Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

Article · January 2011with 17,415 Reads 
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Abstract
Ecological systems theory: This theory looks at a child's development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment. Bronfenbrenner's theory defines complex "layers" of environment, each having an effect on a child's development. This theory has recently been renamed "bioecological systems theory" to emphasize that a child's own biology is a primary environment fueling her development. The interaction between factors in the child's maturing biology, his immediate family/community environment, and the societal landscape fuels and steers his development. Changes or conflict in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers. To study a child's development then, we must look not only at the child and her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger environment as well. The various terms in this graphic are links that lead to pages explaining their implications in this theory. The microsystem – this is the layer closest to the child and contains the structures with which the child has direct contact. The microsystem encompasses the relationships and interactions a child has with her immediate surroundings (Berk, 2000). Structures in the microsystem include family, school, neighborhood, or childcare environments. At this level, relationships have impact in two directions -both away from the child and toward the child. For example, a child's parents may affect his beliefs and behavior; however, the child also affects the behavior and beliefs of the parent. Bronfenbrenner calls these bi-directional influences, and he shows how they occur among all levels of environment. The interaction of structures within a layer and interactions of structures between layers is key to this theory. At the microsystem level, bi-directional influences are strongest and have the greatest impact on the child. However, interactions at outer levels can still impact the inner structures. The mesosystem – this layer provides the connection between the structures of the child's microsystem (Berk, 2000). Examples: the connection between the child's teacher and his parents, between his church and his neighborhood, etc.

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  • ... With disaster impacts being so extensive it is best to assess it from an ecological systems perspective. An Ecological System can be defined as consisting of a micro system, mezzo system, and the macro system (Bronfenbrenner, 1990;Paquette & Ryan, 2001;Schoeman & Ferreira, 2002 ;Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2008). With the utilization of the ecological system approach, the impact of disasters in Louisiana is analysed by means of a holistic approach, since all three levels of the model are interlinked. ...
    ... The levels Parsons are referring to are the same levels that are present within an ecological system. Thus, he refers to the macro, mezzo and micro subsystems (Bronfenbrenner, 1990;Paquette & Ryan, 2001;Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2008). Structural functionalists argue that in order for a society to operate optimally, it has to place and encourage individuals to occupy the necessary positions in the social structure. ...
    ... The selected theories allow for the identification of variables related to the study, a general framework for data analysis and an essential part in formulating the conceptual framework of the study. The ecological model (Bronfenbrenner, 1990;Paquette & Ryan, 2001) Structural functionalism as a theory is one of the first theories used in disaster research and provides a better understanding on structural aspects related to disasters in Louisiana. Systems that function with structure tend to have a higher level of functioning during times of adversity (Kreps, 1989). ...
  • ... The microsystem consists of interpersonal relationships and pattern of activities as experienced by an individual in a given society of specific physical and material features (Bronfenbrenner, 1995). This layer has direct contact with the individual as it contains structures, relationships and interactions within the person's immediate environment (such as family, school and neighbourhood) and therefore has the most influence on the individual (Berk 2000;Paquette & Ryan (2001). ...
    ... This suggests that a broader policy change in the educational system affects other layers in the ecosystem and the application of policies developed has an influence on the practice and management of inclusive education. The macrosystem is out of reach of the children but has an influence on them (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). It looks at policy makers, educational policies, beliefs and perceptions of persons with disabilities by community members. ...
    ... They further suggested that a change in any part of the system affects other systems and individuals and at a later time could be seen as a cause for change. Elements within this system can be either external, such as the timing of a parent's death; or internal, such as the physiological changes that occur with the ageing of a child…" (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). This means that the age of onset and detection of hearing loss and even the time made available for studies (which constitute the chronosystem of SHIs) can influence their academic performance. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Purpose: Several researches have showed that the average academic performances of students with hearing impairment (SHIs) are below that of hearing students. This research sought to elucidate challenges that prevent SHIs from high academic achievements, using the case of students in Tetteh Ocloo State School for the Deaf in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.Method: A qualitative research design was used for data collection through in-depth interviews, analysis and the interpretation of the responses of thirty participants (12 Students with hearing impairments, 11 parents and 7 special educators).Results: Findings showed that challenges which hinder SHIs academic performance emanate from different systems and actors including SHIs themselves, their parents and other institutional barriers that exist in deaf education. The findings also indicated that parents influenced the academic performance of their children with hearing impairment (CHI) through their responsibilities, expectations and the learning assistance they gave to their wards at home. Results also established that institutional barriers such as effective instructional procedures adopted in deaf education, availability of facilities, teaching, reading learning materials, and curricular contents posed challenges to the academic performance of students with hearing impairment.Conclusion: The identified challenges which prevent SHIs from higher academic performance are from different systems of SHIs’ environment and the interplay between them. The study recommends that interventions must be directed at the different systems within their environment.
  • ... The macrosystem, which is the outermost layer and is formed by such things as the cultural values of a community, including customs and laws. And finally, the chronosystem, is how the child is affected by timing as they develop, such as puberty, or the death of a relative (Berk, 2000;Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Ryan, 2001). ...
    ... With regard to this research, the relationship between the child, home (both family and community) and the school is of interest. Ryan (2001) suggests that schools and teachers may, "fulfil an important secondary role, but cannot provide the complexity of interaction that can be provided by primary adults" (p.3). In fact, he goes on to suggest that for the educational community to think that it can perform these primary functions is to "help society continue its denial of the real issue" (p.3). ...
    ... We investigated explanations of why people conform, as well as why some people could resist pressures to conform. This raised interesting discussions surrounding students' personal backgrounds and situations and pertained very much to motivations that underlie value systems of communities as well as the influence an environment can have on these and in turn an individual (Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Rutter, 2013;Ryan, 2001;Schwartz, 2012;Unger, 2013;Watling Neal and Neal, 2013). ...
    Conference Paper
    Students attending Pupil Referral Units (PRUs) face not only the challenges of their often difficult homelives, but also, that they are trying to academically, emotionally and socially develop in a difficult area of the educational landscape. There has been a significant amount of focus on Alternative Provision (AP), including PRUs, by the government in recent times. However, despite numerous interventions in this arena, this sector of education continues to struggle to improve the outcomes for students attending APs, including PRUs. Therefore, indicating that continued scrutiny and intervention is required to give the best possible opportunities to the students who find themselves attending school outside of mainstream education. This thesis explored whether, in a single year of attendance at a PRU, vulnerable students could be equipped with skills that would enable them to have the greatest chance of success at school in their final year of formal education. That, if by raising the levels of emotional intelligence and value systems of these students, a more harmonious learning environment could be created, that would enable greater success at school, both academically and personally. To interrogate this, a case study following ethnographic principles and multiple data collection techniques was conducted on a group of forty Year 11 student participants. This method was chosen as it is considered especially valuable where the phenomenon being researched and the context are closely entwined, and the participants are observed in a naturalistic setting. The thesis concludes that this yearlong study based at a Year 11 Pupil Referral Unit, showed tangible outcomes to intervention strategies that can be employed to raise student levels of emotional intelligence and value systems; both collectively and individually. Also, that these outcomes give rise to a substantive argument that emotional intelligence and value systems can be monitored and assessed through observation and dialogue. And, that if these observations, made by those who spend the most time with the students, are monitored, analysed and discussed reflexively; valuable assessments of the interplay between a student’s emotional intelligence and value systems can be made, so that appropriate strategies can be implemented to guide both personalised education plans and whole school improvement resulting in greater student success.
  • ... Microsystem is the layer that is closest to the individual, and includes structures with which individual is in direct contact. Microsystem includes connections and interactions that people have with their immediate environment (Berc, 2000, according to Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Structures such as the family, the place (home, school, and workplace), activities, and roles represent immediate surrounding. ...
    ... At this level, relationships have double impact -towards the individual and from the individual. Bronfenbrenner refers to this as bi-direct impact and emphasizes that it can appear in all layers of the environment (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). The interaction between structures within the layer and structure interaction between layers is what is crucial in this theory. ...
    ... Mezosystem is the layer where links between the structures of microsystem are realized (Berc, 2000 according to Paquette & Ryan, 2001). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Abstract: The research is a continuation of a whole range of existing ones dealing with the outcomes of music education for the gifted. Results obtained up to now have pointed to weak “ecological validity“ of professional competencies acquired at the level of higher education in music arts and their limitation within the demands of labour market and working conditions in contemporary social circumstances. Using qualitative methodology our intention was to examine in more details the attitudes of those musically gifted towards the outcomes of music higher education and their professional perspective. Research aims: 1) to establish the assessment of students of music on the types and the level of (not)acquired competencies for work within six professional orientations existing in the labour market in Serbia (musical pedagogy, performance, creative work, work in the media, music production, work in popular music genres) and 2) to establish which jobs are considered (un)desirable by students of music arts and why. The sample consists of 71 students of undergraduate academic studies at the Faculty of Music Arts in Belgrade. Preliminary results have to a great extent confirmed previous findings, i.e. that studies provide knowledge and skills for “traditional” music professions (pedagogy and musical performance), while the acquired competencies for “new” music professions and informal music movements are minimal. Professional orientation is mostly oriented towards “safe” jobs along with the openness for other possibilities. The findings show that the choice of students “has shifted” towards realistic possibilities for employment, but that it has also been conditioned by the increase of insights into one’s own possibilities and interest in certain career orientation in music. Key words: musical giftedness, higher education in music arts, competencies, knowledge and skills, professional perspectives.
  • ... Structures in the microsystem can include family, neighbourhood, the people at the art workshop and the art workshop itself. Bronfenbrenner showed that at the microsystem level, the bi-directional influences (the individual is influenced by and in turn also influences) are strongest and have the greatest impact, however, interactions at outer levels can still impact the inner structures (Ryan & Paquette, 2001). ...
    ... The next system in Bronfenbrenner's model is that of the Mesosystem which connects the systems (Ryan & Paquette, 2001), and in this case, the people to each other and to places close to, but outside of, the art workshop. Within this study, it represents the facilitator as the observer, highlighting the importance of their pragmatic and social interconnectedness with the participants, and the spaces outside the art workshop. ...
    ... The Exosystem is the next layer and describes the systems that a person does not interact with but influences them (Ryan & Paquette, 2001). In this study, it was the community transport availability, an organisation timetable or the funding of a project that influenced how the person engages in the art workshop and the project. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The historical segregation of neurodivergent people has disrupted their agency and belonging, along with society’s natural diversity. This research explores how art therapy and community arts paradigms amalgamate to create dynamic, experimental spaces where a multitude of connections form. Group art-making as a process remains under-researched. This study aims to elucidate its impact on a neurodiverse population in regional Australia. The research should contribute to the literature and practice of art therapy and community arts with groups who may face marginalisation in their day to day lives. The research was conducted with nine neurodivergent participants who access group art-making. A single case study design with participatory action research (PAR) data collection incorporated five qualitative methods. These included three focus groups, nine observations, nine mood questionnaires, nine artworks, and nine third party interviews. Nvivo7 software with thematic coding tools was utilised for the analysis of the data. Participating in group art-making led to four discernible relationships. First was their relationship to the art as an object, but also as an embodiment of identity or subject; second was relation to self; the third, relation to others within the group; and fourth was the potential for relation to the individual’s community through the showing or gifting of the artwork. The research found that facilitation can enhance how those connections are formed. These outcomes foster individual agency, a sense of belonging to the group, and connection to the community external to the group. A six- stage art facilitation model was created that can be used to guide art groups that emphasise connection throughout creative process.
  • ... The key to this theory is the interactions of structures within the five systems and the interaction of structures between these systems (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). The theory points out that while relationships close to the child have a direct impact; other outside factors also have a powerful influence on their development (Berk, 2007). ...
    ... The theory consists of five environmental systems which affects http://etd.uwc.ac.za/ the child's growth and with which a child interacts; the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and the chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). It points out that while relationships close to the child have a direct impact; factors outside the close relationships also have a powerful impact on their development (Berk, 2007). ...
    ... Structures in the microsystem include family, school, childcare environments, caregivers, peers, neighbourhood, religious community, to name a few (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). How these groups or organisations interact with the child will have an effect on how the child grows; the more encouraging and nurturing these relationships and places are, the better the child will be able to grow (Bridges, n.d.). ...
    Thesis
    Full-text available
    Perceptions, experiences and challenges of families after the father's exposure to a fatherhood intervention programme offered by a Cape Town based NGO.
  • ... On the basis of this theory, it is seen that human society is transforming and technology is gradually over powering human relations (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). From the work place to social relationships, there seems to be a strong influence of technology. ...
    ... According to Bronfenbrenner, such changes have strongly damaged the social environment and adversely affected the parent-youth relationship. Individualism is becoming the pre-dominant norm of human society (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Many steps have been taken to protect the physical environment but the social environment has been less taken care of, as a result of which it has been affected more. ...
    ... The Chrono-system includes external events influencing the youth, such as parent"s death or divorce, as well as internal changes based on the chronological maturity of the young person (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). It may also include the personal experiences from the individual"s socio-cultural surrounding having a long time impact on the personality. ...
  • ... The microsystem consists of interpersonal relationships and pattern of activities as experienced by an individual in a given society of specific physical and material features (Bronfenbrenner, 1995). This layer has direct contact with the individual as it contains structures, relationships and interactions within the person's immediate environment (such as family, school and neighbourhood) and therefore has the most influence on the individual (Berk 2000;Paquette & Ryan (2001). ...
    ... This suggests that a broader policy change in the educational system affects other layers in the ecosystem and the application of policies developed has an influence on the practice and management of inclusive education. The macrosystem is out of reach of the children but has an influence on them (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). It looks at policy makers, educational policies, beliefs and perceptions of persons with disabilities by community members. ...
    ... They further suggested that a change in any part of the system affects other systems and individuals and at a later time could be seen as a cause for change. Elements within this system can be either external, such as the timing of a parent's death; or internal, such as the physiological changes that occur with the ageing of a child…" (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). This means that the age of onset and detection of hearing loss and even the time made available for studies (which constitute the chronosystem of SHIs) can influence their academic performance. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Purpose: Several researches have showed that the average academic performances of students with hearing impairment (SHIs) are below that of hearing students. This research sought to elucidate challenges that prevent SHIs from high academic achievements, using the case of students in Tetteh Ocloo State School for the Deaf in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Method: A qualitative research design was used for data collection through in-depth interviews, analysis and the interpretation of the responses of thirty participants (12 Students with hearing impairments, 11 parents and 7 special educators). Results: Findings showed that challenges which hinder SHIs academic performance emanate from different systems and actors including SHIs themselves, their parents and other institutional barriers that exist in deaf education. The findings also indicated that parents influenced the academic performance of their children with hearing impairment (CHI) through their responsibilities, expectations and the learning assistance they gave to their wards at home. Results also established that institutional barriers such as effective instructional procedures adopted in deaf education, availability of facilities, teaching, reading learning materials, and curricular contents posed challenges to the academic performance of students with hearing impairment. Conclusion: The identified challenges which prevent SHIs from higher academic performance are from different systems of SHIs’ environment and the interplay between them. The study recommends that interventions must be directed at the different systems within their environment. © 2017, Action for Disability Regional Rehabilitation Centre. All rights reserved.
  • ... Ως μικροσύστημα ορίζεται κάθε επιμέρους περιβάλλον, για παράδειγμα το σπίτι ή το σχολείο, στο οποίο το παιδί έχει περισσότερες άμεσες αλληλεπιδράσεις (Γουργιώτου, 2016). Οι άνθρωποι που συμβιώνουν με το παιδί σε αυτά τα μικροσυστήματα τού ασκούν την πιο άμεση επίδραση, με αποτέλεσμα όταν οι σχέσεις στο άμεσο μικροσύστημα καταρρεύσουν, να προκαλούνται δυσκολίες στο παιδί, όσον αφορά την εξερεύνηση άλλων περιοχών του περιβάλλοντός του (Paquette, & Ryan, 2001). Όπως αναφέρουν οι Dockett & Perry (2014: 288-292) «…ό,τι είναι σημαντικό για τα παιδιά και ό,τι γνωρίζουν μέσα στον ιστό των ουσιαστικών κοινωνικών σχέσεων προέρχεται σε μεγάλο βαθμό από τις αλληλεπιδράσεις ανάμεσα σε αυτές τις σχέσεις». ...
    ... Η προτεραιότητα που δίνει το μακροσύστημα στις ανάγκες των παιδιών θα επηρεάσει το βαθμό στήριξης που λαμβάνουν τα παιδιά στα διάφορα επίπεδα του εκπαιδευτικού συστήματος. Για παράδειγμα, οι Paquette & Ryan (2001) αναφέρουν ότι αν η αντίληψη μιας δεδομένης κοινωνίας είναι ότι οι γονείς πρέπει να είναι υπεύθυνοι για την ανατροφή των παιδιών τους, τότε η κοινωνία πιθανώς να μην παρέχει τους εξωτερικούς πόρους για να βοηθήσει τους γονείς σε αυτόν το ρόλο. Αυτό θα έχει επιπτώσεις στην ικανότητα ή την ανικανότητα των γονέων να αναλάβουν αυτή την ευθύνη, και θα επηρεάσουν τη ζωή του παιδιού μέσα στα μικροσυστήματα και μεσοσυστήματα που ζει και μεγαλώνει. ...
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    Το παρόν άρθρο μέσω της βιβλιογραφικής ανασκόπησης διαπραγματεύεται πως από την ενεργητική συμμετοχή των μαθητών στη διαδικασία λήψης αποφάσεων, όπως και στη διαμόρφωση του χώρου μάθησης, μπορεί να τεθούν οι βάσεις για τη διαμόρφωση του ενεργού πολίτη. H ενεργοποίηση αυτή χτίζεται σταδιακά και μπορεί να ξεκινήσει από την προσχολική εκπαίδευση. Σύμφωνα με τον Roger Hart υπάρχουν αυξανόμενα επίπεδα ενεργητικής συμμετοχής, από δράσεις που είναι εξ ολοκλήρου οργανωμένες από τους εκπαιδευτικούς, έως εμπειρίες μάθησης που είναι αποτέλεσμα των πρωτοβουλιών και σχεδιασμών των μαθητών. Εναπόκειται στον εκπαιδευτικό να αποφασίσει αν θέλει να διαμορφώσει περιβάλλοντα μάθησης που χαρακτηρίζονται από αυτονομία δίνοντας ευκαιρίες για λήψη αποφάσεων. Μια τέτοια δυνατότητα λήψης αποφάσεων και ενεργοποίησης αποτελεί ο συμμετοχικός σχεδιασμός των περιβαλλόντων μάθησης και των σχολικών τόπων.
  • ... * Makrosistem može se posmatrati kao spoljašnji sloj u okruženju deteta koji se sastoji se od kulturnih vrednosti, običaja i zakona (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Čine ga kulturni, politički, ekonomski, socijalni i pravni sistem, pa kao takav sadrži različite sisteme verovanja, resursa, stilova života, obrazaca društvene razmene, i sl. ...
    ... Iako dete nije aktivni učesnik u nekim od sistema, svakako da će dešavanja na radnom mestu roditelja, razred koji pohađa starije dete, mreža prijatelja njegovih roditelja, aktivnosti lokalne školske uprave potencijalno posredno uticati na njega (Bronfenbrener, 1997). I na kraju, stabilniji od ostalih ekoloških sistema, ali pod uticajem društvenih promena, makrosistem sadrži dominantna verovanja i ideologiju koji na različite načine vrše uticaj na interakcije i ponašanje u okviru užih razvojnih okruženja (Zuković, 2012), primera radi u slučaju kulturološki prihvaćenog stanovišta da je podizanje dece isključivo briga roditelja, verovatno da će na makronivou biti smanjena podrška u vidu sredstava za pomoć roditeljima, što može dovesti do smanjene sposobnosti roditelja za obavljanje svoje uloge u okviru mikrosistema (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). ...
    Article
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    Резиме: Период адолесценције се често описује као период „бура „ и „олуја“. Поред физио- лошких и физичких промена, адолесцент пролази и кроз низ психолошких промена. Овај рад описује психолошке промене у адолесцентном периоду кроз приказ књиге о адолесцентном развоју „Adolescent Psychological Development – Rationality, Morality and Identity“, књиге која даје детаљан опис промена уз сликовите примере како би се тематика што више приближила индивидуама из различитих хуманистичких струка, а које испољавају интересовање за период адолесценције и промене унутар њега. Посебан осврт је на когнитивном и моралном развоју, као и формирању идентитета. Поред приказа књиге, нуди се и додатно проширење наведених тема, како би се употпунила слика о психолошким променама у периоду адолесценције. Кључне речи: адолесценција, идентитет, моралност, когнитивни развој.
  • ... 20 A micro-system is a pattern of activities, roles, and interpersonal relations experienced by developing person. 21 20 In line with the present study, the results of another study showed that poor relationships between parents and their young or teenage children, alcohol and drug use and low social self-worth were predictors of high-risk sexual behaviors in girls. 22 Educating the parents through discussions about issues pertaining to sex can help reduce high-risk sexual behaviors, especially among young women. ...
    ... Whereas this layer provides the connection between the structures of the child's micro-system like the connection between the child's teacher and his parents. 21 In a study, it was revealed that 90% of teenagers believed talking with friends had helped them keep mental health and reduce their depression. 26 Teachers also play an important role in young and teenage children's lives. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Background Drug abuse is one of the important variables influencing protective sexual behavior. The objective of this study was to explore how risky sexual behaviors develop in drug abusing women using human ecological theory. Methods In this study, we used a descriptive exploratory approach. The participants were 32 drug abusing women from two of the selected drop-in centers (DICs) in south Tehran, Iran, where we could have access to a vast number of female drug users. Data was collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data using Graneheim and Lundman procedure. Findings Risky sexual behavior in drug use disorders in women was found in four themes with thirteen emerged; sexual untaught at micro-system with two subthemes “unsafe home” and “drop out of school”, Perception of differences at meso-system with three subthemes “lack of link between family and school”, “doing manly behavior” and “low awareness of health puberty than peers”, inappropriate marriages at exo-system with three subthemes “stigma”, “fear of losing love relationship” and “self-devotion”, marginalization at macro-system with four subthemes “barrier access to rights”, “selling sex as a tool of security”, “lack of belief as a sex worker” and “mistrust and doubt partner” using implication of human ecological theory. Conclusion Findings suggest that strategies supporting the discovery of risky sexual behaviors in drug use disorders in women are important in order to provide counseling and education to form their decisions toward safety sex.
  • ... As such, we expect to find differences in meat-centric family cultural food beliefs depending on race/ ethnicity. The recursive relationship between family and culture can be explained using the social ecological framework (Ndiaye et al., 2013;Ryan, 2001). This framework describes how microsystems, or families, are interdependent with the larger cultural system in which they are situated (Hawley, 1986). ...
    ... A person's actual eating behaviors can also be influenced by family, community, society, and the outermost layer of culture (Andrews, Silk, & Eneli, 2010;Flora & Schooler, 1995;Ryan, 2001). Illustrating this influence, Black/African Americans eat more total meat and more beef than non-Hispanic Whites (Gossard & York, 2003), and Hispanics tend to eat more beef than non-Hispanics. ...
    Article
    Consumption of red meat has been linked to a variety of health issues, yet Americans are resistant to reducing their meat consumption. Family communication environments shape beliefs about food and meat consumption, and therefore are locations for potential interventions to change the way people think about food. Families are embedded in cultures, and both family and cultural norms shape beliefs about what people should eat. This study (N = 773) is interested in understanding how family communication is associated with food beliefs, meat consumption, and health issues across three racial/ethnic groups: Black/African American (n = 256), Hispanic (n = 260), non-Hispanic White (n = 257). Structural equation modeling results showed that conversation orientation was consistently associated with stronger endorsement of family cultural food beliefs across race/ethnicity groups. Family food beliefs were associated with either more health issues or more meat consumption depending on race/ethnicity and mediated the association between conversation orientation and health issues/meat consumption. Conversation orientation moderated the association between conformity orientation and food beliefs for Hispanic and non-Hispanic White participants. Implications for family communication patterns theory and health scholars are discussed along with recommendations for culturally tailored family-focused health interventions.
  • ... On the other hand, in order to maximize the interactions and experiences of students, the minitasks, rewards, feedback and the environments afforded through gameplay will be considered based on Kaptelinin's activity theory and Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Kaptelinin, 1996;Kaptelinin, Kuutti, & Bannon, 1995;Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2006;Paquette & Ryan, 2001). The 5 principles defined by the activity theory was previously demonstrated in the development of a Flash game to educate patients on the strengths and doses of an anticoagulant drug -warfarin (Yap et al., 2009). ...
    ... An illustration of how different environments can affect a student's gameplay experience based on Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory(Paquette & Ryan 2001). ...
  • ... Bronfenbrenner maintains that the individual always develops within a context. The theory covers the whole of this context, even though this standpoint has been criticised by Paquette & Ryan (2001). They think that the individual needs to be seen for their individual conditions. ...
    ... When discussing professional development and/ or the constitution of subjects the model is a significant tool for analysing and explaining the forces underlying those developments. Even though other models confront and argue against the Development Ecology model, for example Paquette and Ryan (2001), the model gives a relatively theoretical framework when the starting point is the individual and the belief that development cannot exist without the participation of individual influence and willingness to change. Through the development of, for instance, information technology and access to information, the individual will be given more freedom regarding their space of activity and independence, but also less freedom and space of activity because individuals behave in different ways when acting. ...
    Research
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    This analysis is a theory based reflection out of the development ecology. When studying an organisation, transformation and spheres of influence of professions and in education, the Development Ecology model provides a tool for understanding the encounter between societal, organisational and individual dimensions, a continual meeting point where phenomena and actors occur on different levels, including those of the organisation and society at large. However, the theory of development ecology may be questioned for how it looks at the individual's role in relation to other actors in order to define and understand the forces underlying the professional development. The focus on the individual might prevent the understanding of group wise development. Resilience capacity on a mental, intra level and an entrepreneurial way of building, developing and keeping networks gives the different levels in the Development Ecology model a broader understanding of what stimulates learning processes. Factors relating to both the inside of the individual and social ties between individuals in a group context in relation to global factors need to be discussed.
  • ... The dimension of time is encompassed in this system, because it is related to the environment of the child. Children react differently to environmental changes (Paquette & Ryan, 2001) and it is therefore necessary that support structures take note of learners' and teachers' changing needs in order to successfully provide support. ...
    Article
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    Inclusive education forms the ethos of the education system in South Africa and resonates with the Constitution of the country, which recognises diversity and resists exclusivity. Inclusive education is also reflected in education policies such as the Education White Paper 6: Special Education – Building an Inclusive Education and Training System and the Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support (SIAS) document. Pivotal to inclusive education is the provision of support for all learners and teachers. The focus of this paper is on the functionality of all the formal support structures that are in place for teachers and learners from the teachers’ viewpoints. These support structures include District-Based Support Teams (DBSTs), Institutional-Level Support Teams (ILSTs), Full-Service Schools (FSS), Special Schools as Resource Centres (SSRC), Learning Support Educators (LSEs) and the community. An interpretive research paradigm was chosen, using convenience sampling and data was collected by means of focus group interviews. Constant comparative data analysis was employed. Peer review and member checks were used to ensure trustworthiness. The themes that emerged were: support provided by teachers; the role of official support structures and special schools and community collaboration. It was evident, from the teachers’ point of view, that the formal support structures are not as effective, as proposed by policy and educational authorities, and that the policy needs serious re-consideration. https://doi.org/10.19108/KOERS.81.3.2249
  • ... Most respondents (n=38) could identify the characteristic elements of holistic education, such as, 'educating the whole person; integrating the multidimensional aspects of being human; educating the person as a whole as opposed to an assemblage of parts; educating the person within a whole (i.e., in the whole context of family, school, community, society, culture, and the universe)' (Miller 1991;2001cited in Adams 2006. The responses included an education that created connections with the community, the environment and humane values, all of which resonate with the fundamental principles of an IE approach. ...
  • ... The most immediate agency within the child's environment is the household he/she grows up in, and the family that surrounds the child. Any changes or conflicts that occur within the child's environment will have a ripple effect throughout other layers [18]. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Gymnastics is the umbrella term that represents seven different and unique disciplines of gymnastics. Men and women of all ages and abilities practice this sport, and participation in gymnastics can develop both gross and fine motor skills, strength, flexibility, coordination and balance. There are various social factors, such as a family’s socioeconomic status or accessibility to sports facilities that may play a role in affecting levels of participation. The aim of this study is to investigate the social factors that have an influence on gymnastics participation in the Western Cape. To this end, a qualitative approach is adopted to collect data. This study also adopts the ecological systems theory as the theoretical framework, and is used to analyze and interpret current social factors that directly or indirectly influence participation in gymnastics. The study’s objectives were to ascertain which social factors hinder participation, and which social factors promote participation, thus, coaches, parents and gymnasts participated in focus group discussions. Key informant interviews took place with experts in the field of gymnastics in the Western Cape. A thematic analysis was conducted on transcriptions from the focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Social factors investigated in this study occurred in the chronosystem, macrosystem, exosystem, mesosystem, and microsystem, and had both a direct and indirect influence on the gymnast’s continued participation. These systems are defined as the environment of the individual, in which they grow and develop. The research findings of this paper are used to draw conclusions and make specific recommendations for practice and further research. The information gathered in this study can assist all stakeholders within the field of gymnastics, such as parents, judges, coaches, gymnasts, and the supporting community which surround the participating gymnast.
  • ... Within the intrapersonal context, feelings and cognitive attitudes are the two key concepts (Erikson, 1968;Bandura, 2001;Ajzen & Fishbein, 2005). Love as a feeling or attitude toward self or others is a positive emotion that has psychological origin (Ryan, 2001), therefore, it is exclusively related to self. This feeling develops by one's transition into the interpersonal levels, from which the first is the immediate family. ...
    Article
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    This paper examines the connections between love relationships and self-identity development of two selected heroines belonging to two different minority groups in America -- the Indian and the Chinese. For this purpose, two chick lit novels, Tanuja Desai Hidier’s Born Confused (2002) and Kim Wong Keltner’s The Dim Sum of All Things (2004) are selected. By employing a conceptualised framework, influenced by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems of development and Berry’s model of acculturation, the present paper focuses on the ethnic community and the American society in which the individuals are set. Comparing the love relationships as represented within both novels indicates how the connections and interactions between the selected heroines’ and their self-identity development influence the ways they acculturate with the mainstream culture as well as retain their own ethnicity. Although the theme of love has always dominated the chick lit genre, the present paper aims to fuse the notion of romance with culture and diaspora. This investigation shows how the selected theme is significant in the identity development process of the female protagonists. Therefore, this paper explicates the different aspects of a love relationship with regards to the heroines’ interactions with the ethnic community and the American society. The findings show different cultural orientations between choosing a love target who belongs to the same minority group of the selected heroine and that of the mainstream Caucasian society. Furthermore, the findings indicate the influential role of a love relationship on identity development as represented within the selected novels. © 2016, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Press. All rights reserved.
  • ... The ecodevelopmental framework posits that the family microsystem is the most influential system on adolescent HIV/STI risk behavior (Szapocznik & Coatsworth, 1999). While adolescents are embedded in interrelated and integrated systems (i.e., micro, meso, exo, macro) that influence and are influenced by youth, the family microsystem is the most proximal system through which the effects of other systems on youth operate (Castro, Marsiglia, Kulis, & Kellison, 2011;Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Thus, families characterized by lower levels of family conflict and higher levels of family support may attenuate the effects of macrosystem processes, including gender and cultural norms and social class differences, on adolescent HIV/STI risk behaviors and STI. ...
    Article
    We examined the effects of family functioning trajectories on sexual risk behaviors and STI in adolescents. A sample of 850 predominantly (80%) Black adolescents from Michigan, United States, was assessed at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months postbaseline. Adolescents were from working-class families with a mean age of 14.9 years (SD = .64, Range = 13.9 to 16.9) at baseline. Participants completed measures of family functioning at each time point. At 36 months postbaseline, levels of sexual risk behaviors, including sex initiation, unprotected sex, and alcohol or drug use before last sexual intercourse, and STIs were assessed. Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) yielded 4-class solutions for family conflict and parent support. Adolescents with high or increasing family conflict trajectories, and low or decreasing family support trajectories, were at relatively greater risk of sexual risk behaviors and STIs. Yet, the additional trajectories differ across outcomes highlighting the complexities of the role of family functioning on sexual risk behaviors and STIs over time. Multiple Group LCGA indicate some findings vary as a function of gender. (PsycINFO Database Record
  • ... Student mood could be an indicator of how to deal with the child to ensure his or her safety as it tends to indicate what is happening internally, according to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). The participants reported that if there were a starving student who needed food, there would always be food in the schools for the students to ensure their biological fitness before teaching them (Shanker, 2013). ...
    Thesis
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    Culturally Responsive Teaching of Indigenous Students in Canada's Northwest Territories by Francis Amprako MS, Walden University, 2010 Abstract The purpose of this qualitative narrative inquiry was to describe the teachers' perceptions
  • ... These positive influences will, in turn, promote healthy child development. The final ecosystem is the macrosystem, which contains overarching values, ideologies, laws, worldviews, and customs of a particular culture or society ( Figure-1) 4 . ...
  • ... Within the ecological theory of development, he identified four levels of environmental influences on child: Microsystems (family, kindergarten, school), Mesosystem (mutual action of different Microsystems), Exosystem (wider environment) and Macrosystem (features of certain culture: education, religion, social system) (Brajša-Žganec, 2003). Paquette and Ryan (2001) analysing ecological theory suggest that the child is in the centre of the system, while the layers of the environment are getting wider around him/her in concentrated circles, and they stronger and weaker influence on his/her development. Bronfenbrenner also underlines that overall context in which the children's development is carried out importantly influences the course of development and development outcomes, and without neglecting individual features of the child and believes that the development is a result of interaction of child's features and environment in which the child grows (Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994). ...
    Article
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    Theory of origins of the paper starts from holistic and humanistic approach to upbringing and education, which has agoal of comprehensive development of student. An integral children’s development can be encouraged by thoughtfulplanning of school activities in the school curriculum. Co-creators of the school curriculum (teachers, students andparents) need to create different school activities that will give a chance to the students to express their knowledge,skills and capabilities, and to develop socially as well. In the period of middle childhood there is a special importanceis of the social development because the first friendships are made than, strengthens the influence of the school at thesocial development, and the influence of the family is still present there.In order to understand better the children’s social development the paper will display the theories of socialdevelopment and the research results of the influences on social development of the student. Understanding of thefamily, school and peer influences on the social development of the student is of an extreme importance as a startingpoint for creating school activities that would encourage not only social but also integral development of the students.
  • ... EST is a well-developed theory that accentuates the importance of taking into account an 'entire ecological system' in which human development takes place 'in order to understand human development' (Bronfenbrenner 1994, 37) and to offer effective support. The ecological system consists of five socially systematised subsystems (structure of the environment), the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and the chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner 1994;Paquette and Ryan 2001). This is important as children with SEBD are or may be involved 'in more than one community or microsystem [at school; at home; in community] and are subject to the influence of [these] different ecosystems' (Laluvein 2007, 79). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Many school children throughout the world who exhibit antisocial or destructive behaviour or have social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) do not receive the support they need. As a result, they are caught up in a cycle of vulnerability. Systemic collaborative support is needed to counter this. Although in some cases teachers and other professionals join forces, interventions are usually affected by individual professionals outside the framework of inclusive education. This literature review paper explores the support children with SEBD in school contexts receive. The findings of the thematic document analysis highlight the vulnerability of children with SEBD, the success or otherwise of attempts made by various approaches and intervention programmes to provide support to these children, and the barriers to inclusive support. We argue the merits of adopting a Community of Practice as an inclusive model to support school children with SEBD. This kind of inclusive model strengthens constructive partnerships that provide these children with opportunities to acquire the social capital they need to engage meaningfully at schools and in their future life.
  • ... However, through the concept of the ecology of human development, these disparate environments were integrated into a holistic conceptual framework of interdependent nested systems where human development was viewed as a continuum [37]. Bronfenbrenner viewed a 'child's development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment' with each complex 'layer' influencing the development [38]. His own conception of the theory was as 'a set of nested structures, each inside the next, like a set of Russian dolls' [4]. ...
    Chapter
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    Free Download: http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/open-innovation-20-yearbook-2013
  • ... Student mood could be an indicator of how to deal with the child to ensure his or her safety as it tends to indicate what is happening internally, according to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). The participants reported that if there were a starving student who needed food, there would always be food in the schools for the students to ensure their biological fitness before teaching them (Shanker, 2013). ...
  • ... The dimension of time is encompassed in this system, because it is related to the environment of the child. Children react differently to environmental changes (Paquette & Ryan, 2001) and it is therefore necessary that support structures take note of learners' and teachers' changing needs in order to successfully provide support. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The purpose of this article is to listen to John Calvin’s view on the place of Israel from his exegesis of Romans 9-11, against the backdrop of the history of Christian exegesis of this same passage. After establishing that Calvin’s view of Israel and the Jews was primarily determined by his biblical exegesis (and not so much by any noteworthy interaction with the Jews of his time), the historical voices of Origen, Ambrose, Augustine, Pelagius and Glossa Ordinaria are explored. In the last part Calvin’s exegesis of Romans 9-11 is investigated. This investigation makes clear that Calvin is not caught up in a dogmatic discussion of predestination, but that he rather focuses on Paul’s preaching with regards to Israel. There is the scandalum of Israel’s unbelief whereby the visible body of the people of Israel has been generally rejected. But this is not a complete rejection. The secret election of God means that there is still an adoption, which is completely grounded in God’s grace. Calvin has a broad understanding of ‘Israel’ which includes both Jewish and gentile Christians. But for the reformer of Geneva the Jews always remain the firstborn in God’s house. Regarding the Jewish people as a collective, Calvin does not harbour any particular expectations. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie artikel is om te luister na Johannes Calvyn se visie op die plek van Israel vanuit sy eksegese van Romeine 9-11, teen die agtergrond van die geskiedenis van die Christelike Bybeluitleg van dieselfde gedeelte. Nadat vasgestel is dat Calvyn se visie op Israel en die Jode primêr bepaal is deur sy Bybeluitleg (en nie soseer deur enige noemenswaardige omgang met die Jode van sy tyd nie), klink agtereenvolgens die stemme van Origenes, Ambrosius, Augustinus, Pelagius en die Glossa Ordinaria. In die laaste gedeelte word Calvyn se eksegese van Romeine 9-11 ondersoek. Hierdie ondersoek maak duidelik dat Calvyn nie vasgevang is in ’n dogmatiese behandeling van die uitverkiesing nie, maar dat hy eerder die aandag rig op Paulus se prediking met betrekking tot Israel. Deur die scandalum van Israel se ongeloof is daar ’n algemene verwerping van die sigbare volk. Maar dit is geen algehele verwerping nie. Die geheime uitverkiesing van God beteken dat daar steeds ’n aanneming is, wat volledig in God se genade gegrond is. Calvyn het ’n breë verstaan van ‘Israel’ – dit sluit sowel Joodse Christene as Christene uit die heidendom in. Vir die Geneefse hervormer bly die Jode egter altyd die eersgeborenes in God se huis. Wat betref die Joodse volk as kollektief, koester Calvyn geen besondere verwagting nie. https://doi.org/10.19108/KOERS.82.1.2351
  • ... Misbehaving students may experience problems in their instructional relationships especially with teachers, reducing the opportunities for positive social engagement, classroom participation and supportive instruction and feedback. The interactions between students and teachers are what Bronfenbrenner (1994) calls a "bi-directional influence" (Paquette & Ryan, 2001) in which students affect the belief and behaviour of teachers while teachers also influence the behaviour and belief of their students. Similarly, "teachers feel more efficacious when their students do well, and students do well when teachers feel more efficacious" (Rimm-Kaufman & Sawyer, 2004, p. 322). ...
    Article
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    Casualties and physical destruction of the 2004 tsunami in Aceh are well documented in the literature. However, little is known about lives of teachers and students after the tragedy, particularly about the teaching and learning including teacher-student instructional relationships at the affected schools in the province. This cross-sectional qualitative case study, which was conducted between April and October 2010 at a public junior high school in Banda Aceh that was severely affected by the Aceh 2004 tsunami, provided evidences that the tragedy affected the quality of teachers’ teaching and teacher-student relationships. Data were obtained from semi- structured interviews with ten students from the school, supported by data collection observations over a period of six months. In general, the students commented about their teachers in negative terms. This included students’ deficit views about teachers’ lack of commitment on their teaching practice and their poor interactions with students at the school, affecting the quality of students’ learning at the school.
  • ... Bronfenbrenner (cited in Paquette and Ryan 2011) refers to the interactions within an environment and between environments as having both a direct and indirect effect on the child's development. However, the interactions within the microsystem are considered most significant in terms of influencing the child's attitudes and behaviours towards individuals, structures, institutions and processes in other environments (Paquette and Ryan 2011). The exosystem, on the other hand, refers to structures and factors outside of the immediate environment of the child. ...
    Article
    Current debates on citizenship and democracy highlight the salience of cooperative relations between government and its citizens. Scholars observe that governments and its institutions function better where there is cooperation and trust. However, evidence suggests that political interest is waning and trust in government, dwindling. More especially, concerns about the effects of youth disengaging from political life are increasing. This phenomenon is more worrying in young democracies, where democratic traditions and principles are still evolving. This study examines the effect of family politicisation on youth trust in government. This quantitative study used a cross-sectional correlational research design. A two-level approach was adopted. At the first level we examined the prevalence of political discussions in the home and the trust attitudes of the family (as indicators of family politicisation) and youth towards government. At a second level we conducted a regression analysis to determine relationships between parent-adolescent communication and youth trust in government; family trust in government and youth trust in government; and finally, parent-adolescent communication and family trust on youth trust in government. The results suggest that a combination of parent- adolescent communication and family trust in government in a model, significantly positively predicts youth trust in government.
  • ... (Bronfenbrenner, 2005;Bronfenbrenner ve Morris, 2006). Kurama göre çocuğun etkileşimde bulunduğu sistemlerin birinde yaşanan sorunlar diğer sistemleri de etkilemektedir (Ryan, 2001). Ekolojik kuramdan yola çıkarak program tasarlanırken, çocuğun etkileşimde bulunduğu çevre göz önünde bulundurulmuştur. ...
    Thesis
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    In this study, it was aimed at investigating the social adaptation of immigrant families' children who study in 6th and 7th grade in the schools of Ministry of National Education and determining whether the social adaptation training affect the social adaptation of immigrant families' children studying in 6th and 7th grade. The study group of the dissertation consisted of 20 immigrant children who study in 6th and 7th grade of secondary schools of Ministry of National Education in Üzümlü district of Erzincan in 2017-2018 academic year. Also, other 20 immigrant children who study in 6th and 7th grade of secondary schools and have similar socio-economic characteristics were chosen for the control group. Quantitative research method with experimental design, pre-test, post-test and control group was used in the study. The data of the study were collected via "need recognition form", "social adaptation scale" and "general information form" developed by the researcher. The social adaptation training program which was prepared to increase the immigrant children's social adaptation was applied to experimental group total 24 sessions; during three months, twice a week and an hour a day. Also, the children in the control group continued their usual education. As a result of the analysis of obtained data, it was found that post-test scores of the children in the experimental group were significantly higher than their pre-test scores (p< .05) and there was no significant difference between post-test scores and permanence scores (p> .05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the children in the control group (p> .05). The obtained findings showed that the social adaptation training program prepared by the researcher was effective in increasing immigrant children's social adaptation. The obtained results were discussed with the literature and some suggestions were presented.
  • ... The concept also provides an understanding of diverse ecosystems and their functions. The environmental characteristics focus on the interactions among the chemical, biological, and physical components of the environment and the effects of these interactions on all types of organisms [55]. ...
    Article
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    This study aims to investigate the role of environmental system knowledge in promoting pro-environmental behaviors. Relationships between environmental knowledge and environmental attitudes as well as environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behaviors were analyzed. Environmental system knowledge includes knowledge of political ecology, sustainable development, environment and ecology, and environmental situations. This study included 128 students enrolling in the elective course entitled “Environment and Development” provided by the King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok city of Thailand and 150 students who were not participating in this course. The results revealed that environmental attitudes of students participating in the course was significantly higher than that of students not attending the course. Only knowledge of the environment and ecology highly correlated with environmental attitudes; on the other hand, diverse environmental knowledge significantly correlated with pro-environmental behaviors. The result also demonstrated that indirect impact environmental behaviors reported by both groups were statistically different, but there was no significant difference in direct impact environmental behaviors. This study suggested that environmental knowledge provided through a formal education could promote environmental attitudes, but it may not contribute to students’ engagement in direct impact environmental behaviors.
  • ... Ühe olulise nõrkusena on esile toodud mudeli vähene paindlikkus ning süsteemide osaline kattuvus, millest tuleneb selle keerukas rakendamine päris elu olukordades (Houston, 2015). Samuti on mudelit kritiseeritud põhjusel, et see keskendub liialt isikut ümbritsevale keskkonnale ega arvesta asjaolu, et areng ei saa toimuda ilma üksikisiku enda rolli ja panuseta, st isik peab ise olema muutusteks valmis (Paquette & Ryan, 2011). Samal seisukohal on ka Christensen (2016), kui ta rõhutab, et Bronfenbrenneri bioökoloogiline mudel ei käsitle isikut iseseisva tegutsejana, kellel on valmisolek luua, võtta riske ja täita oma vajadusi. ...
    Thesis
    Full-text available
    Research (Chaudron, 2015; Marsh, et al., 2015) suggests that present-day young children (0-3 years old) gain their first experiences with touchscreen devices during their first months of life. In fact, it has been claimed that present-day young children live in media-rich homes where digital technologies create additional opportunities for young children's play (Yelland, 2015). Parental awareness of potential risks and opportunities of digital device use is, unfortunately, still quite low (Vinter, 2013; Kalmus, 2012). In fact, parents tend to believe that digital device use helps to support the development of young children and therefore they tend to favour the use of smart devices amongst infants and toddlers (Barr, 2013; Plowman et al., 2012), regardless of the fact that the ability of young children to learn from screens is difficult due to their video deficits (Deloache & Chiong, 2009). In other words, young children tend to learn more from real-life situations than from screens because, due to the lack of cognitive skills and life experience, infants and toddlers have difficulties in understanding symbolic objects and fail to transfer two-dimensional images from screens to real life (Barr, 2013; Zack et al., 2009). The main aim of the thesis was to explore young children’s (0-3years old) digital play and its mediation by parents and older siblings, and to explore the roles that parents and older siblings can take on when mediating young children's digital play. In addition, I aimed to create a typology of the mediator roles of Estonian parents and to analyse what roles toddlers' themselves play during digital play. Based on the above-mentioned research aims, the following research questions were formulated: (1) What are the parents' opinions of 0-3 year old's experiences with digital play? (I, II). (2) How important parents consider digital play in supporting the toddler’s development? (I, II, IV). (3) What mediation strategies and mediator roles can parents employ in the digital play of young children? (I, III, IV). (4) What is the role of older siblings in 0-3-year-olds' digital play? (III, IV, V), and (5) What roles do young children take on in digital play? (III, V).
  • ... Poor children, who are often children of color, are particularly vulnerable to environmental health disparities. From an ecological perspective, children's development is not only influenced by their immediate environment, but also by their larger neighborhood and school environments (Institute for Child, Youth and Family Policy, 2018; Paquette & Ryan, 2001). For example, asthma and other chronic diseases have been linked to homes and schools' proximity to toxic waste release sites and busy, highly traveled roads. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    While poor and vulnerable populations often contribute significantly less to environmental problems, they are significantly more likely to suffer from adverse economic and health effects caused by environmental problems. Poor children, who are often children of color, are particularly vulnerable to environmental health disparities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of the Childhood Opportunity Index, to assess asthma disparities among children in a SW Florida metropolitan area and discuss its implications for strengthening public health policy. Used in conjunction with 2017 Florida Environmental Public Health Tracking data of children’s asthma related emergency room visits, results based on application of this measure revealed that children who live within high child opportunity tracts generally experienced fewer asthma-related emergency room visits than did children who live within low child opportunity tracts. As the racial and ethnic composition of large metropolitan areas in the United States continues to increase, more research should focus on these dynamics and their influence on healthy development of children. The Child Opportunity Index is a useful tool in identifying communities that face educational, environmental and economic disadvantages, and further analysis based on this index may help to inform policies and promote more equitable health outcomes.
  • ... Taking a socio-ecological 18 There are large differences in access within and among countries, including a digital gap between urban and rural areas and between rich and poor. 20 Table 1). ...
    Technical Report
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    This paper highlights examples of existing C4D programming enhanced by the use of ICT tools.The authors look at the advantages and risks of utilizing ICTs in the context of programming for and with marginalized adolescent girls.They discuss successful initiatives, and they raise points that need further clarity and documentation. For instance, the challenges of adopting ICTs in programming with adolescent girls remain.The digital divide means the most marginalized girls still lack access to mobile devices and computers, 3 and the dangers of trafficking, fraud, sexual harassment, cyber bullying, child pornography and sexting put them at constant risk when using ICTs.
  • ... Within the ecology, is the PhD student who is directly interacting with his microsystems (family, friends, supervisor, peers), and in turn interacts with him in a bi-directional manner. This interaction has the greatest of influence and impact on the PhD student, within the positive-negative continuum (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Obtaining a PhD is slowly becoming the status quo of continuing education, opening doors to careers not only in the field of academe, but as well as in the professional fields. The process of successfully attaining a PhD is therefore a worthwhile topic for future and current student alike. This paper aims to shed light to the central question " how to successfully obtain a PhD? " A qualitative research case study deign was used to follow the experiences of the central actor in this research who recounts his experiences and thoughts on his PhD journey. Content and thematic analysis was used to analyse one-on-one interview transcripts, researcher's participant observation notes, and a review of documents related to the participant. Using theories by Bronfenbrenner (1989) and Csikszentmihalyi (1988), the research concludes that in the pursuit of successfully obtain a PhD, one is subjected into a balanced dynamic web of systems where the individual's intrinsic motivation dictates the fit of how the process should flow towards attaining that elusive three letter word at the end of your name.
  • ... Possible risk and protective factors related to illicit drug use by adolescents exist in individual, family, peer, and school domains. Bronfenbrenner's bioecological systems theory (Paquette and Ryan, 2001) indicates that individual biology, family/ community environment, and the societal landscape all have an impact on child development and, by extension, on risk and protective factors for alcohol and tobacco use (Hong et al., 2011) and the use of illicit drugs (Hemphill et al., 2011). ...
    Article
    Objective: The use of illicit drugs by adolescents is a widespread problem in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to identify risk and protective factors. Design: Web-based survey of high school students. Setting: Senior high schools and vocational high schools in northern Taiwan. Method: Survey data were collected from 15,754 students. Logistic regression analysis examined potential risk and protective factors in individual, family and peer/school domains for lifetime, past-year and past-month illicit drug use and the single and/or multiple use of ketamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and marijuana. Results: The prevalence rates of illicit drug use varied from 1.18% to 2.19% by frequency and type of illicit drug use. Perceived availability of illicit drugs, betel nut chewing, drug use by a family member, peer drug use, missing classes and type of school were significant risk factors in lifetime, past-year and past-month use. Sensation seeking, family member and peer drug use were common factors in ketamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and marijuana use. Drug use by a family member increased the risk of multiple drug use. Smoking was a risk factor for ketamine use. Drug-related knowledge was a protective factor. Conclusions: These findings support the idea that there exist multilevel risk and protective factors for drug use, especially in the family and peer/school domains. School-based interventions should be designed to integrate different levels of risk and protective factors.
  • ... This process would involve examining the existing literature and consultation with policy makers and other stakeholders to develop, test and agree upon a framework. For instance, ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner and Morris, 2007) has been adapted and applied to policy in a range of areas including violence prevention (Krug et al., 2002), tackling social inequities (Dahlgren and Whitehead, 2006) and early years education (Ryan, 2001). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    A number of barriers have been identified to getting evidence into policy. In particular, a lack of policy relevance and lack of timeliness have been identified as causing tension between researchers and policy makers. Rapid reviews are used increasingly as an approach to address timeliness, however, there is a lack of consensus on the most effective review methods and they do not necessarily address the need of policy makers. In the course of our work with the Scottish Government’s Review of maternity and neonatal services we developed a new approach to evidence synthesis, which this paper will describe. We developed a standardised approach to produce collaborative, targeted and efficient evidence reviews for policy making. This approach aimed to ensure the reviews were policy relevant, high quality and up-to-date, and which were presented in a consistent, transparent, and easy to access format. The approach involved the following stages: 1) establishing a review team with expertise both in the topic and in systematic reviewing, 2) clarifying the review questions with policy makers and subject experts (i.e., health professionals, service user representatives, researchers) who acted as review sponsors, 3) developing review protocols to systematically identify quantitative and qualitative review-level evidence on effectiveness, sustainability and acceptability; if review level evidence was not available, primary studies were sought, 4) agreeing a framework to structure the analysis of the reviews around a consistent set of key concepts and outcomes; in this case a published framework for maternal and newborn care was used, 5) developing an iterative process between policy makers, reviewers and review sponsors, 6) rapid searches and retrieval of literature, 7) analysis of identified literature which was mapped to the framework and included review sponsor input, 8) production of recommendations mapped to the agreed framework and presented as ‘summary topsheets’ in a consistent and easy to read format. Our approach has drawn on different components of pre-existing rapid review methodology to provide a rigorous and pragmatic approach to rapid evidence synthesis. Additionally, the use of a framework to map the evidence helped structure the review questions, expedited the analysis and provided a consistent template for recommendations, which took into account the policy context. We therefore propose that our approach (described in this paper) can be described as producing collaborative, targeted and efficient evidence reviews for policy makers.
  • The Edutainment Violence Intervention/Prevention Model (EVIP) is an exciting intervention to be used with Black adolescents who have been or will be exposed to the trauma of police brutality. Since such exposure to violence is associated with a diversity of negative consequences in developing adolescents, social workers need interventions to help Black adolescents acquire skills to navigate police interactions and to make sense of the brutality they witness. This article delineates the conceptual rationale, needed skills, and steps for implementing EVIP. EVIP incorporates the Centers for Disease Control’s best practices for violence prevention programs and is congruent with Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy. EVIP uses media, such as live theater, to give educational messages in an entertaining format. A pilot study has indicated that this intervention has promise. Furthermore, it is engaging and enables participants to explore multiple perspectives. This intervention can be seamlessly embedded by social workers in schools, churches, community centers, and other settings.
  • Chapter
    In line with compensation age theory (CAT; Lifshitz-Vahav, 2015), adults with severe or profound ID should be considered accessible to change despite the severity of their disability and despite their older chronological age, past the supposedly critical period of adolescence. This chapter provides empirical evidence supporting the assertion that even adults with severe and profound ID can benefit from intervention based on the triple CAB (cognition, affect, behavior) model, which includes not only exposure to adaptive behavior skills training but also mediation efforts systematically designed to promote three skill domains. This chapter reviews how the CAB model was first applied to this unique population in two rehabilitation centers for adults with severe and profound ID, by leveraging staff-client interactions in order to mediate adult clients’ cognitive functioning (the C in CAB), affective skills comprising values and autonomy (the A in CAB), and self-regulation of behavior during task performance (the B in CAB). The adults who participated in the intervention improved their cognitive, emotional, and behavioral competencies; then, the triple CAB was further developed for implementation with these challenging populations with severe and profound levels of ID. Practical recommendations are provided for diverse applications of the triple CAB approach in settings for these more challenging populations.
  • Article
    This study investigated child detachment as a correlate of social well-being among orphaned children from selected orphanages in Ibadan and Abeokuta. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. A total of 350 respondents were purposively selected from the four orphanages using purposive sampling technique. The study found that the support and care received by the respondents have positive significant effects on their physical well-being and self-esteem. The study also showed that there is high prevalence of paternal death and loss of bread winners in households which has economic implication on the lives of the children. The findings showed that institutional care has beneficial effect on the lives of orphaned children especially in the urban setting as against the rural setting where extended family is still functioning. The study made some recommendations which include staff development training for proprietors and workers in orphanages to provide familylike environment for orphans in their custody. © 2015, Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research. All rights reserved.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The purpose of this study is to examine the environmental factors affecting decision making process of managers within the framework of ecological systems theory. Ecological systems theory, examines the interaction between organisms and the outside world. All managers take into consider the external environmental elements and actions in various degrees. Therefore managers should identify, assess and respond to the environmental forces that influence the organization's actions. Environmental factors seem to be very important in management in terms of the effects on the organization. In this context, a qualitative approach has been adopted in the research. The research was conducted on school principals working at different levels of schools in Şahinbey district of Gaziantep province. In the selection of school principals, working as an administrator at least for 2 years of school principals has been identified as the main criterion. According to this basic criterion, with 19 school directors who worked during the 2012-2013 school year were made face to face interviews on the basis of volunteerism. Participants were given a list of environmental factors that could affect them, and they were asked to identify the factors that affected them and put them in order of importance. Later, they were asked how these factors affected themselves. The obtained data were analyzed by means of"descriptive analysis" and frequency values from qualitative research techniques. It has been revealed that the most influential factors in the direction of the obtained data are Ministry of Education, laws and ethical rules. Therefore, it can be said that in the decision-making process, managers are under the influence of the exosystem and macrosystem, rather than the microsystem.
  • Article
    Objectives Self-efficacy is the belief a person has regarding his success in completing a task. A high level of self-efficacy can affect one’s thoughts and motivation to complete tasks well. Conversely, someone with low self-efficacy has a tendency to avoid difficult tasks. Self-efficacy can play a role in success in the future. This study aimed to develop a self-efficacy model for junior and senior high school students based on religious and family determinants. Method This study used a cross-sectional design and simple sampling technique. The calculation result involved 158 samples. The independent variables were religious and family determinants. The dependent variable was self-efficacy. The data were collected using a questionnaire that was tested for validity and reliability. The analysis used a multiple linear regression test with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. Results The results showed self-efficacy was effectively determined by religion, communication, bonding and parenting factors. Overall, religion had the greatest role in influencing self-efficacy. Bonding and communication had an indirect effect on self-efficacy through parenting factors mediators. Conclusion Parenting factors influence self-efficacy indirectly through bonding and communication; however, parenting factors cannot be ignored. Religion was the biggest determinant of self-efficacy and capital of good self-control and strong conviction in completing tasks and achieving goals.
  • Article
    African American (AA) women are victimized by intimate partner violence (IPV) at a disproportionate rate; however, few studies have examined such women’s affective responses to violence. An experimental study was conducted to assess the predictive ability of type of simulated IPV and change in self-reported state anxiety on changes in self-reported quality of life (QOL) for 38 AA female survivors of IPV. IPV type and state anxiety change explained a significant portion of the variance in QOL change, R² = .16, F(2, 35) = 3.42, p = .05. Data provide indirect evidence that exposure to IPV may be a cue that reminds women of their experiences of violence or the problem of IPV for AA women, which prompts more negative attitudes toward general well-being.
  • Thesis
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    Bu araştırmanın amacı, Nusaybin ilçesinde okul dışına itilme nedenlerini belirlemektir. Bu doğrultuda bir grup okul dışına itilen ergenin okul deneyimleri, okul dışına itilme süreci, okul dışına itilme nedenleri ve okul dışına itilme sonrası yaşantıları ile Nusaybin’de öğretmenlik yapan bir grup öğretmenin okul dışında kalma nedenleri, okuldan ayrılan öğrenciler ile yaşadıkları deneyimlere ilişkin anlatılarını irdeleyerek nitel araştırma ile kuramsal bir çerçeve oluşturmaktır. Türkiye’de genelde okul terki ve okul dışına itilme ile ilgili çok sınırlı bir araştırma bulunmaktadır ve bu doğrultuda bu alandaki araştırma ve yazına katkıda bulunulması amaçlanmaktadır. Bu çalışma ile sınır bölgesinde bulunan bir ilçenin okul dışına itilme nedenleri ortaya konulmuştur. Araştırma sonuçları; sosyal bağlam içinde aile ve okul yaşantıları öğrencilerin okula devamında engellemelere neden olduğu; yani öğrencilerin okul dışına itildikleri saptanmıştır. Aile yaşantılarında ekonomik nedenler, cinsiyetçilik, ailenin eğitim yaşantıları ve dil faktörü gibi etmenler engellilik teşkil ederken, okul yaşantılarında ise okulun disiplin pratikleri, öğrencilerin davranış problemleri, eğitimin anlamı ve arkadaşların etkisi gibi etmenler öğrencilerin okula devamlarında engellemelere neden olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Her iki grubun anlatılarına göre, aile yaşantıları okul yaşantılarını doğrudan etkilediği yönündedir.
  • Article
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    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners’ social and economic circumstances. Notwithstanding this fact, there is a worldwide trend towards a more punitive and retributory management approach to address learner absenteeism. Because such an approach neglects to consider absentees’ specific circumstances, it fails to address learner absenteeism properly. In the first part of this article, the authors considered the suitability of the ecosystemic theory as basis for a management approach that will acknowledge the full range of contextual risk factors that may exist in absentee learners’ living environment. The authors argue in favour of a transnational and generic ecosystemic approach, with an inherent focus on contexts and interrelatedness, as a suitable approach to managing learner absenteeism. The second part of this article focuses on an analysis of South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism, to determine whether it supports an ecosystemic approach to managing learner absenteeism. The authors found that, while South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism mostly support an ecosystemic approach to managing learner absenteeism, some prescriptions of the Policy on Learner Attendance do not. After making some recommendations in this regard, the authors conclude with generic guidelines to managing learner absenteeism. © 2016, Foundation for Education Science and Technology. All rights reserved.
  • Article
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    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh faktor ekologis terhadap gaya pengasuhan, dengan mempertimbangkan pengaruh status sosial ekonomi, etnis, dukungan sekolah, dan masyarakat/lingkungan dukungan orang tua dalam penerapan gaya pengasuhan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian cross sectional yang menggunakan metode survei sebagai desain penelitian dan menggunakan kuesioner sebagai alat pengumpulan data. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah para ibu dari 400 orang siswa dari kelas 10 hingga kelas 12 di SMU Budhi Warman I, Jakarta Timur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai orang tua [subscale goal incentives from children] memiliki perbedaan yang nyata berdasarkan etnis yang dimiliki oleh ayah, etnis ibu [subscale continuity, tradition, and security], dan status sosial ekonomi [subscale happiness and affection]. Dalam hal gaya pengasuhan terdapat perbedaan yang nyata pada gaya pengasuhan berdasarkan etnis ayah (gaya pengasuhan permisif) dan status sosial ekonomi (gaya pengasuhan otoriter). Hubungan keluarga-sekolah dan hubungan keluarga-masyarakat memiliki korelasi positif dan signifikan dengan nilai orang tua dan dengan gaya pengasuhan. Sebaliknya, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa status sosial ekonomi dan etnis tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan nilai orang tua dan gaya pengasuhan. Beberapa analisis regresi menunjukkan bahwa nilai orang tua merupakan moderator parsial yang signifikan untuk menengahi hubungan antara hubungan keluarga-sekolah dan keluarga-masyarakat berkaitan dengan gaya pengasuhan.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder of childhood which has complex ramifications and epilepsy related seizures can differ widely in terms of severity and in parts of the brain affected. A boy aged 14 years, presented to a tertiary hospital with complaints of jerky movements during sleep. Lack of sleep and stressful home environment acted as precipitating factors for his seizures.Psycho-social interventions was done focusing on psycho-education about epilepsy andby developing an emotionally coherent narrative which aimed at helping child to improve his relationship with his mother.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The paper provides a renewed framework for framing technology user environments among higher educational institutions. We propose the need to explore and understand the appropriate technology user environment as a prerequisite to deploying technologies in institutions of higher learning. The proposed framework developed from the perspective of the bioecological theory. The use of technologies for teaching and learning naturally takes place in a bio-ecological environment. It is now acceptable that the academic environments in which technologies are deployed and used have primary features associated with the bioecological theory. Some writers and researchers have therefore related the deployment of technologies in tertiary institutions to the bio-ecological theory. Some of these studies lack emphases on users of technology in an academic environment. Moreover, some individual conceptual studies have failed to recognize some important arms of the natural framework. We also consider the body of evidence on the subject subtle. We, therefore, want to uphold the need to know and understand the appropriate technology user environment as a prerequisite to deploying technologies in higher institutions by revealing a renewed framework for framing it. In this paper, we use conceptual and theoretical studies that employ the bio-ecological theory in forming frameworks relating to technology user environments. The studies used are largely from peer-reviewed journals, but we also used to work and white papers written on the subject. The typical technology user environment has essential features of the bioecological theory. A resounding attribute of this environment is the links or harmony between its subjects (users) and how these relationships extend to choices of technologies, user characteristics and the specific uses of technologies for students, faculty members and institutional management. Management of higher academic institutions can frame their technology user environments by considering the dimensions of the bio-ecological theory (i.e. microsystem factors, mesosystem factors, exosystem factors, and macrosystem factors) along the lines of choices of technologies, user characteristics (such as skills and ability to use technologies) and the specific uses of technologies for students, faculty members and institutional management.
  • Thesis
    The presence of pre-packed items contributes toward littering in schools and at home milieu. Most people particularly, and learners’ discard packages of prepacked wrappers on the ground, thus contribute to littering. This study is intended to help all relevant stakeholders to plan activities that could reduce littering. The study is grounded within the critical theory and living paradigm exploring the effect of household and school practices on learners’ environmental awareness (EA) towards littering. This case study employed action research as a methodology to unpack the problem. Fourteen learners, who are referred to as co-researchers in this study, were selected randomly from seven classes and their parents were inevitably included in the study. Three cycles were conducted with the co-researchers. Five data collection methods are used to collect data. Tables, score total percentages and coding used to analyse data. The results of the study show that environmental activities could be useful within home and school setup and continued practice of environmental activities will in the end conscientise learners towards littering if approached through action research.
  • Mentoring programs: Promise and paradox
    • M Hamilton
    • S Hamilton
    Hamilton, M., & Hamilton, S. (1992). Mentoring programs: Promise and paradox. Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 546-550.
  • Education and parental involvement in secondary schools: Problems, solutions, and effects. Educational Psychology Interactive
    • J Labahn
    q LaBahn, J. (1995). Education and parental involvement in secondary schools: Problems, solutions, and effects. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.
  • Communities for children
    • R Lewis
    • J Morris
    Lewis, R., & Morris, J. (1998). Communities for children. Educational Leadership, 55, 34-36.
  • recs.) Anglican -attend at least yearly Anglican -confirmed Anglican Catholic Church: 20,000 (3 recs.) Anglican Church of Canada (4 recs
    • S Overman
    Overman, S. (1999). Gearing up tomorrow's workforce. HR Focus, 76, 14-18. Anglican -active: 23,000,000 (3 recs.) Anglican -attend at least yearly Anglican -confirmed Anglican Catholic Church: 20,000 (3 recs.) Anglican Church of Canada (4 recs.) Anglican Church of North America Anglican Communion: 78,000,000 (10 recs.)
  • Article
    A 1986 collaboration between a Fort Worth community group and middle school evolved into a network of 32 alliance schools in 1992-93. Aided by improvement-minded parents, community leaders, and educators, the alliance now has 100 schools in disadvantaged Texas communities. Community involvement contributes to improvements in conditions and resources supporting learning, stakeholders' attitudes, and the depth and quality of participants' learning experiences. (MLH)
  • Article
    Teachers and administrators are not adequately prepared to address the range of children's social and psychological needs but must rely on parental and community assistance. Instead of merely referring students to social services and health departments, schools must become multiple-service brokers and forge broad community alliances to protect and enhance children's well-being. (18 references) (MLH)