Article

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory

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Abstract

Ecological systems theory: This theory looks at a child's development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment. Bronfenbrenner's theory defines complex "layers" of environment, each having an effect on a child's development. This theory has recently been renamed "bioecological systems theory" to emphasize that a child's own biology is a primary environment fueling her development. The interaction between factors in the child's maturing biology, his immediate family/community environment, and the societal landscape fuels and steers his development. Changes or conflict in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers. To study a child's development then, we must look not only at the child and her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger environment as well. The various terms in this graphic are links that lead to pages explaining their implications in this theory. The microsystem – this is the layer closest to the child and contains the structures with which the child has direct contact. The microsystem encompasses the relationships and interactions a child has with her immediate surroundings (Berk, 2000). Structures in the microsystem include family, school, neighborhood, or childcare environments. At this level, relationships have impact in two directions -both away from the child and toward the child. For example, a child's parents may affect his beliefs and behavior; however, the child also affects the behavior and beliefs of the parent. Bronfenbrenner calls these bi-directional influences, and he shows how they occur among all levels of environment. The interaction of structures within a layer and interactions of structures between layers is key to this theory. At the microsystem level, bi-directional influences are strongest and have the greatest impact on the child. However, interactions at outer levels can still impact the inner structures. The mesosystem – this layer provides the connection between the structures of the child's microsystem (Berk, 2000). Examples: the connection between the child's teacher and his parents, between his church and his neighborhood, etc.

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... The key to this theory is the interactions of structures within the five systems and the interaction of structures between these systems (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). The theory points out that while relationships close to the child have a direct impact; other outside factors also have a powerful influence on their development (Berk, 2007). ...
... The theory consists of five environmental systems which affects http://etd.uwc.ac.za/ the child's growth and with which a child interacts; the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and the chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). It points out that while relationships close to the child have a direct impact; factors outside the close relationships also have a powerful impact on their development (Berk, 2007). ...
... Structures in the microsystem include family, school, childcare environments, caregivers, peers, neighbourhood, religious community, to name a few (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). How these groups or organisations interact with the child will have an effect on how the child grows; the more encouraging and nurturing these relationships and places are, the better the child will be able to grow (Bridges, n.d.). ...
Thesis
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Perceptions, experiences and challenges of families after the father's exposure to a fatherhood intervention programme offered by a Cape Town based NGO.
... Microsystem is the layer that is closest to the individual, and includes structures with which individual is in direct contact. Microsystem includes connections and interactions that people have with their immediate environment (Berc, 2000, according to Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Structures such as the family, the place (home, school, and workplace), activities, and roles represent immediate surrounding. ...
... At this level, relationships have double impact -towards the individual and from the individual. Bronfenbrenner refers to this as bi-direct impact and emphasizes that it can appear in all layers of the environment (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). The interaction between structures within the layer and structure interaction between layers is what is crucial in this theory. ...
... Mezosystem is the layer where links between the structures of microsystem are realized (Berc, 2000 according to Paquette & Ryan, 2001). ...
Article
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Abstract: The research is a continuation of a whole range of existing ones dealing with the outcomes of music education for the gifted. Results obtained up to now have pointed to weak “ecological validity“ of professional competencies acquired at the level of higher education in music arts and their limitation within the demands of labour market and working conditions in contemporary social circumstances. Using qualitative methodology our intention was to examine in more details the attitudes of those musically gifted towards the outcomes of music higher education and their professional perspective. Research aims: 1) to establish the assessment of students of music on the types and the level of (not)acquired competencies for work within six professional orientations existing in the labour market in Serbia (musical pedagogy, performance, creative work, work in the media, music production, work in popular music genres) and 2) to establish which jobs are considered (un)desirable by students of music arts and why. The sample consists of 71 students of undergraduate academic studies at the Faculty of Music Arts in Belgrade. Preliminary results have to a great extent confirmed previous findings, i.e. that studies provide knowledge and skills for “traditional” music professions (pedagogy and musical performance), while the acquired competencies for “new” music professions and informal music movements are minimal. Professional orientation is mostly oriented towards “safe” jobs along with the openness for other possibilities. The findings show that the choice of students “has shifted” towards realistic possibilities for employment, but that it has also been conditioned by the increase of insights into one’s own possibilities and interest in certain career orientation in music. Key words: musical giftedness, higher education in music arts, competencies, knowledge and skills, professional perspectives.
... It is understood the relationships and interactions are impacted via two routes, toward the child and away from the child. This is directly related to the intra-action-reaction discussed within the theoretical framework in Chapter Two, which Bronfenbrenner (1979) discussed as bi-directional influences (Ryan, 2001). The two-way influences also occur outside the layers and between the systems, but the influences are considered strongest at the microsystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1978). ...
... However, the inclusion of the parent and or the school must be grounded in direct intra-action. If direct contact is not established, then the influence at this stage is inhibited (Ryan, 2001). There is a supplementary layer which is closely linked to the mesosystem which is cited as the exosystem which is particularly important to note as it incorporates the lives of the parents, their schedules and their resources. ...
... This could be linked to habitats and capital, as discussed within Chapter Three. Any negative or positive interactions between the school, parent or within the community proliferate and directly impact on the child, influencing their sense of self (Ryan, 2001). Bronfenbrenner (1978) stated the macrosystem differs in a fundamental way as this layer includes the notion of time in relation to the environment and encompasses the wider discourses of cultural and societal beliefs or subcultures. ...
Thesis
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This thesis explores the concept of school readiness from the perspective of two-year-old children.
... The microsystem consists of interpersonal relationships and pattern of activities as experienced by an individual in a given society of specific physical and material features (Bronfenbrenner, 1995). This layer has direct contact with the individual as it contains structures, relationships and interactions within the person's immediate environment (such as family, school and neighbourhood) and therefore has the most influence on the individual (Berk 2000;Paquette & Ryan (2001). ...
... This suggests that a broader policy change in the educational system affects other layers in the ecosystem and the application of policies developed has an influence on the practice and management of inclusive education. The macrosystem is out of reach of the children but has an influence on them (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). It looks at policy makers, educational policies, beliefs and perceptions of persons with disabilities by community members. ...
... They further suggested that a change in any part of the system affects other systems and individuals and at a later time could be seen as a cause for change. Elements within this system can be either external, such as the timing of a parent's death; or internal, such as the physiological changes that occur with the ageing of a child…" (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). This means that the age of onset and detection of hearing loss and even the time made available for studies (which constitute the chronosystem of SHIs) can influence their academic performance. ...
Article
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Purpose: Several researches have showed that the average academic performances of students with hearing impairment (SHIs) are below that of hearing students. This research sought to elucidate challenges that prevent SHIs from high academic achievements, using the case of students in Tetteh Ocloo State School for the Deaf in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.Method: A qualitative research design was used for data collection through in-depth interviews, analysis and the interpretation of the responses of thirty participants (12 Students with hearing impairments, 11 parents and 7 special educators).Results: Findings showed that challenges which hinder SHIs academic performance emanate from different systems and actors including SHIs themselves, their parents and other institutional barriers that exist in deaf education. The findings also indicated that parents influenced the academic performance of their children with hearing impairment (CHI) through their responsibilities, expectations and the learning assistance they gave to their wards at home. Results also established that institutional barriers such as effective instructional procedures adopted in deaf education, availability of facilities, teaching, reading learning materials, and curricular contents posed challenges to the academic performance of students with hearing impairment.Conclusion: The identified challenges which prevent SHIs from higher academic performance are from different systems of SHIs’ environment and the interplay between them. The study recommends that interventions must be directed at the different systems within their environment.
... On the basis of this theory, it is seen that human society is transforming and technology is gradually over powering human relations (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). From the work place to social relationships, there seems to be a strong influence of technology. ...
... According to Bronfenbrenner, such changes have strongly damaged the social environment and adversely affected the parent-youth relationship. Individualism is becoming the pre-dominant norm of human society (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Many steps have been taken to protect the physical environment but the social environment has been less taken care of, as a result of which it has been affected more. ...
... The Chrono-system includes external events influencing the youth, such as parent"s death or divorce, as well as internal changes based on the chronological maturity of the young person (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). It may also include the personal experiences from the individual"s socio-cultural surrounding having a long time impact on the personality. ...
... The microsystem consists of interpersonal relationships and pattern of activities as experienced by an individual in a given society of specific physical and material features (Bronfenbrenner, 1995). This layer has direct contact with the individual as it contains structures, relationships and interactions within the person's immediate environment (such as family, school and neighbourhood) and therefore has the most influence on the individual (Berk 2000;Paquette & Ryan (2001). ...
... This suggests that a broader policy change in the educational system affects other layers in the ecosystem and the application of policies developed has an influence on the practice and management of inclusive education. The macrosystem is out of reach of the children but has an influence on them (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). It looks at policy makers, educational policies, beliefs and perceptions of persons with disabilities by community members. ...
... They further suggested that a change in any part of the system affects other systems and individuals and at a later time could be seen as a cause for change. Elements within this system can be either external, such as the timing of a parent's death; or internal, such as the physiological changes that occur with the ageing of a child…" (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). This means that the age of onset and detection of hearing loss and even the time made available for studies (which constitute the chronosystem of SHIs) can influence their academic performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Several researches have showed that the average academic performances of students with hearing impairment (SHIs) are below that of hearing students. This research sought to elucidate challenges that prevent SHIs from high academic achievements, using the case of students in Tetteh Ocloo State School for the Deaf in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Method: A qualitative research design was used for data collection through in-depth interviews, analysis and the interpretation of the responses of thirty participants (12 Students with hearing impairments, 11 parents and 7 special educators). Results: Findings showed that challenges which hinder SHIs academic performance emanate from different systems and actors including SHIs themselves, their parents and other institutional barriers that exist in deaf education. The findings also indicated that parents influenced the academic performance of their children with hearing impairment (CHI) through their responsibilities, expectations and the learning assistance they gave to their wards at home. Results also established that institutional barriers such as effective instructional procedures adopted in deaf education, availability of facilities, teaching, reading learning materials, and curricular contents posed challenges to the academic performance of students with hearing impairment. Conclusion: The identified challenges which prevent SHIs from higher academic performance are from different systems of SHIs’ environment and the interplay between them. The study recommends that interventions must be directed at the different systems within their environment. © 2017, Action for Disability Regional Rehabilitation Centre. All rights reserved.
... Bronfenbrenner (1999), proposed in his ecological systems theory that dynamic relationships that have open, trusted lines of communication between the family and school are essential for the child's development. Yet, if the relationship breaks down between them, the child's growth will be affected negatively (Paquette and Ryan, 2001). ...
... The unity of roles and goals between teachers and families is essential for children's healthy progress. Paquette and Ryan (2001) stated that, if the relationship between home and school breaks down, children's growth will be negatively affected. ...
... Some teachers explained that mothers can make decisions in conjunction with teachers regarding to their children's behaviors. According to the ecological system theory, conflict between the two parties, the family and the child's teacher, negatively influence a child's development (Paquette& Ryan, 2001). The more welcoming a teacher is to engage the family in decision-making results in more successful children. ...
... At this level, the child is influenced by the people in their immediate environment and the child in turn also has an https://etd.uwc.ac.za/ influence on these people. The influences at this level are strongest and have the greatest impact on the child and their development (Paquette & Ryan, 2009). Furthermore, what happens at the microsystem level may overlap with that at the mesosystem level. ...
... The mesosystem level provides the connection between the structures of the child's microsystem (Paquette & Ryan, 2009). This means that within the mesosystem, people in the microsystem are connectedfor instance, the connection between the child's parents and their teacher. ...
... The effects of larger principles defined by the macrosystem have a cascading influence throughout the interactions of all other layers. For example, if it is the belief of the culture that parents should be solely responsible for raising their children, that culture is less likely to provide resources to help parents (Paquette & Ryan, 2009). ...
Thesis
Food insecurity exists when people lack access to sufficient quantities of safe and nutritious food which encourages normal growth and development. Given South Africa’s high poverty and unemployment levels, food insecurity has become endemic in many communities. The purpose of the study was to determine and explore the relationship between food insecurity, child care arrangements and the child support grant (CSG). The study was conducted among a sample of 120 participants, comprising both CSG recipients and non-recipients (who were purposefully selected from an ongoing cohort study), residing in Langa township in Cape Town. A sequential, mixed-model research design was used, in which both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied. Data was collected by means of questionnaires, interviews and focus groups. The results were analysed using SPSS and Atlas ti software. The ecological systems theory being used as a theoretical framework to explore the different dimensions of child care arrangements. In the literature it is hypothesised that food insecure families are more likely to have child care arrangement instabilities. Interestingly, the study’s findings did not support this hypothesis. Although most of the participants were unemployed, they generally stayed at home to care for their children because they were recipients of the CSG. Therefore, despite being food insecure, many households had stable child care arrangements because of the CSG. Child support grant recipient households experienced hunger less acutely than households that did not receive the grant. Of course, social protection mechanisms, like grants, do not represent a sustainable solution to South Africa’s unemployment and food insecurity challenges. The researcher therefore provides a number of recommendations on how government and civil society can ameliorate the plight of poor households. Key words Food insecurity, Child care arrangements, Child development, Child support grant, Household hunger scale, South Africa
... Structures in the microsystem can include family, neighbourhood, the people at the art workshop and the art workshop itself. Bronfenbrenner showed that at the microsystem level, the bi-directional influences (the individual is influenced by and in turn also influences) are strongest and have the greatest impact, however, interactions at outer levels can still impact the inner structures (Ryan & Paquette, 2001). ...
... The next system in Bronfenbrenner's model is that of the Mesosystem which connects the systems (Ryan & Paquette, 2001), and in this case, the people to each other and to places close to, but outside of, the art workshop. Within this study, it represents the facilitator as the observer, highlighting the importance of their pragmatic and social interconnectedness with the participants, and the spaces outside the art workshop. ...
... The Exosystem is the next layer and describes the systems that a person does not interact with but influences them (Ryan & Paquette, 2001). In this study, it was the community transport availability, an organisation timetable or the funding of a project that influenced how the person engages in the art workshop and the project. ...
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The historical segregation of neurodivergent people has disrupted their agency and belonging, along with society’s natural diversity. This research explores how art therapy and community arts paradigms amalgamate to create dynamic, experimental spaces where a multitude of connections form. Group art-making as a process remains under-researched. This study aims to elucidate its impact on a neurodiverse population in regional Australia. The research should contribute to the literature and practice of art therapy and community arts with groups who may face marginalisation in their day to day lives. The research was conducted with nine neurodivergent participants who access group art-making. A single case study design with participatory action research (PAR) data collection incorporated five qualitative methods. These included three focus groups, nine observations, nine mood questionnaires, nine artworks, and nine third party interviews. Nvivo7 software with thematic coding tools was utilised for the analysis of the data. Participating in group art-making led to four discernible relationships. First was their relationship to the art as an object, but also as an embodiment of identity or subject; second was relation to self; the third, relation to others within the group; and fourth was the potential for relation to the individual’s community through the showing or gifting of the artwork. The research found that facilitation can enhance how those connections are formed. These outcomes foster individual agency, a sense of belonging to the group, and connection to the community external to the group. A six- stage art facilitation model was created that can be used to guide art groups that emphasise connection throughout creative process.
... The macrosystem, which is the outermost layer and is formed by such things as the cultural values of a community, including customs and laws. And finally, the chronosystem, is how the child is affected by timing as they develop, such as puberty, or the death of a relative (Berk, 2000;Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Ryan, 2001). ...
... With regard to this research, the relationship between the child, home (both family and community) and the school is of interest. Ryan (2001) suggests that schools and teachers may, "fulfil an important secondary role, but cannot provide the complexity of interaction that can be provided by primary adults" (p.3). In fact, he goes on to suggest that for the educational community to think that it can perform these primary functions is to "help society continue its denial of the real issue" (p.3). ...
... We investigated explanations of why people conform, as well as why some people could resist pressures to conform. This raised interesting discussions surrounding students' personal backgrounds and situations and pertained very much to motivations that underlie value systems of communities as well as the influence an environment can have on these and in turn an individual (Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Rutter, 2013;Ryan, 2001;Schwartz, 2012;Unger, 2013;Watling Neal and Neal, 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Students attending Pupil Referral Units (PRUs) face not only the challenges of their often difficult homelives, but also, that they are trying to academically, emotionally and socially develop in a difficult area of the educational landscape. There has been a significant amount of focus on Alternative Provision (AP), including PRUs, by the government in recent times. However, despite numerous interventions in this arena, this sector of education continues to struggle to improve the outcomes for students attending APs, including PRUs. Therefore, indicating that continued scrutiny and intervention is required to give the best possible opportunities to the students who find themselves attending school outside of mainstream education. This thesis explored whether, in a single year of attendance at a PRU, vulnerable students could be equipped with skills that would enable them to have the greatest chance of success at school in their final year of formal education. That, if by raising the levels of emotional intelligence and value systems of these students, a more harmonious learning environment could be created, that would enable greater success at school, both academically and personally. To interrogate this, a case study following ethnographic principles and multiple data collection techniques was conducted on a group of forty Year 11 student participants. This method was chosen as it is considered especially valuable where the phenomenon being researched and the context are closely entwined, and the participants are observed in a naturalistic setting. The thesis concludes that this yearlong study based at a Year 11 Pupil Referral Unit, showed tangible outcomes to intervention strategies that can be employed to raise student levels of emotional intelligence and value systems; both collectively and individually. Also, that these outcomes give rise to a substantive argument that emotional intelligence and value systems can be monitored and assessed through observation and dialogue. And, that if these observations, made by those who spend the most time with the students, are monitored, analysed and discussed reflexively; valuable assessments of the interplay between a student’s emotional intelligence and value systems can be made, so that appropriate strategies can be implemented to guide both personalised education plans and whole school improvement resulting in greater student success.
... As such, we expect to find differences in meat-centric family cultural food beliefs depending on race/ ethnicity. The recursive relationship between family and culture can be explained using the social ecological framework (Ndiaye et al., 2013;Ryan, 2001). This framework describes how microsystems, or families, are interdependent with the larger cultural system in which they are situated (Hawley, 1986). ...
... A person's actual eating behaviors can also be influenced by family, community, society, and the outermost layer of culture (Andrews, Silk, & Eneli, 2010;Flora & Schooler, 1995;Ryan, 2001). Illustrating this influence, Black/African Americans eat more total meat and more beef than non-Hispanic Whites (Gossard & York, 2003), and Hispanics tend to eat more beef than non-Hispanics. ...
Article
Consumption of red meat has been linked to a variety of health issues, yet Americans are resistant to reducing their meat consumption. Family communication environments shape beliefs about food and meat consumption, and therefore are locations for potential interventions to change the way people think about food. Families are embedded in cultures, and both family and cultural norms shape beliefs about what people should eat. This study (N = 773) is interested in understanding how family communication is associated with food beliefs, meat consumption, and health issues across three racial/ethnic groups: Black/African American (n = 256), Hispanic (n = 260), non-Hispanic White (n = 257). Structural equation modeling results showed that conversation orientation was consistently associated with stronger endorsement of family cultural food beliefs across race/ethnicity groups. Family food beliefs were associated with either more health issues or more meat consumption depending on race/ethnicity and mediated the association between conversation orientation and health issues/meat consumption. Conversation orientation moderated the association between conformity orientation and food beliefs for Hispanic and non-Hispanic White participants. Implications for family communication patterns theory and health scholars are discussed along with recommendations for culturally tailored family-focused health interventions.
... 20 A micro-system is a pattern of activities, roles, and interpersonal relations experienced by developing person. 21 20 In line with the present study, the results of another study showed that poor relationships between parents and their young or teenage children, alcohol and drug use and low social self-worth were predictors of high-risk sexual behaviors in girls. 22 Educating the parents through discussions about issues pertaining to sex can help reduce high-risk sexual behaviors, especially among young women. ...
... Whereas this layer provides the connection between the structures of the child's micro-system like the connection between the child's teacher and his parents. 21 In a study, it was revealed that 90% of teenagers believed talking with friends had helped them keep mental health and reduce their depression. 26 Teachers also play an important role in young and teenage children's lives. ...
Article
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Background Drug abuse is one of the important variables influencing protective sexual behavior. The objective of this study was to explore how risky sexual behaviors develop in drug abusing women using human ecological theory. Methods In this study, we used a descriptive exploratory approach. The participants were 32 drug abusing women from two of the selected drop-in centers (DICs) in south Tehran, Iran, where we could have access to a vast number of female drug users. Data was collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data using Graneheim and Lundman procedure. Findings Risky sexual behavior in drug use disorders in women was found in four themes with thirteen emerged; sexual untaught at micro-system with two subthemes “unsafe home” and “drop out of school”, Perception of differences at meso-system with three subthemes “lack of link between family and school”, “doing manly behavior” and “low awareness of health puberty than peers”, inappropriate marriages at exo-system with three subthemes “stigma”, “fear of losing love relationship” and “self-devotion”, marginalization at macro-system with four subthemes “barrier access to rights”, “selling sex as a tool of security”, “lack of belief as a sex worker” and “mistrust and doubt partner” using implication of human ecological theory. Conclusion Findings suggest that strategies supporting the discovery of risky sexual behaviors in drug use disorders in women are important in order to provide counseling and education to form their decisions toward safety sex.
... * Makrosistem može se posmatrati kao spoljašnji sloj u okruženju deteta koji se sastoji se od kulturnih vrednosti, običaja i zakona (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Čine ga kulturni, politički, ekonomski, socijalni i pravni sistem, pa kao takav sadrži različite sisteme verovanja, resursa, stilova života, obrazaca društvene razmene, i sl. ...
... Iako dete nije aktivni učesnik u nekim od sistema, svakako da će dešavanja na radnom mestu roditelja, razred koji pohađa starije dete, mreža prijatelja njegovih roditelja, aktivnosti lokalne školske uprave potencijalno posredno uticati na njega (Bronfenbrener, 1997). I na kraju, stabilniji od ostalih ekoloških sistema, ali pod uticajem društvenih promena, makrosistem sadrži dominantna verovanja i ideologiju koji na različite načine vrše uticaj na interakcije i ponašanje u okviru užih razvojnih okruženja (Zuković, 2012), primera radi u slučaju kulturološki prihvaćenog stanovišta da je podizanje dece isključivo briga roditelja, verovatno da će na makronivou biti smanjena podrška u vidu sredstava za pomoć roditeljima, što može dovesti do smanjene sposobnosti roditelja za obavljanje svoje uloge u okviru mikrosistema (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). ...
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Резиме: Период адолесценције се често описује као период „бура „ и „олуја“. Поред физио- лошких и физичких промена, адолесцент пролази и кроз низ психолошких промена. Овај рад описује психолошке промене у адолесцентном периоду кроз приказ књиге о адолесцентном развоју „Adolescent Psychological Development – Rationality, Morality and Identity“, књиге која даје детаљан опис промена уз сликовите примере како би се тематика што више приближила индивидуама из различитих хуманистичких струка, а које испољавају интересовање за период адолесценције и промене унутар њега. Посебан осврт је на когнитивном и моралном развоју, као и формирању идентитета. Поред приказа књиге, нуди се и додатно проширење наведених тема, како би се употпунила слика о психолошким променама у периоду адолесценције. Кључне речи: адолесценција, идентитет, моралност, когнитивни развој.
... Ως μικροσύστημα ορίζεται κάθε επιμέρους περιβάλλον, για παράδειγμα το σπίτι ή το σχολείο, στο οποίο το παιδί έχει περισσότερες άμεσες αλληλεπιδράσεις (Γουργιώτου, 2016). Οι άνθρωποι που συμβιώνουν με το παιδί σε αυτά τα μικροσυστήματα τού ασκούν την πιο άμεση επίδραση, με αποτέλεσμα όταν οι σχέσεις στο άμεσο μικροσύστημα καταρρεύσουν, να προκαλούνται δυσκολίες στο παιδί, όσον αφορά την εξερεύνηση άλλων περιοχών του περιβάλλοντός του (Paquette, & Ryan, 2001). Όπως αναφέρουν οι Dockett & Perry (2014: 288-292) «…ό,τι είναι σημαντικό για τα παιδιά και ό,τι γνωρίζουν μέσα στον ιστό των ουσιαστικών κοινωνικών σχέσεων προέρχεται σε μεγάλο βαθμό από τις αλληλεπιδράσεις ανάμεσα σε αυτές τις σχέσεις». ...
... Η προτεραιότητα που δίνει το μακροσύστημα στις ανάγκες των παιδιών θα επηρεάσει το βαθμό στήριξης που λαμβάνουν τα παιδιά στα διάφορα επίπεδα του εκπαιδευτικού συστήματος. Για παράδειγμα, οι Paquette & Ryan (2001) αναφέρουν ότι αν η αντίληψη μιας δεδομένης κοινωνίας είναι ότι οι γονείς πρέπει να είναι υπεύθυνοι για την ανατροφή των παιδιών τους, τότε η κοινωνία πιθανώς να μην παρέχει τους εξωτερικούς πόρους για να βοηθήσει τους γονείς σε αυτόν το ρόλο. Αυτό θα έχει επιπτώσεις στην ικανότητα ή την ανικανότητα των γονέων να αναλάβουν αυτή την ευθύνη, και θα επηρεάσουν τη ζωή του παιδιού μέσα στα μικροσυστήματα και μεσοσυστήματα που ζει και μεγαλώνει. ...
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Το παρόν άρθρο μέσω της βιβλιογραφικής ανασκόπησης διαπραγματεύεται πως από την ενεργητική συμμετοχή των μαθητών στη διαδικασία λήψης αποφάσεων, όπως και στη διαμόρφωση του χώρου μάθησης, μπορεί να τεθούν οι βάσεις για τη διαμόρφωση του ενεργού πολίτη. H ενεργοποίηση αυτή χτίζεται σταδιακά και μπορεί να ξεκινήσει από την προσχολική εκπαίδευση. Σύμφωνα με τον Roger Hart υπάρχουν αυξανόμενα επίπεδα ενεργητικής συμμετοχής, από δράσεις που είναι εξ ολοκλήρου οργανωμένες από τους εκπαιδευτικούς, έως εμπειρίες μάθησης που είναι αποτέλεσμα των πρωτοβουλιών και σχεδιασμών των μαθητών. Εναπόκειται στον εκπαιδευτικό να αποφασίσει αν θέλει να διαμορφώσει περιβάλλοντα μάθησης που χαρακτηρίζονται από αυτονομία δίνοντας ευκαιρίες για λήψη αποφάσεων. Μια τέτοια δυνατότητα λήψης αποφάσεων και ενεργοποίησης αποτελεί ο συμμετοχικός σχεδιασμός των περιβαλλόντων μάθησης και των σχολικών τόπων.
... The study design and methods for this study were informed by this perspective. In addition, the Social ecological model (SEM) developed by Bronfenbrenner in 1979 underpinned this study [23][24][25][26]. The model looks at a person's (e.g. ...
... The model looks at a person's (e.g. child) development within the context of the system of relationships that form his or her environment [24]. Bronfenbrenner categorized the environment in which the person interacts into levels. ...
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Background Early adolescence is an important period to lay the foundation for positive sexual health development that can overcome sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges faced by very young adolescents (VYAs) as they reach puberty and sexual debut. In this study, we explored the following questions: first, what are the experiences of VYA girls on DREAMS’ Go Girl club participation? Second, how does club participation influence the VYAs SRH knowledge to reduce their risk for HIV and negative sexual health outcomes? Methods This was a qualitative study in which twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with VYA girls aged 12–14 years. These girls were enrolled in girl-only clubs in two rural southern districts in Malawi. The clubs were a part of larger comprehensive HIV prevention project called DREAMS (Determined, Resilient, Empowered, AIDS-free, Mentored, and Safe) which provided an evidence-based core package of interventions to VYAs to prevent HIV. Interventions included improved access to key health services, education support, social skills, asset building, and economic strengthening. Narrative inquiry was used to generate first-hand accounts of the girls’ experiences with club participation. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes from the transcribed stories. Results Six main themes were generated: 1) reasons for joining the clubs with desire to learn about SRH as a motivation for joining the clubs.; 2) influence on gender norms and roles whereby participants described a change of gender roles and norms at home; 3) influence on child abuse practices whereby participants reported a decline in child abusive practices at home;4) influence on life skills and social networks whereby participants described learning about networking; 5) support to go back to school whereby out-of-school girls described how economic empowerment of their guardians facilitated their return to school; and 6) influence of clubs on SRH knowledge acquisition and behaviours whereby participants described acquiring knowledge on sexual health issues. Conclusion Girls-only HIV and SRH programs coupled with economic empowerment for their families can be effective in keeping VYA girls in school and improving SRH knowledge and health seeking behavior.
... Interakcie jednotlivých subjektov mikrosystému (rodičov, rovesníkov, učiteľov a i.), ich vzájomné vzťahy a charakter ich prístupu k dieťaťu priamo vplývajú na jeho vývin a kvalitu jeho vzťahov. Bronfenbrenner zvýrazňoval, že štruktúry mikrosystému majú obojsmerný charakter, rodič ovplyvňuje správanie a presvedčenia dieťaťa, ale tiež dieťa, jeho biologicky a sociálne podmienené charakteristiky ovplyvňujú správanie a presvedčenia rodiča (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). Berk (2013) poskytuje ako príklad dieťa, ktoré je priateľské a pozorné, teda v rodičoch ľahko vyvolá pozitívnu a trpezlivú spätnú väzbu, pričom dieťa podráždené či roztržité spätne iniciuje skôr k odmeranosti, zákazom, či trestom. ...
... Ako sa dieťa vyvíja, interakcia v týchto prostrediach sa stáva zložitejšou. Paquette a Ryan (2001) vidia ako dôležitý predmet skúmania v zameraní sa na otázky: Ako na danej ceste pomáha svet? Alebo v čom ho brzdí? ...
Chapter
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The chapter explains theories of disability and Bronfenbrenner's model bio-ecological systems. Based on this knowledge it describes the International classification of functioning, disability and health. It analyses the use of ICF and ICF-CY in the context of research and practice of inclusive education.
... The direct interaction between two people in the relationship therefore results in a direct and immediate contact (micro) system. Each individual processes these interactions with his/her very own personality, beliefs and temperament and these have an effect on the psychological functioning of other individuals [40]. In the case of this study, findings indicate that partners in a relationship also have a huge influence on each other even when it comes to using substances. ...
Conference Paper
Substance use among pregnant women is a perennial problem in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. There are many influential elements related with substance use among women of childbearing-age. Factors associated with substance use during pregnancy were explored using qualitative research approach and bio-ecological theoretical framework was utilised to guide the study. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Participants accessed from the Department of Social Development who met the inclusion criteria of the study were interviewed using semi structured interviews. Participants were referred for psychological intervention during the interview if deemed necessary. Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis were used to analyse the data. The study adhered to ethical measures for the participants' protection. Participants had been knowledgeable about the study earlier than the initiation of the interviews and the important points of their voluntary participation had been explained. The key findings from this study illustrate that social factors, individual area and romantic relationship are the major contributing factors to substance use among pregnant ladies in this sample. Recommendations arising from the study encompass that the stakeholders, rehabilitation centers, Department of Health and future researchers ought to act proactively against substance use all through pregnancy.
... Misbehaving students may experience problems in their instructional relationships especially with teachers, reducing the opportunities for positive social engagement, classroom participation and supportive instruction and feedback. The interactions between students and teachers are what Bronfenbrenner (1994) calls a "bi-directional influence" (Paquette & Ryan, 2001) in which students affect the belief and behaviour of teachers while teachers also influence the behaviour and belief of their students. Similarly, "teachers feel more efficacious when their students do well, and students do well when teachers feel more efficacious" (Rimm-Kaufman & Sawyer, 2004, p. 322). ...
Article
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Casualties and physical destruction of the 2004 tsunami in Aceh are well documented in the literature. However, little is known about lives of teachers and students after the tragedy, particularly about the teaching and learning including teacher-student instructional relationships at the affected schools in the province. This cross-sectional qualitative case study, which was conducted between April and October 2010 at a public junior high school in Banda Aceh that was severely affected by the Aceh 2004 tsunami, provided evidences that the tragedy affected the quality of teachers’ teaching and teacher-student relationships. Data were obtained from semi- structured interviews with ten students from the school, supported by data collection observations over a period of six months. In general, the students commented about their teachers in negative terms. This included students’ deficit views about teachers’ lack of commitment on their teaching practice and their poor interactions with students at the school, affecting the quality of students’ learning at the school.
... The dimension of time is encompassed in this system, because it is related to the environment of the child. Children react differently to environmental changes (Paquette & Ryan, 2001) and it is therefore necessary that support structures take note of learners' and teachers' changing needs in order to successfully provide support. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to listen to John Calvin’s view on the place of Israel from his exegesis of Romans 9-11, against the backdrop of the history of Christian exegesis of this same passage. After establishing that Calvin’s view of Israel and the Jews was primarily determined by his biblical exegesis (and not so much by any noteworthy interaction with the Jews of his time), the historical voices of Origen, Ambrose, Augustine, Pelagius and Glossa Ordinaria are explored. In the last part Calvin’s exegesis of Romans 9-11 is investigated. This investigation makes clear that Calvin is not caught up in a dogmatic discussion of predestination, but that he rather focuses on Paul’s preaching with regards to Israel. There is the scandalum of Israel’s unbelief whereby the visible body of the people of Israel has been generally rejected. But this is not a complete rejection. The secret election of God means that there is still an adoption, which is completely grounded in God’s grace. Calvin has a broad understanding of ‘Israel’ which includes both Jewish and gentile Christians. But for the reformer of Geneva the Jews always remain the firstborn in God’s house. Regarding the Jewish people as a collective, Calvin does not harbour any particular expectations. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie artikel is om te luister na Johannes Calvyn se visie op die plek van Israel vanuit sy eksegese van Romeine 9-11, teen die agtergrond van die geskiedenis van die Christelike Bybeluitleg van dieselfde gedeelte. Nadat vasgestel is dat Calvyn se visie op Israel en die Jode primêr bepaal is deur sy Bybeluitleg (en nie soseer deur enige noemenswaardige omgang met die Jode van sy tyd nie), klink agtereenvolgens die stemme van Origenes, Ambrosius, Augustinus, Pelagius en die Glossa Ordinaria. In die laaste gedeelte word Calvyn se eksegese van Romeine 9-11 ondersoek. Hierdie ondersoek maak duidelik dat Calvyn nie vasgevang is in ’n dogmatiese behandeling van die uitverkiesing nie, maar dat hy eerder die aandag rig op Paulus se prediking met betrekking tot Israel. Deur die scandalum van Israel se ongeloof is daar ’n algemene verwerping van die sigbare volk. Maar dit is geen algehele verwerping nie. Die geheime uitverkiesing van God beteken dat daar steeds ’n aanneming is, wat volledig in God se genade gegrond is. Calvyn het ’n breë verstaan van ‘Israel’ – dit sluit sowel Joodse Christene as Christene uit die heidendom in. Vir die Geneefse hervormer bly die Jode egter altyd die eersgeborenes in God se huis. Wat betref die Joodse volk as kollektief, koester Calvyn geen besondere verwagting nie. https://doi.org/10.19108/KOERS.82.1.2351
... Student mood could be an indicator of how to deal with the child to ensure his or her safety as it tends to indicate what is happening internally, according to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). The participants reported that if there were a starving student who needed food, there would always be food in the schools for the students to ensure their biological fitness before teaching them (Shanker, 2013). ...
... This process would involve examining the existing literature and consultation with policy makers and other stakeholders to develop, test and agree upon a framework. For instance, ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner and Morris, 2007) has been adapted and applied to policy in a range of areas including violence prevention (Krug et al., 2002), tackling social inequities (Dahlgren and Whitehead, 2006) and early years education (Ryan, 2001). ...
Article
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A number of barriers have been identified to getting evidence into policy. In particular, a lack of policy relevance and lack of timeliness have been identified as causing tension between researchers and policy makers. Rapid reviews are used increasingly as an approach to address timeliness, however, there is a lack of consensus on the most effective review methods and they do not necessarily address the need of policy makers. In the course of our work with the Scottish Government’s Review of maternity and neonatal services we developed a new approach to evidence synthesis, which this paper will describe. We developed a standardised approach to produce collaborative, targeted and efficient evidence reviews for policy making. This approach aimed to ensure the reviews were policy relevant, high quality and up-to-date, and which were presented in a consistent, transparent, and easy to access format. The approach involved the following stages: 1) establishing a review team with expertise both in the topic and in systematic reviewing, 2) clarifying the review questions with policy makers and subject experts (i.e., health professionals, service user representatives, researchers) who acted as review sponsors, 3) developing review protocols to systematically identify quantitative and qualitative review-level evidence on effectiveness, sustainability and acceptability; if review level evidence was not available, primary studies were sought, 4) agreeing a framework to structure the analysis of the reviews around a consistent set of key concepts and outcomes; in this case a published framework for maternal and newborn care was used, 5) developing an iterative process between policy makers, reviewers and review sponsors, 6) rapid searches and retrieval of literature, 7) analysis of identified literature which was mapped to the framework and included review sponsor input, 8) production of recommendations mapped to the agreed framework and presented as ‘summary topsheets’ in a consistent and easy to read format. Our approach has drawn on different components of pre-existing rapid review methodology to provide a rigorous and pragmatic approach to rapid evidence synthesis. Additionally, the use of a framework to map the evidence helped structure the review questions, expedited the analysis and provided a consistent template for recommendations, which took into account the policy context. We therefore propose that our approach (described in this paper) can be described as producing collaborative, targeted and efficient evidence reviews for policy makers.
... A number of teachers viewed this sort of involvement as a fundamental parental duty, as the term 'no-fee school' can loosely be associated with 'free schooling' -a term used negatively and which influences the attitudes of parents and impacts their children's behaviour negatively. This viewpoint links up perfectly with the literature on Systems Theory, which details that "layers of environment" will have an effect on a child's development; in essence, if parents are unaccepting of contributing to their children's educational needs, then surely this sort of defiance will be manifested in the learners' attitude (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). ...
... Possible risk and protective factors related to illicit drug use by adolescents exist in individual, family, peer, and school domains. Bronfenbrenner's bioecological systems theory (Paquette and Ryan, 2001) indicates that individual biology, family/ community environment, and the societal landscape all have an impact on child development and, by extension, on risk and protective factors for alcohol and tobacco use (Hong et al., 2011) and the use of illicit drugs (Hemphill et al., 2011). ...
Article
Objective The use of illicit drugs by adolescents is a widespread problem in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to identify risk and protective factors. Design Web-based survey of high school students. Setting Senior high schools and vocational high schools in northern Taiwan. Method Survey data were collected from 15,754 students. Logistic regression analysis examined potential risk and protective factors in individual, family and peer/school domains for lifetime, past-year and past-month illicit drug use and the single and/or multiple use of ketamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and marijuana. Results The prevalence rates of illicit drug use varied from 1.18% to 2.19% by frequency and type of illicit drug use. Perceived availability of illicit drugs, betel nut chewing, drug use by a family member, peer drug use, missing classes and type of school were significant risk factors in lifetime, past-year and past-month use. Sensation seeking, family member and peer drug use were common factors in ketamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and marijuana use. Drug use by a family member increased the risk of multiple drug use. Smoking was a risk factor for ketamine use. Drug-related knowledge was a protective factor. Conclusions These findings support the idea that there exist multilevel risk and protective factors for drug use, especially in the family and peer/school domains. School-based interventions should be designed to integrate different levels of risk and protective factors.
... This theory also posits that childrens' interaction with themselves, their family/community, the societal landscape in which they operate, fuels, and channelizes their development. A change or alteration in any of these layers will have a ripple effect on other layers (Ryan, 2001). Leonard (2011) observed the value of school-community partnership and found out that the cultural cohesion encompassing students is imperative to better understand Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. ...
Article
Purpose This study investigates the different environments in which high school students go through in their formative years and whether these environments affect their intention to study entrepreneurship as a career choice. Bronfenbrenner's social-ecological theory has been used as a backdrop to capture these environments. Four variables chosen are family support, school environment, self-efficacy and global awareness. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 1770 high school students were chosen through simple random sampling within Gujarat state. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to predict the overall effect of all the environments on Entrepreneurship Education Intention (EEI) of these students. Findings Findings reveal that self-efficacy has the most substantial influence on intentions. Family support and global awareness have a combined significant effect on self-efficacy, which further translates to a significant impact on high school students' intentions. School environment has an effect on global awareness, which in turn has a negative effect on students' willingness to study entrepreneurship in India. Research limitations/implications The study has implications in curriculum design and theory development. The study also provides schools with a framework to understand how to orient their students toward entrepreneurship. Originality/value This paper uses a novel theory that has not been applied in studies related to entrepreneurship education and proposes a model for the same. This novelty also reflects in our findings which have subsequent implications for theory and practice.
... The direct interaction between two people in the relationship therefore results in a direct and immediate contact (micro) system. Each individual processes these interactions with his/her very own personality, beliefs and temperament and these have an effect on the psychological functioning of other individuals [40]. In the case of this study, findings indicate that partners in a relationship also have a huge influence on each other even when it comes to using substances. ...
Article
Full-text available
Substance use among pregnant women is a perennial problem in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. There are many influential elements related with substance use among women of childbearing-age. Factors associated with substance use during pregnancy were explored using qualitative research approach and bio-ecological theoretical framework was utilised to guide the study. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Participants accessed from the Department of Social Development who met the inclusion criteria of the study were interviewed using semi structured interviews. Participants were referred for psychological intervention during the interview if deemed necessary. Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis were used to analyse the data. The study adhered to ethical measures for the participants' protection. Participants had been knowledgeable about the study earlier than the initiation of the interviews and the important points of their voluntary participation had been explained. The key findings from this study illustrate that social factors, individual area and romantic relationship are the major contributing factors to substance use among pregnant ladies in this sample. Recommendations arising from the study encompass that the stakeholders, rehabilitation centers, Department of Health and future researchers ought to act proactively against substance use all through pregnancy.
... Within the ecological theory of skills, he identified four levels of environmental influences on child: Microsystems (family, kindergarten, school), Mesosystem (mutual action of different Microsystems), Exosystem (wider environment) and Macrosystem (features of certain culture: education, religion, social system) (Brajša-Žganec, 2003). Paquette and Ryan (2001) analyzing ecological theory suggest that the child is in the centre of the system, while the layers of the environment are getting wider around him/her in concentrated circles, and they stronger and weaker influence on his/her skills. Bronfenbrenner also underlines that overall the context in which the children's skills is carried out importantly influences the course of skills and skills outcomes, and without neglecting individual features of the child and believes that the skills is a result of interaction of child's features and environment in which the child grows (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006). ...
Article
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The study aimed at assessing Problems of Social Skills in Early Childhood Education Program in Ethiopia. Descriptive survey research design was employed through using stratified random sampling procedure to collect the survey data from 280 teachers recruited from early childhood education programs across three cities: Dire Dewa (130 teachers; 10 schools); Chiro (40 teachers; 6 schools); and Harar (110 teachers; 8 schools). They completed a questionnaire by starting filling the demographic information and a 5-item measure in which they rated problems influencing socials skills in early childhood education program. Firstly, about 89% of early childhood education teachers were not trained in the program. Secondly, about 64% of the early childhood education curriculum was highly influencing children's social skills. Finally, it was found that children were unable to cooperate during learning social skills with their classmates, and they were unable to solve social problems during playing with their classmates. Therefore, to ensure quality of early childhood education, education stakeholders, parents, teachers, administrators, non-government and ministry of education of the country at large need to improve teachers' training and curriculum under usage to improve and to fit to children's social skills in early childhood education programs.
... Bronfenbrenner (cited in Paquette and Ryan 2011) refers to the interactions within an environment and between environments as having both a direct and indirect effect on the child's development. However, the interactions within the microsystem are considered most significant in terms of influencing the child's attitudes and behaviours towards individuals, structures, institutions and processes in other environments (Paquette and Ryan 2011). The exosystem, on the other hand, refers to structures and factors outside of the immediate environment of the child. ...
Article
Current debates on citizenship and democracy highlight the salience of cooperative relations between government and its citizens. Scholars observe that governments and its institutions function better where there is cooperation and trust. However, evidence suggests that political interest is waning and trust in government, dwindling. More especially, concerns about the effects of youth disengaging from political life are increasing. This phenomenon is more worrying in young democracies, where democratic traditions and principles are still evolving. This study examines the effect of family politicisation on youth trust in government. This quantitative study used a cross-sectional correlational research design. A two-level approach was adopted. At the first level we examined the prevalence of political discussions in the home and the trust attitudes of the family (as indicators of family politicisation) and youth towards government. At a second level we conducted a regression analysis to determine relationships between parent-adolescent communication and youth trust in government; family trust in government and youth trust in government; and finally, parent-adolescent communication and family trust on youth trust in government. The results suggest that a combination of parent- adolescent communication and family trust in government in a model, significantly positively predicts youth trust in government.
... Poor children, who are often children of color, are particularly vulnerable to environmental health disparities. From an ecological perspective, children's development is not only influenced by their immediate environment, but also by their larger neighborhood and school environments (Institute for Child, Youth and Family Policy, 2018; Paquette & Ryan, 2001). For example, asthma and other chronic diseases have been linked to homes and schools' proximity to toxic waste release sites and busy, highly traveled roads. ...
Article
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While poor and vulnerable populations often contribute significantly less to environmental problems, they are significantly more likely to suffer from adverse economic and health effects caused by environmental problems. Poor children, who are often children of color, are particularly vulnerable to environmental health disparities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the application of the Childhood Opportunity Index, to assess asthma disparities among children in a SW Florida metropolitan area and discuss its implications for strengthening public health policy. Used in conjunction with 2017 Florida Environmental Public Health Tracking data of children’s asthma related emergency room visits, results based on application of this measure revealed that children who live within high child opportunity tracts generally experienced fewer asthma-related emergency room visits than did children who live within low child opportunity tracts. As the racial and ethnic composition of large metropolitan areas in the United States continues to increase, more research should focus on these dynamics and their influence on healthy development of children. The Child Opportunity Index is a useful tool in identifying communities that face educational, environmental and economic disadvantages, and further analysis based on this index may help to inform policies and promote more equitable health outcomes.
... Taking a socio-ecological 18 There are large differences in access within and among countries, including a digital gap between urban and rural areas and between rich and poor. 20 Table 1). ...
Technical Report
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This paper highlights examples of existing C4D programming enhanced by the use of ICT tools.The authors look at the advantages and risks of utilizing ICTs in the context of programming for and with marginalized adolescent girls.They discuss successful initiatives, and they raise points that need further clarity and documentation. For instance, the challenges of adopting ICTs in programming with adolescent girls remain.The digital divide means the most marginalized girls still lack access to mobile devices and computers, 3 and the dangers of trafficking, fraud, sexual harassment, cyber bullying, child pornography and sexting put them at constant risk when using ICTs.
... A further point worth noting is the dynamism and interconnection of the factors that the teachers identified as driving their belief changes. In particular, it is clear that the factors do not occur in isolation but cut across different domains, enriching one another (Paquette and Ryan 2001). For example, the demand for democratic decision-making expressed by Larry's students shows how factors from the remote and proximal domains can converge to influence belief change. ...
Article
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This study investigated the impact that the experience of living and teaching in the United Kingdom (UK) had on the belief development of three native Chinese language teachers. The study used a multifaceted approach to analyse the teachers as social beings and their belief development beyond the confines of the classroom. The analysis is based on data derived from an innovative methodological tool, a metaphorical drawing task, combined with narrative inquiry and interviews to elicit implicit beliefs. The findings show that the teachers’ various social roles as parents, members of clubs, participants in professional communities and observers of the broader social-political system in the UK, as well as the classroom environment, all contributed to changes in their beliefs about the nature of knowledge and learning. Implications for classroom practice and teacher development are discussed.
... habitus and doctoral capital. The adoption of this framework identifies that multiple factors influence behaviour and that by understanding the inter-relationship between the four domains, interventions are more likely to be successful when they understand and target multiple components of the socio-ecological model (Ryan, 2001;Xia et al., 2020). Similarly, from a Bourdieuian perspective, "concepts of cultural, social, and economic capitals are also relevant in understanding the many multi-faceted environments evident in doctoral education" (Nori et al., 2020, p. 519). ...
Article
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Purpose The Higher Degree Research (HDR) journey is known for its difficulties, complexities and challenges (Lees-Deutsch, 2020), with many students experiencing multi-faceted issues and concerns (Skopek et al. , 2020). Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships that exist between variables, vulnerability factors and doctorial capital of candidates ( n = 532) studying at Australian universities (2019). Design/methodology/approach A quantitative cross-sectional correlational research design and Bronfenbrenner's socio – ecological framework (personal, home, university, community) was utilised to collect participants' ( n = 532) descriptive statistics. Bourdieu's social reproduction theory was used as a lens to examine how experiences, across the PhD candidature, are influenced by several psychosocial factors and doctoral capital. Findings From such a dual methodological approach, the findings from this study suggests that (1) age, (2) gender, (3) nationality, (4) financial/work status, (5) years of PhD and (6) attending postgraduate (PG) student events, go to significantly ( p < 0.001) impact (positively and negatively) on students' experiences and correspondingly, impacts on their self-confidence, motivation and mental health and well-being status. Research limitations/implications Research limitations are related to the recruitment of more doctoral students across more Australian universities. Further research is required from HDR supervisors, so as to “balance” the experiences of the PhD journey in higher education. Practical implications In order to succeed in academia and HDR programs, students need to identify with and develop the “right kind of capital” to successfully navigate fields of social and scholarly play. Investigating how the participants perceive their social and scholarly habitus is seen as crucial in helping students to develop positive dispositions relevant to being a doctoral student. Social implications The concept of doctoral capital and well-being, amongst Australian PhD students, is under researched and requires further investigation as a precursor to developing more specific policy designs aimed at providing heightened positive learning environments/HDR programs tailored to support doctoral students. Originality/value Whilst reforms to improve PhD experiences are well established across the international literature (Geven et al. , 2018; Skopek et al. , 2020), evidence for Australia is largely missing. It is envisaged, that findings from this research will further assist in the development of quality policies that would go to provide effective services and support for doctoral students within Australian universities.
... Ühe olulise nõrkusena on esile toodud mudeli vähene paindlikkus ning süsteemide osaline kattuvus, millest tuleneb selle keerukas rakendamine päris elu olukordades (Houston, 2015). Samuti on mudelit kritiseeritud põhjusel, et see keskendub liialt isikut ümbritsevale keskkonnale ega arvesta asjaolu, et areng ei saa toimuda ilma üksikisiku enda rolli ja panuseta, st isik peab ise olema muutusteks valmis (Paquette & Ryan, 2011). Samal seisukohal on ka Christensen (2016), kui ta rõhutab, et Bronfenbrenneri bioökoloogiline mudel ei käsitle isikut iseseisva tegutsejana, kellel on valmisolek luua, võtta riske ja täita oma vajadusi. ...
Thesis
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Research (Chaudron, 2015; Marsh, et al., 2015) suggests that present-day young children (0-3 years old) gain their first experiences with touchscreen devices during their first months of life. In fact, it has been claimed that present-day young children live in media-rich homes where digital technologies create additional opportunities for young children's play (Yelland, 2015). Parental awareness of potential risks and opportunities of digital device use is, unfortunately, still quite low (Vinter, 2013; Kalmus, 2012). In fact, parents tend to believe that digital device use helps to support the development of young children and therefore they tend to favour the use of smart devices amongst infants and toddlers (Barr, 2013; Plowman et al., 2012), regardless of the fact that the ability of young children to learn from screens is difficult due to their video deficits (Deloache & Chiong, 2009). In other words, young children tend to learn more from real-life situations than from screens because, due to the lack of cognitive skills and life experience, infants and toddlers have difficulties in understanding symbolic objects and fail to transfer two-dimensional images from screens to real life (Barr, 2013; Zack et al., 2009). The main aim of the thesis was to explore young children’s (0-3years old) digital play and its mediation by parents and older siblings, and to explore the roles that parents and older siblings can take on when mediating young children's digital play. In addition, I aimed to create a typology of the mediator roles of Estonian parents and to analyse what roles toddlers' themselves play during digital play. Based on the above-mentioned research aims, the following research questions were formulated: (1) What are the parents' opinions of 0-3 year old's experiences with digital play? (I, II). (2) How important parents consider digital play in supporting the toddler’s development? (I, II, IV). (3) What mediation strategies and mediator roles can parents employ in the digital play of young children? (I, III, IV). (4) What is the role of older siblings in 0-3-year-olds' digital play? (III, IV, V), and (5) What roles do young children take on in digital play? (III, V).
... The concept also provides an understanding of diverse ecosystems and their functions. The environmental characteristics focus on the interactions among the chemical, biological, and physical components of the environment and the effects of these interactions on all types of organisms [55]. ...
Article
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This study aims to investigate the role of environmental system knowledge in promoting pro-environmental behaviors. Relationships between environmental knowledge and environmental attitudes as well as environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behaviors were analyzed. Environmental system knowledge includes knowledge of political ecology, sustainable development, environment and ecology, and environmental situations. This study included 128 students enrolling in the elective course entitled “Environment and Development” provided by the King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok city of Thailand and 150 students who were not participating in this course. The results revealed that environmental attitudes of students participating in the course was significantly higher than that of students not attending the course. Only knowledge of the environment and ecology highly correlated with environmental attitudes; on the other hand, diverse environmental knowledge significantly correlated with pro-environmental behaviors. The result also demonstrated that indirect impact environmental behaviors reported by both groups were statistically different, but there was no significant difference in direct impact environmental behaviors. This study suggested that environmental knowledge provided through a formal education could promote environmental attitudes, but it may not contribute to students’ engagement in direct impact environmental behaviors.
... Most respondents (n=38) could identify the characteristic elements of holistic education, such as, 'educating the whole person; integrating the multidimensional aspects of being human; educating the person as a whole as opposed to an assemblage of parts; educating the person within a whole (i.e., in the whole context of family, school, community, society, culture, and the universe)' (Miller 1991;2001cited in Adams 2006. The responses included an education that created connections with the community, the environment and humane values, all of which resonate with the fundamental principles of an IE approach. ...
... Bronfenbrenner's Bio-ecological Systems Theory [5] is a part of a microsystem that has direct contact with children and shapes children's behaviour [6]. Factors in the family that play a role in development and are thought to be able to be treated through health education to improve the self-efficacy of adolescents are communication and relations patterns, parenting and bonding. ...
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Objectives Self-efficacy is the belief a person has regarding his success in completing a task. A high level of self-efficacy can affect one’s thoughts and motivation to complete tasks well. Conversely, someone with low self-efficacy has a tendency to avoid difficult tasks. Self-efficacy can play a role in success in the future. This study aimed to develop a self-efficacy model for junior and senior high school students based on religious and family determinants. Method This study used a cross-sectional design and simple sampling technique. The calculation result involved 158 samples. The independent variables were religious and family determinants. The dependent variable was self-efficacy. The data were collected using a questionnaire that was tested for validity and reliability. The analysis used a multiple linear regression test with a significance level of α ≤ 0.05. Results The results showed self-efficacy was effectively determined by religion, communication, bonding and parenting factors. Overall, religion had the greatest role in influencing self-efficacy. Bonding and communication had an indirect effect on self-efficacy through parenting factors mediators. Conclusion Parenting factors influence self-efficacy indirectly through bonding and communication; however, parenting factors cannot be ignored. Religion was the biggest determinant of self-efficacy and capital of good self-control and strong conviction in completing tasks and achieving goals.
... (Bronfenbrenner, 2005;Bronfenbrenner ve Morris, 2006). Kurama göre çocuğun etkileşimde bulunduğu sistemlerin birinde yaşanan sorunlar diğer sistemleri de etkilemektedir (Ryan, 2001). Ekolojik kuramdan yola çıkarak program tasarlanırken, çocuğun etkileşimde bulunduğu çevre göz önünde bulundurulmuştur. ...
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In this study, it was aimed at investigating the social adaptation of immigrant families' children who study in 6th and 7th grade in the schools of Ministry of National Education and determining whether the social adaptation training affect the social adaptation of immigrant families' children studying in 6th and 7th grade. The study group of the dissertation consisted of 20 immigrant children who study in 6th and 7th grade of secondary schools of Ministry of National Education in Üzümlü district of Erzincan in 2017-2018 academic year. Also, other 20 immigrant children who study in 6th and 7th grade of secondary schools and have similar socio-economic characteristics were chosen for the control group. Quantitative research method with experimental design, pre-test, post-test and control group was used in the study. The data of the study were collected via "need recognition form", "social adaptation scale" and "general information form" developed by the researcher. The social adaptation training program which was prepared to increase the immigrant children's social adaptation was applied to experimental group total 24 sessions; during three months, twice a week and an hour a day. Also, the children in the control group continued their usual education. As a result of the analysis of obtained data, it was found that post-test scores of the children in the experimental group were significantly higher than their pre-test scores (p< .05) and there was no significant difference between post-test scores and permanence scores (p> .05). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the children in the control group (p> .05). The obtained findings showed that the social adaptation training program prepared by the researcher was effective in increasing immigrant children's social adaptation. The obtained results were discussed with the literature and some suggestions were presented.
... The dimension of time is encompassed in this system, because it is related to the environment of the child. Children react differently to environmental changes (Paquette & Ryan, 2001) and it is therefore necessary that support structures take note of learners' and teachers' changing needs in order to successfully provide support. ...
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Inclusive education forms the ethos of the education system in South Africa and resonates with the Constitution of the country, which recognises diversity and resists exclusivity. Inclusive education is also reflected in education policies such as the Education White Paper 6: Special Education – Building an Inclusive Education and Training System and the Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support (SIAS) document. Pivotal to inclusive education is the provision of support for all learners and teachers. The focus of this paper is on the functionality of all the formal support structures that are in place for teachers and learners from the teachers’ viewpoints. These support structures include District-Based Support Teams (DBSTs), Institutional-Level Support Teams (ILSTs), Full-Service Schools (FSS), Special Schools as Resource Centres (SSRC), Learning Support Educators (LSEs) and the community. An interpretive research paradigm was chosen, using convenience sampling and data was collected by means of focus group interviews. Constant comparative data analysis was employed. Peer review and member checks were used to ensure trustworthiness. The themes that emerged were: support provided by teachers; the role of official support structures and special schools and community collaboration. It was evident, from the teachers’ point of view, that the formal support structures are not as effective, as proposed by policy and educational authorities, and that the policy needs serious re-consideration. https://doi.org/10.19108/KOERS.81.3.2249
... Student mood could be an indicator of how to deal with the child to ensure his or her safety as it tends to indicate what is happening internally, according to Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory (Paquette & Ryan, 2001). The participants reported that if there were a starving student who needed food, there would always be food in the schools for the students to ensure their biological fitness before teaching them (Shanker, 2013). ...
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Culturally Responsive Teaching of Indigenous Students in Canada's Northwest Territories by Francis Amprako MS, Walden University, 2010 Abstract The purpose of this qualitative narrative inquiry was to describe the teachers' perceptions
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The paper provides a renewed framework for framing technology user environments among higher educational institutions. We propose the need to explore and understand the appropriate technology user environment as a prerequisite to deploying technologies in institutions of higher learning. The proposed framework developed from the perspective of the bioecological theory. The use of technologies for teaching and learning naturally takes place in a bio-ecological environment. It is now acceptable that the academic environments in which technologies are deployed and used have primary features associated with the bioecological theory. Some writers and researchers have therefore related the deployment of technologies in tertiary institutions to the bio-ecological theory. Some of these studies lack emphases on users of technology in an academic environment. Moreover, some individual conceptual studies have failed to recognize some important arms of the natural framework. We also consider the body of evidence on the subject subtle. We, therefore, want to uphold the need to know and understand the appropriate technology user environment as a prerequisite to deploying technologies in higher institutions by revealing a renewed framework for framing it. In this paper, we use conceptual and theoretical studies that employ the bio-ecological theory in forming frameworks relating to technology user environments. The studies used are largely from peer-reviewed journals, but we also used to work and white papers written on the subject. The typical technology user environment has essential features of the bioecological theory. A resounding attribute of this environment is the links or harmony between its subjects (users) and how these relationships extend to choices of technologies, user characteristics and the specific uses of technologies for students, faculty members and institutional management. Management of higher academic institutions can frame their technology user environments by considering the dimensions of the bio-ecological theory (i.e. microsystem factors, mesosystem factors, exosystem factors, and macrosystem factors) along the lines of choices of technologies, user characteristics (such as skills and ability to use technologies) and the specific uses of technologies for students, faculty members and institutional management.
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Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh faktor ekologis terhadap gaya pengasuhan, dengan mempertimbangkan pengaruh status sosial ekonomi, etnis, dukungan sekolah, dan masyarakat/lingkungan dukungan orang tua dalam penerapan gaya pengasuhan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian cross sectional yang menggunakan metode survei sebagai desain penelitian dan menggunakan kuesioner sebagai alat pengumpulan data. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah para ibu dari 400 orang siswa dari kelas 10 hingga kelas 12 di SMU Budhi Warman I, Jakarta Timur. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai orang tua [subscale goal incentives from children] memiliki perbedaan yang nyata berdasarkan etnis yang dimiliki oleh ayah, etnis ibu [subscale continuity, tradition, and security], dan status sosial ekonomi [subscale happiness and affection]. Dalam hal gaya pengasuhan terdapat perbedaan yang nyata pada gaya pengasuhan berdasarkan etnis ayah (gaya pengasuhan permisif) dan status sosial ekonomi (gaya pengasuhan otoriter). Hubungan keluarga-sekolah dan hubungan keluarga-masyarakat memiliki korelasi positif dan signifikan dengan nilai orang tua dan dengan gaya pengasuhan. Sebaliknya, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa status sosial ekonomi dan etnis tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifikan dengan nilai orang tua dan gaya pengasuhan. Beberapa analisis regresi menunjukkan bahwa nilai orang tua merupakan moderator parsial yang signifikan untuk menengahi hubungan antara hubungan keluarga-sekolah dan keluarga-masyarakat berkaitan dengan gaya pengasuhan.
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A qualitative study was conducted to explore mothers’ insights on the growth of school-age children in a rural Health and Demographic site of Limpopo Province, in South Africa. The participants were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected from seven focus group discussions, which were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. NVivo10 was used to analyse interview transcripts, following qualitative thematic analysis. Fifty-four mothers aged between 27 and 52 years were interviewed. Unfavourable sociodemographic status with poor living conditions of mothers were observed, particularly in terms of unemployment, minimal tertiary education, and rural locality. The perceptions of mothers on child growth linked growth of their children to various factors such as poverty and socioeconomic status, genetic/family heredity, and household environment. Mothers further related child growth to purchasing power and decisions regarding types of food, food unavailability, affordability issues, feeding beliefs and practices; and child food preferences, school feeding schemes, and maternal and societal cultural beliefs and practices. Despite their concerns, mothers perceived that their children were growing well, but differently. It is worth noting that the views of mothers on child growth were up to their aptitude level and might have been restricted due to their level of education and rural locality. Hence, there is a need for novel information, education, and communication strategies to effectively reach mothers, especially in rural areas, regarding the importance of identifying children with growth failure and its prevention. Mothers should be able to identify when a child is affected by growth failure and to seek healthcare, in order to prevent children from progressing to severe forms. This study informs on the timing of nutritional interventions for children and context-specific health promotion and health education programs to improve the knowledge of mothers on child growth.
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In line with compensation age theory (CAT; Lifshitz-Vahav, 2015), adults with severe or profound ID should be considered accessible to change despite the severity of their disability and despite their older chronological age, past the supposedly critical period of adolescence. This chapter provides empirical evidence supporting the assertion that even adults with severe and profound ID can benefit from intervention based on the triple CAB (cognition, affect, behavior) model, which includes not only exposure to adaptive behavior skills training but also mediation efforts systematically designed to promote three skill domains. This chapter reviews how the CAB model was first applied to this unique population in two rehabilitation centers for adults with severe and profound ID, by leveraging staff-client interactions in order to mediate adult clients’ cognitive functioning (the C in CAB), affective skills comprising values and autonomy (the A in CAB), and self-regulation of behavior during task performance (the B in CAB). The adults who participated in the intervention improved their cognitive, emotional, and behavioral competencies; then, the triple CAB was further developed for implementation with these challenging populations with severe and profound levels of ID. Practical recommendations are provided for diverse applications of the triple CAB approach in settings for these more challenging populations.
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Childhood poverty affects one in five children in the United States. Living in poverty is more than simply not having money. It relegates children and families to a life of stressors ranging from food insecurity to transient living in which there is frequent moving from one neighborhood to the next. Additionally, violence, family turmoil, homelessness, separation, noise, and crowding often accompany poverty. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the world of poverty through the lens of children and how poverty impacts a child’s health and social-emotional development, therefore hindering academic success. It looks at basic expectations for a safe, secure childhood and these missing elements in the world of the impoverished. It further provides strategies and programs to address breaking the cycle of poverty and balancing the scales for children whose basic necessities are absent.
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The purpose of this study is to examine the environmental factors affecting decision making process of managers within the framework of ecological systems theory. Ecological systems theory, examines the interaction between organisms and the outside world. All managers take into consider the external environmental elements and actions in various degrees. Therefore managers should identify, assess and respond to the environmental forces that influence the organization's actions. Environmental factors seem to be very important in management in terms of the effects on the organization. In this context, a qualitative approach has been adopted in the research. The research was conducted on school principals working at different levels of schools in Şahinbey district of Gaziantep province. In the selection of school principals, working as an administrator at least for 2 years of school principals has been identified as the main criterion. According to this basic criterion, with 19 school directors who worked during the 2012-2013 school year were made face to face interviews on the basis of volunteerism. Participants were given a list of environmental factors that could affect them, and they were asked to identify the factors that affected them and put them in order of importance. Later, they were asked how these factors affected themselves. The obtained data were analyzed by means of"descriptive analysis" and frequency values from qualitative research techniques. It has been revealed that the most influential factors in the direction of the obtained data are Ministry of Education, laws and ethical rules. Therefore, it can be said that in the decision-making process, managers are under the influence of the exosystem and macrosystem, rather than the microsystem.
Article
African American (AA) women are victimized by intimate partner violence (IPV) at a disproportionate rate; however, few studies have examined such women’s affective responses to violence. An experimental study was conducted to assess the predictive ability of type of simulated IPV and change in self-reported state anxiety on changes in self-reported quality of life (QOL) for 38 AA female survivors of IPV. IPV type and state anxiety change explained a significant portion of the variance in QOL change, R² = .16, F(2, 35) = 3.42, p = .05. Data provide indirect evidence that exposure to IPV may be a cue that reminds women of their experiences of violence or the problem of IPV for AA women, which prompts more negative attitudes toward general well-being.
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This chapter combines social and educational theories relating to the interaction of individuals with ID with their environment, as a backdrop to the triple CAB model for developing the cognition, affect, and behavior of adults with ID ranging from mild to profound levels of severity, across the lifespan. The chapter first traces the multilevel public stigma approach, the social-ecological model, and other theories at the foundation of the triple CAB intervention perspective. Then, the chapter reviews prior intervention research on the quality of mediational interaction. Next, the development of the CAB intervention model is traced, delineating its three major components – Cognition (intelligence), Affect (including autonomy, meaning, human values, encouragement), and Behavior (adaptive and social skills) – as well as the various parameters recommended for mediating each component. The triple CAB model is advocated as a sustainable way of life that can systematically enhance clients’ intrapersonal functioning while also reducing interpersonal stigma across all ecological levels in adult service agencies, facilities, families, and communities – thereby not only promoting the development and growth of adults with ID but also their inclusion and participation as much as possible in society.
Thesis
The presence of pre-packed items contributes toward littering in schools and at home milieu. Most people particularly, and learners’ discard packages of prepacked wrappers on the ground, thus contribute to littering. This study is intended to help all relevant stakeholders to plan activities that could reduce littering. The study is grounded within the critical theory and living paradigm exploring the effect of household and school practices on learners’ environmental awareness (EA) towards littering. This case study employed action research as a methodology to unpack the problem. Fourteen learners, who are referred to as co-researchers in this study, were selected randomly from seven classes and their parents were inevitably included in the study. Three cycles were conducted with the co-researchers. Five data collection methods are used to collect data. Tables, score total percentages and coding used to analyse data. The results of the study show that environmental activities could be useful within home and school setup and continued practice of environmental activities will in the end conscientise learners towards littering if approached through action research.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, Nusaybin ilçesinde okul dışına itilme nedenlerini belirlemektir. Bu doğrultuda bir grup okul dışına itilen ergenin okul deneyimleri, okul dışına itilme süreci, okul dışına itilme nedenleri ve okul dışına itilme sonrası yaşantıları ile Nusaybin’de öğretmenlik yapan bir grup öğretmenin okul dışında kalma nedenleri, okuldan ayrılan öğrenciler ile yaşadıkları deneyimlere ilişkin anlatılarını irdeleyerek nitel araştırma ile kuramsal bir çerçeve oluşturmaktır. Türkiye’de genelde okul terki ve okul dışına itilme ile ilgili çok sınırlı bir araştırma bulunmaktadır ve bu doğrultuda bu alandaki araştırma ve yazına katkıda bulunulması amaçlanmaktadır. Bu çalışma ile sınır bölgesinde bulunan bir ilçenin okul dışına itilme nedenleri ortaya konulmuştur. Araştırma sonuçları; sosyal bağlam içinde aile ve okul yaşantıları öğrencilerin okula devamında engellemelere neden olduğu; yani öğrencilerin okul dışına itildikleri saptanmıştır. Aile yaşantılarında ekonomik nedenler, cinsiyetçilik, ailenin eğitim yaşantıları ve dil faktörü gibi etmenler engellilik teşkil ederken, okul yaşantılarında ise okulun disiplin pratikleri, öğrencilerin davranış problemleri, eğitimin anlamı ve arkadaşların etkisi gibi etmenler öğrencilerin okula devamlarında engellemelere neden olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Her iki grubun anlatılarına göre, aile yaşantıları okul yaşantılarını doğrudan etkilediği yönündedir.
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Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder of childhood which has complex ramifications and epilepsy related seizures can differ widely in terms of severity and in parts of the brain affected. A boy aged 14 years, presented to a tertiary hospital with complaints of jerky movements during sleep. Lack of sleep and stressful home environment acted as precipitating factors for his seizures.Psycho-social interventions was done focusing on psycho-education about epilepsy andby developing an emotionally coherent narrative which aimed at helping child to improve his relationship with his mother.
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Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners’ social and economic circumstances. Notwithstanding this fact, there is a worldwide trend towards a more punitive and retributory management approach to address learner absenteeism. Because such an approach neglects to consider absentees’ specific circumstances, it fails to address learner absenteeism properly. In the first part of this article, the authors considered the suitability of the ecosystemic theory as basis for a management approach that will acknowledge the full range of contextual risk factors that may exist in absentee learners’ living environment. The authors argue in favour of a transnational and generic ecosystemic approach, with an inherent focus on contexts and interrelatedness, as a suitable approach to managing learner absenteeism. The second part of this article focuses on an analysis of South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism, to determine whether it supports an ecosystemic approach to managing learner absenteeism. The authors found that, while South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism mostly support an ecosystemic approach to managing learner absenteeism, some prescriptions of the Policy on Learner Attendance do not. After making some recommendations in this regard, the authors conclude with generic guidelines to managing learner absenteeism. © 2016, Foundation for Education Science and Technology. All rights reserved.
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A 1986 collaboration between a Fort Worth community group and middle school evolved into a network of 32 alliance schools in 1992-93. Aided by improvement-minded parents, community leaders, and educators, the alliance now has 100 schools in disadvantaged Texas communities. Community involvement contributes to improvements in conditions and resources supporting learning, stakeholders' attitudes, and the depth and quality of participants' learning experiences. (MLH)
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Teachers and administrators are not adequately prepared to address the range of children's social and psychological needs but must rely on parental and community assistance. Instead of merely referring students to social services and health departments, schools must become multiple-service brokers and forge broad community alliances to protect and enhance children's well-being. (18 references) (MLH)
Mentoring programs: Promise and paradox
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Hamilton, M., & Hamilton, S. (1992). Mentoring programs: Promise and paradox. Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 546-550.
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Communities for children
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Lewis, R., & Morris, J. (1998). Communities for children. Educational Leadership, 55, 34-36.
recs.) Anglican -attend at least yearly Anglican -confirmed Anglican Catholic Church: 20,000 (3 recs.) Anglican Church of Canada (4 recs
  • S Overman
Overman, S. (1999). Gearing up tomorrow's workforce. HR Focus, 76, 14-18. Anglican -active: 23,000,000 (3 recs.) Anglican -attend at least yearly Anglican -confirmed Anglican Catholic Church: 20,000 (3 recs.) Anglican Church of Canada (4 recs.) Anglican Church of North America Anglican Communion: 78,000,000 (10 recs.)