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Sustainability is a key concept in international, national and local policymaking for the coming decades. However, the concept is also highly normative, value loaded, and subject to many interpretations. Yet, the various definitions have in common that they emphasise the need to address human development and environmental imperatives simultaneously. As such, the issue of sustainable development requires an integrated approach. In this paper the interrelation between ocean space and human activities as well as the effect of human activities on the ocean, are discussed. The discussion focuses around the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) for which countries by international law have a responsibility towards sustainable use of its resources. The application of the EEZ has dramatically changed the world map, making France the largest ocean state of the world. New concepts such as the SCENE model that builds on system's thinking and addresses ecological, economic and social-cultural aspects of complex societal issues in terms of stocks and flows as well as governance and transition management are discussed.
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... Beyond the national EEZs lie the High Seas, comprising 38% of ocean space (VLIZ, 2011). Here the notion of the Common Heritage of Mankind is applicable (Borgese, 1998;Stel and Loorbach, 2003). In practice however, the open access approach as pleaded for by Grotius still persists for the High Seas of ocean space. ...
Jules Verne’s life was framed by the second phase of the British Industrial Revolution. In his nineteenth-century world, a transition to steam occurred. It was a time of rapid technological developments and explorations of every corner of the Earth’s surface. Then the world population clock ticked slowly and was well below 1.3 billion. Today, more than 7.8 billion people live in the fourth phase of that revolution, and the world population clock is ticking faster and faster. To solve our urgent demand for resources, we will shortly exploit the unknown treasure troves of deep ocean space. However, only some 15% of the ocean floor is mapped in detail, and less than 0.0001% of the deep-sea is explored. Since the 1990s a transition to global operational oceanography is occurring, with advanced monitoring systems, new technology like Argo floats, gliders and state-of-the-art ocean modelling. A new wave of ocean exploration is urgently needed, as is an adaptation of the prevailing international legislation, to keep up with the coming sustainable exploitation of ocean space. Blue resources discussed in this chapter are: fisheries, bioprospecting and deep-sea mining. In a low-carbon society, citizens should be aware of and be involved in this through ocean literacy.
Is the world warming due to the Greenhouse Effect? Can nuclear weapon arsenals be relied upon without periodic testing? Is the world running out of oil? What action should be taken against an outbreak of foot-and-mouth or BSE? Why can't scientists provide certain answers to these and many other questions? The uncertainty of science is puzzling. It arises when scientists have more than one answer to a problem or disagree amongst themselves. In this engaging book, Henry Pollack guides the reader through the maze of contradiction and uncertainty, acquainting them with the ways that uncertainty arises in science, how scientists accommodate and make use of uncertainty, and how in the face of uncertainty they reach their conclusions. Taking examples from recent science headlines and every day life, Uncertain Science … Uncertain World enables the reader to evaluate uncertainty from their own perspectives, and find out more about how science actually works.
'Frank Geels's book gives us a new perspective on how society moves from one technological regime to another. Understanding these transitions is essential if we are to get to grips with what we need to do to switch our societies to more sustainable states and how technologies figure in that switch.' - Ken Green, Institute of Innovation Research, The University of Manchester, UK This important book addresses how long term and large scale shifts from one socio-technical system to another come about, using insights from evolutionary economics, sociology of technology and innovation studies. These major changes involve not just technological changes, but also changes in markets, regulation, culture, industrial networks and infrastructure.
This book considers two main questions: how do system innovations or transitions come about and how can they be influenced by different actors, in particular by governments. The authors identify the theories which can be used to conceptualise the dynamics of system innovations and discuss the weaknesses in these theories. They also look at the lessons which can be learned from historical examples of transitions, and highlight the instruments and policy tools which can be used to stimulate future system innovations towards sustainability. The expert contributors address these questions using insights from a variety of different disciplines including innovation studies, evolutionary economics, the sociology of technology, environmental analysis and governance studies. The book concludes with an extensive summary of the results and practical suggestions for future research.