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COCAINE USE IN AMSTERDAM II

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... En la misma linea, Cohen, P. and Sas, A. (1989) publican Cocaine use in Amsterdam in non-deviant subcultures. El objetivo principal de esta investigación realizada en 1987 fue el de describir los patrones, características y mecanismos para controlar el consumo de cocaína de una población de 167 personas no relacionadas con el consumo problemático mediante entrevistas en profundidad semi estructuradas. ...
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El Modelo de Desarrollo Positivo es una pro- puesta de intervención para la rehabilitación de personas que se encuentran en situación de exclu- sión social. Las complejas situaciones de exclusión que padecen las personas sin hogar, precisan de intervenciones integrales que no aborden unicamente el síntoma de la situación.
... Nevertheless, these respondents not necessarily represent the ones disposing the most qualitative data on the researched phenomenon. "Snowball", or chain-referral, data sampling method, first applied by Cohen (1989), was derived with a purpose to deal with the problems of sample access and to increase the sample size available to a researcher. The core of the method is asking known subjects (respondents) to nominate new subjects, who, in turn, nominate the other potential participants of the survey (Duncan et al., 2003;Vershinina, Rodionova, 2011). ...
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The article covers a new topic in the sphere of digital shadow economy – consumers’ attitudes towards this phenomenon. Increasing transfer of transactions to electronic space determines the growth of the number of illegal digital operators and promotes consumers’ involvement in digital shadow trade. Scientific literature does not contain any universal definition of digital shadow economy. Hence, the variety of terms, interpretations and features relevant to this phenomenon is rather wide, which determines the necessity to define the precise concept of digital shadow economy from the point of view of consumers as active participants in this field. This article is aimed at definition of the concept of digital shadow economy from consumers’ position and identification of the measures would discourage potential consumers from participation in digital shadow economy. To increase the size of the survey sample, the method of “snowball” was engaged. The results of the research have revealed that consumers are inclined to distinguish criminal activities (drugs, prostitution, credential steals, etc.) from illegal economic activities, which also violate established legal norms and regulations. The participants of the survey perceive that the activities of digital shadow economy are performed exceptionally in electronic space without official registration of business and evading tax payment. Participation in digital shadow economy is voluntary and mutually beneficial to both transaction parties (a trader and a consumer). With reference to the results of consumers’ evaluation, definition of digital shadow activities as illegal ones, development of the efficient legal framework, containing clearly established criminal and/or administrative responsibility for a consumer as a party of digital shadow transaction, public announcement and availability of the information on illegal e-traders in e-space, availability of appropriate protection software, more intensive supervision and control, establishment of e-police department and assurance of the sufficient number of supervising officers can be considered the most efficient measures of digital shadow economy prevention.
... En la misma linea, Cohen, P. and Sas, A. (1989) publican Cocaine use in Amsterdam in non-de- viant subcultures. El objetivo principal de esta in- vestigación realizada en 1987 fue el de describir los patrones, características y mecanismos para controlar el consumo de cocaína de una población de 167 personas no relacionadas con el consumo problemático mediante entrevistas en profundi- dad semi estructuradas. ...
... "Snowball" data sampling method was first applied by Cohen (1989) for the research of the hidden population group -cocaine addicts in Amsterdam. This method of data sampling was derived with a purpose to deal with problems of access and to increase the sample size available to a researcher. ...
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Increasing volumes of e-trade contribute to motivation of consumers to obtain commodities and services in electronic space. At the same time, upsurge of e-trade determines rising scopes of shadow economy in respect of favourable conditions for traders and service providers to operate in e-space evading tax paying. The purpose of the article is to identify the factors of digital shadow consumption. In order to fulfil the defined purpose, the empirical research – survey of consumers (e-trade participants) - was performed. The research of the scientific literature has revealed that thus far the problem of consumers’ participation in digital shadow economy has been basically analysed focusing on the impact of e-payment systems on shadow economy. Nevertheless, the rapid spread of e-services determines the changes in the concept of shadow economy itself. It remains indistinct which features indicate whether economic activities performed in e-space should be accounted or not. Widely exploited e-spaces such as social network platforms, alternative future currencies, e-trade systems, cyber computer games or online gambling terminals generate turnover of real money (or its electronic equivalent), which is not officially accounted.
... Powell (1973) and Zinberg (1977) used advertisements to sample drug users, Zinberg and those working with him also used follow-up interviews to further gather data. Cohen (1989) used "snowball sampling" to study cocaine users. In each of these studies, the researcher was trusted with knowledge of the identities of the subjects. ...
... Is snowball sampling a valid technique? Cohen (1989) used so-called "snowball sampling" techniques to identify drug addicts in a study of cocaine users in Amsterdam. This method of data sampling was derived in order to deal with problems of access and to increase the sample size available to the researcher. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues in studying hidden populations, with particular focus on methodology used to investigate ethnic minority entrepreneurs who illegally run their businesses in the UK. In this paper, on reflection, the authors look at what issues should be considered before engaging with such communities, as we identify current approaches and evaluate their merits. Design/methodology/approach Certain methodological problems are faced by researchers working with hidden populations, and this paper explores these using a sample of Ukrainian illegal self‐employed construction workers operating in London. Semi‐structured interviews with 20 Ukrainians showcase the issues raised and help illustrate the limited applicability of some commonly used research methods to ethnic minority entrepreneurship studies. The authors used an intermediary to help gain access to these illegal migrants in order to satisfy the sensitive issues of this vulnerable group of respondents. Findings The authors analyse the ethical considerations, problems and issues with access to such data, discuss early and more recent sampling methodologies and the ways to estimate the size of hidden population. This paper, hence, establishes the state‐of‐the‐art approaches in this field and proposes potential improvements in achieving representativeness of the data. Using the Ukrainian illegal self‐employed construction workers as an example, this paper evaluates the choices made by the researchers. Originality/value The main contribution of this paper is to showcase the methodological issues emerging when studying hard‐to‐reach groups and to emphasise the limited applicability of some methods to research on hidden populations.
... Voor velen viel cocaïnegebruik echter inmiddels niet meer te rijmen met allerlei verantwoordelijkheden en nieuwe rollen in het leven: ze waren getrouwd, hadden kinderen en een baan, en gaven aan daarom hun gebruik te hebben geminderd of zelfs helemaal stopgezet; meer dan de helft van de follow-up sample had het laatste jaar geen cocaïne meer gebruikt. Ook hierbij zijn er grote overeenkomsten met Amsterdam (Cohen & Sas, 1995) De aanbodzijde van de cocaïnemarkt wordt vaak getypeerd in termen van misdaadondernemingen en kartels. De structuur van cocaïneproductie, -distributie en -handel wordt hierbij op een statische manier gedefi nieerd (groepen met een piramidale en hiërarchische structuur, vaste arbeidsverdeling, interne sanctiesystemen, enzovoort). ...
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Review of drugs policies and drugs problems in the. Netherlands and Belgium.
... Voor velen viel cocaïnegebruik echter inmiddels niet meer te rijmen met allerlei verantwoordelijkheden en nieuwe rollen in het leven: ze waren getrouwd, hadden kinderen en een baan, en gaven aan daarom hun gebruik te hebben geminderd of zelfs helemaal stopgezet; meer dan de helft van de follow-up sample had het laatste jaar geen cocaïne meer gebruikt. Ook hierbij zijn er grote overeenkomsten met Amsterdam (Cohen & Sas, 1995) De aanbodzijde van de cocaïnemarkt wordt vaak getypeerd in termen van misdaadondernemingen en kartels. De structuur van cocaïneproductie, -distributie en -handel wordt hierbij op een statische manier gedefi nieerd (groepen met een piramidale en hiërarchische structuur, vaste arbeidsverdeling, interne sanctiesystemen, enzovoort). ...
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In a bid to separate fact from myth, the Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence is asking a range of publications to publish this background paper Breaking its usual practice of exclusive publication, the Journal is pleased to co-operate.
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Since the end of the nineteenth century a pattern of ghetto containment of vice has occurred. As a consequence, markets for illegal drugs have tended to become concentrated in low-income minority communities. Many minority communities, especially in the large cities, have thus been continuously burdened by high rates of addiction and drug-related crime. Ahistorical theories of the ghetto underclass offer necessary, but not sufficient, explanations for the concentration of drug sales and addiction in impoverished minority communities.
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Cocaine's popularity among adults as a so-called recreational drug has skyrocketed. Yet, reliable information about the drug and its users remains relatively scarce. This important book fills that gap by providing extensive historical and cultural background on cocaine as well as the results of a remarkably in-depth study of over one hundred adult cocaine users. The authors begin by placing the current cocaine crisis in a social and historical context. They discuss the introduction of cocaine into Europe and North America and examine the roots of current legislation aimed at curbing the drug's use. They also highlight the appealing image of cocaine as portrayed in many aspects of popular culture. Based on their own study, the authors provide directions for further research and implementation in legal policy, deterrence, education, and public policy. This extensive, thought-provoking work is essential reading for drug treatment professionals as well as all who are interested in the critical problems of cocaine use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Discusses concordance between urinalysis results and self-reported drug use. Validation studies conducted prior to the mid-1980s involving known samples of drug users or urinalysis techniques showed that drug use was fairly accurately reported in self-report surveys. However, more recent validation studies conducted with criminal justice clients using improved urinalysis techniques suggest less concordance between urinalysis and self-report. Different ways of interpreting the congruence between urinalysis and self-report are reviewed. Alternatives to urinalysis for validating drug use are also examined, including hair testing. Valid self-reporting of drug use is a function of the recency of the event, the social desirability of the drug, and nuances of data collection methodology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three studies of cocaine users in situ are summarized: a small ethnographic study of a naturally-occurring friendship network, a follow-up on these respondents a decade later, and a survey of a large sample of heavy users. Findings depart from those found in captive samples in treatment or the criminal justice system. While numerous cocaine-related problems were identified, long-term, non-problematic, controlled use was also common. These findings suggest that increased use, abuse, and addiction are not inevitable consequences of cocaine's pharmacological action on human physiology. Rather, both loss of control and controlled use are contingent upon the social circumstances of users and the conditions under which cocaine is ingested.
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Cocaine use was studied in Amsterdam among experienced users not drawn from biased populations of treatment clients, prison inmates, or prostitutes, but from the much larger pool of community based cocaine users. Cocaine use was studied in two samples, 160 in 1987 and 108 in 1991, recruited using snowball sampling techniques. Sixty-four of the 1987 respondents were also reinterviewed in 1991. Data gathered in these three investigations primarily focus on the effects and consequences of cocaine use, circumstances of use, development of level of use, and rules applied to cocaine use in general. The largest single group of users (50%) never exceed a low use level (less than. 5 grams a week). About one in five progress to a high use level of 2.5 grams a week or more during their top period of use. Sustained high level use is rare. There are clear indications that experienced cocaine users tend to diminish their use over time, lace it with periods of abstention, and adjust it primarily to social functions. Negative effects are prevented by a series of rules surrounding use, although no user escapes the occurrence of negative effects altogether.
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This paper presents findings from an exploratory 11-year follow-up study of a small network of cocaine users. These findings suggest that while serious abuse potential exists, addiction is not a uniform outcome of sustained use and that long-term controlled use is possible. In all, four types of career use pattern are described, in addition to one case of regular abuse. These data also suggest the importance of user norms and informal social controls in mitigating against the force of pharmacological and physiological factors leading toward dependence or addiction.
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This paper examines the relevance of laboratory models of drug abuse to drug taking in human societies, and discusses their significance relative to other explanatory frameworks. It argues that self-administration models are poor predictors of the prevalence of drug taking, and offer an inadequate basis for both explanation and intervention. Non-pharmacological factors that may be of greater importance derive from social perspectives (notably economic and market factors, socio-economic conditions, and cultural and subcultural processes) and psychological approaches (individual, social learning, cognitive and developmental). It is concluded that drug abuse should be understood within the same framework of explanation as other human behaviour and sentiment, having major cultural, social and cognitive dimensions as well as the strictly behavioural and pharmacological.
Some reflections on household (drug use prevalence) surveys. Methodological problems for international comparisons
  • P D A Cohen
COHEN, P.D.A. (1993), Some reflections on household (drug use prevalence) surveys. Methodological problems for international comparisons. Paper presented at the EEC Colloque on Drug Research, Brussels September 1992 In: Health related data and epidemiology in the European Community. Brussels, Commission of the European Communities. 1993 pp. 119-123.
Loss of control over cocaine, rule or exception. Paperpresented at the American Society of Criminology
  • P D A Cohen
  • Cohen Van Amsterdam
  • P D A Sas
COHEN, P.D.A. (1989) Cocaine Use in Amsterdam in Non Deviant Subcultures. Amsterdam: Instituut voor Sociale Geografie, Universiteit van Amsterdam COHEN, P.D.A. & SAS, A.J. (1992) Loss of control over cocaine, rule or exception. Paperpresented at the American Society of Criminology, New Orleans, USA, November 3-7, 1992
The myth of Addiction. An application of the psychological theory of attribution to illicit drug use
  • John Davies
  • Booth
DAVIES, JOHN BOOTH (1992), The myth of Addiction. An application of the psychological theory of attribution to illicit drug use. London, Harwood Academic Publishers.
A Longitudinal Study of Cocaine users: The Natural History of Cocaine Useand its Consequences among Canadian Adults
  • P D A Cohen
  • A J Sas
COHEN, P.D.A. & SAS, A.J. (1993) Ten Years of Cocaine. A Follow-up Study of 64 CocaineUsers in Amsterdam. Amsterdam: Instituut voor Sociale Geografie, Universiteit van Amsterdam COHEN, P.D.A. & SAS, A.J. (forthcoming) Cocaine Use in Amsterdam II. Initiation and Patternsof Use after 1986. Amsterdam: Instituut voor Sociale Geografie, Universiteit van Amsterdam ERICKSON, P. (1992) A Longitudinal Study of Cocaine users: The Natural History of Cocaine Useand its Consequences among Canadian Adults. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation. Final Report NHRDP # 6606-3929-DA
Critical Overview of existing methods
  • R Hartnoll
HARTNOLL, R. (1992), Critical Overview of existing methods. Paper presented in Rotterdam, Invited Experts meeting on Research Methods for Hidden Populations, 29-30 October 1992.
  • H Heckman
HECKMAN, H. (1987), Modedroge Kokain. Suchtgefahren 14, pp. 7-15.
Prijs en kwaliteit van illegale drugs in Amsterdam. unpublished m.s
  • D Korf
  • R Biemond
  • R Jellema
KORF, D., BIEMOND, R. & JELLEMA, R. (1994), Prijs en kwaliteit van illegale drugs in Amsterdam. unpublished m.s. Criminologisch Instituut 'Bonger' University of Amsterdam
Cocaine: Pharmacology, Effects and Treatment
  • Ronald K Siegel
  • J Grabowski
SIEGEL, RONALD K. (1985), Changing patterns of cocaine use. In: Grabowski, J., Cocaine: Pharmacology, Effects and Treatment. Rockville, NIDA.
An 11 year follow up of a network of cocaineusers
  • P Morningstar
  • D Chitwood
  • C Reinarman
  • D Waldorf
MORNINGSTAR, P. & CHITWOOD, D. (1983) The patterns of cocaine use. An interdisciplinary study. Final Report. Rockville: National Institute on Drug Abuse MURPHY, S, REINARMAN, C. & WALDORF, D. (1989) An 11 year follow up of a network of cocaineusers. British Journal of Addiction, 84, 427-436
Cocaine Changes. Philadelphia: Temple University Press Notes 1 We allowed our snowballs to self direct themselves into deviant circles if this occurred. 2 Primarily heavy opiate users who also use cocaine
  • D Waldorf
  • C Reinarman
  • S Murphy
WALDORF, D., REINARMAN, C. & MURPHY, S. (1991) Cocaine Changes. Philadelphia: Temple University Press Notes 1 We allowed our snowballs to self direct themselves into deviant circles if this occurred. 2 Primarily heavy opiate users who also use cocaine.
Lifetime prevalence of cocaine use in the household population sample of 12 years and older (N=4,371) was 5
  • Sandwijk
Lifetime prevalence of cocaine use in the household population sample of 12 years and older (N=4,371) was 5.6% in 1987 (Sandwijk et al., 1988). In 1991, the LTP of cocaine use (N=4,440) was
Mokken analysis is probabilistic, meaning that a respondent answering an item positively has a significantly greater probability than null to answer a less difficult item in a positive way as well
  • Mokken
Mokken scale analysis is based on Guttman scale analysis. The latter however is deterministic, which means that a respondent who answers an item in a positive way must answer less difficult items also in a positive way. Mokken analysis is probabilistic, meaning that a respondent answering an item positively has a significantly greater probability than null to answer a less difficult item in a positive way as well (Mokken et al., 1982, Sijtsma et al., 1992).