Article

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

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Abstract

Ecological systems theory: This theory looks at a child's development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment. Bronfenbrenner's theory defines complex "layers" of environment, each having an effect on a child's development. This theory has recently been renamed "bioecological systems theory" to emphasize that a child's own biology is a primary environment fueling her development. The interaction between factors in the child's maturing biology, his immediate family/community environment, and the societal landscape fuels and steers his development. Changes or conflict in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers. To study a child's development then, we must look not only at the child and her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger environment as well. The various terms in this graphic are links that lead to pages explaining their implications in this theory. The microsystem – this is the layer closest to the child and contains the structures with which the child has direct contact. The microsystem encompasses the relationships and interactions a child has with her immediate surroundings (Berk, 2000). Structures in the microsystem include family, school, neighborhood, or childcare environments. At this level, relationships have impact in two directions -both away from the child and toward the child. For example, a child's parents may affect his beliefs and behavior; however, the child also affects the behavior and beliefs of the parent. Bronfenbrenner calls these bi-directional influences, and he shows how they occur among all levels of environment. The interaction of structures within a layer and interactions of structures between layers is key to this theory. At the microsystem level, bi-directional influences are strongest and have the greatest impact on the child. However, interactions at outer levels can still impact the inner structures. The mesosystem – this layer provides the connection between the structures of the child's microsystem (Berk, 2000). Examples: the connection between the child's teacher and his parents, between his church and his neighborhood, etc.

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... The macrosystem, which is the outermost layer and is formed by such things as the cultural values of a community, including customs and laws. And finally, the chronosystem, is how the child is affected by timing as they develop, such as puberty, or the death of a relative (Berk, 2000;Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Ryan, 2001). ...
... With regard to this research, the relationship between the child, home (both family and community) and the school is of interest. Ryan (2001) suggests that schools and teachers may, "fulfil an important secondary role, but cannot provide the complexity of interaction that can be provided by primary adults" (p.3). In fact, he goes on to suggest that for the educational community to think that it can perform these primary functions is to "help society continue its denial of the real issue" (p.3). ...
... We investigated explanations of why people conform, as well as why some people could resist pressures to conform. This raised interesting discussions surrounding students' personal backgrounds and situations and pertained very much to motivations that underlie value systems of communities as well as the influence an environment can have on these and in turn an individual (Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Rutter, 2013;Ryan, 2001;Schwartz, 2012;Unger, 2013;Watling Neal and Neal, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Students attending Pupil Referral Units (PRUs) face not only the challenges of their often difficult homelives, but also, that they are trying to academically, emotionally and socially develop in a difficult area of the educational landscape. There has been a significant amount of focus on Alternative Provision (AP), including PRUs, by the government in recent times. However, despite numerous interventions in this arena, this sector of education continues to struggle to improve the outcomes for students attending APs, including PRUs. Therefore, indicating that continued scrutiny and intervention is required to give the best possible opportunities to the students who find themselves attending school outside of mainstream education. This thesis explored whether, in a single year of attendance at a PRU, vulnerable students could be equipped with skills that would enable them to have the greatest chance of success at school in their final year of formal education. That, if by raising the levels of emotional intelligence and value systems of these students, a more harmonious learning environment could be created, that would enable greater success at school, both academically and personally. To interrogate this, a case study following ethnographic principles and multiple data collection techniques was conducted on a group of forty Year 11 student participants. This method was chosen as it is considered especially valuable where the phenomenon being researched and the context are closely entwined, and the participants are observed in a naturalistic setting. The thesis concludes that this yearlong study based at a Year 11 Pupil Referral Unit, showed tangible outcomes to intervention strategies that can be employed to raise student levels of emotional intelligence and value systems; both collectively and individually. Also, that these outcomes give rise to a substantive argument that emotional intelligence and value systems can be monitored and assessed through observation and dialogue. And, that if these observations, made by those who spend the most time with the students, are monitored, analysed and discussed reflexively; valuable assessments of the interplay between a student’s emotional intelligence and value systems can be made, so that appropriate strategies can be implemented to guide both personalised education plans and whole school improvement resulting in greater student success.
... It is understood the relationships and interactions are impacted via two routes, toward the child and away from the child. This is directly related to the intra-action-reaction discussed within the theoretical framework in Chapter Two, which Bronfenbrenner (1979) discussed as bi-directional influences (Ryan, 2001). The two-way influences also occur outside the layers and between the systems, but the influences are considered strongest at the microsystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1978). ...
... However, the inclusion of the parent and or the school must be grounded in direct intra-action. If direct contact is not established, then the influence at this stage is inhibited (Ryan, 2001). There is a supplementary layer which is closely linked to the mesosystem which is cited as the exosystem which is particularly important to note as it incorporates the lives of the parents, their schedules and their resources. ...
... This could be linked to habitats and capital, as discussed within Chapter Three. Any negative or positive interactions between the school, parent or within the community proliferate and directly impact on the child, influencing their sense of self (Ryan, 2001). Bronfenbrenner (1978) stated the macrosystem differs in a fundamental way as this layer includes the notion of time in relation to the environment and encompasses the wider discourses of cultural and societal beliefs or subcultures. ...
Thesis
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This thesis explores the concept of school readiness from the perspective of two-year-old children.
... With its focus on relationships and the influence that social interaction between people and between the various multiple systems exerts on their lives, Bronfenbrenner's theory explores how all these interrelated factors interact with each other at different times and have a mutually contributing effect on one another (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2007;Ryan, 2001). This framework consequently provides an ideal matrix for investigating the various social relationships that exist within these systems and the individual, playing an integral role in both growth and development (Christensen, 2016;Ryan, 2001), since Bronfenbrenner's innovative insight was that research investigating human development should involve a field-theoretical approach in which the interaction of processes, person, and context are taken into consideration. ...
... With its focus on relationships and the influence that social interaction between people and between the various multiple systems exerts on their lives, Bronfenbrenner's theory explores how all these interrelated factors interact with each other at different times and have a mutually contributing effect on one another (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2007;Ryan, 2001). This framework consequently provides an ideal matrix for investigating the various social relationships that exist within these systems and the individual, playing an integral role in both growth and development (Christensen, 2016;Ryan, 2001), since Bronfenbrenner's innovative insight was that research investigating human development should involve a field-theoretical approach in which the interaction of processes, person, and context are taken into consideration. Such research would focus on how developmental processes and outcomes vary as a joint function of the characteristics of the person as well as the environment, and their interactions over the course of time (Johnson, 2008, p. 5). ...
... Bronfenbrenner's bioecosystemic perspective, so called because of its scientific study of the ecology of human development in relation to growing human beings within their immediate settings (Johnson, 2008), offers insights that can enhance -for the purposes of this study -understanding of the dynamics between educators, parents, learners and addressing the learners' educational and emotional needs. This perspective facilitates a description of all the systems that these individual "actors" are enmeshed in and affected by in changeful interrelationships (Ryan, 2001;Swick & Williams, 2006). ...
Research
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This study explored the experiences of parents regarding the psycho-educational support provided at a full-service high school for their children with specific learning disorders. The purpose of the investigation was to indicate better means to empower the parents through knowledge to become proactive participants in assistance to their children as provided by educators and health professionals. A descriptive qualitative approach embedded in an interpretative and phenomenological framework was used. Data were collected by means of individual semi-structured interviews with six parents and analysed through thematic data analysis. Three themes were identified: parents’ experiences of SLD, supporting children with SLD, and the school’s challenging role in facilitating intervention/support. Parents’ had inconsistent understanding of SLD, and reported parenting to be a burden on their everyday lives. They had difficulties in supporting their child with an SLD despite their active facilitation and interventions. Parents were concerned about narrow thinking in the general school system and inconsistent educational support programmes. Findings indicated the need for improved support to parents of children with SLDs not only in a domestic but also in a school and community setting.
... To intervene in the child's life, the social worker has to understand the nature of the different systems and how they interact interdependently with each other. affecting the child's wellbeing (Ryan, 2001). When a child experiences distress, it indicates an imbalance or poor functioning in one of the systems in the child's life. ...
... For example, a nurturing and supporting interaction between the child's parents and teachers, the two microsystems, can positively influence the child's academic performance. The exosystem, the third area of analysis, may not influence the child's wellbeing directly; however, it impacts on the child's microsystem, and a change in these social interactions has an impact on the child (Ryan, 2001). Lastly, the macrosystem is represented by the church pictorial card, and it represents the environment that is the foundation of the child's belief and values which guide the child's behaviour and outlook on life. ...
... Lastly, the macrosystem is represented by the church pictorial card, and it represents the environment that is the foundation of the child's belief and values which guide the child's behaviour and outlook on life. The child is central in the assessment process because they have to recount the narratives about present or non-present relationships, living conditions, emotions and general information that is crucial for identifying risk and developing informed interventions (Ryan, 2001). In this regard, the social worker can enter the child's world through the use of CAT, guided by the ecological systems theory. ...
Article
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The integration of child-friendly tools during child counselling facilitates effective communication and child participation. However, the use of child-friendly tools in generalist child counselling remains sparse. This paper presents social work students’ perceptions of using a child assessment tool (CAT). While the study adopted a mixed-method approach, this paper reports the findings drawn from the study's qualitative findings. Data collection included individual semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled fourth-level student social workers. The results indicated that using the CAT created a child-friendly environment that facilitated effective child communication and participation during assessments. Using the CAT addresses barriers to child participation during child assessment.
... At this level, the child is influenced by the people in their immediate environment and the child in turn also has an https://etd.uwc.ac.za/ influence on these people. The influences at this level are strongest and have the greatest impact on the child and their development (Paquette & Ryan, 2009). Furthermore, what happens at the microsystem level may overlap with that at the mesosystem level. ...
... The mesosystem level provides the connection between the structures of the child's microsystem (Paquette & Ryan, 2009). This means that within the mesosystem, people in the microsystem are connectedfor instance, the connection between the child's parents and their teacher. ...
... The effects of larger principles defined by the macrosystem have a cascading influence throughout the interactions of all other layers. For example, if it is the belief of the culture that parents should be solely responsible for raising their children, that culture is less likely to provide resources to help parents (Paquette & Ryan, 2009). ...
Thesis
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Food insecurity exists when people lack access to sufficient quantities of safe and nutritious food which encourages normal growth and development. Given South Africa’s high poverty and unemployment levels, food insecurity has become endemic in many communities. The purpose of the study was to determine and explore the relationship between food insecurity, child care arrangements and the child support grant (CSG). The study was conducted among a sample of 120 participants, comprising both CSG recipients and non-recipients (who were purposefully selected from an ongoing cohort study), residing in Langa township in Cape Town. A sequential, mixed-model research design was used, in which both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied. Data was collected by means of questionnaires, interviews and focus groups. The results were analysed using SPSS and Atlas ti software. The ecological systems theory being used as a theoretical framework to explore the different dimensions of child care arrangements. In the literature it is hypothesised that food insecure families are more likely to have child care arrangement instabilities. Interestingly, the study’s findings did not support this hypothesis. Although most of the participants were unemployed, they generally stayed at home to care for their children because they were recipients of the CSG. Therefore, despite being food insecure, many households had stable child care arrangements because of the CSG. Child support grant recipient households experienced hunger less acutely than households that did not receive the grant. Of course, social protection mechanisms, like grants, do not represent a sustainable solution to South Africa’s unemployment and food insecurity challenges. The researcher therefore provides a number of recommendations on how government and civil society can ameliorate the plight of poor households. Key words Food insecurity, Child care arrangements, Child development, Child support grant, Household hunger scale, South Africa
... Bronfenbrenner (1999), proposed in his ecological systems theory that dynamic relationships that have open, trusted lines of communication between the family and school are essential for the child's development. Yet, if the relationship breaks down between them, the child's growth will be affected negatively (Paquette and Ryan, 2001). ...
... The unity of roles and goals between teachers and families is essential for children's healthy progress. Paquette and Ryan (2001) stated that, if the relationship between home and school breaks down, children's growth will be negatively affected. ...
... Some teachers explained that mothers can make decisions in conjunction with teachers regarding to their children's behaviors. According to the ecological system theory, conflict between the two parties, the family and the child's teacher, negatively influence a child's development (Paquette& Ryan, 2001). The more welcoming a teacher is to engage the family in decision-making results in more successful children. ...
... The study design and methods for this study were informed by this perspective. In addition, the Social ecological model (SEM) developed by Bronfenbrenner in 1979 underpinned this study [23][24][25][26]. The model looks at a person's (e.g. ...
... The model looks at a person's (e.g. child) development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment [24]. Bronfenbrenner categorized the environment in which the person interacts into levels. ...
Article
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Background Early adolescence is an important period to lay the foundation for positive sexual health development that can overcome sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges faced by very young adolescents (VYAs) as they reach puberty and sexual debut. In this study, we explored the following questions: first, what are the experiences of VYA girls on DREAMS’ Go Girl club participation? Second, how does club participation influence the VYAs SRH knowledge to reduce their risk for HIV and negative sexual health outcomes? Methods This was a qualitative study in which twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with VYA girls aged 12–14 years. These girls were enrolled in girl-only clubs in two rural southern districts in Malawi. The clubs were a part of larger comprehensive HIV prevention project called DREAMS (Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe) which provided an evidence-based core package of interventions to VYAs to prevent HIV. Interventions included improved access to key health services, education support, social skills, asset building, and economic strengthening. Narrative inquiry was used to generate first-hand accounts of the girls’ experiences with club participation. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes from the transcribed stories. Results Six main themes were generated: 1) reasons for joining the clubs with desire to learn about SRH as a motivation for joining the clubs.; 2) influence on gender norms and roles whereby participants described a change of gender roles and norms at home; 3) influence on child abuse practices whereby participants reported a decline in child abusive practices at home;4) influence on life skills and social networks whereby participants described learning about networking; 5) support to go back to school whereby out-of-school girls described how economic empowerment of their guardians facilitated their return to school; and 6) influence of clubs on SRH knowledge acquisition and behaviours whereby participants described acquiring knowledge on sexual health issues. Conclusion Girls-only HIV and SRH programs coupled with economic empowerment for their families can be effective in keeping VYA girls in school and improving SRH knowledge and health seeking behavior.
... home) as well as the larger environment (e.g. school) in which he interacts (Paquette and Ryan, 2001). Furthermore, the beliefs and behaviour of a child may be influenced by his parents and teachers, and conversely, his beliefs and behaviour may affect his parents' and teachers' beliefs and behaviour. ...
... Furthermore, the beliefs and behaviour of a child may be influenced by his parents and teachers, and conversely, his beliefs and behaviour may affect his parents' and teachers' beliefs and behaviour. The theory refers to these influences as bi-directional influences, which possess a great impact on the child (Paquette and Ryan, 2001). Taking this point further, the improvement of children's academic achievement and also the educational quality of Saudi schools are expected to be an effect of the beliefs and behaviour of the child, parent, and teacher. ...
... Bronfenbrenner maintains that the individual always develops within a context. The theory covers the whole of this context, even though this standpoint has been criticised by Paquette & Ryan (2001). They think that the individual needs to be seen for their individual conditions. ...
... When discussing professional development and/ or the constitution of subjects the model is a significant tool for analysing and explaining the forces underlying those developments. Even though other models confront and argue against the Development Ecology model, for example Paquette and Ryan (2001), the model gives a relatively theoretical framework when the starting point is the individual and the belief that development cannot exist without the participation of individual influence and willingness to change. Through the development of, for instance, information technology and access to information, the individual will be given more freedom regarding their space of activity and independence, but also less freedom and space of activity because individuals behave in different ways when acting. ...
Article
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This analysis is a theory based reflection out of the development ecology. When studying an organisation, transformation and spheres of influence of professions and in education, the Development Ecology model provides a tool for understanding the encounter between societal, organisational and individual dimensions, a continual meeting point where phenomena and actors occur on different levels, including those of the organisation and society at large. However, the theory of development ecology may be questioned for how it looks at the individual’s role in relation to other actors in order to define and understand the forces underlying the professional development. The focus on the individual might prevent the understanding of group wise development. Resilience capacity on a mental, intra level and an entrepreneurial way of building, developing and keeping networks gives the different levels in the Development Ecology model a broader understanding of what stimulates learning processes. Factors relating to both the inside of the individual and social ties between individuals in a group context in relation to global factors need to be discussed. Key words: development ecology, organisation, resilience, science education, social ties.
... As such, we expect to find differences in meat-centric family cultural food beliefs depending on race/ ethnicity. The recursive relationship between family and culture can be explained using the social ecological framework (Ndiaye et al., 2013;Ryan, 2001). This framework describes how microsystems, or families, are interdependent with the larger cultural system in which they are situated (Hawley, 1986). ...
... A person's actual eating behaviors can also be influenced by family, community, society, and the outermost layer of culture (Andrews, Silk, & Eneli, 2010;Flora & Schooler, 1995;Ryan, 2001). Illustrating this influence, Black/African Americans eat more total meat and more beef than non-Hispanic Whites (Gossard & York, 2003), and Hispanics tend to eat more beef than non-Hispanics. ...
Article
Consumption of red meat has been linked to a variety of health issues, yet Americans are resistant to reducing their meat consumption. Family communication environments shape beliefs about food and meat consumption, and therefore are locations for potential interventions to change the way people think about food. Families are embedded in cultures, and both family and cultural norms shape beliefs about what people should eat. This study (N = 773) is interested in understanding how family communication is associated with food beliefs, meat consumption, and health issues across three racial/ethnic groups: Black/African American (n = 256), Hispanic (n = 260), non-Hispanic White (n = 257). Structural equation modeling results showed that conversation orientation was consistently associated with stronger endorsement of family cultural food beliefs across race/ethnicity groups. Family food beliefs were associated with either more health issues or more meat consumption depending on race/ethnicity and mediated the association between conversation orientation and health issues/meat consumption. Conversation orientation moderated the association between conformity orientation and food beliefs for Hispanic and non-Hispanic White participants. Implications for family communication patterns theory and health scholars are discussed along with recommendations for culturally tailored family-focused health interventions.
... Interakcie jednotlivých subjektov mikrosystému (rodičov, rovesníkov, učiteľov a i.), ich vzájomné vzťahy a charakter ich prístupu k dieťaťu priamo vplývajú na jeho vývin a kvalitu jeho vzťahov. Bronfenbrenner zvýrazňoval, že štruktúry mikrosystému majú obojsmerný charakter, rodič ovplyvňuje správanie a presvedčenia dieťaťa, ale tiež dieťa, jeho biologicky a sociálne podmienené charakteristiky ovplyvňujú správanie a presvedčenia rodiča (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Berk (2013) poskytuje ako príklad dieťa, ktoré je priateľské a pozorné, teda v rodičoch ľahko vyvolá pozitívnu a trpezlivú spätnú väzbu, pričom dieťa podráždené či roztržité spätne iniciuje skôr k odmeranosti, zákazom, či trestom. ...
... Ako sa dieťa vyvíja, interakcia v týchto prostrediach sa stáva zložitejšou. Paquette a Ryan (2001) vidia ako dôležitý predmet skúmania v zameraní sa na otázky: Ako na danej ceste pomáha svet? Alebo v čom ho brzdí? ...
Chapter
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The chapter explains theories of disability and Bronfenbrenner's model bio-ecological systems. Based on this knowledge it describes the International classification of functioning, disability and health. It analyses the use of ICF and ICF-CY in the context of research and practice of inclusive education.
... According to Paquette and Ryan (2001), the theory of ecological systems for human development posited by Bonfenbrenner describes several concentric layers that make up the environment around an individual. The proponent of this theory referred the most immediate layer as the micro-system that comprise of the family, school, peers, neighbors and religious institutions that one affiliates to (Harkonen, 2007). ...
... As the child begins his or her academic journey, the teacher may be the adult that spends the most time with the young people. Paquette and Ryan (2001) describe the family as increasingly becoming unstable and unpredictable, thus, the teacher and the school may come in to give the young learner an environment where the holistic development of the individual takes place. ...
Article
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Life skills have been described as a variety of psychosocial and interpersonal skills which can help young people face the realities of everyday life. This is important given the dynamism of the contemporary world with its complex challenges that the young people have to deal with. Life skills enable young people to be responsible citizens who contribute positively to society. This is essential in Kenya given the many emerging social problems in the society and the fact that the employers desire employees that have technical as well as life skills. Life skills education (LSE) refers to education interventions that seek to inculcate the necessary psychosocial and interpersonal skills in students as they go through the school curriculum. Kenya has embraced LSE in the proposed curriculum but for it to succeed; the government needs to re-tool the teachers with appropriate teaching approaches, empower the schools with the requisite materials, and realign the teacher training programmes with the proposed school curriculum. This is a theoretical paper aimed at making an appeal to the stakeholders in education to take LSE with the seriousness it deserves given the long-term implications of life skills.
... The direct interaction between two people in the relationship therefore results in a direct and immediate contact (micro) system. Each individual processes these interactions with his/her very own personality, beliefs and temperament and these have an effect on the psychological functioning of other individuals [40]. In the case of this study, findings indicate that partners in a relationship also have a huge influence on each other even when it comes to using substances. ...
Article
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Substance use among pregnant women is a perennial problem in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. There are many influential elements related with substance use among women of childbearing-age. Factors associated with substance use during pregnancy were explored using qualitative research approach and bio-ecological theoretical framework was utilised to guide the study. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Participants accessed from the Department of Social Development who met the inclusion criteria of the study were interviewed using semi structured interviews. Participants were referred for psychological intervention during the interview if deemed necessary. Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis were used to analyse the data. The study adhered to ethical measures for the participants' protection. Participants had been knowledgeable about the study earlier than the initiation of the interviews and the important points of their voluntary participation had been explained. The key findings from this study illustrate that social factors, individual area and romantic relationship are the major contributing factors to substance use among pregnant ladies in this sample. Recommendations arising from the study encompass that the stakeholders, rehabilitation centers, Department of Health and future researchers ought to act proactively against substance use all through pregnancy.
... This theory also posits that childrens' interaction with themselves, their family/community, the societal landscape in which they operate, fuels, and channelizes their development. A change or alteration in any of these layers will have a ripple effect on other layers (Ryan, 2001). Leonard (2011) observed the value of school-community partnership and found out that the cultural cohesion encompassing students is imperative to better understand Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. ...
Article
Purpose This study investigates the different environments in which high school students go through in their formative years and whether these environments affect their intention to study entrepreneurship as a career choice. Bronfenbrenner's social-ecological theory has been used as a backdrop to capture these environments. Four variables chosen are family support, school environment, self-efficacy and global awareness. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 1770 high school students were chosen through simple random sampling within Gujarat state. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to predict the overall effect of all the environments on Entrepreneurship Education Intention (EEI) of these students. Findings Findings reveal that self-efficacy has the most substantial influence on intentions. Family support and global awareness have a combined significant effect on self-efficacy, which further translates to a significant impact on high school students' intentions. School environment has an effect on global awareness, which in turn has a negative effect on students' willingness to study entrepreneurship in India. Research limitations/implications The study has implications in curriculum design and theory development. The study also provides schools with a framework to understand how to orient their students toward entrepreneurship. Originality/value This paper uses a novel theory that has not been applied in studies related to entrepreneurship education and proposes a model for the same. This novelty also reflects in our findings which have subsequent implications for theory and practice.
... A number of teachers viewed this sort of involvement as a fundamental parental duty, as the term 'no-fee school' can loosely be associated with 'free schooling' -a term used negatively and which influences the attitudes of parents and impacts their children's behaviour negatively. This viewpoint links up perfectly with the literature on Systems Theory, which details that "layers of environment" will have an effect on a child's development; in essence, if parents are unaccepting of contributing to their children's educational needs, then surely this sort of defiance will be manifested in the learners' attitude (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). ...
... Infrastructure sub-systems, such as program quality, assessment and family/community engagement all interact as related elements that operationalize high-quality programs at a proximal level within the broader ELCC system (Kagan & Roth, 2017). A systems framework allows consideration of change over time (i.e., chronosystem) and identification of different levels of influence (Bronfenbrenner, 1977;Paquette & Ryan, 2001) that can provide a roadmap to ensure highquality programming. ...
Article
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Defining quality in early learning and child care (ELCC) settings is complex. With an increased emphasis on universal ELCC systems to support greater access for families, research is needed to provide clarity on the concepts that contribute to high-quality programs. In this scoping review, 41 literature sources met our criteria (of a possible 6335) to determine what is known about high-quality early childhood programming in publicly-funded, school-based settings using a systems framework. Using a thematic analysis and consistent with a systems lens, our results suggest an overarching influence from system-level policies that intersect with practice, people and place within early childhood education and care.
... The direct interaction between two people in the relationship therefore results in a direct and immediate contact (micro) system. Each individual processes these interactions with his/her very own personality, beliefs and temperament and these have an effect on the psychological functioning of other individuals [40]. In the case of this study, findings indicate that partners in a relationship also have a huge influence on each other even when it comes to using substances. ...
Conference Paper
Substance use among pregnant women is a perennial problem in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. There are many influential elements related with substance use among women of childbearing-age. Factors associated with substance use during pregnancy were explored using qualitative research approach and bio-ecological theoretical framework was utilised to guide the study. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Participants accessed from the Department of Social Development who met the inclusion criteria of the study were interviewed using semi structured interviews. Participants were referred for psychological intervention during the interview if deemed necessary. Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis were used to analyse the data. The study adhered to ethical measures for the participants' protection. Participants had been knowledgeable about the study earlier than the initiation of the interviews and the important points of their voluntary participation had been explained. The key findings from this study illustrate that social factors, individual area and romantic relationship are the major contributing factors to substance use among pregnant ladies in this sample. Recommendations arising from the study encompass that the stakeholders, rehabilitation centers, Department of Health and future researchers ought to act proactively against substance use all through pregnancy.
... Within the ecological theory of skills, he identified four levels of environmental influences on child: Microsystems (family, kindergarten, school), Mesosystem (mutual action of different Microsystems), Exosystem (wider environment) and Macrosystem (features of certain culture: education, religion, social system) (Brajša-Žganec, 2003). Paquette and Ryan (2001) analyzing ecological theory suggest that the child is in the centre of the system, while the layers of the environment are getting wider around him/her in concentrated circles, and they stronger and weaker influence on his/her skills. Bronfenbrenner also underlines that overall the context in which the children's skills is carried out importantly influences the course of skills and skills outcomes, and without neglecting individual features of the child and believes that the skills is a result of interaction of child's features and environment in which the child grows (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006). ...
Article
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The study aimed at assessing Problems of Social Skills in Early Childhood Education Program in Ethiopia. Descriptive survey research design was employed through using stratified random sampling procedure to collect the survey data from 280 teachers recruited from early childhood education programs across three cities: Dire Dewa (130 teachers; 10 schools); Chiro (40 teachers; 6 schools); and Harar (110 teachers; 8 schools). They completed a questionnaire by starting filling the demographic information and a 5-item measure in which they rated problems influencing socials skills in early childhood education program. Firstly, about 89% of early childhood education teachers were not trained in the program. Secondly, about 64% of the early childhood education curriculum was highly influencing children's social skills. Finally, it was found that children were unable to cooperate during learning social skills with their classmates, and they were unable to solve social problems during playing with their classmates. Therefore, to ensure quality of early childhood education, education stakeholders, parents, teachers, administrators, non-government and ministry of education of the country at large need to improve teachers' training and curriculum under usage to improve and to fit to children's social skills in early childhood education programs.
... A further point worth noting is the dynamism and interconnection of the factors that the teachers identified as driving their belief changes. In particular, it is clear that the factors do not occur in isolation but cut across different domains, enriching one another (Paquette and Ryan 2001). For example, the demand for democratic decision-making expressed by Larry's students shows how factors from the remote and proximal domains can converge to influence belief change. ...
Article
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This study investigated the impact that the experience of living and teaching in the United Kingdom (UK) had on the belief development of three native Chinese language teachers. The study used a multifaceted approach to analyse the teachers as social beings and their belief development beyond the confines of the classroom. The analysis is based on data derived from an innovative methodological tool, a metaphorical drawing task, combined with narrative inquiry and interviews to elicit implicit beliefs. The findings show that the teachers’ various social roles as parents, members of clubs, participants in professional communities and observers of the broader social-political system in the UK, as well as the classroom environment, all contributed to changes in their beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning. Implications for classroom practice and teacher development are discussed.
... Most respondents (n=38) could identify the characteristic elements of holistic education, such as, 'educating the whole person; integrating the multidimensional aspects of being human; educating the person as a whole as opposed to an assemblage of parts; educating the person within a whole (i.e., in the whole context of family, school, community, society, culture, and the universe)' (Miller 1991;2001cited in Adams 2006. The responses included an education that created connections with the community, the environment and humane values, all of which resonate with the fundamental principles of an IE approach. ...
... (Bronfenbrenner, 2005;Bronfenbrenner ve Morris, 2006). Kurama göre çocuğun etkileşimde bulunduğu sistemlerin birinde yaşanan sorunlar diğer sistemleri de etkilemektedir (Ryan, 2001). Ekolojik kuramdan yola çıkarak program tasarlanırken, çocuğun etkileşimde bulunduğu çevre göz önünde bulundurulmuştur. ...
Thesis
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In this study, it was aimed at investigating the social adaptation of immigrant families' children who study in 6th and 7th grade in the schools of Ministry of National Education and determining whether the social adaptation training affect the social adaptation of immigrant families' children studying in 6th and 7th grade. The study group of the dissertation consisted of 20 immigrant children who study in 6th and 7th grade of secondary schools of Ministry of National Education in Üzümlü district of Erzincan in 2017-2018 academic year. Also, other 20 immigrant children who study in 6th and 7th grade of secondary schools and have similar socio-economic characteristics were chosen for the control group. Quantitative research method with experimental design, pre-test, post-test and control group was used in the study. The data of the study were collected via "need recognition form", "social adaptation scale" and "general information form" developed by the researcher. The social adaptation training program which was prepared to increase the immigrant children's social adaptation was applied to experimental group total 24 sessions; during three months, twice a week and an hour a day. Also, the children in the control group continued their usual education. As a result of the analysis of obtained data, it was found that post-test scores of the children in the experimental group were significantly higher than their pre-test scores (p< .05) and there was no significant difference between post-test scores and permanence scores (p> .05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the children in the control group (p> .05). The obtained findings showed that the social adaptation training program prepared by the researcher was effective in increasing immigrant children's social adaptation. The obtained results were discussed with the literature and some suggestions were presented.
... Bronfenbrenner's Bio-ecological Systems Theory [5] is a part of a microsystem that has direct contact with children and shapes children's behaviour [6]. Factors in the family that play a role in development and are thought to be able to be treated through health education to improve the self-efficacy of adolescents are communication and relations patterns, parenting and bonding. ...
Objectives Self-efficacy is the belief a person has regarding his success in completing a task. A high level of self-efficacy can affect one’s thoughts and motivation to complete tasks well. Conversely, someone with low self-efficacy has a tendency to avoid difficult tasks. Self-efficacy can play a role in success in the future. This study aimed to develop a self-efficacy model for junior and senior high school students based on religious and family determinants. Method This study used a cross-sectional design and simple sampling technique. The calculation result involved 158 samples. The independent variables were religious and family determinants. The dependent variable was self-efficacy. The data were collected using a questionnaire that was tested for validity and reliability. The analysis used a multiple linear regression test with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. Results The results showed self-efficacy was effectively determined by religion, communication, bonding and parenting factors. Overall, religion had the greatest role in influencing self-efficacy. Bonding and communication had an indirect effect on self-efficacy through parenting factors mediators. Conclusion Parenting factors influence self-efficacy indirectly through bonding and communication; however, parenting factors cannot be ignored. Religion was the biggest determinant of self-efficacy and capital of good self-control and strong conviction in completing tasks and achieving goals.
... The concept also provides an understanding of diverse ecosystems and their functions. The environmental characteristics focus on the interactions among the chemical, biological, and physical components of the environment and the effects of these interactions on all types of organisms [55]. ...
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This study aims to investigate the role of environmental system knowledge in promoting pro-environmental behaviors. Relationships between environmental knowledge and environmental attitudes as well as environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behaviors were analyzed. Environmental system knowledge includes knowledge of political ecology, sustainable development, environment and ecology, and environmental situations. This study included 128 students enrolling in the elective course entitled “Environment and Development” provided by the King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok city of Thailand and 150 students who were not participating in this course. The results revealed that environmental attitudes of students participating in the course was significantly higher than that of students not attending the course. Only knowledge of the environment and ecology highly correlated with environmental attitudes; on the other hand, diverse environmental knowledge significantly correlated with pro-environmental behaviors. The result also demonstrated that indirect impact environmental behaviors reported by both groups were statistically different, but there was no significant difference in direct impact environmental behaviors. This study suggested that environmental knowledge provided through a formal education could promote environmental attitudes, but it may not contribute to students’ engagement in direct impact environmental behaviors.
... Pertinent to this theory is that structural interaction occurs within and between the five systems (Paquette and Ryan 2001). Furthermore, close relationships have a significant impact on children's lives, and their development is similarly influenced by outside factors (Berk 2007). ...
Article
Fatherhood intervention programmes seek to redress fundamental issues that prevent men from succeeding in their fathering role. An understanding and evidence of the influence of fatherhood interventions on the role of the father in the family are thus required. This study, conducted in South Africa, explored the perceptions and experiences of fathers and their partners after the fathers’ exposure to a fatherhood intervention programme. A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was utilised to this end. A thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and three main themes emerged from the analysis. The study found that fathers and their partners perceived and experienced the fathers to be more involved, responsible, and sharing in parenthood after exposure to the fatherhood intervention programme. This led to an increase of father involvement with children – childcare activities, schoolwork, the well-being of the children, and an increase in involvement in the home.
... Ühe olulise nõrkusena on esile toodud mudeli vähene paindlikkus ning süsteemide osaline kattuvus, millest tuleneb selle keerukas rakendamine päris elu olukordades (Houston, 2015). Samuti on mudelit kritiseeritud põhjusel, et see keskendub liialt isikut ümbritsevale keskkonnale ega arvesta asjaolu, et areng ei saa toimuda ilma üksikisiku enda rolli ja panuseta, st isik peab ise olema muutusteks valmis (Paquette & Ryan, 2011). Samal seisukohal on ka Christensen (2016), kui ta rõhutab, et Bronfenbrenneri bioökoloogiline mudel ei käsitle isikut iseseisva tegutsejana, kellel on valmisolek luua, võtta riske ja täita oma vajadusi. ...
Thesis
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Research (Chaudron, 2015; Marsh, et al., 2015) suggests that present-day young children (0-3 years old) gain their first experiences with touchscreen devices during their first months of life. In fact, it has been claimed that present-day young children live in media-rich homes where digital technologies create additional opportunities for young children's play (Yelland, 2015). Parental awareness of potential risks and opportunities of digital device use is, unfortunately, still quite low (Vinter, 2013; Kalmus, 2012). In fact, parents tend to believe that digital device use helps to support the development of young children and therefore they tend to favour the use of smart devices amongst infants and toddlers (Barr, 2013; Plowman et al., 2012), regardless of the fact that the ability of young children to learn from screens is difficult due to their video deficits (Deloache & Chiong, 2009). In other words, young children tend to learn more from real-life situations than from screens because, due to the lack of cognitive skills and life experience, infants and toddlers have difficulties in understanding symbolic objects and fail to transfer two-dimensional images from screens to real life (Barr, 2013; Zack et al., 2009). The main aim of the thesis was to explore young children’s (0-3years old) digital play and its mediation by parents and older siblings, and to explore the roles that parents and older siblings can take on when mediating young children's digital play. In addition, I aimed to create a typology of the mediator roles of Estonian parents and to analyse what roles toddlers' themselves play during digital play. Based on the above-mentioned research aims, the following research questions were formulated: (1) What are the parents' opinions of 0-3 year old's experiences with digital play? (I, II). (2) How important parents consider digital play in supporting the toddler’s development? (I, II, IV). (3) What mediation strategies and mediator roles can parents employ in the digital play of young children? (I, III, IV). (4) What is the role of older siblings in 0-3-year-olds' digital play? (III, IV, V), and (5) What roles do young children take on in digital play? (III, V).
... habitus and doctoral capital. The adoption of this framework identifies that multiple factors influence behaviour and that by understanding the inter-relationship between the four domains, interventions are more likely to be successful when they understand and target multiple components of the socio-ecological model (Ryan, 2001;Xia et al., 2020). Similarly, from a Bourdieuian perspective, "concepts of cultural, social, and economic capitals are also relevant in understanding the many multi-faceted environments evident in doctoral education" (Nori et al., 2020, p. 519). ...
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Purpose The Higher Degree Research (HDR) journey is known for its difficulties, complexities and challenges (Lees-Deutsch, 2020), with many students experiencing multi-faceted issues and concerns (Skopek et al. , 2020). Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships that exist between variables, vulnerability factors and doctorial capital of candidates ( n = 532) studying at Australian universities (2019). Design/methodology/approach A quantitative cross-sectional correlational research design and Bronfenbrenner's socio – ecological framework (personal, home, university, community) was utilised to collect participants' ( n = 532) descriptive statistics. Bourdieu's social reproduction theory was used as a lens to examine how experiences, across the PhD candidature, are influenced by several psychosocial factors and doctoral capital. Findings From such a dual methodological approach, the findings from this study suggests that (1) age, (2) gender, (3) nationality, (4) financial/work status, (5) years of PhD and (6) attending postgraduate (PG) student events, go to significantly ( p < 0.001) impact (positively and negatively) on students' experiences and correspondingly, impacts on their self-confidence, motivation and mental health and well-being status. Research limitations/implications Research limitations are related to the recruitment of more doctoral students across more Australian universities. Further research is required from HDR supervisors, so as to “balance” the experiences of the PhD journey in higher education. Practical implications In order to succeed in academia and HDR programs, students need to identify with and develop the “right kind of capital” to successfully navigate fields of social and scholarly play. Investigating how the participants perceive their social and scholarly habitus is seen as crucial in helping students to develop positive dispositions relevant to being a doctoral student. Social implications The concept of doctoral capital and well-being, amongst Australian PhD students, is under researched and requires further investigation as a precursor to developing more specific policy designs aimed at providing heightened positive learning environments/HDR programs tailored to support doctoral students. Originality/value Whilst reforms to improve PhD experiences are well established across the international literature (Geven et al. , 2018; Skopek et al. , 2020), evidence for Australia is largely missing. It is envisaged, that findings from this research will further assist in the development of quality policies that would go to provide effective services and support for doctoral students within Australian universities.
... Mental illness-related stigma often begins within the micro and meso levels of the ecological system according to Urie Bronfenbrenner, where interactions among individuals happen in two directions-both away from the person with a mental illness and toward the individual living with a mental illness and become more severe at the macro level-especially when available social structures, including societal norms and public policies, fail to protect persons with mental illnesses from further abuse (Adu & Oudshoorn, 2020;Livingston, 2013). The microsystem herein involves the immediate social networks of the person with a mental illness with whom they relate and interact (i.e., close relatives of persons with mental illnesses and other social institutions such as family, schools, and care givers in health facilities with whom the individual directly interacts), whereas the mesosystem (associative relations existing amongst factors in the microsystem) is the link between the person with a mental illness' microsystems (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Stigma experienced at the macro level (inequities and injustices interlacing within policies and practices of institutional systems; see Livingston, 2013), including that experienced by association with persons with mental illnesses, impacts upon familial mental illness stigma as family members replicate these social perspectives in interactions with individuals with a mental illness. ...
Although research to date has shown that there can be no health or sustainable development without good mental health, mental illness continues to significantly impact societies. A major challenge confronting people with mental illnesses and their families is the stigma that they endure. In this study, empirical literature was reviewed to assess policies and interventions that seek to reduce familial mental illness stigma across four countries. We used Arksey and O’Malley’s methodological framework, and a qualitative content analysis was employed to augment the descriptive data extracted. Seven studies published between 2000 and 2020 were analyzed. We propose herein three themes that align with interventions to reduce familial mental illness stigma: transformative education, sharing and disclosure, and social networking and support. The findings indicate that persuasive and purposeful education directed at the public to correct misconceptions surrounding mental illness, with attention to language, may help in reducing familial mental illness stigma. Disclosure of mental illness is encouraged among persons with mental illnesses and their families as a strategy to enhance mutual understanding. Social sharing also affords persons with mental illnesses opportunities to engage with their peers at different levels within the public sphere. Apart from these recommendations, we have noted a paucity of broad governmental-level policies and interventions to comprehensively address the negative attitudes of families toward their relatives. Future work must address this gap to identify effective interventions to create healthier and supportive environments that address familial mental illness stigma.
... Researchers indicate the influence of four agents of socialization: family, education, peer groups and media, with the first two being the strongest (Ryan, 2001). Family influences the understanding of gender roles in the first stage of socialization (Handel et al., 2007), and this can be analyzed through the parent effect perspective (Carter, 2014). ...
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With progress in the fight for workplace equality for employees who do not have a cisgender identity, discrimination towards members of oppressed social classes is slowly becoming more covert. The paper studies two groups of stakeholders in organizations, non-cisgender employees and HR personnel, across multiple sectors to understand the provisions, challenges and implementation needs of such employees. Provisions and needs of non-cisgender employees as organizational members were studied. These included the sufficiency of imperative workplace facilities, provisions and policies for inclusion, the facilities and provisions for equal compensation, maternity and parental benefits, and remote working conditions. Anti-harassment and anti-sexual harassment policies in the workplace, along with the willingness to report any incidents, were included. The importance of inclusivity as practiced in the organization and measures like allyship has been studied. HR managers were asked about the feasibility of implementation of progressive measures that help non-cisgender employees through infrastructure and anti-discrimination policies, inclusivity measures, bias at the workplace, measures to counter and prevent sexual harassment and abuse, allyship and creation of a noncisgender friendly culture at their workplace. It was found that basic resource allocation and allyship can be facilitators for inclusivity.
... In the Six-Cs developmental ecological model, the cell and child correlates represent the individual level of Bronfenbrenner's socioecological model; the clan correlate represents the microsystem (ie, structures that have direct contact with the child); the community correlate represents the exosystem (ie, the larger social system within which the child does not function directly); and last, the country and culture correlates represent the macrosystem (ie, cultural values, customs, and laws) ( Figure 1). 22,26 Consequently, given the literature gap and importance of a framework, the Six-Cs developmental ecological model is well suited to organize correlates of children's dietary intake in childcare settings. Furthermore, this adapted model could assist in successful development of multilevel targeted interventions and research pertaining to children's dietary intake in childcare settings. ...
Article
Context: Children consume up to two-thirds of their daily dietary requirements in full-time childcare, making the setting a critical vector for preventing childhood obesity. Objective: To summarize the ecological correlates of children's dietary intake in childcare settings that were identified and categorized using the Six-Cs developmental ecological model of contributors to overweight and obesity in childhood. Data sources: A literature search was conducted in 4 electronic databases. Study selection: English-language, peer-reviewed publications that investigated at least 1 correlate of children's (ages 2-6 years) dietary intake in childcare settings and measured children's actual consumption of foods and beverages from food groups were included. Data extraction: Correlates were categorized into child, clan, community, and country groups. Results: A total of 55 studies, which examined 29 correlates, were reviewed. Correlates identified included child's age, sex, characteristics of food provision (namely, food composition, foods and beverages served, portion sizes), repeated exposure, nutrition education, book reading, peer influence, meal service type, and childcare teachers' responsive feeding practices. Policies and participation in Head Start and the Child and Adult Care Food Program could not be determined as correlates of children's dietary intake, owing to a lack of evidence. Conclusion: This review produced a list of correlates to consider in designing interventions to improve children's dietary intake in childcare settings. The correlates could contribute to development of lifelong healthy eating habits, thereby preventing childhood obesity.
... The Mesosystem comprises the interactions between two or more settings in which the individual actively participates (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Paquette and Ryan (2001) describe this as the layer producing the connections between one's Microsystems. For a young person, this could include relations between their parents and school staff. ...
Conference Paper
There is an increasingly visible population of trans* young people of secondary school age in the UK. In an attempt to support these young people, legislation and guidance for schools has been published; The Equality Act (2010) and Human Rights Act (1998) provide protection for trans* young people, including their right to access education without discrimination, whilst the Government, national organisations and Local Authorities (LAs) have published policies and guidance. However, there is a lack of information regarding how many schools engage with these. Moreover, research suggests that educational professionals are not aware that guidance exists and feel ill-equipped to support trans* young people. The current research aims to generate new knowledge about the way that educational professionals engage with systems to support trans* young people in secondary schools. Educational professionals’ experiences and perceptions of best support, unsupportive practice and how support can be improved will be explored. This small-scale qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to explore the experiences of 32 educational professionals, including 22 secondary school staff and 8 Educational Psychologists (EPs) from one LA in South-East England and 2 key personnel working at a national level. Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was used to analyse the interview data. Four themes were identified which related to system readiness to change, ensuring a sense of safety and belonging throughout school communities, education and prioritising the voices of trans* young people. Themes are discussed in relation to previous literature, along with implications for LA policy, practice and research. Consideration of how the findings could inform the work of EPs is presented, including applying the concept of readiness to change to ascertain what stage a school is in, in terms of their readiness to implement changes in their support of trans* young people to ensure that EP support is tailored accordingly.
... Indeed, group emotions are no longer at the periphery of group and team research; it has increasingly become the center of this field (Barsade and Knight, 2015). However, few studies have considered group emotions as the individual's mesoenvironment, or the external environment that connects individuals and groups-that is, the positive and negative forces that individuals experience in their interactions with others (Paquette and Ryan, 2001). Our focus in the present study is on this meso-environment emotion (De Rivera, 1977;De Rivera and Páez, 2007), which we refer to as PBGEC. ...
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Perceived broad group emotional climate (PBGEC) is a perceived meso-environment emotion, which refers to individuals’ perceptions and experiences of the emotion climate when interacting with group members in daily life, and is not derived from individuals’ own emotions. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a PBGEC scale (PBGECS) for Chinese community residents and university students. A total of 1,408 residents from Chongqing completed the survey of PBGECS, the present social attitude scale, the future social expectations scale, and the social wellbeing scale, which constituted Sample 1; A total of 607 college students from Nanchang completed the survey of PBGECS and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, which constituted Sample 2. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure, including positive PBGEC (PBGEC-P) and negative PBGEC (PBGEC-N). Internal consistency was strong for each factor and the full-scale (α ≥ 0.83). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the correlated two-factor model of PBGEC and the four-factor model (including PBGEC-P, PBGEC-N, individual positive affect, and individual negative affect) demonstrated the best fit to the data, which supported the structural validity of the PBGECS. The interpretive validity, cultural validity, and population validity of the scale were also proved by examining the relationship between PBGEC and socioeconomic status, social attitude, and social wellbeing, respectively. The results show that the PBGECS demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity, which can be used to assesses the perceived emotion climate of an individual’s surrounding environment.
... Canlıların birbiri ve çevresi ile olan ilişkisini inceleyen bilim dalı olan ekoloji; bireyin davranışına etki eden birey, aile, toplum gibi iç ve dış güçlerin etkileşimleri açıklayan sistem ise ekolojik sistem yaklaşımı olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Zorbaz, 2016). Yaklaşıma göre bir çocuğun gelişimini incelemek istiyorsak geniş çevrenin etkileşimini incelememiz gerekmektedir (Ryan, 2001). Herhangi bir sistemde değişim meydana geldiği zaman diğer sistemler ile mutlaka alakalı olabileceği düşünülmektedir. ...
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Bu araştırmada, ilkokul birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin okula uyum ve sosyal yeterlik düzeylerini etkileyen yordayıcılar incelenmiştir. Araştırma betimleyici tarama modeli esas alınarak yürütülmüştür. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu, 2019-2020 öğretim yılında Kilis ilindeki ilkokullarda öğrenim gören ve sınıf öğretmeni tarafından okula uyum güçlüğü olduğu gözlenen, 79’u kız ve 100’ü erkek olmak üzere 179 ilkokul birinci sınıf öğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplamak için Sosyal Yeterlik ve Okula Uyum Ölçeği ve kişisel bilgi formu kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda cinsiyetin okula uyum düzeyi için anlamlı bir yordayıcı olduğu bulgulanmıştır. Öğrencilerin okul öncesi eğitim alma durumunun akran tercihli davranış, öğretmen tercihli davranış ve okula uyum düzeyi için anlamlı düzeyde bir yordayıcı olmazken; ailenin öğretmenle yeterince iş birliğine girip girmemesinin akran tercihli davranış, öğretmen tercihli davranış ve okula uyum düzeyi için anlamlı yordayıcı olduğu görülmüştür. Öğrencilerin travmatik bir yaşantısının olup olmama durumunun ise akran tercihli davranış için anlamlı bir yordayıcı olduğu bulgulanmıştır.
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Inclusive education calls for high levels of learning and equal participation of learners’ in diverse classrooms. Learners with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, communication disorder, intellectual disorder, motor disorder and specific learning disorders present teachers with numerous challenges in the mainstream. These teaching difficulties could be challenging for newly qualified teacher who is still struggling to cope with their first year in the profession and then are required to support these learning deficits applying the knowledge derived from their teacher training programmes. This study explored how newly qualified teachers accommodate learners with neuro-developmental disorders in mainstream classrooms. In this generic qualitative study, ten newly qualified teachers were interviewed from different mainstream high schools in South Africa. Critical incident teacher reports were used to note support strategies used for major incidents with learners with NDD in the classroom. Findings show that newly qualified teachers employ a variety of support strategies in ensuring that learners with NDD receive required support to enable them to learn effectively in the mainstream classroom. Although they might have insufficient knowledge from initial teacher training, lack parental involvement, behavioral problems, excessive workload, and lack of support from the school based support teams present a challenge in providing support for these learners, the newly qualified teachers still support learners with NDD. This implies that teacher-training institutions should consider adding clear strategies for teaching learners with neurological challenges to the preservice teacher training curriculum.
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The expectation of family members and society towards students has increased in recent years to perform well or achieve success in their life. But lack of job opportunities and increased competition among students has depressed the student community. The expectation without support has negatively impacted students which has catalysed suicide among the students in India. Students are committing suicide in Indian society due to failure in achieving families' expectations which is a matter of grave concern for social scientists. The current study has applied content analysis as a method to evaluate the cases of student suicide. The cases of student suicide have been collected from different newspapers, magazines, and news portals from July 2020 and April 2021. The study finds that most students are committed suicide due to depression. The study points out that students committed suicide due to failure to fulfil the expectations of a family member.
Article
Sustainable development is development that is able to see the potential of the region by concentrating on the younger generation as one of the important factors. In the grouping of young people by age range, one grouping is children under 18 years. The quality of these children in supporting the development of a country is driven by several factors and one of them is parenting skill or parenting style, as care is the first thing received by a child in its development process which then contributes to mental formation, ways of thinking and behaviors of every child. The importance of parenting style is the topic of many studies as well as the reason for implementing program interventions carried out by the government and community institutions. Community institutions that currently exist in Indonesia can be divided into national and international community institutions. The international community agency programs have been running for a long time. Therefore the research question for this study is what is the condition of childcare of beneficiary families of programs implemented by international community agencies. The method used in this study is qualitative with a survey and exploratory analysis with a sample of 325 respondents. The survey primarily used questions involving the Likert scale. The results of this study indicate that families who received benefits from the international community agency programs have good parenting attitudes towards children.
Thesis
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, Nusaybin ilçesinde okul dışına itilme nedenlerini belirlemektir. Bu doğrultuda bir grup okul dışına itilen ergenin okul deneyimleri, okul dışına itilme süreci, okul dışına itilme nedenleri ve okul dışına itilme sonrası yaşantıları ile Nusaybin’de öğretmenlik yapan bir grup öğretmenin okul dışında kalma nedenleri, okuldan ayrılan öğrenciler ile yaşadıkları deneyimlere ilişkin anlatılarını irdeleyerek nitel araştırma ile kuramsal bir çerçeve oluşturmaktır. Türkiye’de genelde okul terki ve okul dışına itilme ile ilgili çok sınırlı bir araştırma bulunmaktadır ve bu doğrultuda bu alandaki araştırma ve yazına katkıda bulunulması amaçlanmaktadır. Bu çalışma ile sınır bölgesinde bulunan bir ilçenin okul dışına itilme nedenleri ortaya konulmuştur. Araştırma sonuçları; sosyal bağlam içinde aile ve okul yaşantıları öğrencilerin okula devamında engellemelere neden olduğu; yani öğrencilerin okul dışına itildikleri saptanmıştır. Aile yaşantılarında ekonomik nedenler, cinsiyetçilik, ailenin eğitim yaşantıları ve dil faktörü gibi etmenler engellilik teşkil ederken, okul yaşantılarında ise okulun disiplin pratikleri, öğrencilerin davranış problemleri, eğitimin anlamı ve arkadaşların etkisi gibi etmenler öğrencilerin okula devamlarında engellemelere neden olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Her iki grubun anlatılarına göre, aile yaşantıları okul yaşantılarını doğrudan etkilediği yönündedir.
Article
Introduction: The use of technology nowadays increasingly facilitates communication without being limited by space and time. At present print and electronic media is an environment that is close to teenagers. Television is an electronic media that is easily accessible to teenagers because of the large amount of information and news broadcast. Research Objective: This study aims to determine the relationship of exposure to pornography through television with teenage sexual behavior of SMAN 2 Kendari. Research Methods: This type of research is analytical, with the research design used is the Cross Sectional Study. The research sample was 69 people. With the inclusion criteria willing to take part in the study by signing the consent sheet and being a teenager attending school at SMAN 2 Kendari. Research Results: Most respondents 36 people (53.1%) had exposure to pornography from low television media. Mild sexual behavior of 60 respondents (86.96%). The majority of sexual behavior that respondents often do when their boyfriend is holding hands 40 (57.9%). A total of 5 respondents (7.2%) did kisses involving the tongue during dating. Most respondents have peer behavior that is low (57.9%). Conclusion: Based on the results of the study there is a significant relationship between exposure to pornography from television media and teenage sexual behavior (p<0.05).
Research
Inclusive education is directed towards improving the quality of mainstream education and reducing the inequalities in accomplishing outcomes. Schools should adjust teaching and learning to accommodate all learners regardless of the broad range of diverse neurodevelopmental needs found in the classroom. This study focused on support strategies used by newly qualified teachers in accommodating learners with neurodevelopmental disorders in the mainstream classrooms in Gauteng Province in South Africa. This study contributed to the improvement of teaching programs at teacher training institutions. A qualitative approach was used with purposive sampling of six newly qualified teachers from different mainstream classrooms selected. To ensure richness of data, semi-structured interviews, observations, and critical incident reports were taken for all participants. The findings reveal that teachers employ a variety of support strategies such as cooperative learning, peer learning and ability grouping. Teachers used extensive visual aids and curriculum differentiation to ensure that learners receive adequate support. Literature has reported that teachers do not support learners with diverse needs due to lack of skills, training, and knowledge. However, this study revealed that newly qualified teachers employ a variety of didactic support strategies in their mainstream classroom.
Article
This study used personal reflection, surveys, and interviews to study the political socialization of those that attend college. Previous research has shown that many facets of one’s life can affect their political socialization, such as their familial upbringing or religious ties, and that adolescence is a time in which many individuals go through a significant shift in their political and ethical views. However, a new influence—social media—has begun to greatly affect the political views and shifts of college-age individuals. After personal reflection upon the experiences that caused one such shift, a survey and a series of four interviews of those who have attended college were conducted to examine the experiences and influences behind such shifts. Ultimately, findings were inconclusive but created a basis for future studies. Results showed that religious upbringings prior to college experiences are somewhat indicative of a shift during college that is both political and ethical in nature, but also that many other influences are important to the process as well. Social media in particular has played a very significant role in the socialization of youth and its effects are still widely misunderstood. Therefore, more research needs to be done on the political socialization of college individuals and social media’s effects upon it.
Chapter
This chapter combines social and educational theories relating to the interaction of individuals with ID with their environment, as a backdrop to the triple CAB model for developing the cognition, affect, and behavior of adults with ID ranging from mild to profound levels of severity, across the lifespan. The chapter first traces the multilevel public stigma approach, the social-ecological model, and other theories at the foundation of the triple CAB intervention perspective. Then, the chapter reviews prior intervention research on the quality of mediational interaction. Next, the development of the CAB intervention model is traced, delineating its three major components – Cognition (intelligence), Affect (including autonomy, meaning, human values, encouragement), and Behavior (adaptive and social skills) – as well as the various parameters recommended for mediating each component. The triple CAB model is advocated as a sustainable way of life that can systematically enhance clients’ intrapersonal functioning while also reducing interpersonal stigma across all ecological levels in adult service agencies, facilities, families, and communities – thereby not only promoting the development and growth of adults with ID but also their inclusion and participation as much as possible in society.
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Due to the large number of internal migrant children in China, an ideal opportunity exists for scholars to examine the influencing factors of their acculturation. Also, because of research gaps, this study aimed to examine whether parent-child communication and relationship could play a role in migrant children’s acculturation. In total, this study recruited sixty-five migrant children in Shenzhen and conducted an online survey to evaluate their level of acculturation as pertaining to parent-child communication and relationship issues. Through the regression analysis, this study determined that the different genders displayed diverse degrees of acculturation. For example, girls were more inclined to adapt to the new culture of their new city, while boys were more likely to retain their original cultural mores. Moreover, fathers tended to play a more significant role in children’s acculturation than mothers. Meanwhile, there appears to be no correlation between children’s acculturation and the parent-child relationship, while the parent- child relationship does have an impact on the level of children’s assimilation. This study also proffers that the process of children’s acculturation is changeable rather than fixed. Thus, parents should allot more time with their children in order to develop a positive line of communication with their children and focus more attention on their behavioral changes in the process of acculturation.
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In line with compensation age theory (CAT; Lifshitz-Vahav, 2015), adults with severe or profound ID should be considered accessible to change despite the severity of their disability and despite their older chronological age, past the supposedly critical period of adolescence. This chapter provides empirical evidence supporting the assertion that even adults with severe and profound ID can benefit from intervention based on the triple CAB (cognition, affect, behavior) model, which includes not only exposure to adaptive behavior skills training but also mediation efforts systematically designed to promote three skill domains. This chapter reviews how the CAB model was first applied to this unique population in two rehabilitation centers for adults with severe and profound ID, by leveraging staff-client interactions in order to mediate adult clients’ cognitive functioning (the C in CAB), affective skills comprising values and autonomy (the A in CAB), and self-regulation of behavior during task performance (the B in CAB). The adults who participated in the intervention improved their cognitive, emotional, and behavioral competencies; then, the triple CAB was further developed for implementation with these challenging populations with severe and profound levels of ID. Practical recommendations are provided for diverse applications of the triple CAB approach in settings for these more challenging populations.
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Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder of childhood which has complex ramifications and epilepsy related seizures can differ widely in terms of severity and in parts of the brain affected. A boy aged 14 years, presented to a tertiary hospital with complaints of jerky movements during sleep. Lack of sleep and stressful home environment acted as precipitating factors for his seizures.Psycho-social interventions was done focusing on psycho-education about epilepsy andby developing an emotionally coherent narrative which aimed at helping child to improve his relationship with his mother.
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The rise of COVID-19 cases has been so rapid since the first case was discovered in November 2019, that COVID-19 gained pandemic status, prompting governments to mandate health protocols aimed at preventing the spread of COVID-19. This condition has had an impact on social services provided by social workers, especially in the field of child protection. During this pandemic, supervision of social workers has ensured that services meet standards of practice. Supervisors also provide necessary supports for social workers during these fast-changing times. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the challenges of supervising child protection social workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study collected data, using 34 structured interviews and documentation studies. The results of this study indicate that the challenges of supervising social workers, range from work environments, use of personal protective equipment, case response, accommodation and health insurance as well as coordination across agencies.
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Using Bronfenbrenner’s Social Ecological Model, this systematic critical literature review investigated factors that contributed to the development of colorism, as well as the effects of colorism on Afro-Latinx persons, in Brazil, Mexico, and Puerto Rico, and the wider Latin American region. Agencies within the macrosystem and chronosystem were used to investigate factors involved in instituting colorism in Latin America. Constituents of the microsystem and mesosystem were used to research the effects of colorism on Afro-Latinx persons. The development of colorism ideologies and practices in Latin America was largely due to the endorsement of laws, cultural values, and cultural beliefs that arose from the perceptions and interactions between the region’s main ethnic groups and the biases that emerged from these interactions during key eras throughout their history. It was found that several studies documented the de facto impact of colorism on the family, school, community, and professional lives of Afro-Latinx persons.
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This study examined the problem of understanding Community Theatre as a tool for controlling outrageous birth rate in Bekwarra Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. In line with the study problem, Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory served as the frame. The study blended qualitative and quantitative methods of research for data collection and analysis. Because of the enormous population size of the people which was 105,497 according to Federal Republic of Nigeria’s official Gazette 25, a multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to draw out a sample of 150 respondents for the study. Data generated were analyzed, using simple percentages and thematic analysis of emerging issues during the investigation. Findings reveal that community theatre is a better medium for sensitization to birth control because of its strong influence on personal and social development of the people through drama. This study therefore recommends that Bekwarra Healthcare Management teams should form community drama group and frequently develop interventions, using drama and workshop which are community theatre strategies that embody the capacity to make people understand the importance of using artificial contraceptive methods for births regulation.
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In September 2020, the Children’s Commissioner for England published a report entitled ‘Unregulated: Children in care living in semi-independent accommodation’, which concluded that some of the country’s most vulnerable looked after children were living in accommodation unfit for human habitation. This observation encapsulates my experience of residing in such a placement between 2009 and 2011. In this article, I refer to diary entries I made during this period, which are photographed and categorised into three areas — challenges I encountered at a micro, meso, and macro level. Following each section, I provide reflection, contextual information, and propose what may have ameliorated these issues. The photographed diary extracts are personal; they were never intended to be published. However, given that the future of England’s care system hangs in the balance in the context of the Independent Care Review, they are offered as insights into the impact of unregulated placements on the physical and mental wellbeing of children. The article proposes that such settings are unsuitable for children and young people who have not yet reached adulthood and should be abandoned in favour of nurturing homes which enable them not just to barely survive, but truly thrive.
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Due to the large number of internal migrant children in China, an ideal opportunity exists for scholars to examine the influencing factors of their acculturation. Also, because of research gaps, this study aimed to examine whether parent-child communication and relationship could play a role in migrant children’s acculturation. In total, this study recruited sixty-five migrant children in Shenzhen and conducted an online survey to evaluate their level of acculturation as pertaining to parent-child communication and relationship issues. Through the regression analysis, this study determined that the different genders displayed diverse degrees of acculturation. For example, girls were more inclined to adapt to the new culture of their new city, while boys were more likely to retain their original cultural mores. Moreover, fathers tended to play a more significant role in children’s acculturation than mothers. Meanwhile, there appears to be no correlation between children’s acculturation and the parent-child relationship, while the parent-child relationship does have an impact on the level of children’s assimilation. This study also proffers that the process of children’s acculturation is changeable rather than fixed. Thus, parents should allot more time with their children in order to develop a positive line of communication with their children and focus more attention on their behavioral changes in the process of acculturation.
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A qualitative study was conducted to explore mothers’ insights on the growth of school-age children in a rural Health and Demographic site of Limpopo Province, in South Africa. The participants were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected from seven focus group discussions, which were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. NVivo10 was used to analyse interview transcripts, following qualitative thematic analysis. Fifty-four mothers aged between 27 and 52 years were interviewed. Unfavourable sociodemographic status with poor living conditions of mothers were observed, particularly in terms of unemployment, minimal tertiary education, and rural locality. The perceptions of mothers on child growth linked growth of their children to various factors such as poverty and socioeconomic status, genetic/family heredity, and household environment. Mothers further related child growth to purchasing power and decisions regarding types of food, food unavailability, affordability issues, feeding beliefs and practices; and child food preferences, school feeding schemes, and maternal and societal cultural beliefs and practices. Despite their concerns, mothers perceived that their children were growing well, but differently. It is worth noting that the views of mothers on child growth were up to their aptitude level and might have been restricted due to their level of education and rural locality. Hence, there is a need for novel information, education, and communication strategies to effectively reach mothers, especially in rural areas, regarding the importance of identifying children with growth failure and its prevention. Mothers should be able to identify when a child is affected by growth failure and to seek healthcare, in order to prevent children from progressing to severe forms. This study informs on the timing of nutritional interventions for children and context-specific health promotion and health education programs to improve the knowledge of mothers on child growth.
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A 1986 collaboration between a Fort Worth community group and middle school evolved into a network of 32 alliance schools in 1992-93. Aided by improvement-minded parents, community leaders, and educators, the alliance now has 100 schools in disadvantaged Texas communities. Community involvement contributes to improvements in conditions and resources supporting learning, stakeholders' attitudes, and the depth and quality of participants' learning experiences. (MLH)
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Teachers and administrators are not adequately prepared to address the range of children's social and psychological needs but must rely on parental and community assistance. Instead of merely referring students to social services and health departments, schools must become multiple-service brokers and forge broad community alliances to protect and enhance children's well-being. (18 references) (MLH)
Mentoring programs: Promise and paradox
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Hamilton, M., & Hamilton, S. (1992). Mentoring programs: Promise and paradox. Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 546-550.
Education and parental involvement in secondary schools: Problems, solutions, and effects. Educational Psychology Interactive
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q LaBahn, J. (1995). Education and parental involvement in secondary schools: Problems, solutions, and effects. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.
Communities for children
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Lewis, R., & Morris, J. (1998). Communities for children. Educational Leadership, 55, 34-36.
recs.) Anglican -attend at least yearly Anglican -confirmed Anglican Catholic Church: 20,000 (3 recs.) Anglican Church of Canada (4 recs
  • S Overman
Overman, S. (1999). Gearing up tomorrow's workforce. HR Focus, 76, 14-18. Anglican -active: 23,000,000 (3 recs.) Anglican -attend at least yearly Anglican -confirmed Anglican Catholic Church: 20,000 (3 recs.) Anglican Church of Canada (4 recs.) Anglican Church of North America Anglican Communion: 78,000,000 (10 recs.)