the Pacific Island nation of Solomon Islands. It finds that highly mobile elites framed corruption and nationalism through two distinct concepts: transnationalism (conceiving the world as comprising territorially divided states) and translocalism (which focuses on local connections developed through [im]mobilities). Transnational framings, shaped by international travel and international indices, stressed the importance of promoting civic nationalism to fight corruption. Translocal framings, reinforced by everyday experiences, were more sceptical of both anti-corruption and nation- and sate-building efforts. Findings provide insights into why anti-corruption reform in post-colonial contexts are so challenging, and the potential for reimagining the relationship between nationalism and anti-corruption.
... Bribery is made inevitable because Indonesians encounter blurred distinctions in this area throughout their lives, including in organizing their democracy and bureaucracy (Pisani, 2014). Therefore, distinguishing bribery from gifts is not easy; the difference depends on the situations, the contents of the exchange, and the quality of the relationship (Werner, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores Islamic influences on corporate bribery practices in Indonesia. As the dominant religion in Indonesia, Islam substantially influences society in everyday life, including business practices. Although bribery issues in Indonesia have been raised in great numbers for many years, few studies have explored the role of Islamic influences in the ways businesspeople rationalize corporate bribery. This study aims to explore the lived experiences of businesspeople involved in corporate bribery. The authors conducted a phenomenological study to analyze the mindsets of businesspeople who used the Islamic religion to rationalize corporate bribery. To this end, a phenomenological study was conducted based on in-depth interviews with inmates who were imprisoned for their bribery practices in Indonesia. The interview data were subsequently analyzed and revealed several ways that Indonesian businesspeople invoked Islam to rationalize their practices of bribery and render them coherent with their mindsets. The analyses in this study provide insights into how to curb the rationalization of corporate bribery via religious perspectives and point to recommendations for future research.
... 7 As firms may benefit from their connections with government officials to utilize resources and mitigate constraints triggered by bureaucratic structures, female entrepreneurs might consider paying bribes to smooth things over, and corruption might work in easing bureaucratic or regulatory hassles. The bribe-to-survive motive tends to be more pronounced in transitional economies where the bureaucratic hassle is perceived as one of the most impactful business obstacles (e.g., Werner, 2000;Rose-Ackerman, 2005;Djankov, 2009;Tromme, 2016;Soans and Abe, 2016). Table 3's results from a comprehensive survey covering 16,560 enterprises in 32 emerging economies suggest that firms run by women tend to underperform compared to those run by men, evidenced by the lower logarithm in annual sales of the former and the fact that approximately 62% of women-led firms are small-sized. ...
... economic informality(Alexeev and Pyle 2003;Wallace and Latcheva 2006);(2) blurred boundaries between informality and corruption(Werner 2000;Polese 2008;Urinboyev and Svensson 2013a); (3) informal political institutions and practices(Gel'man 2004;Hale 2011;Ledeneva 2013); (4) informality as a mixture of cultural and economic practices(Misztal 2002;Smith and Stenning 2006;Urinboyev and Svensson 2013b); (5) informality as a reflection of broader sociopolitical and sociocultural traditions(Ledeneva 1998;Collins 2006;Hayoz 2015); (6) the relationship between formal and informal economies(Round et al. 2008;Williams et al. 2013); (7) the (dis)continuity between Soviet and post-Soviet informal economies(Kurkchiyan 2000;Rodgers and Williams 2009;Aliyev 2015a); (8) informal practices of redistribution as an alternative to state-driven welfare distribution(Urinboyev 2013(Urinboyev , 2014Morris and Polese 2014); and (9) definitional, conceptual and terminological ambiguity surrounding the concept of informality(Williams et al. 2013;Aliyev 2015b;Polese 2015). ...
... Drawing on personal connections, kin relations and patronage links were important in managing social, political and economic interests in Kyrgyzstan. The importance of networks and their function as a safety net, survival strategy and means for accessing resources in the post-Soviet context has been explored and acknowledged by many scholars (Ledeneva 1998;Werner 2000;Rasanayagam 2011;Pelkmans 2017). However, as a minority in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbeks had lost the position within the larger society that would allow them to draw on their kinship and networks as a resource in managing the bureaucratic state apparatus. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses on engagement with identity documents among the rural Uzbek population in the borderlands of Kyrgyzstan. By exploring the materiality of the documents and people’s concern with these material artefacts of bureaucracy, this article illustrates how the state has been moving in, out and through the lives of the people living on the margins of the state. People’s engagement with documents illuminates the temporal dynamics of the state’s spatialization practices and highlights the fluctuating presence of the state. In addition, this article exposes the discrepancies between the classificatory bureaucratic order and the changing realities of everyday life. Gaps between these two domains are filled with what I refer to as entangled documents. People’s attempts to disentangle documents reveal how people on the margins of the state manage encounters with state bureaucracy and provide insight into the internal dynamics of a local bureaucracy.
... More recently, the local community standpoint has emerged as a defining feature in studies of illegality. Alternative viewpoints towards what was defined as il/legal allow us to understand the multifaceted morality of illegal transactions (Humphrey, 2002), acceptance of informal practices (Ledeneva, 2006), and the discrepancies between local, cultural and state understandings of bribery (Polese, 2008;Werner, 2000). This literature demonstrates that some activities defined as illegal by the state could be defined as appropriate and ethical according to the "living law" guiding quotidian perceptions and moral codes (Urinboyev and Svensson, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to contribute to the current literature concerning the social acceptance of illegal practices. Using legal pluralism as a general framework of analysis, this study discusses the relationship between state law and alternative perspectives concerning its legitimacy. It presents the experience of people involved in hashish harvesting in one of the regions of Kyrgyzstan, how the state defines it as an ‘illegal practice’ and how the local population subsequently invokes normative systems based on local spiritual knowledge and the local moral economy of hashish production. It argues that acceptance of hashish harvesting as a legitimate means of support is not a straightforward process. Despite the predominant legitimating narrative of hashish harvesting, it enters into a conversation with state defined notions of ‘illegality’ and is also shaped by the customary understanding of the spiritual power of cannabis plants that requires caution when making hashish.
... Critics have suggested that anti-corruption dialogue is motivated by a neoliberal agenda to promote certain forms of social, political, and economic organization, not allowing for truly country-led development. 2,3 Finally, our reticence reflects our chagrin at having very few evidence-based practices we can point to as solutions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Reluctance to talk about corruption is an important barrier to action. Yet the stakes of not addressing corruption in the health sector are higher than ever. Corruption includes wrongdoing by individuals, but it is also a problem of weak institutions captured by political interests, and underfunded, unreliable administrative systems and healthcare delivery models. We urgently need to focus on corruption as a health systems problem. In addition to supporting research to better understand the context and implications of corruption in health systems, this article suggests actions that public health professionals can do now to fight corruption.
... Addressing corrupt practices is difficult, however. What is considered an acceptable or an unacceptable corrupt behaviour cannot be generalised to other cultures, societies, countries and even across different areas within a country: it requires context-specific understanding (Werner, 2000;Vian, 2008). Certain forms of grand corruption may be considered criminal or unethical universally, but the lines between formal or informal practices are often blurred with respect to petty corruption -are they gifts, socially accepted favours, or bribes? ...
Research
Full-text available
Working Paper focusing on literature review in Tanzania. See the link: https://ace.soas.ac.uk/publication/strengthening-accountability-for-better-health-outcomes-through-understanding-health-system-bottlenecks-insights-from-tanzania/ This review explores the national context, the policy context for corruption in the health sector and the types of rule-breaking and ‘rule-bending’ informal practices common among frontline health workers. The paper also reviews the potential of the following five interventions that are currently being implemented and that seek to directly or indirectly mitigate the practice of corruption in the health sector: 1) performance-based financing; 2) direct health-facility financing; 3) improved community health funds; 4) health facility governing committees; and 5) social accountability initiatives. The paper explores a central question: what is practically feasible and will work best within the Tanzanian context – what mix of strategies and initiatives will result in improved service use and quality, health outcomes and equity to have more meaningful accountability for health-user rights and entitlements?
... The distinctions between gifts and bribes can often be blurred, and in some cultures, both may be interwoven into business and social relationships (see e.g. Arunthanes et al., 1994;Polese, 2014;Werner, 2000). The difficulty comes when practices of gift giving/receiving or indeed bribery are inappropriately used outside of their normal cultural context. ...
Article
Full-text available
Drawing on multidisciplinary literature, this paper provides an integrative review of the concept of deviance, examining its relationship with and application to hospitality management. It synthesises conceptualisations of deviance in the social sciences and applications of the concept in organisational and consumer behaviour research. The paper distinguishes between four sources of deviance in hospitality management: staff, suppliers, customers and external actors, exploring different forms of deviance stemming from each. The subsequent discussion explores multiple antecedents and drivers of deviance, considering how these have been conceptualised in various disciplines at different levels of analysis: organisational; interpersonal, social and cultural; and personality and individual. The critical synthesis identifies diverse themes in the connections between deviance and hospitality management, and their implications for research and practice.
... 186), but also that anti-corruption bodies take a pedagogical rather than punitive approach, allowing violators a period of amnesty and helping them to avoid breaking laws in the future. Werner (2000), drawing on ethnographic research in Kazakhstan, suggests the fruitfulness of linking anti-corruption education campaigns to values such as patriotism, nationalism, and social justice. Hira and Shiao (2016) conduct a comparative historical case study comparing the successful anti-corruption drives of Chile, Hong Kong, and Singapore to the unsuccessful policies of Nigeria and Paraguay. ...
Article
This article offers the first comprehensive review of the interdisciplinary state of knowledge regarding anti-corruption policies, with a particular focus on reducing corruption among civil servants. Drawing on the work of economists, political scientists, sociologists, and anthropologists, we examine seven policy categories: (1) rewards and penalties; (2) monitoring; (3) restructuring bureaucracies; (4) screening and recruiting; (5) anti-corruption agencies; (6) educational campaigns; and (7) international agreements. Notably, rigorous empirical evaluation is lacking for the majority of commonly prescribed anti- corruption policies. Nevertheless, we find growing evidence of the effectiveness of policies based on monitoring, including anti-corruption audits and e-governance. In addition, adequate civil service wages seem to be a necessary but insufficient condition for control of corruption. An emerging skepticism regarding the effectiveness of anti-corruption agencies also is apparent in the literature. We conclude with broader lessons drawn from our review, such as the recognition that when corruption is a systemic problem, it cannot be treated in the long term with individual-level solutions.
... These works have inspired empirical studies dealing with graft, bribing, their percep- tion and the negative effects annexed ( Ca´belkovaándCa´belkovaánd Hanousek, 2004;Heyneman et al., 2008;Osipian, 2007). Scholars have concentrated on classifications and perception of cor- ruption, under the dominant assumption that corruption (often too broadly defined; for a debate, see Polese, 2014;Werner, 2002) has negative effects on a wide variety of aspects of a country (Osipian, 2008(Osipian, , 2009bRam et al., 2007;Rumyantseva, 2005). Emphasis on anti- corruption measures and remedies can be seen stemming from these assumptions and sub- sequent attempts to develop what Samson calls the anti-corruption industry (Sampson, 2010) applied to higher education issues in Ukraine and the rest of the former USSR (Denisova-Schmidt and Leontyeva, 2014;Denisova-Schmidt et al., 2015;Osipian, 2009a). ...
Article
Full-text available
In post-socialist space, informal payments in educational institutions have often been at the centre of anti-corruption campaigns. A direct consequence, so far, has been that reforms in the public sector have largely been based on attempts to eradicate, or at least minimize, the phenomenon of informal payments. Ukraine is no exception. According to several independent surveys, educational institutions are second only to health care providers for the number of informal transactions recorded. While more than two in three of Ukrainians claim to have engaged with informal exchanges in the past 12 months, almost half of them has made an informal payment in an educational institution, be this a university or a school. The goal of this paper is two-fold. First, we explore the nature and relevance of the phenomenon of informal payments in the educational sector. We rely for this on quantitative studies showing how widespread informal payments are. Second, we provide an alternative explanation on informal payments by suggesting that they have an ambiguous function: while often regarded as a legacy of the socialist period, they can also be seen as a way to cope with an ineffective system that is mostly based on informal rules. By doing this we will provide some recommendations on how anti-corruption policies, and in general reforms aimed at decreasing the amount of informal payments in the country, could be improved.
... Therefore, corruption in Africa has been seen by some social scientists as a mere infusion of a culture of traditional gift-giving into the bureaucracy (De Sardan 1999;Harrison 1999;Hydén 2006). Similar patterns have also been observed in post-socialist societies (Werner 2000;Rivkin-Fish 2005;Wanner 2005;Rasanayagam 2011;Humphrey 2012;Urinboyev andSvensson 2013a, b, 2014). Humphrey (2012) in her anthropological work showed that the informality also manifest cultural and moral values, enabling actors to enhance a sense of self-worth within relevant social circles, and as sources of esteem for ordinary people in social settings such as Russia. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we explore the multifaceted role, logic and morality of informal transactions in order to better understand the socio-legal context informing the meaning of corruption. Our aim is to show how informal or illegal practices (‘corruption’ from a legal standpoint) not only mirror kleptocracy, individual greed, economic interests or survival strategies, but also reflect social norms generated through kinship, social status, hierarchies, affection, reciprocity and reputation. We argue that any anti-corruption strategies should be built on a deep knowledge of social norms and local context that determine the ‘rights’ and ‘wrongs’ of everyday social behavior. Our chapter is based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork between 2009 and 2016 in Uzbekistan.
... The problem thus seems to more of a general and less of a context-specific nature; hence, an opportunity cost approach is useful since it can be applied irrespective of cultural and contextual idiosyncrasies. Even in authoritarian systems where free choice between alternatives may be suppressed, individuals can still 'vote with their feet' (Banzhaf and Walsh 2008) by emigrating or by bribing officials to be granted exemption from service e.g. in Russia (Levin and Satarov 2000) and Kazakhstan (Werner 2000). In other words, even in such systems the opportunity cost of not serving in a particular alternative (e.g. ...
Article
The Swiss Armed Forces are suffering from a structural deficit of militia officers despite good pay and a general supportive attitude in the population. Whereas, prior studies have focused on motivation to explain understaffing in armed forces, we offer an alternative approach based on opportunity cost. We model decision alternatives both within and outside a military organization, taking private sector employment as the reference point. We then monetize opportunity costs of leisure, fringe benefits, and private sector income not compensated. Our results suggest that in terms of opportunity cost, service as a militia officer is the least attractive option, an effect that we believe explains the persistent staff deficit. Implications of these findings for the literature and recruitment policy are discussed.
... 186), but also that anti-corruption bodies take a pedagogical rather than punitive approach, allowing violators a period of amnesty and helping them to avoid breaking laws in the future. Werner (2000), drawing on ethnographic research in Kazakhstan, suggests the fruitfulness of linking anti-corruption education campaigns to values such as patriotism, nationalism, and social justice. Hira and Shiao (2016) conduct a comparative historical case study comparing the successful anti-corruption drives of Chile, Hong Kong, and Singapore to the unsuccessful policies of Nigeria and Paraguay. ...
Article
This article offers the first comprehensive review of the interdisciplinary state of knowledge regarding anti-corruption policies, with a particular focus on reducing corruption among civil servants. Drawing on the work of economists, political scientists, sociologists, and anthropologists, we examine seven policy categories: (1) rewards and penalties; (2) monitoring; (3) restructuring bureaucracies; (4) screening and recruiting; (5) anti-corruption agencies; (6) educational campaigns; and (7) international agreements. Notably, rigorous empirical evaluation is lacking for the majority of commonly prescribed anti-corruption policies. Nevertheless, we find growing evidence of the effectiveness of policies based on monitoring, including anti-corruption audits and e-governance. In addition, adequate civil service wages seem to be a necessary but insufficient condition for control of corruption. An emerging skepticism regarding the effectiveness of anti-corruption agencies also is apparent in the literature. We conclude with broader lessons drawn from our review, such as the recognition that when corruption is a systemic problem, it cannot be treated in the long term with individual-level solutions.
Article
Gendered dimensions of informality have been only briefly studied by anthropologists. Therefore, while engaging in the debate on informality it is important to ask how women engage in informal practices, and whether these practices are gendered. In this paper we analyse female bribing practices in the Republic of Dagestan and take a closer look at the arrangements of state welfare benefits, particularly the disability allowance and the old age pensions. How do Dagestani women engage in bribing? Why is it mostly women who ‘arrange’ state welfare benefits? What are the implications of this engagement for them? Based on case studies from fieldwork in the Republic of Dagestan carried out between 2014–2019 we show that bribing practices are gendered. We also reveal that having the resources to outsmart the state by buying benefits empowers women in a society where patriarchal arrangements are predominant. More broadly, we discuss how resistance at one level may lead to unexpected empowerment at another. By emphasizing the female perspective, this paper makes a contribution to post-Soviet area studies and anthropological studies of corruption and informality more generally.
Article
The article analyses arguments explaining social informal exchanges in parallel with legal norms in society. First, it examines the origins of informal exchange of goods and services in the society whereby first, discloses and provides examples of differences of legal and social norms regulating gifts and other informal exchange; second, provides an explanation of these differences, and third, provides explanation of causes which lead to such differences. The article is based on the assumption that legal and social norms should be conforming, only in such way it is possible to expect efficiency of legal regulation on the behavior of members of the society. By analyzing the existing discrepancies, the work provides insights together with proposed criteria to distinguish a bribe from a justifiable gift, what action should be taken to reduce the prevalence of minor corruption.
Chapter
The second edition of Corruption and Government updates Susan Rose-Ackerman's 1999 book to address emerging issues and to rethink old questions in light of new data. The book analyzes the research explosion that accompanied the fall of the Berlin Wall, the founding of Transparency International, and the World Bank's decision to give anti-corruption policy a key place on its agenda. Time has vindicated Rose-Ackerman's emphasis on institutional reform as the necessary condition for serious progress. The book deals with routine payoffs and with corruption in contracting and privatization. It gives special attention to political corruption and to instruments of accountability. The authors have expanded the treatment of culture as a source of entrenched corruption and added chapters on criminal law, organized crime, and post-conflict societies. The book outlines domestic conditions for reform and discusses international initiatives - including both explicit anti-corruption policies and efforts to constrain money laundering.
Chapter
The second edition of Corruption and Government updates Susan Rose-Ackerman's 1999 book to address emerging issues and to rethink old questions in light of new data. The book analyzes the research explosion that accompanied the fall of the Berlin Wall, the founding of Transparency International, and the World Bank's decision to give anti-corruption policy a key place on its agenda. Time has vindicated Rose-Ackerman's emphasis on institutional reform as the necessary condition for serious progress. The book deals with routine payoffs and with corruption in contracting and privatization. It gives special attention to political corruption and to instruments of accountability. The authors have expanded the treatment of culture as a source of entrenched corruption and added chapters on criminal law, organized crime, and post-conflict societies. The book outlines domestic conditions for reform and discusses international initiatives - including both explicit anti-corruption policies and efforts to constrain money laundering.
Chapter
Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork in Uzbekistan, this article looks at the way official state narratives are challenged by silent, unorganized, often unawares, gestures of resistance at the bottom of a society. Footing on a framework suggested by Scott’s definition of infrapolitics (2012), we propose to incorporate informal practices in a definition of informality that is more inclusive, and better explains the anatomy of a modern state, whose functioning rests on a combination of formal and informal practices. We suggest that this everyday dimension is of particular importance here when trying to understand the governance trajectories as it allows to look critically, and from a broader perspective, at situations where individual and state perception of events, but also individual and state morality, diverge. By doing this, we propose that governance in transition states and societies may be regarded as a space where formal institutions and citizens (or informal institutions) compete for power and resources and thereby produce informal, alternative “legal orders” and mechanisms that regulate public life in a given area. We will suggest that such a space of informal negotiation is vital in contexts where collective mobilization and public articulation of social claims is not a preferred, or even available, strategy for citizens.
Article
Full-text available
The following article addresses the complex nature of informal exchange in contemporary Russia. I borrow the term “brift” from Abel Polese in order to analyze a hybrid nature of informal transactions that have a ternary nature embodying bribery, gift-giving, and a mechanism of building social capital. While there exists a wealth of studies on informal exchange in Post-Soviet states and modern Russia, the question of how participants of the exchange make sense of the transactions and conditions of the exchange, how they morally and mentally estimate the value and price of the favors, and how they choose appropriate items for reciprocating for the favors still remains understudied. The study addresses this theoretical dilemma and provides a detailed investigation of the meaning-making process intrinsic to this type of informal transactions. The article provides analysis of the in-depth interviews with citizens of St. Petersburg and demonstrates the complexity of the cognitive work of calculating the right price and estimating the proper value and fitness of the items to be used in the brift transactions. This research generally points to the need for a greater sensitivity to intricacies of meaning, practice, and cognitive work that saturate informal exchange, and further calls for a wider acceptance of the concept of brift.
Chapter
In the age of nation states, the creation of any armed force is a political act. Prior to this age, private initiative spontaneously created armed forces to satisfy a short-term demand for military force and disbanded them once they had accomplished their mission. Today, those who have political power in the state create a (or maintain an existing) armed forces organization that exists as such. Without this institutional legitimization, armed forces could not emerge or continue to exist.
Article
The article substantiates the importance of forming a professional state apparatus at the regional level in the context of contemporary challenges of reality. Based on the institutional task of the Academy and its branches, a special place is determined for the system of retraining and advanced training of civil servants. The authors consider the content of the concept of “interdisciplinary integration” and present their experience in building the educational process of retraining courses for civil servants of corps “B” on the basis of interdisciplinary integration as a principle of a result-oriented approach.An example of compiling a map of interdisciplinary interfaces is given and factors accompanying the successful implementation of the principle of interdisciplinary integration are described with a description of their practical implementation in the activities of the Branch of the Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the Kostanay region.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the relation between gender differences in entrepreneurship and firm-level bribery, one of the most impactful business obstacles to private sector growth. Using data from a comprehensive survey covering 16,560 enterprises in 32 emerging economies, we find that female-led firms account for 19.2% of all enterprises, which is approximately 4 times lower than the share of male-led firms, and that female entrepreneurs experience a higher level of bribery than their peers. The impact of gender on bribery is more pronounced among firms located in countries that are more corruption-prone and becomes weaker among countries with a higher female graduation ratio at the tertiary level. In addition, female-run firms have a lower likelihood of obtaining a construction permit, securing a government contract, or holding an operating licence. Overall, the results suggest that a bribe-to-survive motive is a possible explanation for the higher level of bribery among female-led firms in emerging markets.
Book
Corruption is a globalising phenomenon. Not only is it rapidly expanding globally but, more significantly, its causes, its means and forms of perpetration and its effects are more and more rooted in the many developments of globalisation. The Panama Papers, the FIFA scandals and the Petrobras case in Brazil are just a few examples of the rapid and alarming globalisation of corrupt practices in recent years. The lack of empirical evidence on corrupt schemes and a still imperfect dialogue between different disciplinary areas and between academic and practitioners hinder our knowledge of corruption as a global phenomenon and slow down the adoption of appropriate policy responses. Corruption in the Global Era seeks to establish an interdisciplinary dialogue between theory and practice and between different disciplines and to provide a better understanding of the multifaceted aspects of corruption as a global phenomenon. This book gathers top experts across various fields of both the academic and the professional world – including criminology, economics, finance, journalism, law, legal ethics and philosophy of law – to analyze the causes and the forms of manifestation of corruption in the global context and in various sectors (sports, health care, finance, the press etc.) from the most disparate perspectives. The theoretical frameworks elaborated by academics are here complemented by precious insider accounts on corruption in different areas, such as banking and finance and the press. The expanding links between corrupt practices and other global crimes, such as money laundering, fraud and human trafficking, are also explored. This book is an important resource to researchers, academics and students in the fields of law, criminology, sociology, economics and ethics, as well as professionals, particularly solicitors, barristers, businessmen and public servants. Full text and Kindle edition here: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Corruption-Global-Era-Manifestation-Financial-ebook/dp/B07PGR254H/ref=sr_1_1?dchild=1&keywords=pasculli+lorenzo&qid=1598952067&sr=8-1
Article
This article contrasts the World Bank’s policy-oriented, standardized assessment of the business climate and small business in Tajikistan with an alternative, bottom-up reading of local entrepreneurship focused on the life stories and business experiences of the young Tajik business community. It shows that the World Bank’s business evaluations and rankings, Doing Business and Enterprise Survey, offer a top-down understanding of business in this post-Soviet Central Asian country, which is filtered through an underlying neoliberal policy paradigm. This paradigm promotes economic liberalization, rivalry and individual responsibility for wellbeing at the expense of a welfare state, solidarity and common interest. The article proposes a different account which is centered on the socio-economic, political and moral embeddedness of local business practices. Four aspects of doing business are analyzed: informality, the role of the state in regulating business, bribing, and the relevance of social networks. Such an alternative, ethnographically informed account is needed because this organization’s publications are seen by policymakers as an authoritative source of knowledge and, as a result, serve as a powerful global governance tool influencing economic reforms worldwide. These reforms, however, often exercise a negative effect on local economic lifeworlds.
Thesis
Full-text available
The operational continuity of critical infrastructures (CIs) is vital for the functioning of modern societies. Yet, these CIs are monitored/managed by an interdependent ecosystem of information systems, exposing CIs to the systemic risk of cascading failures. Consequently, CIs require an information-systems defense capability – i.e., the ability to prevent, detect and respond to information systems’ failure. In order to ensure such a capability, the field of computer & information security develops a myriad of technologies. However, security incidents are caused by inappropriate organizational design and/or human-behavior aspects, at least as often as by inefficient IT design. Following this logic, information systems are apprehended as socio-technical systems constituted by a nexus of technologies (material resources) and human agents (human, and knowledge resources) who employ such technologies. Building on prior research on organizational capabilities and security economics, I explore the organizational design and human behavior aspects that are necessary for CIs to build an information-systems defense capability. Investigating the case of three specific critical infrastructures and their context, I deconstruct this capability into material, human, and knowledge resources, and I explore how they should be acquired to build such a capability. My contributions are threefold: 1) a model that helps to preempt the effect of disruptive technologies on the optimal level of investment in cyber-security, providing a framework in order to select and invest in the most effective technologies; 2) a recruitment framework in order to attract scarce IT-specialists; 3) a model in order to foster tacit-knowledge absorption related to cyber-security. Policy recommendations and a research agenda for future work are presented.
Chapter
This chapter begins by reviewing the country’s existing policies, acts and ordinances, and its commitments at international level to public health care services in order to examine their effects in rural Bangladesh. I examine how rural people struggle for access to biomedicine because of the absenteeism of the service providers, uncertainty, informal payments, favouritism, the illegal selling of pharmaceuticals, and, more importantly, a politicized health system; all of which entrenches structural violence and produces further social suffering. In addition, I explain why a public health centre may be characterized as “a world of unhappiness” to both providers and receivers in the context of the issues of good governance. I describe how the violations of individual rights to health care and social injustice, which are closely connected to structural violence, are established and normalized in the public clinics through various political and economic discourses. I explain why the issues of job dissatisfaction, the lucrative opportunities in private practice, lower remuneration and the need for an extra source of earning need to be considered in regard to the behaviour of absenteeism (corrupt practice) on the part of the providers in public clinics.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The paper deals with constitutional approaches to the formalization of restrictions and deprivation of property rights in 12 post-Soviet countries: Methodology: As an analysis of specific constitutional approaches to the restriction of property rights, the paper pays attention to the conditions for the admissibility of its deprivation, compensated withdrawal and alienation of property as an object of property rights. Applications: This research can be used for universities, teachers, and students. Results: Based on the analysis, it was concluded that legal forms of restriction of the right to property are set forth in direct and indirect versions. The first reflects the direct wording of the permissibility of restricting the right to property; the second is due to the general rules of constitutional restriction of the rights of a person and citizen. Acknowledgement: This article was prepared with financial
Chapter
The Introduction sets the conceptual boundaries of the debate with which the whole collection of chapters engages. On the one hand, it refers to the different strands of literature which have dealt with notions of informality, licitness/illicitness, legality/extralegality, and criminalization. On the other, it defines the fil rouge weaving together the book contributions around three main axes: (1) the social morality of crime; (2) the “people versus state” opposition; (3) informality and resistance.
Chapter
Im Zeitalter der Nationalstaaten ist die Gründung eines Militärs ein politischer Akt. Anders als eine Unternehmung wird es nicht gegründet, um eine sich bietende Gelegenheit zur Gewinnerzielung auszunutzen, sondern weil die politischen Entscheidungsträger des Staates die Errichtung einer militärischen Organisation an sich wollen. Unabhängig von deren konkreten Aufträgen oder Fähigkeiten ist daher ein politischer Wille erforderlich, der das Militär in diesem grundsätzlichen Sinne legitimiert. Ohne ihn hört die militärische Organisation auf zu bestehen.
Chapter
This chapter explores the geography of corruption across Asia (minus the Middle East). It begins by exploring its spatiality, noting the enormous range, including some of the world’s most and least corrupt countries. It maps corruption scores, summarizes public perceptions, bribery rates, and summarizes correlations. The third part turns to national variations, including severely corrupt states such as North Korea, Bangladesh, Central Asia, and the intermittent role of the resource curse. It then offers case studies of Pakistan, India, China, South Korea, the Philippines, and Indonesia, noting that the drivers of corruption vary widely. The conclusion notes that while Asian anti-corruption campaigns have had mixed successes and failures, the long-term remedy involves structural changes in societies and governance.
Article
The disintegration of the Soviet Union spurred a transnational trade in consumer goods. Bazaars, which proliferated across the former Soviet Union, including in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan that is the focus of this article, became nodes in this informal trade. This article makes three arguments: (i) Soviet successor states capitalised on the new informal economy which provided employment to millions when economies were in decline. Conversely, ongoing developments, particularly in Kazakhstan, seek to modernise the bazaars that emerged after the Soviet Union. (ii) The movement of people and goods – between border and bazaar, and in case of re-exports, on to another border – are illustrative of a multi-dimensional informal economy evidenced in rent extraction, regulation of bazaars, and in trader networks. (iii) The bazaar-centred economy relies on checkpoint politics that establish border regimes, enabling mobility.
Book
Negotiations occupy a prominent place in the world of business, especially when it comes to international deals. In an increasingly global business environment, understanding and managing cultural differences is key to successful negotiations. This book highlights two basic components of negotiations: the Deal and the Relationship. Countries and cultures place different value and priority on these components both in the negotiation process and in the outcome. Intercultural Business Negotiations provides a guiding framework that is both refined and contextualized and provides managers with the key skills necessary to navigate difficult negotiations where partners may differ in terms of culture, communication style, time orientation, as well as personal and professional backgrounds. The book systematically examines both dispositional and situational aspects of negotiations in interaction with cultural factors. Intercultural Business Negotiations is an accessible resource for managers, leaders, and those interested in or studying business negotiations globally. It is accompanied by an author run companion website containing negotiation simulations, instructions for players, and teaching notes for instructors.
Article
Full-text available
The scholarly literature on corruption has developed in separate disciplines, each of which has produced important insights, but each of which also has some crucial limitations. We bring these existing approaches together, and then we confront them against an ethnographic literature on corruption that over the last two decades has become extensive, but has never before been synthesized into an overarching framework. We argue that any corruption reform must meet three challenges. First, corruption persists because people need to engage in corruption to meet their needs. This is the resource challenge. Second, corruption persists because there is uncertainty over what constitutes a gift and what constitutes a bribe, as well as confusion over what is private and what is public. This is the definitional challenge. And third, corruption persists because of pressure to behave in ways that are considered moral according to alternative criteria, such as taking care of one’s kin, or standing up to legacies of racism and oppression. This is the alternative moralities challenge. We examine the strengths and weaknesses of existing approaches to corruption in meeting these three challenges.
Article
Though bureaucratic corruption is widespread, social scientists have yet to develop a comprehensive model predicting ordinary people's engagement in corrupt exchanges with street-level bureaucrats. Our article fills this gap by specifying an individual-level causal model of bureaucratic corruption centered around three theoretically derived predictors: beliefs about acceptability of corruption, its perceived riskiness, and its utility to the offender. In doing so, we develop a theory of how institutional stability affects rates and causal pathways to bureaucratic corruption. Using the data from nationally representative surveys in Russia (N = 2,000) and Ukraine (N = 1,535), we test a path-diagramed structural equation model that accounts for endogeneity and the relationships among the theoretically derived predictors of corruption. The tests of our model in institutionally more stable Russia and less stable Ukraine, combined with OLS regression models on split samples from conflict areas within each country, show that when institutions have greater stability, (1) citizens are less likely to partake in bureaucratic corruption, and (2) the effects of theoretically derived predictors on corruption behavior are stronger. We are the first to incorporate into a theory of bureaucratic corruption a feedback loop whereby engagement in corruption reinforces perceptions of its spread, which in turn contributes to the belief that bribery is acceptable. Our findings explain the variation in corruption behavior among citizens of high-corruption societies, extend the institutional theory of social control, testify to the importance of contextualizing theories of crime, and reveal the need to tailor anti-corruption policies to specific institutional environments. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. All rights reserved.
Article
To supplement funding and strengthen relationships with the community, police departments often accept donations from individuals and businesses. These donations are a form of disreputable exchange: they are permitted but laden with the potential for controversy. Gift-giving is generally forbidden in public agencies because it conflicts with bureaucratic organizational principles of impersonality and fairness and equality before the law. Accepting donations, therefore, requires mechanisms to purify them, ensuring that there is no reciprocity, while at the same time motivating and acknowledging the bond with donors. In this paper, we analyze the management strategies established by a police department in Canada to maintain and encourage donations while preventing reciprocity and minimizing the possibility that gifts are interpreted as bribes. We identify four management strategies: institutional separation via recognized charity organizations; denial of reciprocity; limits on donation use; and screening the giver.
Article
Full-text available
Investigations into the specific nature of corruption within, primarily, the non-western world have tended to offer both Eurocentric definitions of and solution to corruption. These concerns have permutated policy making implemented, instituted and supported by INGOs in developing economies as a pathway to facilitate democratization, economic development and gender equality. This article, using Central Asia and the culture of gift giving as a case study, focuses both on the broader implications of this position and studies that directly focus on the question of gender and corruption. It argues that what is defined as corruption, its modus operandi and gender difference is set within universalistic categories which fail to account for perhaps the most crucial denominator – cultural context - which shapes gender relations and determines the nature and extent of both policy making and social change.
Article
Full-text available
What is the attitude of the Chinese public towards corruption? What are the factors influencing people’s attitude towards corruption? Through large sample surveys of Chinese civil servants, this research found that corruption tolerance of civil servants is low, but the enthusiasm of participation in anti-corruption campaigns is not correspondingly high. Male respondents with longer working experience or with low monthly income appear to have higher corruption tolerance. Awareness of corruption and confidence in government’s anti-corruption efforts also affect attitudes towards corruption. Less understanding about corruption results in higher corruption tolerance and lower enthusiasm to participate in fighting against corruption. Higher confidence in the government’s anti-corruption strategy leads to lower corruption tolerance and stronger willingness to participate in combating corruption. This suggests that a successful campaign of anti-corruption must involve enhancing understanding of corruption and building confidence in the party-state’s strategy on anti-corruption.
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the ways in which rural Kazaks use household networks for daily survival and social mobility in the post-Soviet period. While studies of household survival strategies often focus on sources of income and the prorduction of food, I argue that reproductive activities are just one part of a more comprehensive household strategy. In post-Soviet Kazakstan, where access to certain goods and services often requires personal connections, household networking activities are equally important for daily survival and often contribute towards productive activities. To understand the extent of this argument, it is necessary first to describe the research setting and to define the parameters of Kazak households and networks. Then I briefly explore how household networks are created and maintained through the reciprocal exchange of gifts and hospitality. Finally, I examine several ways in which household networks are manipulated daily in order to obtain services, information and cash.
Article
Soviet commentators traditionally have associated political corruption with public officials in decadent capitalist systems. Such commentators generally attribute instances of corruption among Soviet officials today to "vestiges of the past" that will wither away as the socialist system becomes ever more firmly established. Yet an examination of the actual behavior of Soviet public officials undermines this hypothesis, and demonstrtaes, in the words of one western observer, that "corruption may be as integral to Soviet life as vodka and kasha." The opportunities and incentives for corruption within and among political systems help explain why some public officials engage in corruption while others do not and why some political systems seem to have more corruption than do others. An analysis of such factors in the U.S.S.R. suggests that, despite Soviet claims, they are similar in kind, if not degree, to those found in many other societies.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Among scholars the subject of corruption is nearly taboo. Placing it in a model of developing economy as a developing factor is even worse in some eyes. No doubt, Nathaniel H. Leff's analysis will be misunderstood. So be it. It still bids us to understand an important area of social behavior, and tells us why public policies will fail. The author is at Harvard University.
Article
A formal model of intermediate product reallocation through Second Economy markets in a centrally planned economy is discussed. The principal result is that there exists an equilibrium allocation determined in these Second Economy markets in spite of fixed official prices and centrally monitored trading at these prices. It is always a constrained Pareto optimum with respect to the initial plan-generated allocation. Hence, Second Economy markets can effectively and “second best” efficiently ration the intermediate-product “sellers' market” of a centrally planned economy.