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Music Enhances Performance and Perceived Enjoyment of Sprint Interval Exercise

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Abstract

Introduction: Interval exercise training can elicit physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training, but with reduced time. However, the intense nature of specific protocols, particularly the "all-out" efforts characteristic of sprint interval training (SIT), may be perceived as being aversive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected music can reduce the potential aversiveness of an acute session of SIT by improving affect, motivation, and enjoyment, and to examine the effects of music on performance. Methods: Twenty moderately active adults (22 ± 4 yr) unfamiliar with interval exercise completed an acute session of SIT under two different conditions: music and no music. The exercise consisted of four 30-s "all-out" Wingate Anaerobic Test bouts on a cycle ergometer, separated by 4 min of rest. Peak and mean power output, RPE, affect, task motivation, and perceived enjoyment of the exercise were measured. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate changes in dependent measures over time and between the two conditions. Results: Peak and mean power over the course of the exercise session were higher in the music condition (coefficient = 49.72 [SE = 13.55] and coefficient = 23.65 [SE = 11.30]; P < 0.05). A significant time by condition effect emerged for peak power (coefficient = -12.31 [SE = 4.95]; P < 0.05). There were no between-condition differences in RPE, affect, or task motivation. Perceived enjoyment increased over time and was consistently higher in the music condition (coefficient = 7.00 [SE = 3.05]; P < 0.05). Conclusion: Music enhances in-task performance and enjoyment of an acute bout of SIT. Listening to music during intense interval exercise may be an effective strategy for facilitating participation in, and adherence to, this form of training.

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... In addition to the existing potential of physical exercise, intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli during its practice improved the performance and the level of motivation and affectivity of practitioners (de Oliveira et al., 2018;Jones et al., 2017;Stork et al., 2015). The use of music stimuli is of great relevance because it contributes to the adhesion and permanence of the population that practices some type of physical exercise in this habit (Stork et al., 2015) , also causes the feeling of involvement and intrinsic motivation in practitioners so they can bear more of the effort and achieve better results (Carneiro & Bigliassi, 2010;Ortín et al., 2018;Souza & Silva, 2010) . ...
... In addition to the existing potential of physical exercise, intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli during its practice improved the performance and the level of motivation and affectivity of practitioners (de Oliveira et al., 2018;Jones et al., 2017;Stork et al., 2015). The use of music stimuli is of great relevance because it contributes to the adhesion and permanence of the population that practices some type of physical exercise in this habit (Stork et al., 2015) , also causes the feeling of involvement and intrinsic motivation in practitioners so they can bear more of the effort and achieve better results (Carneiro & Bigliassi, 2010;Ortín et al., 2018;Souza & Silva, 2010) . ...
... On the other hand, in the RPE graph, the result was the opposite: RPE values were higher in the absence of musical stimuli. Thus, by using music stimuli during the activity, it is possible to reach its maximum performance with a lower perception of effort when compared to the absence of music (Stork et al., 2015) . ...
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This study aimed to analyze the effects of musical stimuli on university performance through heart rate and Rate of Perceived Exertion as a function of a running protocol in deep water. The sample consisted of 18 women aged between 18 and 30 years (23.44 ± 3.42) from Mossoró/RN. Participants were assessed on two separate days, one day with musical stimulation and the other without the stimulus. At the end of each stage reached within the test, the Heart Rate and Rate of Perceived Exertion of each participant were measured before the beginning of the next stage. To compare the performance variables with and without musical stimuli, the paired “t” test. p<0.05. The results showed that they do not present relevant differences in Heart Rate and Rate of Perceived Exertion with and without music, except in stage 1 (p=0.045) and stage 3 (p=0.048) for Heart Rate. It is concluded that the use of music as a stimulus in the performance of university students through a running protocol in a deep pool is a valid strategy for reaching maximum effort or continuity at a moderate/high intensity in the aquatic environment.
... Listening to music before and during exercise can increase motivation and effort, thereby improving performance [20,21]. It can also improve endurance [20,22], sprinting [23,24], and resistance modes of exercise [21,25]. Basketball players have increased arousal levels in front of the audience and music groups and, thus, achieve better athletic performance [26][27][28]. ...
... Therefore, designated music responses to certain exercises can motivate athletes' intentions and enhance their performance. For instance, music has been proven to effectively reduce fatigue and exertion through separation and distraction during exercise [29][30][31][32][33]. Performance improvement may be mediated by improved mood, exercise enjoyment, and increased feelings of power [4,23,34,35]. The increase in arousal and neural activity while listening to music has been shown to be accompanied by an improvement in exercise performance [34,36,37]. ...
... In contrast to the current study, athletes listening to fast-tempo music (>120 BPM) during sprints had a significant effect on heart rate, but not sprint performance, as in previous studies [23,24]. Notably, the results of this study appear to have a more significant effect on heart rate increases in the first 20 s of sprint initiation, with listening to synchronized interactive music significantly reducing RPE regardless of the exercise task. ...
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This paper introduces an interactive music tempo control with closed-loop heart rate feedback to yield a sportsperson with better physio-psychological states. A total of 23 participants (13 men, 10 women; 16–32 years, mean = 20.04 years) who are professionals or school team members further guide a sportsperson to amend their physical tempo to harmonize their psychological and physical states. The self-tuning mechanism between the surroundings and the human can be amplified using interactive music tempo control. The experiments showed that listening to interactive music had a significant effect on the heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of the basketball player compared to those listening to asynchronous music or no music during exercise (p < 0.01). Synchronized interactive music allows athletes to increase their heart rate and decrease RPE during exercise and does not require a multitude of preplanned playlists. All self-selected songs can be converted into sports-oriented music using algorithms. The algorithms of synchronous and asynchronous modes in this study can be adjusted and applied to other sports fields or recovery after exercise. In the future, other musical parameters should be adjusted in real-time based on physiological signals, such as tonality, beats, chords, and orchestration.
... A total of 2,542 studies were identified from the database after initial search. After de-duplication and title and abstract screening, 60 studies were retrieved and screened by full-text, and 25 studies were included in the current review (Tritter et al., 2013;Sim et al., 2014;Foster et al., 2015;Stork et al., 2015Stork et al., , 2018Stork et al., , 2019Kong et al., 2016;Wood et al., 2016;Rowley et al., 2017;Townsend et al., 2017;Follador et al., 2018;Kriel et al., 2018Kriel et al., , 2019McKie et al., 2018;Niven et al., 2018;Olney et al., 2018;Astorino et al., 2019Astorino et al., , 2020Bradley et al., 2019;Marin et al., 2019;Wilke et al., 2019;Marques et al., 2020;Metcalfe et al., 2020;Schaun and Alberton, 2020;Songsorn et al., 2020;Hu et al., 2021). A flow chart presented the Figure 1 demonstrated the completed steps of selections of the included studies. ...
... A total of 11 studies (Stork et al., 2015(Stork et al., , 2018Wood et al., 2016;Townsend et al., 2017;Follador et al., 2018;Niven et al., 2018;Olney et al., 2018;Bradley et al., 2019;Marin et al., 2019;Astorino et al., 2020;Marques et al., 2020) recorded acute affect responses to SIT using the Feeling Scale (FS) (Hardy and Rejeski, 1989). Involved SIT protocols were classic SIT (n = 6) (Stork et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2016;Townsend et al., 2017;Olney et al., 2018;Marin et al., 2019;Marques et al., 2020), REHIT (n = 2) (Stork et al., 2018;Astorino et al., 2020), RST (n = 5) (Townsend et al., 2017;Niven et al., 2018;Bradley et al., 2019;Marin et al., 2019;Marques et al., 2020), and Tabata (n = 1) (Follador et al., 2018). ...
... A total of 11 studies (Stork et al., 2015(Stork et al., , 2018Wood et al., 2016;Townsend et al., 2017;Follador et al., 2018;Niven et al., 2018;Olney et al., 2018;Bradley et al., 2019;Marin et al., 2019;Astorino et al., 2020;Marques et al., 2020) recorded acute affect responses to SIT using the Feeling Scale (FS) (Hardy and Rejeski, 1989). Involved SIT protocols were classic SIT (n = 6) (Stork et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2016;Townsend et al., 2017;Olney et al., 2018;Marin et al., 2019;Marques et al., 2020), REHIT (n = 2) (Stork et al., 2018;Astorino et al., 2020), RST (n = 5) (Townsend et al., 2017;Niven et al., 2018;Bradley et al., 2019;Marin et al., 2019;Marques et al., 2020), and Tabata (n = 1) (Follador et al., 2018). The lowest reported mean affective valences ranged from −2.8 to 1.5. ...
Article
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Sprint interval training (SIT) is characterized by intensity of “all-out” effort and superior time-efficiency compared to traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and has been proposed as one viable solution to address the commonly reported barrier of lack of time for physical activity. While substantial physiological benefits of participation in SIT have been well-documented, the psychological responses to SIT are less clear. No systematic review has been conducted thus far to respond to the assumption that its supramaximal intensity will induce adverse feelings. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to synthesize studies analyzing affective and enjoyment responses to SIT and to compare the responses to SIT with MICT and other high intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with lower intensities. After searching relevant databases up until 22nd March 2021, twenty-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the present review. Random effect meta-analysis using the pooled data demonstrated that SIT induced similar post-exercise affective valences during the training compared to MICT and HIIT, but lower affective valences immediately post-exercise compared to MICT. Moreover, affective responses during SIT decreased to negative valences according to the results from most included studies, while low-volume SIT protocols with shorter sprint duration and repetitions induced more positive affective responses. Level of enjoyment after SIT were positive and were comparable to MICT or HIIT. Overall, the results from the existing literature indicate that SIT might cause unpleasant feelings during the training and be perceived less pleasurable than MICT immediately post training but could be a comparably enjoyable modality for healthy individuals in relation to MICT or HIIT, despite its supramaximal intensity. Low-volume SIT may be a realistic option for individuals seeking a time-efficient workout with comparable affective responses to MICT or HIIT. Systematic Review Registration [ https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO ], Identifier [CRD42021284898].
... The majority employed acute designs with either a single SIE condition (Bradley et al., 2019;Astorino et al., 2020) or multiple conditions performed in a randomized order (Wood et al., 2016;Townsend et al., 2017;Benítez-Flores et al., 2018;Good and Dogra, 2018;Niven et al., 2018;Olney et al., 2018;Stork et al., 2018;Songsorn et al., 2019;Marques et al., 2020). The studies including multiple conditions either compared SIT to other exercise bouts (Wood et al., 2016;Good and Dogra, 2018;Niven et al., 2018;Olney et al., 2018;Stork et al., 2018;Songsorn et al., 2019), compared various SIE protocol permutations (Townsend et al., 2017;Benítez-Flores et al., 2018;Marques et al., 2020), or investigated the effect of music on the affective response to SIE (Stork et al., 2015(Stork et al., , 2019. In studies where the same participants completed different SIE protocol permutations in a cross-over design, each of the conditions were treated as an independent observation. ...
... In studies where the same participants completed different SIE protocol permutations in a cross-over design, each of the conditions were treated as an independent observation. However, in the studies examining the effect of music on affective responses to SIE, only data from the no music condition was included (Stork et al., 2015(Stork et al., , 2019. One sub-study involved a 6-week training intervention, with the affective response to the first of the most intense training sessions (week 3; 2 × 20-s all-out cycling sprints) included in the meta-analysis (Songsorn et al., 2019). ...
... Fourty three participants (12 women, 11 men) completed more than one of the unique SIE protocols included in the meta-analysis (Townsend et al., 2017;Benítez-Flores et al., 2018;Marques et al., 2020). Except for one study where the inclusion criteria encompassed middle aged adults and the mean BMI was in the overweight range (Astorino et al., 2020), all of the studies were conducted in young, lean adults with a mean age between 20 and 30 years and a mean BMI within the healthy range (Stork et al., 2015(Stork et al., , 2018(Stork et al., , 2019Wood et al., 2016;Townsend et al., 2017; Benítez-Flores et al., 2018; Good and Dogra, 2018;Niven et al., 2018;Olney et al., 2018;Bradley et al., 2019;Songsorn et al., 2019;Marques et al., 2020) (Table 1). Physical activity status was more varied: several studies measured physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and included participants who scored low (Stork et al., 2019;Marques et al., 2020), low/moderate (Songsorn et al., 2019), moderate (Stork et al., 2015) or highly active (Benítez-Flores et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Responses to sprint interval exercise (SIE) are hypothesized to be perceived as unpleasant, but SIE protocols are diverse, and moderating effects of various SIE protocol parameters on affective responses are unknown. We performed a systematic search to identify studies (up to 01/05/2021) measuring affective valence using the Feeling Scale during acute SIE in healthy adults. Thirteen studies involving 18 unique trials and 316 unique participant (142 women and 174 men) affective responses to SIE were eligible for inclusion. We received individual participant data for all participants from all studies. All available end-of-sprint affect scores from each trial were combined in a linear mixed model with sprint duration, mode, intensity, recovery duration, familiarization and baseline affect included as covariates. Affective valence decreased significantly and proportionally with each additional sprint repetition, but this effect was modified by sprint duration: affect decreased more during 30 s (0.84 units/sprint; 95% CI: 0.74–0.93) and 15–20 s sprints (1.02 units/sprint; 95% CI: 0.93–1.10) compared with 5–6 s sprints (0.20 units/sprint; 95% CI: 0.18–0.22) (both p < 0.0001). Although the difference between 15–20 s and 30 s sprints was also significant ( p = 0.02), the effect size was trivial ( d = −0.12). We observed significant but trivial effects of mode, sprint intensity and pre-trial familiarization, whilst there was no significant effect of recovery duration. We conclude that affective valence declines during SIE, but the magnitude of the decrease for an overall SIE session strongly depends on the number and duration of sprints. This information can be applied by researchers to design SIE protocols that are less likely to be perceived as unpleasant in studies of real-world effectiveness. Systematic Review Registration Open Science Framework, https://osf.io/sbyn3 .
... Others reported, for the same protocol, that PP, MP and affective responses were higher in the music condition [11]. Applying a typical SIT protocol (as mentioned above), two studies from the same group [12,13] found that the music condition improved performance, but no effects on affective responses were detected. ...
... Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of self-selected and randomly selected music on perceptual (RPE, affective responses and attentional focus) and performance responses (PP, MP, FI and total work, TW) compared to control (no-music) during a cycling SIT session. Based on literature findings [12,13] and on the intrinsic motivation role on performing high intense exercises, as the first hypothesis we considered that music would improve power workout (PP, MP, FI, and TT) responses when compared to the no-music condition during the SIT session. Our second hypothesis was that self-selected music would lead to improvements in perceptual responses (FS, PSE) and an attentional focus changing when compared to randomly selected and no-music conditions during the SIT session. ...
... The sample was calculated using GPower Software (3.1 version) based on FS data from Stork, Kwan [12] who evaluated the magnitude of this response during four Wingate Anaerobic Tests under music and no-music conditions. Thus, adopting an F test family, a two-way ANOVA statistical test, a power of 80%, an effect size of 0.5 (Cohen's d) and significance of 0.05, 15 participants were required to perform the study. ...
Article
Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of self-selected and randomly selected music on perceptual and performance responses during a sprint interval training (SIT) session. Equipment and Methods 16 physically active males (M age = 27.0, SD = 3.9 years; M body mass = 78.1, SD = 9.6 kg; M height = 1.77, SD = 0.05 meters) performed a low-volume SIT session composed by 8 × 15s all-out bouts against a fixed load of 9% of body mass interspersed by 120s of passive recovery under three conditions: self-selected music (high-tempo subject's favorite music), randomly selected music (playlist from an online streaming music platform) and no-music. Affective responses, perceived exertion, and power output were measured throughout the protocols. Enjoyment and attentional focus were measured after the exercise sessions. Results Perceived exertion and affective responses did not differ between conditions; however, a main effect of time was detected for both variables, with perceived exertion increasing throughout protocols and affective responses decreasing (P < 0.001; for all comparisons). Attentional focus during recovery differed between conditions, with lower values in no-music (39 ± 26 a.u.) when compared to self-selected (65 ± 29 a.u.; P = 0.016) and randomly selected (63 ± 24 a.u.; P = 0.049). Power output measures did not differ between conditions, however, a main effect of time was observed for all measures (P < 0.001). Enjoyment was not affected by conditions and no interactions were detected for any of the measurements (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion Music does not seem to promote effects on performance, perceived exertion, affective responses and enjoyment during an SIT session, however, listen to music during the recovery moments can improve the recovery status immediately before the next bout.
... The range of possible scores for the STAI varies from a minimum score of 20 to a maximum score of 80 on both the STAI-T and STAI-S subscales. STAI scores are commonly classified as "no or low anxiety" (20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37), "moderate anxiety" (38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44), and "high anxiety" (45-80) [25]. This study applied STAI to explore the effect of Health Qigong on improvement of state and trait anxiety. ...
... The accompanying music in the practice also relieved the self-reported agitation of the participants [33][34][35]. In the process, instructors would remind the participants of the names of the movements with lyrical formulas, and so would the accompanying music, which minimized the discomfort caused by blurred memory of the movements. ...
... Regarding the affective response, higher values were observed in the control setting, indicating greater pleasure under nature video viewing, which supports our first hypothesis. The effect we observed was similar to that of music on physical activity [45,46], which indicated the positive role of audiovisual intervention in exercise psychology. According to previous studies, naturebased stimuli including sights and sounds of nature have the potential to reduce negative psychological outcomes such as stress and pain [21]. ...
... Regarding the affective response, higher values were observed in the control setting, indicating greater pleasure under nature video viewing, which supports our first hypothesis. The effect we observed was similar to that of music on physical activity [45,46], which indicated the positive role of audiovisual intervention in exercise psychology. According to previous studies, nature-based stimuli including sights and sounds of nature have the potential to reduce negative psychological outcomes such as stress and pain [21]. ...
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Green exercise is the combination of physical activity and nature exposure, which has been associated with positive effects on psychophysiological health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of nature video viewing on isometric exercise and find a useful practice for green exercise in urban living. In the current study, 18 male subjects were recruited in a randomized crossover trial and underwent a sequence of wall squat exercises. The whole experiment contained three periods of baseline (before exercise), exercise, and recovery (after exercise), and each period lasted for 2 min. A video of forest walking was played in the exercise and recovery periods as treatment, while a black screen was set as control. The Rate of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE) and Feeling Scale (FS) were employed to measure perceived exertion and affective responses in the exercise period; heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) including the standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNN), the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), and the standard deviations of the Poincaré plot (SD1), were recorded in the three periods. Heart rate recovery (HRR) in the recovery period was further calculated based on 30 s and 60 s time frames. Results demonstrated that during the exercise period nature video viewing was associated with better affective responses (median of 1.00 and an interquartile (IQR) of 2.00, p = 0.017), lower perceived exertion (median = 6.00, IQR = 2.00, p = 0.021), and lower HR (median = 89.60, IQR = 20.94, p = 0.01), but the differences in HRV indices between the experimental settings were not statistically significant. In the recovery period, significantly higher values of RMSSD (median = 34.88, IQR = 24.52, p = 0.004), SD1 (median = 24.75, IQR = 17.41, p = 0.003), and HR (median = 84.18, IQR = 16.58, p = 0.001) were observed in the treatment setting, whereas no statistically significant difference was found for HRR. In general, our findings support that nature video viewing may help reduce perceived exertion, increase exercise pleasure, buffer heart rate, and improve cardiac autonomic recovery for wall squat exercising, which implies the potential of nature-based stimuli in green exercise. However, due to the limited research sample, further study may need to include female participants and focus on various populations to confirm the effectiveness of using virtual and environments depicting nature at home or in public exercise places to promote positive exercise experience.
... Listening to music has been shown to improve performance in endurance [8,9], sprint [10,11], and resistance modes of exercise [12][13][14]. The ergogenic and performanceenhancing effects of music may be achieved through several different alterations to the exercise response. ...
... Listening to music prior to and during exercise has been shown to increase motivation and effort, leading to improved performance outcomes [9,12,14]. Improvements in performance may also be mediated through improved mood, exercise enjoyment, and increased feelings of power [10,18,22]. Thus, the effects of music on exercise performance are multi-faceted, allowing for possible benefits in a wide arrange of athletic populations and exercise modalities. ...
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Listening to music has been repeatedly shown to have ergogenic benefits during various modes of exercise, including endurance, sprint, and resistance-based activities. Music is commonly incorporated into training regimens by recreational exercisers and competitive athletes alike. While specific modalities of exercise elicit varying physiological responses, listening to music has been shown to modulate many of these responses (i.e., heart rate, catecholamines, muscle activation) often leading to improved performance. Furthermore, listening to music during exercise may positively impact psychological (i.e., mood, motivation) and psychophysiological (i.e., rate of perceived exertion, arousal) changes, which may allow for favorable responses during an exercise challenge. However, there is mixed evidence regarding music’s efficacy, which may be mediated through differences in music selection and preference. Emerging evidence has shown that, whether an individual prefers or does not prefer the music they are listening to during exercise greatly influences their ergogenic potential in addition to physiological, psychological, and psychophysiological responses to exercise. From a practical standpoint, music may be controlled by the individual through headphones but is often played communally over speakers in locker rooms, gyms, and health clubs, which may have consequences on performance and training. The following review will describe the physiological, psychological, and psychophysiological responses to exercise while listening to music and how music preference may particularly alter them. Current knowledge and new evidence on how music preference factors into enhancing performance in various modes of exercise will be further discussed, incorporating practical considerations for individuals and practitioners in real-world applications to optimize performance.
... Consequently, the inclusion of music in sports has been related with higher levels of motivation and positive affect [22]. Furthermore, the inclusion of music in physical activity exercises can increase enjoyment and even performance [23]. Nevertheless, music helps adolescents to satisfy their emotional needs [24], and the enjoyment has been shown to be related to the autonomous motivation, as well as the self-perception of their own abilities [25]. ...
... A more positive emotional state was related to the use of music during physical activity, where it enabled one to dissociate from internal sensory signals and focus on other factors [44], thus making it a more pleasurable experience than when under normal circumstances [45]. This increased pleasurable experience that music induces could be related to the higher levels of performance and perceived enjoyment associated to music in interval exercises [23]. This is partially in agreement with a recent study in adolescents, which showed that listening to motivational music was associated with a significant improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness in the treadmill run, but not in the SRToriginal [46]. ...
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Cardiorespiratory fitness is an important health marker in adolescents. Thus, examining the relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and motivation should be important to increase health-related behaviors. This study aimed to describe adolescents’ cardiorespiratory fitness and motivation by gender and to analyze the association between two cardiorespiratory fitness tests (original and with music) and motivation. A total of 341 adolescents (14.2 ± 1.5 years, 52.2% girls) participated in this study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the 20 m shuttle run and its adaptation with music. Motivation was assessed though the “Achievement Motivation towards Physical Education” questionnaire. Boys presented with higher cardiorespiratory fitness and motivation (all, p < 0.05). Yet, when classifying fit and unfit groups, a higher percentage of girls were considered fit compared to boys (85.8% vs. 74.5%). A higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness (stages) and VO2max were associated with a higher level of motivation (self-perceived competence and compared competence) and lower anxiety (all p < 0.05). These associations with motivation were stronger when the music was present in the test. In this sense, including music in activities focused on cardiorespiratory fitness could increase the cardiorespiratory fitness performance and motivation, especially in girls. It should be important to increase adolescents’ cardiorespiratory fitness levels in order to increase motivation in physical education lessons and to include more motivational activities in order to achieve higher performance.
... Music has been shown to improve exercise adherence and performance (Creel, 2012;Crust & Clough, 2006;Hutchinson et al., 2011;MacNay, 1995;Schwartz et al., 1990;Stork et al., 2019;Stork et al., 2015;van der Vlist et al., 2011). The therapeutic application of pulsed rhythmic and/or music stimulation, whether it be on healthy athletes or patients with disease, is known as Rhythmic Auditory Music Stimulation (RAMS) 1 (Thaut & Hoemberg, 2014). ...
... Our study builds on previous literature examining the perceptual attributes of music interventions on exercise behaviours Creel, 2012;Johnson et al., 2001;MacNay, 1995;Nakamura et al., 2010;Schwartz et al., 1990;Stork et al., 2015;van der Vlist et al., 2011). As with others, we have demonstrated that music induces a distraction effect during exercise, and in doing so, reduces the perceptual effort associated with the task of exercise (Mohammadzadeh et al., 2008;Potteiger et al., 2000). ...
Article
Objective The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which Rhythmic Auditory Music Stimulation (RAMS) improves exercise among patients participating in cardiac rehabilitation. Methods 168 English speaking patients over the age of 18 years, were recruited from the Cardiac Rehabilitation and Prevention Program. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 56 each) as part of a 12-week intervention: (1) RAMS (2) preference-based audiobooks, or (3) white noise or silence audio-controls. All participants received an iPod with the audio intervention to maintain blinding. Study outcomes included pace-deviation between actual vs. prescribed exercise, self-reported arousal, perceived exertion, task-attentiveness during exercise and perceptual experiences associated with the audio-content itself. Trial registry Clinicaltrials. gov NCT02946060. Results An individual's actual exercise pace was highly correlated with their prescribed exercise pace, with no significant differences in pace deviation across interventions (P = 0.61). Patients randomized to RAMS or audiobooks reported significantly lower arousal scores during exercise (P = 0.01), lower exercise-attentiveness (P < 0.001), and modestly lower perceived exertion (P = 0.06) during exercise than did controls. Participants assigned to RAMS and audiobooks reported being more attentive to, and happy with, their overall audio-experiences during exercise than controls (P < 0.001). Conclusions RAMS playlists and audiobooks induced a mood-enhancing task-distraction effect during exercise. Such findings may underscore the potential benefits of preference-based audio-content during exercise.
... Music has been shown to improve exercise adherence and performance (Creel, 2012;Crust & Clough, 2006;Hutchinson et al., 2011;MacNay, 1995;Schwartz et al., 1990;Stork et al., 2019;Stork et al., 2015;van der Vlist et al., 2011). The therapeutic application of pulsed rhythmic and/or music stimulation, whether it be on healthy athletes or patients with disease, is known as Rhythmic Auditory Music Stimulation (RAMS) 1 (Thaut & Hoemberg, 2014). ...
... Our study builds on previous literature examining the perceptual attributes of music interventions on exercise behaviours Creel, 2012;Johnson et al., 2001;MacNay, 1995;Nakamura et al., 2010;Schwartz et al., 1990;Stork et al., 2015;van der Vlist et al., 2011). As with others, we have demonstrated that music induces a distraction effect during exercise, and in doing so, reduces the perceptual effort associated with the task of exercise (Mohammadzadeh et al., 2008;Potteiger et al., 2000). ...
Article
This study examined the perceived health-benefits of music among avid-music listeners and non-avid music listeners with exercise, and compared these perceptions with self-reported more established population indicators of health. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 300 patients who were currently participating or previously participated in an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program, evaluating perceptions of the role of music in exercise and health. Patients were categorized as avidmusic listeners and non-listeners based on their self-reported frequency of music-listening during exercise work-outs. Among the 149 patients who completed the survey (49.7% response rate), avid-music listeners were significantly more likely to perceive a positive impact of music on their exercise behaviours (i.e., frequency, duration, and intensity) and on their overall health than did those who listened rarely or not at all (p = 0.001). However, self-reported health status and exercise behaviours did not significantly differ between avid-music listeners and non-listeners. Tendencies to over-perceive positive health-benefits of music may exist among avid-music listeners, which in turn may suggest an underlying “healthy placebo- effect.” The long-term health and behavioral implications associated with positive health-music tendencies require further study.German:Die Beziehung von Musik, körperliche Übungen, Gesundheit in Selbstauskunft und Verhalten von Patienten in der Herzrehabilitation.Diese Studie untersuchte die erlebten positiven Auswirkungen auf die Gesundheit bei Menschen, die begeistert gerne Musik hören und solchen, die dies nicht tun, und vergleicht deren Wahrnehmungen mit berichteten etablierten allgemeinen Gesundheitsindikatoren. 300 Patienten, die derzeit an einem ambulanten Herzrehabilitationsprogramm teilnahmen oder zuvor teilgenommen hatten, wurde ein gekreuzt-sektionales Überblick gegeben, mit dem Ziel, deren Erfahrungen von Musik in Übungen und Gesundheit zu evaluieren.Die Patienten wurden kategorisiert als begeisterte Musikhörer und Nicht-Hörer, anhand ihrer selbst berichteten Häufigkeiten des Musikhörens während ihrer körperlichen Übungen. Unter den 149 Patienten, die diese Übersicht ausfüllten (49,7 % Antworten), erlebten diejenigen, die gerne Musik hörten, signifikant mehr positiven Einfluss auf ihr Übungsverhalten (z.B. Häufigkeit, Dauer und Intensität) und ihre gesamte Gesundheit als diejenigen, die wenig oder gar nicht (p = 0.001) Musik hören.Dennoch, der selbstberichtete Gesundheitsstatus und das Übungsverhalten zwischen Menschen, die begeistert Musik hören und den Nicht-Hörern unterscheidet sich nicht signifikant. Es ist möglich, dass begeisterte Musikhörer die erlebten positiven Auswirkungen auf ihre Gesundheit stärker wahrnehmen, was im Gegenzug an einen zugrundeliegenden „Gesundheits-Placebo-Effekt“ denken lässt. Langzeitaussagen zu Gesundheit und Verhalten im positiven Zusammenhang von Gesundheit und Musik erfordern weitergehende Studien.Spanish:La Relación entre música, ejercicio, salud autoreportada y conductas saludables entre pacientes cardíacos en rehabilitaciónEste estudio examinó los beneficios de la música para la salud percibidos entre aquellos ávidos por escuchar música durante sus ejercicios físicosy los no ávidos por la música, y se compararon estas percepciones con las autoreportadas por poblaciones indicadoras de salud más establecidas.Una encuesta cros-seccional se adminstró a 300 pacientes quienes participaban o habían participado de un programa de rehabilitación cardíaca ambulatoria, evaluando percepciones del rol de la música en el ejercicio y la salud. Loa pacientes fueron categorizados como ávidos y no ávidos por escuchar música basados en los autoreportes sobre la frecuencia de escuchar música durante los ejercicios físicos. Entre los 149 pacientes que completaron la encuesta (49.7%) aquellos ávidos por escuchar música fueron significativamente más propensos a percibir un impacto positivo de la música en sus conductas de ejercicio (p.ej. frecuencia, duración e intensidad) y en su salud en general comparados con aquellos que escuchaban música ocasionalmente o en ninguna ocasión (p=0.001). Sin embargo, el estado de salud autoreportado y las conductas de ejercicio no difieren entre los ávidos por escuchar y los no ávidos. Las tendencias a percibir por demás los beneficios positivos de la música para la salud puede existir entre los ávidos por escuchar música, lo cual puede sugerir un "efecto-placebo saludable" subyascente. La salud a largo plazo y las implicancias conductuales asociadas con las tendencias positivas salud-música requiere más estudio. Chinese:本研究旨在瞭解熱愛聆聽音樂者與非愛樂者對於音樂對健康益處的感受與想法, 並將這些感知與自陳報告及健康指標做比較。研究針對三百位目前正在進行或曾經參與心臟復健門診的病人進行橫向調查,評價音樂在運動與健康中所扮演角色的看法。依據參與病人自陳在運動健身時聆聽音樂的頻率,將受試者分為熱衷樂聆者與非熱衷樂聆者。在149位完成問卷的病人中(49.7%回應率),熱衷樂聆者明顯較鮮少聆聽音樂或完全不聽音樂的病人更容易感受到音樂對於他們的鍛鍊行為(如,頻率、長度與強度)及整體健康帶來正面影響(p=0.001)。然而,兩組的自陳健康狀態與鍛鍊行為則未有顯著差異。此外,熱衷樂聆者表現出過度感知音樂對健康益處的傾向,因此建議對此標記為「健康安慰劑效應」。與積極健康的音樂傾向相關的長期健康和行為影響有待進一步研究。Japanese:心臓リハビリテーション患者の音楽、運動、自己申告による健康、健康行動の関係抄録この研究では、運動中に熱心に音楽を聴く人達と聴かない人達の健康への利益の認識について調査し、これらの認識をより確立された自己申告による健康の人口指標と比較した。現在もしくは過去に外来心臓リハビリテーションプログラムに参加した300人の患者を対象に断面調査が行われ、運動と健康における音楽の役割への認識を評価した。患者達は、運動中に音楽を聴く頻度の自己申告を基に、熱心な音楽リスナーと悲リスナーに分類された。アンケートを完了した149人の患者達(回答率49.7% )の間では、熱心な音楽リスナー達は、滅多にもしくは全く音楽を聴かなかった人々(p=0.001)よりも、 運動性質(頻度、持続時間、運動強度など)や全体的な健康に対して音楽のポジティブな影響がありそうであると認めた。しかし、自己申告の健康状態と運動性質では、熱心な音楽リスナーと非リスナーの間に著しい違いはなかった。熱心な音楽リスナー達の間では、音楽のポジティブな健康利益を感じる傾向があるかもしれず、それは潜在的な健康へのプラシーポ効果を示唆しているかもしれない。ポジティブな健康音楽傾向に関連した長期健康と行動の関連については、更なる研究が必要である。Korean:심장재활 환자들의 음악, 운동, 건강상태에 대한 자가보고, 건강관련 행동 간 관계초록본 연구는 음악 감상에 적극적인 참여자와 비적극적인 참여자들이 운동 중 인식하는 음악의 건강관련 혜택을 살펴보고 이 내용을 검증된 자가보고식 건강척도와 비교대조 하기 위하여 시행되었다. 따라서 본 단면적 조사 연구는 외래 심장재활 프로그램에 현재 참여 중이거나 또는 마친 300명의 환자들을 대상으로 운동 중 감상한 음악을 어떻게 인식 하는지에 대해 설문을 하였다. 연구자는 참여자들이 운동 시 얼마나 자주 음악 감상을 하였는지에 대해 보고한 내용을 바탕으로 적극적 음악감상자와 비적극적인 감상자로 분류하였다. 설문에 응한 149명의 참여자 중 (응답률: 49.7%) 적극적인 감상자들은 비적극적 감상자보다 유의한 수준에서 음악이 본인들의 운동관련 행동에 보다 더 긍정적으로 영향을 미친다고 보고하였으며(예: 운동 횟수, 지속시간 및 강도) 거의 음악감상을 하지 않거나 전혀 하지 않는 참여자에 비해 음악은 건강 전반에 긍정적으로 영향을 미친다고 기술 하였다 (p = 0.001). 하지만 자가보고식 건강척도와 운동관련 행동에서 이 두 그룹은 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 따라서 적극적 음악감상자들이 음악의 건강 상 이점을 보다 과장되게 인식하는 경향이 있음이 나타났는데 이는 건강 상 플라시보 효과와 연관이 있다고도 볼 수 있다. 건강에 미치는 긍정적 영향과 관련하여 음악의 장기적 효과 및 행동에 대한 영향력 등에 대한 더 많은 연구들이 요구 된다.
... Lastly, we assumed that the present study could be replicated and expanded through emotional assessment methods, such as enjoyment as well as other neuroscientific methods. These approaches are necessary to investigate the involvement of the limbic structures which regulate the neurocognitive response of the emotions, as is proved by other scientific work in this field (Stork, Kwan, Gibala, & Martin Ginis, 2015;Vella, Taylor, & Drummer, 2017). However, findings of this work could provide important indications for future studies. ...
... 41,42 The psychosocial benefits of listening to music during exercise and rehabilitation have been well documented, with many studies reporting the positive impact of music on motivation and endurance in exercise regimes for both healthy and stroke-affected populations. 43,44 Music within rehabilitation can also improve patient mood, enhance the affective experience of therapy and increase enjoyment of exercise, which may allow patients to maintain motivation. 32,[45][46][47] Digital therapeutic technology has the potential to improve long-term motor outcomes after stroke by providing stroke survivors with independent access to individualised and targeted interventions after discharge from hospital and other rehabilitation services, or to use as an adjunct therapy in addition to physiotherapy and other rehabilitation sessions. ...
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Background Stroke persists as an important cause of long-term disability world-wide with the need for rehabilitation strategies to facilitate plasticity and improve motor function in stroke survivors. Rhythm-based interventions can improve motor function in clinical populations. This study tested a novel music-motor software application ‘GotRhythm’ on motor function after stroke. Methods Participants were 22 stroke survivors undergoing inpatient rehabilitation in a subacute stroke ward. Participants were randomised to the GotRhythm intervention (combining individualised music and augmented auditory feedback along with wearable sensors to deliver a personalised rhythmic auditory stimulation training protocol) or usual care. Intervention group participants were offered 6-weeks of the GotRhythm intervention, consisting of a supervised 20-minute music-motor therapy session using GotRhythm conducted 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The primary feasibility outcomes were adherence to the intervention and physical function (change in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Recovery score) measured at baseline, after 3-weeks and at end of the intervention period (6-weeks). Results Three of 10 participants randomised to the intervention did not receive any of the GotRhythym music-motor therapy. Of the remaining 7 intervention group participants, only 5 completed the 3-week mid-intervention assessment and only 2 completed the 6-week post-intervention assessment. Participants who used the intervention completed 5 (IQR 4,7) sessions with total ‘dose’ of the intervention of 70 (40, 201) minutes. Conclusion Overall, adherence to the intervention was poor, highlighting that application of technology assisted music-based interventions for stroke survivors in clinical environments is challenging along with usual care, recovery, and the additional clinical load.
... The music was a random selections of songs and may not have been the same for participants completing the HIW at different times. The authors are aware that music can influence affective states (e.g., enjoyment) during and following exercise (Stork et al., 2015), However, we choose not to manipulate this variable as this was a field study and believed it would be more "realistic" to have the environment as similar to "typical" as possible. ...
Article
High-intensity exercise has been shown to result in physiological benefits. However, little is known about why individuals choose to initiate and continue engaging in this type of exercise. It is likely individual differences exist that explain why some maintain a high-intensity exercise regimen while others do not. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to examine the predictive role of intensity preference and tolerance traits on performance and enjoyment from a high-intensity workout. Participants (N = 34; 33 ± 8 yrs) completed the Preference for and Tolerance of the Intensity of Exercise Questionnaire, then performed a 12-minute high-intensity workout (HIW; consisting of a 5 pull-ups, 10 box jumps, & 15 wall ball throws AMRAP). Intensity preference [b(lower – upper CI); 0.475(0.169–0.782), P = 0.002], but not tolerance [0.140(−0.254–0.535), P = 0.486], explained variance in HIW performance (i.e., number of repetitions completed in the 12-min AMRAP), while neither preference nor tolerance were meaningfully associated with post-HIW enjoyment (rs < 0.27). However, performance explained meaningful variance in enjoyment [0.435(0.233–0.637.18), P < 0.001]. Thus, intensity-preference influences the number of repetition completed during a HIW, but intensity-preference and tolerance are less important for HIW enjoyment. Rather, more completed repetitions was related to greater enjoyment, and experiencing greater exercise enjoyment may lead to continued high-intensity exercise engagement.
... In the absence of the external stimuli of music, runners may pay more attention to their running behaviors and feelings, thus increasing their perception of fatigue, while in conditions with music, runners shift their attention from unpleasant physical feelings to music, reducing their perception of fatigue and other negative feelings [12]. It has also been pointed out that the tempo of music can influence the internal movement tempo of the body [13], and music with a good tempo can induce specific movement patterns [14] and enhance the arousal level of the exerciser, raising the threshold of fatigue perception and speeding up recovery from exercise fatigue [15,16]. ...
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Background: This study aimed to clarify the effect of music tempo on runners' perception of fatigue at different exercise intensities and while listening to music of different tempos through running experiments. Methods: This study used a within-subject two-factor experimental design with music tempo (fast music, slow music, no music) and exercise intensity (high intensity, low intensity) as independent variables and the time to fatigue perception (TFP), the difference in heart rate (HR) and the difference in the median frequency (MF) of surface electromyography (sEMG) signals as observation indexes. Eighteen participants completed a total of 108 sets of running experiments. Results: (1) The main effect of music tempo on the TFP was significant (p < 0.001). (2) The main effect of exercise intensity on the TFP was significant (p < 0.001), and the main effect on the difference in HR was significant (p < 0.001). (3) The interaction effect of music tempo and exercise intensity on the TFP was significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exercisers' subjective perception of fatigue was affected by music tempo and the interaction between music tempo and exercise intensity, and exercisers' objective fatigue perception was influenced mostly by exercise intensity. The findings of this study provide guidance for runners' choice of music at different intensities of exercise. Whether it is low-intensity exercise or high-intensity exercise, listening to fast music while exercising can help runners perform better mentally and physically during their runs.
... When aerobic exercise was performed, Brown et al. (2016) reported no change in the TMS-measured task motivation during high-intensity interval exercise. In contrast, Stork et al. (2015) reported that task motivation decreased during sprint interval exercise. Thus, vigorous aerobic exercise may result in a decrease in task motivation. ...
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Resistance exercise (RE) with blood flow restriction (BFR) is recognized as a beneficial strategy in increasing skeletal muscle mass and strength. However, the effects of BFR on changes in perceptual parameters, particularly those related to exercise adherence, induced by RE are not completely understood. In this study, we examined the exercise adherence-related perceptual responses to low-load BFR-RE. Sixteen young males performed both BFR and non-BFR (NBFR) sessions in a crossover design. The bilateral knee extensor low-load RE was performed with a standard BFR-RE protocol, consisting of four sets (total 75 repetitions), using 20% of one-repetition maximum. BFR-RE was performed with 200 mmHg pressure cuffs placed around the proximal region of the thighs. NBFR-RE was performed without pressure cuffs. The ratings of perceived exertion and leg discomfort measured using the Borg's Scales were higher for BFR-RE session than for NBFR-RE session (both p < 0.001 for interaction effect). The Feeling Scale-measured affect and Task Motivation Scale-measured task motivation were lower for BFR-RE session than for NBFR-RE session (both p < 0.05 for interaction effect); by contrast, the Numerical Rating Scale-measured perceived pain was higher for BFR-RE session than for NBFR-RE session (p < 0.001 for interaction effect). The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale-measured enjoyment immediately after RE was lower with BFR than with NBFR (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that BFR exacerbates the exercise adherence-related perceptual responses to low-load RE in young males. Therefore, further studies are needed to develop effective strategies that minimize the BFR-RE-induced negative effects on perceptual responses.
... Listening to music or watching television during a workout can influence enjoyment or intensity during a workout. 28,29 By "blocking" out what is going on in the environment, it is conceivable that listening to music could also override negative perceptions. For example, college students may not like the staff members at a fitness facility, but by listening to music during a challenging workout, they can minimize any interactions with the staff. ...
Article
Objective It is important for college students to engage regularly in physical activity. While psychological factors, such as motivation, are likely to increase attendance at fitness facilities, positive perceptions of the fitness facility (e.g., the type of classes offered) might also influence use of a fitness facility. Participants Data were collected from 462 college students. Methods Participants completed a survey that included an assessment of commitment and motivation to exercise, life satisfaction, and perceptions of the environment of the fitness facility they use. They also answered questions about fitness facility preferences. Results Commitment and motivation to exercise were associated with use of a fitness facility. Perceptions of the environmental context of the fitness facility did not influence attendance. Conclusions Even though college students shared some preferences (e.g., workout space and lighting), psychological factors were more influential than the environment of a fitness facility with regard to attendance.
... Few studies have studied the emotive reaction to each stroke of HIIT too far, and the results have been inconsistent [57,65,67,68], particularly in the T2DM group, where there is less specific testing of the affective response to low-volume HIIT. Given that the majority of T2DM patients are sedentary or inactive, these findings may be useful in terms of public health. ...
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High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown in studies to enhance glucose management and cardiovascular well-being in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we used power cycling to assess the physical activity levels of men with type 2 diabetes during a single low-volume HIIT session. First, fifty-six men with type 2 diabetes volunteered to take part in the study, and they were split into two groups based on the International Physical Activity Scale Short Form (IPA). To the first 1–4 labor bouts, both the sufficiently physically active and insufficiently physically active groups exhibited equal positive emotional reactions (p>0.05). However, over time (about 5–10 times), both of them showed reduced emotional reactions, with a significant difference (p
... The external environment can be positively influenced by various factors to improve mood during PA. Outdoor PA has been connected with greater perceived mental health benefits (Thompson Coon et al., 2011), while music can enhance enjoyment and performance (Stork et al., 2015). As such, participants' desire for mood-enhancing factors in their PA environment is not so different from findings in the general population. ...
Article
Researchers have found that former collegiate athletes (FCAs) exhibit unfavorable changes in physical and mental health later in life, which may be exacerbated by physical inactivity following retirement from college sport. Despite past sports training, FCAs are as active or less active than non-athlete alumni, with some not meeting the current Physical Activity (PA) Guidelines for Adults. Researchers suggest promoting PA in FCAs to prevent future health concerns (e.g., worsening body composition, physical function, depression). Prior to intervention development, a deeper understanding of FCAs’ experiences with PA post-sport and program characteristics they consider effective is warranted. Seventeen insufficiently active former National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes participated in semi-structured interviews exploring their experiences with post-sport PA and perceptions of effective program characteristics. Using Consensual Qualitative Research Procedures, five domains were constructed. This manuscript overviews the first three of these domains, which pertain to participants’ experiences with post-sport PA: (a) transitional lifestyle shifts that affected PA behavior; (b) barriers affecting PA choices and behavior post-sport; and (c) enablers affecting PA choices and behavior post-sport. All FCAs discussed needing a break to physically and mentally recover following sports retirement. Participants identified similar barriers to being active (e.g., time constraints, resource availability) following this break to those reported by non-athletic populations. Furthermore, FCAs prioritized activities they enjoyed, were influenced by past sports participation, and made them “feel” healthy and included in a group. Translating cognitive-behavioral strategies utilized to enhance sports performance may be viable in promoting PA maintenance in this population post-sport-retirement. Lay summary: Seventeen former college athletes (FCAs) participated in semi-structured interviews exploring their experiences with physical activity (PA) post-sport and perceptions of PA promotional factors. Recognizing barriers, enablers, and transitional experiences regarding PA represents a critical step in developing effective PA interventions for FCAs. • IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE • Former Division I college athletes indicated their population is susceptible to similar PA barriers faced by non-athletic adult populations. Cognitive behavioral strategies demonstrated to be efficacious in other adult populations may benefit FCAs. • Many cognitive behavioral strategies used to enhance sports performance for athletes in college are applicable to PA promotion outside of sport. Mental performance consultants (MPCs) who work with this population may consider transferring the use of these strategies to focus on PA promotion in athletes transitioning out of sport. • Former Division I athletes indicated completing exercise over general PA to attain long-term health benefits, but lacked solid goals that could guide their behavior. Focusing on cognitive-behavioral strategies that maintain exercise behavior may be the most viable way to improve long-term health and activity levels. As such, multi-disciplinary teams involving MPCs and exercise professionals may be warranted.
... The music also contributes to promoting exercise adherence. 31 Previous studies also reported that music benefits performance at higher exercise intensities 32,33 , and our results show that similar effects can be observed for indoor cycling at moderate intensity. We did not find an effect of music on exercise duration, which was previously reported for exercise at lower or self-selected intensities. ...
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BACKGROUND: Dissociation by music may impact the rate of perceived exertion (RPE), which is an indicator of internal loads during exercise. However, it is not clear how music affects the RPE, neuromuscular, and cognitive responses to exercise. AIM: To determine whether listening to preferred music during indoor endurance exercise influences RPE, neuromuscular, and cognitive responses in healthy individuals. METHOD: Thirteen healthy adults performed sessions of prolonged indoor cycling at moderate intensity while listening or not to preferred music. Reaction time, selective attention, and memory were evaluated before, during, and/or after the exercise sessions. RPE, heart rate, muscle activation, pedaling torque, and cadence were recorded during the exercises. RESULTS: RPE (P = 0.004, d = 0.40), heart rate (P = 0.048, d = 0.53) and cadence (P = 0,043; d = 0.51) were higher in the music session compared to no music. Selective attention (P = 0.233), simple reaction time (P = 0.360), working and short-term memory (P > 0.05), as well as torque (P = 0.262) and muscle activation (RMS and MDF, P > 0.05) did not differ between music and no music sessions. CONCLUSION: Indoor cycling while listening to preferred music elicited higher internal loads, which we consider a result of higher cardiovascular demand. However, the effects of music on neuromuscular and cognitive responses were not evident. We conclude that music can be helpful to improve demand during indoor exercise.
... The external environment can be positively influenced by various factors to improve mood during PA. Outdoor PA has been connected with greater perceived mental health benefits (Thompson Coon et al., 2011), while music can enhance enjoyment and performance (Stork et al., 2015). As such, participants' desire for mood-enhancing factors in their PA environment is not so different from findings in the general population. ...
... Asynchronous music can also enhance positive affect or reduce negative affect; even at relatively high work intensities (e.g., Hutchinson et al., 2018;Karageorghis & Jones, 2014). Stork et al. (2015) conducted a study that applied asynchronous music to the WAnT, with four 30-s "all-out" bouts. The peak and mean power achieved by participants was higher in the music condition when compared to a no-music control. ...
Chapter
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This chapter provides an overview of the key concepts, theory, underlying mechanisms, empirical research, and application relevant to the use of music in sport. The chapter begins with a colorful introduction to the subject matter, in which the use of music in sport is set within a historical frame. Thereafter, a theoretical model is presented that coaches and practitioners can use as a reference point in the design of music-related interventions. This leads into consideration of the mechanisms—emotional, perceptual, and rhythm-related—that underlie the effects of music in sport. Throughout the chapter, the taxonomy of pretask, in-task, and post-task applications of music serves as a common denominator to aid the absorbability of the material. This is reflected in both a critical appraisal of recent literature and consideration of applied aspects. The key contribution of this chapter is that comprehensive guidelines are provided to facilitate athletes and coaches in their application of music. The centrepiece of these guidelines is a new framework that presents factors relevant to optimizing music selection in sport.
... Although previous literature has found a diminished effect of asynchronous music at very high exercise intensities, several studies have explored the effects of listening to music asynchronously during high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint-interval training (SIT). Stork et al. (2015) played music throughout a SIT session and found that self-selected motivational music did not significantly improve pleasure compared to a nomusic control condition. Contrastingly, Stork et al. (2019) found that a motivational music playlist did elicit more pleasure over the course of a SIT session compared to a no-music control. ...
... It might be beneficial to listen to music during SIT. Stork et al. determined whether listening to self-selected music can reduce the potential aversion to an acute session of SIT by improving affect, motivation, and enjoyment, and to examine the effects of music on performance 101) . Peak and mean power output, RPE, affect, task motivation, and perceived enjoyment of the exercise were measured during four 30-s "all-out" Wingate Anaerobic Test bouts. ...
Article
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) research has drastically increased globally in the last decade. This might be owing to the application of HIIT in various fields such as among cardiovascular disease and cancer populations, and its increasing popularity in the media and fitness industries. It is crucial to realize the substantial benefits of HIIT, keeping safety in mind, for these target groups. In this narrative review, HIIT is discussed from multifaceted perspectives. First, I describe the rationale behind the improvement in aerobic and metabolic capacity with HIIT requiring less time compared to moderate-intensity continuous training, as well as the enjoyable and affective factors and the broad applicability of HIIT due to the “relative” high-intensity training. Second, I describe ways to maximize the effects of HIIT, which include optimising a potential genetic factor in HIIT responder, decreasing non-responders by attaining a targeted intensity, and adhering to the exercise intensity and unsupervised long-term participation. Recent development of HIIT/sprint interval training protocols and several unique clinical studies in the world have helped overcome the barriers against high adherence. Finally, safety and potential risks were only discussed briefly due to insufficient available data. In conclusion, to utilise the benefits of HIIT effectively and safely for unfit subjects with lifestyle-related and chronic diseases, optimising HIIT protocols to include high adherence to exercise intensity and long-term participation should be considered.
... The positive effect of music in motivating people has already been studied in a wide variety of areas of life, especially in physical leisure activities [15]. In therapeutic settings, too, the beneficial effects of music are used, for example, for pain management [16] or supportive therapy in cancer patients [17]. ...
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Background The influence of music on the performance of surgical procedures such as laparoscopy is controversial and methodologically difficult to quantify. Here, outcome measurements using laparoscopic box training tools under standardized conditions might offer a feasible approach. To date, the effect of music exposure at different sound pressure levels (SPL) on outcome has not been evaluated systematically for laparoscopic novices. Methods Between May 2017 and October 2018, n = 87 students (49 males, 38 females) from Heidelberg University Medical School performed three different laparoscopy exercises using the “Luebecker Toolbox” that were repeated twice under standardized conditions. Time was recorded for each run. All students were randomly assigned to four groups exposed to the same music compilation but at different SPLs (50–80 dB), an acoustically shielded (earplug) group, or a control group (no intervention). Results Best absolute performance was shown under exposure to 70 dB in all three exercises (a, b, c) with mean performance time of 121, 142, and 115 s ( p < 0.05 for a and c). For the control group mean performance times were 157, 144, and 150 s, respectively. In the earplug group, no significant difference in performance was found compared to the control group ( p > 0.05) except for exercise (a) ( p = 0.011). Conclusion Music exposure seems to have beneficial effects on training performance. In comparison to the control group, significantly better results were reached at 70 dB SPL, while exposure to lower (50 or 60 dB) or higher (80 dB) SPL as well as under acoustic shielding did not influence performance.
... Since enjoyment is an important intrinsic motivation to promote exercise adherence, familiar music may promote enjoyment and lead to better or prolonged physical performance. Stork et al. (2015) indicated self-selected music enhanced in-task performance and enjoyment in active adults after an acute bout of sprint interval training, a type of training that involves a series of high-intensity workouts. Leow et al. (2015) found that young adults elicited faster stride velocity and less stride variability and even more synchronized performance (e.g., matching step tempo to beat) while listening to familiar music. ...
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This study was aimed at investigating the impact of music on exercise performance and affective response to exercise in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve individuals with DS completed a treadmill walking protocol in both music and no music conditions. Heart rate (HR), walking steps, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and enjoyment scores were measured in this study. Participants significantly walked more steps with increased exercise HR and percentage MaxHR achieved under music condition. It is speculated that the involvement of music may motivate participants with DS to exert more effort. However, RPE and enjoyment were not significantly affected by music. The positive effect of music may not be strong enough to interfere with peripheral sensory input since half the participants performed at a vigorous level. Still, the implication of our results showed that music could promote physical performance for health benefits in individuals with DS.
... Listening to music during exercise can serve as an external motivator and has been frequently reported to induce ergogenic effects in multiple forms of exercise [1][2][3]. While underlying mediators to improvements in performance are still being delineated, simultaneous changes in physiological (e.g., heart rate and neuromuscular activation), psychological (e.g., motivation and enjoyment), and psychophysiological (e.g., perceived exertion and arousal) factors likely work synergistically to improve performance [3][4][5]. Music may be particularly important during high-intensity exercise as it may serve as a distraction from effort and discomfort during challenging physical tasks [1]. Evidence has suggested that previously mentioned performance factors may manifest themselves differently during exercise in a sex-dependent manner [6,7]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine possible sex differences in high-intensity exercise performance, fatigue, and motivational responses to exercise while listening to music. Physically active males and females (ages 18-24) were recruited to participate. Participants completed two separate repeated sprint exercise trials each with a different condition: (1) no music (NM) (2) self-selected music (SSM). During each trial, participants completed 3 × 15 s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnTs) while listening to NM or SSM separated by 2 min of active recovery. Following each WAnT, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and motivation to exercise were assessed. Relative power output, fatigue index, RPE, and motivation were analyzed. There were no significant sex differences for relative power between music conditions (p = 0.228). Fatigue index was significantly lower in females while listening to SSM (p = 0.032) versus NM while no differences were observed for males (p = 0.246). RPE was lower while listening to SSM versus NM in females (p = 0.020), but not for males (p = 0.277). Lastly, motivation to exercise increased in the SSM condition versus NM in females (p = 0.006) but not in males (p = 0.090). Results indicate that listening to SSM music did not result in superior anaerobic performance in either sex, but females responded more favorably to subjective outcomes (i.e., RPE and motivation) while listening to SSM, which may have in turn influenced indices of fatigue during the tests. These results suggest that females may respond more positively than males to exercise-induced fatigue while listening to SSM music during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise.
... The positive effect of music in motivating people has already been studied in a wide variety of areas of life, especially in physical leisure activities (15). In therapeutic settings, too, the bene cial effects of music are used, for example, for pain management (16) or supportive therapy in cancer patients (17). ...
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Background The influence of music on the performance of surgical procedures such as laparoscopy is controversial and methodologically difficult to quantify. Here, outcome measurements using laparoscopic box training tools under standardized conditions might offer a feasible approach. To date, the effect of music exposure at different sound pressure levels (SPL) on outcome has not been evaluated systematically for laparoscopic novices. Methods Between May 2017 and October 2018, n=87 students (49 males, 38 females) from Heidelberg University Medical School performed three different laparoscopy exercises using the “Luebecker Toolbox” that were repeated twice under standardized conditions. Time was recorded for each run. All students were randomly assigned to four groups exposed to the same music compilation but at different SPLs (50-80 dB), an acoustically shielded (earplug) group, or a control group (no intervention). ResultsBest absolute performance was shown under exposure to 70 dB in all three exercises (a, b, c) with mean performance time of 121, 142, and 115 s (p<0.05 for a and c). For the control group mean performance times were 157, 144, and 150 s, respectively. In the earplug group, no significant difference in performance was found compared to the control group (p>0.05) except for exercise (a) (p=0.011).Conclusion Music exposure seems to have beneficial effects on training performance. In comparison to the control group, significantly better results were reached at 70 dB SPL, while exposure to lower (50 or 60 dB) or higher (80 dB) SPL as well as under acoustic shielding did not influence performance.
... Music intervention is considered as an optimal modality to improve exercise motivation, exercise performance, and endurance capacity. It has been reported that music can change motor neural drive (Bigliassi, Karageorghis, Bishop, Nowicky, & Wright, 2018), cardiovascular functions (Koelsch, & Jäncke, 2015), perceptual and cognitive responses (Stork, Gibala, & Martin, 2015). ...
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Background: Music intervention is considered as an optimal modality to improve exercise motivation, exercise performance, and endurance capacity. The aim of this study is to investigate the acute effects of self-selected music intervention on post-exercise heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV) and anxiety after a submaximal intensity of cycling exercise. Methods: Fifty-two healthy adults (males: n= 24, age: 20.6 ± 2 yrs; female: n= 28, 21.8 ± 2.1 yrs) were voluntarily participated this study. A counterbalanced design was used to examine submaximal intensity of cycling exercise with non-music or self-selected music trials at least 48 hours apart. Participants first visit the laboratory to determine individual self-selected music and to complete an incremental exercise test until HR response researched to 80% of heart rate reserve (HRreserve). The 80% HRreserve was used to control the exercise intensity during a subsequent 10-minute stationary cycling exercise. At the beginning of experiment, the participants performed a 5-min cycling warm-up exercise with self-pace. Afterwards, the participants rested in a sitting position for 5-min and then performed 10-min cycling exercise with intensity of 80% HRreserve. After the cycling exercise, 5-min HR recovery (HRR) and 10-min HRV was measured in a sitting position for 15-min. A situational anxiety mass scale (STAI-S) was used immediately after the cycling exercise. Music intervention was applied during 15-min post-exercise recovery. Results: The exercise HR and post-exercise HRV showed no significant differences between self-selected music trial and non-music trial in both groups. In self-selected music trial, HRR was significantly faster after the self-selected music trial than that of non-music trial in female. In addition, the STAI-S scores were significantly lower in the self-selected music trial than that of non-music trial in both groups. Conclusion: Self-selected music intervention can improve HRR in healthy female. Consideration to implement a self-selected music intervention after submaximal intensity of stationary cycling exercise to reduce post-exercise anxiety in male and female is warrant. Resumen: Antecedentes: la intervención musical se considera una modalidad óptima para mejorar la motivación del ejercicio, el rendimiento del ejercicio y la capacidad de resistencia. El objetivo de este estudio es investigar los efectos agudos de la intervención musical autoseleccionada sobre la frecuencia cardíaca (FC) posterior al ejercicio, la variabilidad de la FC (VFC) y la ansiedad después de una intensidad submáxima del ejercicio en bicicleta. Métodos: Cincuenta y dos adultos sanos (hombres: n = 24, edad: 20.6 ± 2 años; mujeres: n = 28, 21.8 ± 2.1 años) participaron voluntariamente en este estudio. Se utilizó un diseño equilibrado para examinar la intensidad submáxima del ejercicio de ciclismo con ensayos musicales no musicales o autoseleccionados con al menos 48 horas de diferencia. Los participantes primero visitan el laboratorio para determinar la música individual seleccionada por ellos mismos y completar una prueba de ejercicio incremental hasta que la respuesta de FC investigue al 80% de la reserva de frecuencia cardíaca (HRreserve). El 80% HRreserve se utilizó para controlar la intensidad del ejercicio durante un ejercicio de ciclismo estacionario de 10 minutos. Al comienzo del experimento, los participantes realizaron un ejercicio de calentamiento en bicicleta de 5 minutos con ritmo propio. Posteriormente, los participantes descansaron sentados durante 5 minutos y luego realizaron 10 minutos de ejercicio en bicicleta con una intensidad de reserva de HR del 80%. Después del ejercicio de ciclismo, se midió la recuperación de la FC de 5 minutos (HRR) y la HRV de 10 minutos en una posición sentada durante 15 minutos. Se utilizó una escala de masa de ansiedad situacional (STAI-S) inmediatamente después del ejercicio de ciclismo. La intervención musical se aplicó durante 15 minutos después de la recuperación del ejercicio. Resultados: El HR de ejercicio y el HRV posterior al ejercicio no mostraron diferencias significativas entre el ensayo musical autoseleccionado y el ensayo no musical en ambos grupos. En la prueba musical autoseleccionada, la HRR fue significativamente más rápida después de la prueba musical autoseleccionada que la de la prueba no musical en mujeres. Además, las puntuaciones de STAI-S fueron significativamente más bajas en la prueba musical autoseleccionada que en la prueba no musical en ambos grupos. Conclusión: la intervención musical autoseleccionada puede mejorar la HRR en mujeres sanas. Se justifica la implementación de una intervención musical autoseleccionada después de la intensidad submáxima del ejercicio de ciclismo estacionario para reducir la ansiedad posterior al ejercicio en hombres y mujeres. Palabras Claves: Intervención musical, recuperación de la frecuencia cardíaca, variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca, intensidad submáxima, ejercicio en bicicleta
... Peu important Très important FIGURE 1 (suite) Échelles de préférence e. Proposer à la personne d'écouter une musique énergisante ou apaisante tout en bougeant La musique a un effet thérapeutique et est souvent utilisée dans le traitement des problèmes de santé mentale 6062 . En outre, de plus en plus d'ouvrages préconisent l'utilisation de la musique comme source de motivation pendant l'activité phy sique 63,64 . Des études montrent que les personnes qui écoutent de la musique tout en pratiquant une activité physique sont plus susceptibles d'essayer une activité physique à long terme et de la mainte nir 65,66 . ...
Article
Résumé La dépression est aujourd’hui le trouble mental le plus répandu, et on estime qu’un Canadien sur quatre en souffrira à un moment ou à un autre de sa vie. Même si l’activité physique est recommandée comme traitement principal de la dépression légère à modérée et comme traitement secondaire de la dépression modérée à grave, on ne dispose toujours pas de lignes directrices précises sur la meilleure façon de promouvoir l’activité physique auprès de la population atteinte de dépression. Cet exposé de politique vise donc à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes aux fournisseurs de soins primaires et aux professionnels paramédicaux afin de promouvoir l’activité physique à vie chez les personnes atteintes de dépression. Ces recommandations consistent notamment à demander la permission de parler d’activité physique avec les personnes concernées; à présenter l’activité physique comme un élément sur lequel elles ont un contrôle afin de se sentir mieux; à préciser qu’intégrer ne serait-ce que quelques minutes supplémentaires d’activité physique hebdomadaire vaut mieux que rien et que des exercices légers sont suffisants pour obtenir des bienfaits sur la santé mentale et enfin à proposer plusieurs choix d’activités et essayer d’accompagner les personnes lors de leurs premières séances. En outre, cet article souligne l’importance de promouvoir, auprès de cette population, le plaisir que procure l’activité physique, ce qui peut être fait en aidant la personne à augmenter progressivement la fréquence, la durée et l’intensité de l’activité; en l’encourageant à faire preuve de bienveillance envers elle­même à propos de l’activité physique; en lui suggérant de s’adonner à une activité de plein air, d’écouter de la musique, d’être accompagnée d’un(e) ami(e) ou de faire partie d’un groupe; en utilisant un système d’autosuivi ou un journal pour renforcer le lien entre activité physique et amélioration de l’humeur. Les praticiens sont encouragés à utiliser ces recommandations fondées sur des données probantes (en particulier l’offre d’un maximum de choix, l’insistance sur le plaisir procuré par l’activité physique et la mise en avant des préférences personnelles) afin d’aider les personnes atteintes de dépression à bouger, à se rétablir et à s’épanouir. Ces recommandations sont également utilisables pour concevoir les futures interventions et pour éclairer les lignes directrices visant à réduire les taux de dépression au Canada.
... [60][61][62] Moreover, a growing literature supports the use of music as a source of motivation during physical activity. 63,64 Studies show that individuals who listen to music while performing physical activity are more likely to participate in and adhere to physical activity long term. 65,66 In a recent study of nonclinical university students, exercise enjoyment was significantly higher among participants who participated in 20 minutes of moderately paced walking with a personal music player versus without. ...
Article
Executive Summary Depression is the most common and prevalent mental disorder today, affecting an estimated 1 in 4 Canadians at some point in their lifetime. Physical activity is recommended as a primary treatment for mild to moderate depression and a secondary treatment for moderate to severe depression. Despite this, specific guidelines are still lacking on how to best promote physical activity in this population. Accordingly, this policy brief provides evidence-based recommendations for primary care providers and allied health professionals to promote lifelong physical activity in individuals with depression. Recommendations include asking for permission to discuss physical activity with the individual; framing physical activity as something that they have control over in order to feel better; clarifying that incorporating even a few more minutes of weekly physical activity is better than nothing and that mild forms are enough to achieve mental health benefits; and providing choices of activities to try and accompanying them on their first few sessions. Moreover, this article highlights the importance of promoting physical activity enjoyment for this population, which can be done by guiding the individual to slowly build up the frequency, duration and intensity of activity; encouraging them to be selfcompassionate toward physical activity; suggesting they engage in outdoor activity, listen to music, and/or participate with a buddy or group; and incorporate self-monitoring or journalling to solidify the link between physical activity and improved mood. Practitioners are encouraged to use these evidence-informed recommendations—especially maximizing choices, enhancing physical activity enjoyment and emphasizing personal preferences—to help individuals with depression move, recover and flourish. These recommendations may also be used to tailor future interventions and inform policy guidelines to reduce depression rates in Canada.
... Participants were asked, "please tell me how you feel at this current moment using the scale below" on an 11-point Likert scale ranging from −5 (very bad) to +5 (very good). Given the fluctuations in FS scores observed during HIIT protocols (e.g., Decker & Ekkekakis, 2017;Stork et al., 2018Stork et al., , 2015, the magnitude of the peak negative affect score was used as our main measure of in-task affect for this study. Peak negative affect was calculated by determining each participant's lowest FS score at any time point in-task for that specific day of training for both MICT and HIIT conditions. ...
Article
The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to examine the affective and social cognitive responses to low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) over a progressive two-week supervised intervention for individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Ninety-nine adults that were low-active and overweight were randomized into one of two exercise conditions and had affective and social cognitive measures assessed before, during, and after intervention. Increases over time in post-exercise enjoyment, attitudes towards exercise, and intentions to exercise were noted for both HIIT and MICT conditions (ps <.05). The patterns of change in acute affective responses over the two-week intervention were consistent for both conditions, with participants in MICT reporting more positive in-task affect and affective attitudes throughout (ps <.001). Positive correlational relationships between affective and social cognitive responses were revealed throughout the intervention (ps <.05), highlighting the relationship between reflexive responses and reflective cognitions. Research is warranted to determine whether findings are a consequence of familiarization with exercise, whether such findings are translatable to real-world environments and non-progressive exercise protocols, and whether these reflexive responses and reflective cognitions are predictive of future exercise behaviour for individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes.
Chapter
Pre-frail elderly people have to do physical exercises to reduce the risk of becoming frail but often lack motivation. Socially Assistive Robots could offer a solution because they have shown their effectiveness in achieving measurable progress with the elderly. This paper investigates how the addition of music and autonomy to choose it influences the enjoyment of pre-frail elderly while doing physical exercises under the coaching of a Social Robot. In an experiment with 12 pre-frail elderly coached by a robot to exercise, three different conditions were tested: (1) no music accompanying the exercise, (2) the robot chooses music, and (3) the elderly person chooses music themselves. The results show that the participants enjoyed more the music-enhanced exercises with the robot coach. Also, the music genre needs to be personalized, and the results on the autonomy of choice (robot or themselves), were mixed, however, the majority preferred the robot to choose the music. Further research is needed to make a successful personalized Social Assistive Robot, that utilizes music in its interactions.KeywordsPre-frail elderlySocial assistive robotRobot coachEnjoymentMusic personalizationPhysical exercise
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Previous studies have demonstrated that music has a positive effect on individuals during exercise and sports. We speculate that one of the mechanisms for this positive effect may be that music reduces the consumption of self-regulation strength. The primary objective of this study was to use a self-regulation strength model to explain the impact of music on individuals during aerobic exercises. Specifically, we examined the effects of synchronous music on college students’ depletion of self-regulation during aerobic exercises. The participants underwent a pre-test in which they had to maintain 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) isometric grip and do exercise planning tasks. For subsequent power bicycle riding (aerobic exercise), the participants were divided into a music group and a control group. The music group performed aerobic exercises with synchronous music, while the control group performed aerobic exercises without music. After aerobic exercise, the participants underwent a post-test for isometric grip and exercise planning tasks. The results showed that the music group planned to reduce their efforts less for an upcoming exercise period ( p < 0.01, d = 0.81), and their wrist flexor muscle group generated less electromyographic activation during an isometric grip task that maintained 50% MVC ( p < 0.05, d = 0.80) than the control group. However, the two groups showed no difference in the duration of 50% MVC. This shows that: (a) for the same duration, participants in the music group required a lower degree of muscle activation than the control group, suggesting that music reduced the consumption of self-regulation strength in aerobic exercise; and (b) music decreased participants’ planned exertion declined, also suggesting that music reduced the consumption of self-regulation strength in aerobic exercise.
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Music act as ergogenic aid able to enhance the physiological and psychological status of participants during sport-related activities and physical exercise. Music is used synchronously to accompany repetitive endurance tasks such as cycle ergometer, walking and running. Maximal Aerobic Speed (MAS), defined as the minimum speed required to elicit maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during a graded exercise test, has also been validated outside of the laboratory as a field test. Previous study calculated that the most suitable duration for measuring maximal aerobic speed by a field test was 5 min.For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiovascular endurance performance was related to volume; type and tempo of the music been studied. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no studies to date that examined the effect of music intervention duration on maximal aerobic speed during the physical education classes. As such, the primary aim of this study was to assess and compare the Maximal Aerobic Speed between intervention duration groups with music. A total of 207 female students enrolled in the Physical Education courses at Saigon University were recruited in current study.They were randomly divided into three groups: Intervention group 1, with 15 weeks of synchronous music throughout the whole semester (69 students); intervention group 2 with 7 weeks of synchronous music (69 students); and a control group (69 students). Results revealed that there was no significant main effect of Group on overall MAS performance (F (1,204) =.86, p=.43, ηp2= .008). Descriptive statistics showed that the groups (15-week group: Mean=825.65, SD=64.61; 7-week group: Mean=827.10, SD=63.34) with music intervention performed better in MAS performance compared to the control group (Mean=806.38, SD=55.97). From looking at the graph we can see that all groups showed a similarly upward trend between Pre-Post Intervention. The results of this study revealed that popular music has no effect on MAS performance in the students attended the physical education classes for 15 weeks.
Chapter
Running music, which refers to background music for running, plays a crucial part in various mobile applications for running. Existing solutions for presenting running music cannot simultaneously address runners’ preferences, physical conditions, and training goals, resulting in lower running efficiency, higher injury likelihood, and significant mental fatigue. We proposed a novel running music adaptation method to address this problem. Specifically, the adaptation starts with a trial run, where the runner’s running statistics are sampled. Then, with parameters identified from the trial run, cadence goals are set accordingly. The song list provided by the runner is augmented with recommendation systems and later tagged, screened, sorted, and split. Finally, the music parts are rearranged and adjusted to match the cadence goals before being mixed with the training instructions. Unlike previous running music interventions, our method introduces a way to blend different music parts, giving runners unprecedented pleasure in running. Quantitative and qualitative results have shown that the crafted remix can reduce perceived effort, boost the pleasures, run more safely, and help the runners reach their second wind, providing novice runners with a passion for following the training programs.KeywordsDigital artHealthPreferred musicSynchronous musicRemix
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Objective: To explore the effects of rhythmic movement interventions on the physical and cognitive functions among cognitively healthy older adults. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang Data, and VIP databases from inception to March 30, 2022. The inclusion criteria were: ① randomized controlled trials (RCTs); ② older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) without cognitive impairments or neurological or neurodegenerative diseases; ③ intervention: rhythmic movement (rhythmic exercise or physical activities performed to music); ④ outcomes: physical or cognitive function. Overall, 44 RCTs across 20 countries (n = 2752 participants) were included. Results: An association was found between rhythmic movement and improved physical function (mobility, cardiopulmonary endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, and balance), global cognitive function, and quality of life (QOL). The physical function outcomes suggested additional significant benefits when using control groups with no exercise than when using control groups with exercise. No significant improvement was found in executive function. Conclusion: Regular rhythmic movement likely improves physical function, global cognitive function, and QOL in healthy older adults. The effect of rhythmic movement on the physical function in older adults is similar to that of routine exercise. Further studies on cognitive function of healthy older adults using larger samples of populations with more balanced sex ratios with long-term follow-up are particularly encouraged.
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The use of music in exercise sessions is considered an interesting strategy as it facilitates, through motivation, an improvement in physical performance, as well as a reduction in the subjective perception of effort and an improvement in mood. Such factors are important for the maintenance of physical exercise programs, however, considering high intensity interval training, the effects of music remain inconclusive. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of music during high intensity interval training sessions using body weight (HIIT-B) on the physiological parameters and mood state of adults. Methods: 11 CrossFit male practitioners were randomly submitted to three sessions of HIIT-C under the following experimental conditions: preference music (PM), non-preference music (nPM) and without music (WM). The HIIT-B protocol consisted of 20 sets of 30 seconds of stimulus using maximal intensities followed by 30 seconds of passive recovery. The following exercises were used: jumping jacks, burpee, mountain climbing and squat jumping. The following parameters were analyzed: heart rate (HR), lactate (La), total amount of movements (TAM), affective response (AR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and recovery (RPR) and mood states. Results: although an increase (p< 0.05) of HR, RPE and La reduction of RPR was found after performing the HIIT session, no differences were found between the three conditions to these parameters. The nPM condition promoted lower (p< 0.001) TAM compared to the WM and PM conditions, which also differed from each other. However, for AR, a music effect was found among the protocols (p< 0.0001), indicating that the PM session promoted an increase in pleasure, unlike WM and nPM session which provided pleasure reduction and displeasure respectively. The WM session did not promote any changes. There were no main effects on time for depression and anger, which were different for vigor, fatigue, mental confusion, tension and mood disturbance. Additionally, differences were found after session to tension (p= 0.0229), vigor (p= 0.0424) and fatigue (p= 0.0400) for PM condition, vigor (p= 0.0424), fatigue (p= 0.0400) mental confusion (p= 0.0302) and mood disturbance (p= 0.0129) and vigor (p= 0.0363) and fatigue (p= 0.0468) to WM conditions. Conclusion: Listening to preferred music during an 'all out' HIIT-B session increases exercise performance and elicits more positive affective responses in recreationally active adult males, despite similar HR, blood lactate, RPE and fatigue compared to nonpreferred music or no-music.
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Music is made up of several features ( e.g ., melody and rhythm) and it accompanies our life in different daily activities. During the last years, there was a growing interest in research about the music-related effects in the exercise domain. Music stimuli could act as an ergogenic effect leading to improvements in health-related and physical fitness components like cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular fitness. Moreover, listening to music may positively affect individuals’ psychological state which could lead to increased exercise adherence. Conflicting data exist regarding the effects of music on cardiorespiratory and muscle-strengthening exercises indicating that music’s characteristics ( i.e ., rhythm and musicality), studied samples ( i.e ., athletes and amateur) and methodology ( i.e ., self-selected music and research-selected music) might influence the results. Listening to music while exercising is becoming more frequent also in recreationally active individuals. While literature mainly focused on the effects of music in elite and amateur athletes, little data are available regarding recreationally active participants. Therefore, this review aims to summarize evidence regarding the effects of music on health-related physical fitness components in recreationally active individuals, specifically referring to cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular fitness. These outcomes will be helpful to all recreationally active participants to optimize the exercise protocol with the use of music.
Article
Purpose: To determine whether swimming while listening to fast (140 bpm) or moderate tempo (120 bpm) music enhances physical performance compared to a non-music condition. Methods: Sixteen healthy university students (21.5 ± 2.3 years) with a minimum of one year of experience swimming front crawl were recruited. All completed four testing sessions. In the first session, a graded exercise treadmill test was performed to establish baseline fitness. The next three visits were at the swimming pool and participants were asked to swim as far as possible in 12-minutes (i.e., Swimming Cooper Test) under each of three randomly assigned conditions: 120 bpm (M120), 140 bpm (M140) and a non-music condition (NM). Results: No significant differences were found between conditions for either heart rate (p > .05) or rating of perceived exertion (p > .05). However, differences were found on distance covered (p = .014) between M120 (305.7 ± 19.7 m) and M140 (321.2 ± 19.4 m; p = .035), and on stroke frequency (p = .009) between M120 (48.4 ± 1.8) and M140 (51.6 ± 1.9; p = .028). Conclusion: These results suggest that distance covered and the frequency of strokes per minute were greater when participants were exposed to fast tempo music (M140) compared to moderate tempo music (M120) and a non-music condition (NM) in a 12-minute swimming test.
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Background: Fatigue is the inability to achieve or maintain an expected work output resulting from central or peripheral mechanisms. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) fatigue can reach 86% in active disease, persisting in 50%-52% of patients with mild to inactive disease. Fatigue is the commonest reason for work absence in IBD, and patients often report fatigue burden to be greater than that of primary disease symptoms. Relatively few evidence-based treatment options exist, and the aetiology is poorly understood. Aim: To review the available data and suggest a possible aetiology of IBD fatigue and to consider the efficacy of existing management strategies and highlight potential future interventions. Methods: We reviewed fatigue-related literature in IBD using PubMed database. Results: Disease related factors such as inflammation and pharmacological treatments negatively impact skeletal muscle and brain physiology, likely contributing to fatigue symptoms. Secondary factors such as malnutrition, anaemia, sleep disturbance and psychological comorbidity are potential determinants. Immune profile, faecal microbiota composition and physical fitness differ significantly between fatigued and non-fatigued patients, suggesting these may be aetiological factors. Solution-focused therapy, high-dosage thiamine supplementation and biological therapy may reduce fatigue perception in IBD. The effect of physical activity interventions is inconclusive. Conclusions: A multimodal approach is likely required to treat IBD fatigue. Established reversible factors like anaemia, micronutrient deficiencies and active disease should initially be resolved. Psychosocial intervention shows potential efficacy in reducing fatigue perception in quiescent disease. Restoring physical deconditioning by exercise training intervention may further improve fatigue burden.
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Listening to music during active recovery between exercise bouts has been found to help maintain high levels of exercise performance; however, the effect of listening to music alone with no exercise while resting passively has not been elucidated. We examined whether listening to music during static (passive) recovery affects subsequent repeated sprint performances and/or psychological and physiological responses in healthy young males. Twelve healthy young male athletes completed two consecutive sets of 7 × 7 second maximal cycling sprints with a 30-second rest interval between the sprints. During a 15-minute interval between the sets, the participants rested passively while listening to fast-tempo (Fast, 130 bpm), slow-tempo (Slow, 70 bpm) music, or no music (Con). We assessed affective valence and arousal using the Affect Grid. The valence and arousal scores immediately after listening to fast-tempo music were significantly higher than those in the no music condition. Mean and peak power outputs during the second set after listening to fast-tempo music were significantly higher compared to those after the Slow and Con conditions (both adjusted p < .05). Moreover, the changes in exercise performances between the first and second set were significantly associated with changes in the arousal score induced by the music conditions, but not with changes in the valence score. These results suggested that listening to fast-tempo songs during passive recovery between the exercises improved subsequent repeated sprint cycling performance in physically active males. This type of rapid exercise recovery might be useful for competitive athletes, such as judo, track and fields, and swimming races.
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Objective: The beneficial effects of music on executive function during exercise have been widely reported. However, little is known about the cause of the more beneficial effects. This study aims to investigate whether tempo matching is one of the reasons for the beneficial effects. Methods: 90 young adults (aged 21.54 ± 2.26 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: the slower mismatched exercise heart rate group (SMG, with music at 60–65 bpm), the matched exercise heart rate group (MG, with music at 120–140 bpm), and the faster mismatched exercise heart rate group (FMG, with music at 155–165 bpm). Then, they completed a 20-minute bout of moderate-intensity (60%–70% of maximum heart rate) aerobic exercise respectively, with corresponding musical contains. The exercise states (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) were measured throughout experimental procedures, and emotional states, as well as the executive function (inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory), were assessed pre- and post-exercise. Results: Greater exercise states and more positive emotional states were noted in MG. Additionally, the MG gained increased executive function performance (i.e., inhibitory control and working memory). Conclusions: Tempo matching is an important element for the beneficial effects of exercise with music on executive function. People could choose music in tempo which matches heart rate during exercise to get better effects both physically and psychologically.
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The authors investigated the effects of respite–active music (i.e., music used for active recovery in between high-intensity exercise bouts) on psychological and psychophysiological outcomes. Participants ( N = 24) made four laboratory visits for a habituation, medium- and fast-tempo music conditions, and a no-music control. A high-intensity interval-training protocol comprising 8 × 60-s exercise bouts at 100% W max with 90-s active recovery was administered. Measures were taken at the end of exercise bouts and recovery periods (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], state attention, and core affect) and then upon cessation of the protocol (enjoyment and remembered pleasure). Heart rate was measured throughout. Medium-tempo music enhanced affective valence during exercise and recovery, while both music conditions increased dissociation (only during recovery), enjoyment, and remembered pleasure relative to control. Medium-tempo music lowered RPE relative to control, but the heart rate results were inconclusive. As predicted, medium-tempo music, in particular, had a meaningful effect on a range of psychological outcomes.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if the presence of social support and music affected exercise performance and enjoyment among school-aged children. Fifteen children ages 6-13 years participated in the study. Enjoyment and performance were measured while the children performed four different exercises including wall sits, planks, squats, and bunny hops. During each exercise, four different genres of music were played in the lab (classical, classic rock, folk/zydeco, and kidz bop). The effects of these two factors were examined on heart rate, time spent performing each exercise, and responses to an enjoyment scale completed after each session. The results indicated that the presence of social support and upbeat music promoted better exercise enjoyment and performance.
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This study evaluated the influence of asynchronous music on supramaximal exercise performance. Physically active male and female participants (N = 25) completed a Wingate anaerobic test under two different conditions: music and no music. Physiological variables measured were peak power output, mean power output, and rate of fatigue. A scale questionnaire was used immediately after the trial to assess participants' level of motivation, perceived exertion, and affect. Results indicated that peak power and mean power were significantly higher with music than without. Participants reported increased task motivation and more positive affect in the music condition, but perceived exertion was unaffected. The results of this study suggest that music can have a positive influence over anaerobic performance and can influence certain psychological factors during exercise, even at supramaximal effort levels.
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Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.
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Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong determinant of morbidity and mortality. In athletes and the general population, it is established that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving CRF. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy and safety of HIIT compared to MICT in individuals with chronic cardiometabolic lifestyle diseases. The included studies were required to have a population sample of chronic disease, where poor lifestyle is considered as a main contributor to the disease. The procedural quality of the studies was assessed by use of a modified Physiotherapy Evidence Base Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis compared the mean difference (MD) of preintervention versus postintervention CRF (VO2peak) between HIIT and MICT. 10 studies with 273 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Participants had coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. There was a significantly higher increase in the VO2peak after HIIT compared to MICT (MD 3.03 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.07), equivalent to 9.1%. HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases.
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The affective changes associated with acute exercise have been studied extensively in exercise and health psychology, but not in affective psychology. This paper presents a summary of the relevant findings and a tentative theoretical model. According to this model, affective responses to exercise are jointly influenced by cognitive factors, such as physical self-efficacy, and interoceptive (e.g., muscular or respiratory) cues that reach the affective centres of the brain via subcortical routes. Furthermore, the balance between these two determinants is hypothesised to shift as a function of exercise intensity, with cognitive factors being dominant at low intensities and interoceptive cues gaining salience as intensity approaches the individual's functional limits and the maintenance of a physiological steady-state becomes impossible.
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Purpose: Isocaloric interval exercise training programs have been shown to elicit improvements in numerous physiological indices in patients with CAD. Low-volume high-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is effective in healthy populations; however, its effectiveness in cardiac rehabilitation has not been established. This study compared the effects of 12-wk of HIT and higher-volume moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) in patients with CAD. Methods: Twenty-two patients with documented CAD were randomized into HIT (n = 11) or END (n = 11) based on pretraining FMD. Both groups attended two supervised sessions per week for 12 wk. END performed 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 58% peak power output (PPO), whereas HIT performed ten 1-min intervals at 89% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO per session. Results: Relative FMD was increased posttraining (END, 4.4% ± 2.6% vs 5.9% ± 3.6%; HIT, 4.6% ± 3.6% vs 6.1% ± 3.4%, P ≤ 0.001 pre- vs posttraining) with no differences between groups. A training effect was also observed for relative VO2 peak (END, 18.7 ± 5.7 vs 22.3 ± 6.1 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1); HIT, 19.8 ± 3.7 vs 24.5 ± 4.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1), P < 0.001 for pre- vs posttraining), with no group differences. Conclusions: Low-volume HIT provides an alternative to the current, more time-intensive prescription for cardiac rehabilitation. HIT elicited similar improvements in fitness and FMD as END, despite differences in exercise duration and intensity.
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The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (P(peak) and P(mean)) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (P<0.05). The relative increases were 4.1 ± 3.6 and 4.0 ± 3.7 W·kg(-1) for P(peak) and P(mean) respectively. These findings demonstrated the beneficial effect of music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs' muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises.
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Two studies examined the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES). In Study 1, each of 37 undergraduates rode an exercise bicycle under control and external focus conditions. As predicted, Ss reported enjoying the exercise more, as measured by the PACES, in the external focus condition. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation in the control condition between Ss PACES scores and their scores on a measure of boredom proneness. In Study 2, each of 37 undergraduates rode an exercise bicycle and jogged on a minitrampoline in separate sessions; each then chose one of these activities for their 3rd session. As predicted, there was a significant relationship between Ss PACES ratings (completed after each activity) and their choices of activity. Test–retest reliability was high for jogging and moderate for bicycling. The PACES had high internal consistency in both studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Affect may be important for understanding physical activity behavior. To examine whether affective valence (i.e., good/bad feelings) during and immediately following a brief walk predicts concurrent and future physical activity. At months 6 and 12 of a 12-month physical activity promotion trial, healthy low-active adults (N=146) reported affective valence during and immediately following a 10-min treadmill walk. Dependent variables were self-reported minutes/week of lifestyle physical activity at months 6 and 12. Affect reported during the treadmill walk was cross-sectionally (month 6: β=28.6, p=0.008; month 12: β=26.6, p=0.021) and longitudinally (β=14.8, p=0.030) associated with minutes/week of physical activity. Affect reported during a 2-min cool down was cross-sectionally (month 6: β=21.1, p=0.034; month 12: β=30.3, p<0.001), but not longitudinally associated with minutes/week of physical activity. Affect reported during a postcool-down seated rest was not associated with physical activity. During-behavior affect is predictive of concurrent and future physical activity behavior.
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The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music while warming-up on the diurnal variations of power output during the Wingate test. 12 physical education students underwent four Wingate tests at 07:00 and 17:00 h, after 10 min of warm-up with and without listening to music. The warm-up consisted of 10 min of pedalling at a constant pace of 60 rpm against a light load of 1 kg. During the Wingate test, peak and mean power were measured. The main finding was that peak and mean power improved from morning to afternoon after no music warm-up (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). These diurnal variations disappeared for mean power and persisted with an attenuated morning-evening difference (p<0.05) for peak power after music warm-up. Moreover, peak and mean power were significantly higher after music than no music warm-up during the two times of testing. Thus, as it is a legal method and an additional aid, music should be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs' muscles contractions, especially in the morning competitive events.
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Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving health and fitness. This form of exercise has not been tested in type 2 diabetes and thus we examined the effects of low-volume HIT on glucose regulation and skeletal muscle metabolic capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eight patients with type 2 diabetes (63 ± 8 yr, body mass index 32 ± 6 kg/m(2), Hb(A1C) 6.9 ± 0.7%) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants performed six sessions of HIT (10 × 60-s cycling bouts eliciting ∼90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 60 s rest) over 2 wk. Before training and from ∼48 to 72 h after the last training bout, glucose regulation was assessed using 24-h continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions. Markers of skeletal muscle metabolic capacity were measured in biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) before and after (72 h) training. Average 24-h blood glucose concentration was reduced after training (7.6 ± 1.0 vs. 6.6 ± 0.7 mmol/l) as was the sum of the 3-h postprandial areas under the glucose curve for breakfast, lunch, and dinner (both P < 0.05). Training increased muscle mitochondrial capacity as evidenced by higher citrate synthase maximal activity (∼20%) and protein content of Complex II 70 kDa subunit (∼37%), Complex III Core 2 protein (∼51%), and Complex IV subunit IV (∼68%, all P < 0.05). Mitofusin 2 (∼71%) and GLUT4 (∼369%) protein content were also higher after training (both P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that low-volume HIT can rapidly improve glucose control and induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that are linked to improved metabolic health in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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There is increasing concern about the time young people spend in sedentary behaviour ('sitting time'), especially with the development of attractive home-based electronic entertainment. This may have deleterious health effects. To ascertain, through a meta-analytic review, whether interventions targeted at reducing sedentary behaviours in young people are successful. ERIC, MedLine, PsychInfo, SportDiscus and the Cochrane Library databases were searched up to 2010. Titles and abstracts of identified papers were examined against inclusion criteria. Included papers were coded by three researchers. 17 papers, including 17 independent samples (N=4976), met the inclusion criteria and were analysed. There was a small but significant effect in favour of sedentary behaviour reduction for intervention groups (Hedges' g = - 0.192; SE = 0.056; 95% CI = -0.303 to -0.082; p = 0.001). Moderator analyses produced no significant between-moderator results for any of the intervention or study characteristics, although trends were evident. Behaviour change interventions targeting reductions in sedentary behaviour have been shown to be successful, although effects are small. More needs to be known about how best to optimise intervention effects.
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The public health problem of physical inactivity has proven resistant to research efforts aimed at elucidating its causes and interventions designed to alter its course. Thus, in most industrialized countries, the majority of the population is physically inactive or inadequately active. Most theoretical models of exercise behaviour assume that the decision to engage in exercise is based on cognitive factors (e.g. weighing pros and cons, appraising personal capabilities, evaluating sources of support). Another, still-under-appreciated, possibility is that these decisions are influenced by affective variables, such as whether previous exercise experiences were associated with pleasure or displeasure. This review examines 33 articles published from 1999 to 2009 on the relationship between exercise intensity and affective responses. Unlike 31 studies that were published until 1998 and were examined in a 1999 review, these more recent studies have provided evidence of a relation between the intensity of exercise and affective responses. Pleasure is reduced mainly above the ventilatory or lactate threshold or the onset of blood lactate accumulation. There are pleasant changes at sub-threshold intensities for most individuals, large inter-individual variability close to the ventilatory or lactate threshold and homogeneously negative changes at supra-threshold intensities. When the intensity is self-selected, rather than imposed, it appears to foster greater tolerance to higher intensity levels. The evidence of a dose-response relation between exercise intensity and affect sets the stage for a reconsideration of the rationale behind current guidelines for exercise intensity prescription. Besides effectiveness and safety, it is becoming increasingly clear that the guidelines should take into account whether a certain level of exercise intensity would be likely to cause increases or decreases in pleasure.
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No conclusions have been drawn regarding the relative attrition and adherence rates associated with sustained vs. intermittent exercise programs. The study aims to systematically examine randomized controlled exercise intervention trials that report attrition and/or adherence rates to sustained vs. intermittent aerobic exercise programs. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, and references from qualifying articles were searched for additional papers. Fourteen articles met inclusion criteria, capturing 783 (76% female) enrolled and 599 (74% female) retained participants (mean age = 42.3 ± 6.6 years). Study durations ranged from 8 weeks to 18 months (mean duration = 22.7 ± 21.9 weeks). Although results varied, no consistent differences in attrition or adherence rates between sustained and intermittent exercise protocols were revealed. Given the universally low rate of regular exercise participation and the ongoing problem of adherence to exercise protocols, the field may benefit from randomized controlled trials examining sustained vs. intermittent exercise programs in greater depth.
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The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P < 0.05) following interval running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P < 0.05) ratings of perceived exertion (14 ± 1 vs. 13 ± 1). There was no difference (P < 0.05) in average heart rate (88 ± 3 vs. 87 ± 3% maximum heart rate), average VO(2) (71 ± 6 vs. 73 ± 4%VO(2max)), total VO(2) (162 ± 16 vs. 166 ± 27 L) or energy expenditure (811 ± 83 vs. 832 ± 136 kcal) between protocols. The greater enjoyment associated with high-intensity interval running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.
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One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for 8 standard statistical tests: (1) the difference between independent means, (2) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (3) the difference between independent rs, (4) the sign test, (5) the difference between independent proportions, (6) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (7) 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and (8) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
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Our purpose was to examine the effects of sprint interval training on muscle glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activity and exercise performance. Twelve healthy men (22 +/- 2 yr of age) underwent intense interval training on a cycle ergometer for 7 wk. Training consisted of 30-s maximum sprint efforts (Wingate protocol) interspersed by 2-4 min of recovery, performed three times per week. The program began with four intervals with 4 min of recovery per session in week 1 and progressed to 10 intervals with 2.5 min of recovery per session by week 7. Peak power output and total work over repeated maximal 30-s efforts and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were measured before and after the training program. Needle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis of nine subjects before and after the program and assayed for the maximal activity of hexokinase, total glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The training program resulted in significant increases in peak power output, total work over 30 s, and VO2 max. Maximal enzyme activity of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase was also significantly (P < 0.05) higher after training. It was concluded that relatively brief but intense sprint training can result in an increase in both glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activity, maximum short-term power output, and VO2 max.
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To review and update the evidence relating to the personal, social, and environmental factors associated with physical activity (PA) in adults. Systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to identify papers published between 1998 and 2000 with PA (and including exercise and exercise adherence). Qualitative reports or case studies were not included. Thirty-eight new studies were located. Most confirmed the existence of factors already known to be correlates of PA. Changes in status were noted in relation to the influence of marital status, obesity, smoking, lack of time, past exercise behavior, and eight environmental variables. New studies were located which focused on previously understudied population groups such as minorities, middle and older aged adults, and the disabled. The newly reported studies tend to take a broader "ecological" approach to understanding the correlates of PA and are more focused on environmental factors. There remains a need to better understand environmental influences and the factors that influence different types of PA. As most of the work in this field still relies on cross-sectional studies, longitudinal and intervention studies will be required if causal relationships are to be inferred.
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In the present study, a measure to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise was redesigned, extending previous research efforts (Karageorghis et al., 1999). The original measure, the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI), had shown limitations in its factor structure and its applicability to non-experts in music selection. Redesign of the BMRI used in-depth interviews with eight participants (mean age 31.9 years, s = 8.9 years) to establish the initial item pool, which was examined using a series of confirmatory factor analyses. A single-factor model provided a good fit across three musical selections with different motivational qualities (comparative fit index, CFI: 0.95-0.98; standardized root mean residual, SRMR: 0.03-0.05). The single-factor model also demonstrated acceptable fit across two independent samples and both sexes using one piece of music (CFI: 0.86-1.00; SRMR: 0.04-0.07). The BMRI was designed for experts in selecting music for exercise (e.g. dance aerobic instructors), whereas the BMRI-2 can be used both by exercise instructors and participants. The psychometric properties of the BMRI-2 are stronger than those of the BMRI and it is easier to use. The BMRI-2 provides a valid and internally consistent tool by which music can be selected to accompany a bout of exercise or a training session. Furthermore, the BMRI-2 enables researchers to standardize music in experimental protocols involving exercise-related tasks.
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Exercise training reduces the symptoms of chronic heart failure. Which exercise intensity yields maximal beneficial adaptations is controversial. Furthermore, the incidence of chronic heart failure increases with advanced age; it has been reported that 88% and 49% of patients with a first diagnosis of chronic heart failure are >65 and >80 years old, respectively. Despite this, most previous studies have excluded patients with an age >70 years. Our objective was to compare training programs with moderate versus high exercise intensity with regard to variables associated with cardiovascular function and prognosis in patients with postinfarction heart failure. Twenty-seven patients with stable postinfarction heart failure who were undergoing optimal medical treatment, including beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (aged 75.5+/-11.1 years; left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction 29%; VO2peak 13 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) were randomized to either moderate continuous training (70% of highest measured heart rate, ie, peak heart rate) or aerobic interval training (95% of peak heart rate) 3 times per week for 12 weeks or to a control group that received standard advice regarding physical activity. VO2peak increased more with aerobic interval training than moderate continuous training (46% versus 14%, P<0.001) and was associated with reverse LV remodeling. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes declined with aerobic interval training only, by 18% and 25%, respectively; LV ejection fraction increased 35%, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide decreased 40%. Improvement in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (endothelial function) was greater with aerobic interval training, and mitochondrial function in lateral vastus muscle increased with aerobic interval training only. The MacNew global score for quality of life in cardiovascular disease increased in both exercise groups. No changes occurred in the control group. Exercise intensity was an important factor for reversing LV remodeling and improving aerobic capacity, endothelial function, and quality of life in patients with postinfarction heart failure. These findings may have important implications for exercise training in rehabilitation programs and future studies.
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Low-volume 'sprint' interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid improvements in muscle oxidative capacity that are comparable to levels reached following traditional endurance training (ET) but no study has examined metabolic adaptations during exercise after these different training strategies. We hypothesized that SIT and ET would induce similar adaptations in markers of skeletal muscle carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid metabolism and metabolic control during exercise despite large differences in training volume and time commitment. Active but untrained subjects (23 +/- 1 years) performed a constant-load cycling challenge (1 h at 65% of peak oxygen uptake (.VO(2peak)) before and after 6 weeks of either SIT or ET (n = 5 men and 5 women per group). SIT consisted of four to six repeats of a 30 s 'all out' Wingate Test (mean power output approximately 500 W) with 4.5 min recovery between repeats, 3 days per week. ET consisted of 40-60 min of continuous cycling at a workload that elicited approximately 65% (mean power output approximately 150 W) per day, 5 days per week. Weekly time commitment (approximately 1.5 versus approximately 4.5 h) and total training volume (approximately 225 versus approximately 2250 kJ week(-1)) were substantially lower in SIT versus ET. Despite these differences, both protocols induced similar increases (P < 0.05) in mitochondrial markers for skeletal muscle CHO (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1alpha protein content) and lipid oxidation (3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity) and protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha. Glycogen and phosphocreatine utilization during exercise were reduced after training, and calculated rates of whole-body CHO and lipid oxidation were decreased and increased, respectively, with no differences between groups (all main effects, P < 0.05). Given the markedly lower training volume in the SIT group, these data suggest that high-intensity interval training is a time-efficient strategy to increase skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and induce specific metabolic adaptations during exercise that are comparable to traditional ET.
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The situational context in which exercise is performed can change perception of exertion (RPE), enjoyment and exercise adherence. This study evaluated the impact of two auditory conditions, music (M) and dialog (D), on RPE and enjoyment during exercise. Twenty subjects (10 males, 10 females; age = 23.4 ± 2.4) performed 20 minutes of treadmill running with both an M and D condition administered in a randomized, counterbalanced format. RPE was collected every 5 minutes using a 10-point OMNI scale and enjoyment was assessed using a modified 10-point Likert scale. A paired sample t-test showed that RPE was significantly lower and enjoyment was greater during the M condition (p < 0.05) in comparison to the D condition, indicating that music altered factors that influence the situational context during exercise in a different way than dialog. This finding may assist in developing both individual and public environment strategies for promoting exercise adherence.
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Subjective estimates of physical work intensity are considered of major importance to those concerned with prescription of exercise. This article reviews major theoretical models which might guide research on the antecedents for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). It is argued that an active rather than passive view of perception is warranted in future research, and a parallel-processing model is emphasized as providing the needed structure for such reconceptualization. Moreover, existing exercise research is reviewed as support for this latter approach and several suggestions are offered with regard to needed empirical study.
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The dual-mode theory proposes that affective responses to exercise are governed by the interplay of factors influenced by the metabolic demands of exercise intensity. This paper highlights methods and mechanisms that are central to the theory and presents evidence to demonstrate the shift in affective responses, from pleasure to displeasure, as the intensity of exercise increases and causes disruption to physiological homeosta- sis. The data will comprise reference to active and sedentary participants and include research that has been conducted with adults and children. The potential role of self-selected exercise intensity and self-regulation using an affective scale that involves key processes underpinning the dual-mode theory will be considered. In addition, given recent evidence that affective responses during exercise may be a determinant of future exer- cise behavior, the practical role of the peak-end rule will be discussed and relevant studies presented. These studies explore the application of the peak-end rule to exercise behavior and examine the influence of "peak" affective memory on future exercise intentions. ( J Exerc Sci Fit  Vol 7  No 2 (Suppl)  S34-S41  2009)
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Objective: To investigate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) performed in the fasted (FAST) versus fed (FED) state on body composition, muscle oxidative capacity, and glycemic control in overweight/obese women. Design and methods: Sixteen women (27 ± 8 years, BMI: 29 ± 6 kg/m(2) , VO2peak : 28 ± 3 ml/kg/min) were assigned to either FAST or FED (n = 8 each) and performed 18 sessions of HIT (10× 60-s cycling efforts at ∼90% maximal heart rate, 60-s recovery) over 6 weeks. Results: There was no significant difference between FAST and FED for any measured variable. Body mass was unchanged following training; however, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed lower percent fat in abdominal and leg regions as well as the whole body level (main effects for time, P ≤ 0.05). Fat-free mass increased in leg and gynoid regions (P ≤ 0.05). Resting muscle biopsies revealed a training-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity as evidenced by increased maximal activities of citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (P ≤ 0.05). There was no change in insulin sensitivity, although change in insulin area under the curve was correlated with change in abdominal percent fat (r = 0.54, P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Short-term low-volume HIT is a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition and muscle oxidative capacity in overweight/obese women, but fed- versus fasted-state training does not alter this response.