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Carboxymethylation of polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis for antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities

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Abstract

The carboxymethylated polysaccharide (CATP), which derived from water-insoluble crude Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (ATP), was prepared. And then the antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities of the samples were investigated. The results of chemical composition and FT-IR analysis showed the carboxymethylated modifications of polysaccharide were successful. The degree of substitution (DS) of four carboxymethylated derivatives were different with the molar of monochloroacetic acid. Their water solubility and biological activities were improved with the increase of DS. And moreover, a high antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities of CATPs was observed, so this derivative needs to be attention and studied in further. Results proved that the carboxymethylation could effectively enhanced ther potential biological properties of the polysaccharide.

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... Carboxymethylated modification greatly affected the biological activities of polysaccharides, and many carboxymethylated polysaccharides were used in the food industry (Wang, Zhang, & Zhao, 2015). Several published reviews focused on the methods of chemical modification , whereas an interconnecting review on the effects of carboxymethylated modification on the structural changes and biological activity promotion of polysaccharides is still lacking. ...
... Furthermore, compared with the QG, the QG-C3 with highest DS showed the highest antioxidant activities and pancreatic lipase inhibition. Wang, Zhang, and Zhao (2015) found that the biological activities and water solubility of Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide were improved with the increase of DS after carboxymethylation. The DS of carboxymethylated polysaccharide is related to many factors such as monochloroacetic acid concentration (MCA), reaction temperature, time, alkali solution concentration, which could increase with the proportion of chloroacetic acid and the reaction time (Chen et al., 2014). ...
... The immunomodulating activity can also be activated through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in macrophages. Carboxymethylated (1 → 3)-β-d-glucan could increase the ability of antibody production of spleen cells, and led to the release of cytokines of T cells (Wang, Zhang, & Zhao, 2015). Carboxymethylated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can eliminate the immune inhibition effect of traditional anti-cancer drug, increase the proliferation of thymus and spleen cells and improve the content of SOD and GSH in spleen and thymus cells . ...
Article
Background Polysaccharides, a major class of biomacromolecules, are known as ideal raw food supplements for health food due to their few side effects. Meanwhile, they are often used to change physicochemical and textural properties of food products in food industries. Carboxymethylation processing is increasingly used in the modifications of polysaccharide functionalities. Carboxymethylation introduces carboxymethyl functional groups into polysaccharides, which causes changes in the physicochemical properties and structure of polysaccharides, thus improving and even adding new bioactivities of polysaccharides for food applications. Scope and approach The review summarizes the recent progress about carboxymethylated polysaccharides, including i) synthetic methods, ii) structural characterization, iii) related bioactivities and structure-activity relationships, iv) mechanisms of action bioactivities, and v) food applications and safety evaluation. Key findings and conclusions Structure of polysaccharides was changed after carboxymethylation, leading to the changes of their physicochemical and biological properties. Their bioactivities rely not only on the source of the polysaccharide but also on chemical structural features, such as degree of substitution, which was influenced by reagent concentration, reaction, solvent temperature of carboxymethylation. The carboxymethylated polysaccharides have been used in various fields of food application, such as food auxiliary agents, food packaging, carrier of food bioactive ingredients, sensors for analysis of food, functional food. Overall, Carboxymethylation has great potential to be used in food industries for improved functionalities of polysaccharides.
... Chemically modified polysaccharides show stronger biological activity than natural polysaccharides [11][12][13][14][15]. Wang et al. [11] modified Poria cocos polysaccharide by carboxymethylation and reported that the polysaccharide with the highest carboxymethylation degree had the highest chelating ability to ferrous ions and the highest scavenging ability to hydroxyl radicals. ...
... Chemically modified polysaccharides show stronger biological activity than natural polysaccharides [11][12][13][14][15]. Wang et al. [11] modified Poria cocos polysaccharide by carboxymethylation and reported that the polysaccharide with the highest carboxymethylation degree had the highest chelating ability to ferrous ions and the highest scavenging ability to hydroxyl radicals. Wang et al. [13] prepared carboxymethylated polysaccharide (CATP) from Tremella polysaccharide (ATP) and found that CATP had significantly higher antioxidant activity and improved water solubility than ATP. Li et al. [15] treated hypercholesterolemic rats with a high dose of Morchella angusticeps Peck polysaccharide (PMEP) and its carboxymethylated polysaccharide (CPMEP) and reported that the serum total cholesterol levels of rats were 1.54 and 1.29 mmol/L, respectively; hence, CPMEP has stronger cholesterol-lowering activity and can upregulate the protein expression of CYP7A1 and LDL-R in rat livers, downregulate the expression of HMG-CoA, and improve its cholesterollowering ability. ...
... 3.1.5. 13 C NMR Characterization of PCP-Cs. In the 13 C NMR spectrum of PCP-C0 (Figure 2(e)), the strong signals at δ102.53, 74.12, 95.89, 69.58, 75.74, and 60.75 ppm belong to the C-1 to C-6 signal peaks of β-(1-3)-D-Glc (Table 2); δ103.7, ...
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Three carboxymethylated Poria cocos polysaccharides (PCP-C1, PCP-C2, and PCP-C3) with -COOH contents of 6.13%, 10.24%, and 16.22%, respectively, were obtained by carboxymethylation of the original polysaccharide (PCP-C0), which has a molecular weight of 4 kDa and a carboxyl (-COOH) content of 2.54%. The structure of the PCP-Cs was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectra. The four PCP-Cs exhibited antioxidant activity, and their ability to scavenge radicals (hydroxyl and DPPH) and chelate ferrous ions was positively correlated with the degree of carboxymethylation. As the content of -COOH groups in the PCP-Cs increases, their ability to regulate the growth of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals was enhanced, thus inhibiting the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals and inducing the formation of more calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. The formed CaOx crystal was more round and blunt, the absolute value of the Zeta potential on the crystal surface increased, and the aggregation between crystals was inhibited. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the proportions of PCP-C0, PCP-C1, PCP-C2, and PCP-C3 incorporated into the crystal were 20.52%, 15.60%, 10.65%, and 9.78%, respectively, in the presence of 0.4 g/L PCP-Cs. PCP-C protection resisted oxidative damages of human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) caused by oxalate, resulting in increased cell viability and superoxide dismutase activity and decreased reactive oxygen species levels, malondialdehyde content, and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine expression. Hence, PCP-Cs, especially PCP-C3, can inhibit the formation of CaOx crystals and may have the potential to be an alternative antistone drug.
... Furthermore, DPPH • and ABTS radicals are (stable) free radicals frequently employed in radical scavenging assays for evaluating antioxidant capacity (of relevant compound(s)). Similarly, studies have shown that degraded polysaccharides showed significant scavenging capacity on DPPH • and ABTS radicals, over the native polysaccharide [25,40,104,123] and the degree of the radical scavenging capacity of degraded polysaccharide on DPPH • and ABTS radical were concentration-dependent. This implies that the degraded polysaccharide can easily react with free radicals to terminate their radical chain reaction or donate electrons from the degraded polysaccharide's free hydroxyl group to reduce the radical to a more stable form [124]. Studies have also shown that degraded polysaccharides have more hydroxyl groups than their native polysaccharide which is an indication of a more available reductive hydroxyl group, which could accept and eliminate the free radicals [40,125]. ...
... As a result, reduction in the concentration of the catalyzing transition metal-mediated autoxidation through metal ion chelation is commonly considered as an antioxidant mechanism [40,128]. Polysaccharides can inhibit free radical production by chelating metal ions instead of scavenging them directly [123]. Further, Chun-hui et al. [129] isolated two polysaccharide fractions (GAPS-1 and SAPS-1) from A. barbadensis Miller that showed good metal ion chelating ability against ferrous ion. ...
... mg/mL [40]. Specifically, the efficiency of polysaccharides in chelating metal ions is dependent on its structural configuration especially for functional groups of -OH, -SH, -COOH, -PO3H2, -C=O, -NR2, -S-, and -O- [123,133]. This was corroborated by Fan et al. [134] who confirmed that the chelating effect of degraded polysaccharides from leaves of Ilex latifolia Thunb. ...
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Numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) entities exist, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is very key among them as it is well known to possess a stable but poor reactivity capable of generating free radicals. Considered among reactive atoms, molecules, and compounds with electron‐rich sites, free radicals emerging from metabolic reactions during cellular respirations can induce oxidative stress and cause cellular structure damage, resulting in diverse life‐threatening diseases when produced in excess. Therefore, an antioxidant is needed to curb the overproduction of free radicals especially in biological systems (in vivo and in vitro). Despite the inherent properties limiting its bioactivities, polysaccharides from natural sources increasingly gain research attention given their position as a functional ingredient. Improving the functionality and bioactivity of polysaccharides have been established through degradation of their molecular integrity. In this critical synopsis, we articulate the effects of H2O2 on the degradation of polysaccharides from natural sources. Specifically, the synopsis focused on free radical formation/production, polysaccharide degradation processes with H2O2, the effects of polysaccharide degradation on the structural characteristics, physicochemical properties, and bioactivities; in addition to the antioxidant capability. The degradation mechanisms involving polysaccharide’s antioxidative property, with some examples and their respective sources are briefly summarised.
... All spectra of samples showed a broad band at about 3360 cm − 1 , which corresponded to stretching vibration of -OH groups, a weak absorption peak at about 2920 cm − 1 was assigned to C-H stretching of the -CH 2 groups (Xu et al., 2009). In the spectra of CFG, there was a relatively weak absorption peak at 1608 cm − 1 for the C--O symmetric stretching vibration of -COOgroups, however in CMCFGs, a strong and sharp peak at 1595 cm − 1 and a new peak at 1415 cm − 1 were observed, which was respectively attributed to C--O symmetric and asymmetric stretching vibration of -COOgroups (Li, Lu, et al., 2021;Wang et al., 2012;Wang, Zhang, & Zhao, 2015). The shifting peak from 1608 cm − 1 to 1595 cm − 1 indicated the changing of chemical environment for C--O and the new peak at 1415 cm − 1 confirmed the increasing amount of carboxymethyl groups in CFG. ...
... Plenty of studies have demonstrated that the DS values of polysaccharides in carboxymethylation could be adjusted by changing the dose of MCA. For instance, Wang et al. (2015) investigated the carboxymethylation of polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis, and the results showed that the DS increased from 0.36 to 0.70 with the amount of MCA increasing. In addition, the zeta-potential values of CMCFGs were lower than native CFG due to the introduction of carboxylate and decreased with the DS values increasing (Fig. S1). ...
Article
Polysaccharide-based biopolymer particles are known as biocompatible, sustainable and easy to be modified, and widely used in food and biomedical fields. In this study, a novel polysaccharide-based particle as curcumin (Cur) carrier was developed through self-assembly driven by electrostatic interactions between carboxymethylated corn fiber gum (CMCFG) and chitosan (Cs). Firstly, the chemical structure of synthesized CMCFG was characterized to prove successful carboxymethylation. Then Cur-loaded CMCFG/Cs particles (Cur-CMCsPs) with different mass ratios of CMCFG to Cs (1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1) were prepared and their particle size, zeta-potential, crystalline structure and micro-morphology were determined. Smaller particle size was observed when the mass ratio of CMCFG to Cs exceeded 1:1, among which the lowest hydrodynamic diameter was less than 300 nm, as uniform spherical particles. Furthermore, the highest encapsulation efficiency of the resulting Cur-CMCsPs surpassed 93% and the Cur loaded in particles showed the excellent photo/thermal stability. Besides, the particles could significantly improve the bioaccessibility of Cur reaching 74.94%. This study provides strategy support for suitably designing biopolymer particles as delivery vehicles of hydrophobic nutrients in food and biomedical fields.
... Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the carboxymethylated Journal Pre-proof J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f 4 modification is an effective, speedy, and simple method to improve physicochemical characteristics and bioactivities of polysaccharides [12,15,16]. Carboxymethylated modification has been used to modify the structure of polysaccharides to provide diverse physiological functions including antioxidant, anti-proliferation, and antitumor activities [17]. However, as far as we know, the carboxymethylated modification of Qingke β-glucans is rarely reported, and studies on the correlations of the carboxymethylated modification to the physicochemical properties and bioactivities of Qingke β-glucans are restricted. ...
... The FT-IR spectra of QG-C1, QG-C2, QG-C3, and QG were presented in Figure 3A. As shown in Figure 3A [17]. The intensity of the two peaks increased with increasing degree of carboxymethylation, indicating that more and more carboxymethyl groups were attached to β-glucans from QG-C1 to QG-C3. ...
Article
In this study, the response surface methodology was used to optimize the reaction conditions of carboxymethylated modification of Qingke β-glucans (QG), and effects of different degrees of carboxymethylation (high, medium, and low) on their structural characteristics, in vitro antioxidant activities, and in vitro hypolipidemic activities were studied. The optimal reaction conditions of carboxymethylated Qingke β-glucans (QG-Cs) with high degree of carboxymethylation (DC = 0.90) were as follows: reaction temperature of 62.1 °C, reaction time of 3.29 h, and concentration of chloroacetic acid of 1.75 mol/L. Results demonstrated that the carboxymethylated modification significantly affected the solubilities, molar ratios of constituent monosaccharides, molecular weights, and apparent viscosities of QG. Indeed, the QG-Cs exhibited much higher antioxidant activities (reducing powers, NO, and DPPH radical scavenging activities), in vitro binding properties (fat, bile acid, and cholesterol binding capacities), and pancreatic lipase inhibition activities than that of QG. Furthermore, results showed that bioactivities of QG-Cs were closely correlated to their carboxymethyl groups. Results suggested that the carboxymethylated modification could be an efficient method for enhancing bioactivities of QG, and QG-Cs had good potential applications in bio-pharmaceutical industry.
... Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides are extracted from one of the longevity tonics, Tremella fuciformis, and display multiple health benefits such as immunomodulation and antitumor activities [14,15]. Furthermore, Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides show antioxidant and remarkable water retaining properties [16]. So, it can be used as one of the best natural hydrating ingredients and functional bioactive components applied to food. ...
... On the base of the optimum FSE concentration (2.4%), co-supplementing TP further elevated the DPPH scavenging activity in comparison with the FSE2.4 group, and yogurts had the highest DPPH scavenging activity until TP content reached up to 0.4 mg/mL (Figure 4(a)), while exceeded TP concentration cannot further increase the antioxidant activity of yogurts. Similarly, Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides exerted a significant scavenging activity on hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radical [14,16]. ...
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Flos Sophorae extract (FSE) with abundant rutin and Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides (TP) could act as novel natural improvers of low-fat yogurt due to their health benefits and properties of interacting with proteins. This study attempted to understand how FSE or its combination with TP influences physicochemical, textural, and antioxidant properties of low-fat yogurts. The results indicated that the low concentrations of FSE (1.2 or 2.4%) increased the antioxidant activity, prompted the S. thermophilus growth, water holding capacity (WHC), and textural and sensory properties, and shortened the fermentation time, but reduced the rheological properties of yogurts compared with the control. Co-supplementing appropriate TP with the optimum FSE concentration (2.4%) improved the rheological properties, and further enhanced the S. thermophilus growth, WHC, textural and antioxidant properties, and sensory scores of yogurts compared with the 2.4% FSE group, with the best effects at 0.4 mg/mL TP. Taken together, co-supplementation of polyphenols extract FSE with Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides may be an available strategy to optimize health-promoting properties and overcome defects of low-fat yogurts.
... Othe shown that the carboxymethylated polysaccharide has more vigorous b such as antitumor, antioxidation, and immune regulation. Its potential carboxymethyl groups can effectively improve structural characteristic and solution conformation of polysaccharides [14,15]. As an active polysaccharide in Euglena gracilis, EGP has been prov terial activity, which can inhibit the growth of E. coli and S. aureus [16] tibacterial effect of EGP is not very good, due to its high crystallinity a ity. ...
... The water solubility of C-EGP1, C-EGP2, and C-EGP3 increased sequentially with the DS, and the water solubility of C-EGP3 reached 80.96%. This was due to the hydrogen bonds between the carboxymethyl groups, and water increase with the increase of the number of carboxymethyl groups, which reduced the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and improved the water solubility [14]. ...
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Paramylon from Euglena gracilis (EGP) is a polymeric polysaccharide composed of linear β-1,3 glucan. EGP has been proved to have antibacterial activity, but its effect is weak due to its water insolubility and high crystallinity. In order to change this deficiency, this experiment carried out carboxymethylated modification of EGP. Three carboxymethylated derivatives, C-EGP1, C-EGP2, and C-EGP3, with a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.14, 0.55, and 0.78, respectively, were synthesized by varying reaction conditions, such as the mass of chloroacetic acid and temperature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis confirmed the success of the carboxymethylated modification. The Congo red (CR) experiment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetry (TG) were used to study the conformation, surface morphology, crystalline nature, and thermostability of the carboxymethylated EGP. The results showed that carboxymethylation did not change the triple helix structure of the EGP, but that the fundamental particles’ surface morphology was destroyed, and the crystallization area and thermal stability decreased obviously. In addition, the water solubility test and antibacterial experiment showed that the water solubility and antibacterial activity of the EGP after carboxymethylation were obviously improved, and that the water solubility of C-EGP1, C-EGP2, and C-EGP3 increased by 53.31%, 75.52%, and 80.96% respectively. The antibacterial test indicated that C-EGP3 had the best effect on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 12.50 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL. The diameters of the inhibition zone of C-EGP3 on E. coli and S. aureus were 11.24 ± 0.15 mm and 12.05 ± 0.09 mm, and the antibacterial rate increased by 41.33% and 43.67%.
... Tremella fuciformis is very useful for its neuroprotective (Park et al., 2007), anti tumorogenic (Ukai et al., 1992), anti sarcomic (Ukai el al., 1972), antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (Li et al., 2014). Antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities (Wang et al., 2015), antitumor activities (Ukai et. al., 1992), free-radical degradation (Zhang et al., 2014), protective effect against radiation-induced damage (Wenqing, 2011) are main activities of the Polysaccharides obtained from Tremella fuciformis. ...
... 48 The carboxyl group in the polysaccharide has strong electron tolerance and good scavenging activity for superoxide. 49 The active group of Tremella polysaccharide is involved in the expression of various genes in the cell, and it is closely related to various activities such as immunity, hypoglycemia, and anti-aging. 50 In conclusion, the structure of Tremellas polysaccharide is closely related to its physical and chemical properties, which is concern with the application in food industry, cosmetics industry and pharmaceutical industry. ...
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Tremella polysaccharide is known to be structurally unique and biologically active natural products, abundant and versatile in activities and applications in food industry, daily chemical industry and medicine industry. In order to improve the industrialisation of Tremella polysaccharide, the limitations of preparation and structure-activity relationship of Tremella polysaccharide were reviewed in this paper. The research progress of Tremella polysaccharide in the past 20 years was summarized from the sources, preparation methods, molecular structure, activity and application, and the research trend in the future was also prospected. The application prospect of Tremella polysaccharide in against multiple sub-health states was worth expecting.
... Various fungal-derived moisturizers improve the physical and chemical structure of the skin and make it soft, moist, and wrinklefree by maintaining the water content of stratum corneum and surface lipids ( Sator et al., 2003 ). For example, carboxymethylated polysaccharides obtained from Tremella mushroom retain 65.7% of moisture even after 96 h, thus can be used as an effective moisturizer ( Wang et al., 2015 ). In a study, the use of 0.05% Tremella polysaccharides as skincare products demonstrated better moisture retention ability as compared with the 0.02% hyaluronic acid ( Liu and He, 2012 ). ...
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Over the last couple of decades, the introduction of living systems to material science for the synthesis of functional materials from biological resources is receiving immense consideration. This is also in accordance with the need for green and sustainable development of new materials. For example, the growing concerns of the degradation of synthetic plastics are shifting the direction of materials-related research to the use of polymeric materials acquired from renewable resources. For example, the fungal mycelium-based materials are produced by growing the vegetative part of mushroom-forming fungi on different organic substrates. Such fungi are known for their ability to degrade agricultural wastes such as straws and sawdust. The mycelium-based composites having tailored structural, physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological properties are relying on the strain, feeding substrate, and the manufacturing process. The mycelium cell wall mainly contains the chitin, glucans, proteins, and lipids, whose concentrations depend upon the feeding substrate that ultimately defines the final properties of the synthesized materials. The mycelium-based functional materials with tunable properties are synthesized by selecting the desired components and the synthesis method. The pure and composites of stiff, elastic, porous, less dense, fast-growing, and low-cost mycelium-derived materials with efficient antimicrobial, antioxidant, and skin whitening properties pave their way in various applications such as construction, packaging, medicine, and cosmetics. This review describes the synthesis and structural organization of mycelium-based materials. It further discusses the effect of different factors on the material properties. Finally, it summarizes different applications of mycelium-based materials in medicine, cosmetics, packaging, and construction fields.
... Similarly, a fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI (1 → 6)-β-D-Glucan (Lasiodiplodan) was carboxymethylated and found to exhibit higher hydroxyl radical scavenging, reducing activity, higher thermal stability than native EPS and effective antimicrobial activity. Authors concluded that carboxymethylation has a remarkable role in the improvement of biological activity of EPS by modulating water solubility and surface changes of polysaccharide (Fig. 10) [149,150]. ...
Article
Oxidative damage caused by free radicals is an inevitable and pervasive phenomenon that leads to cell damage and the emergence of diseases including ageing, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders. In this context, antioxidants play a significant role in encountering free radicals by delaying or reducing the oxidative damage of cells. Evidence suggests that synthetic antioxidants are double-edged swords wherefore the requirement for natural antioxidants is increasing globally. Exploring non-toxic, biodegradable and compatible natural molecules like exopolysaccharides can favour the current antioxidant limitations. Microbial exopolysaccharides represent a structurally diverse class of carbohydrate molecules secreted at the cell wall. Recently, bioprospecting exopolysaccharides for their astounding physiochemical properties and the reliable structure-activity relationship have motivated more research towards the investigation of their antioxidant properties. Here we propose that structural features of exopolysaccharides such as monosaccharide residues, branching, molecular weight, glycosidic linkage, functional groups, protein, selenium, and chemical modifications are likely to influence their antioxidant activity. To support this hypothesis we review the interdependence of structural features of exopolysaccharides to the observed antioxidant activity. In light of its importance, this review focuses on the understanding of the elimination of free radicals by microbial exopolysaccharides derived from marine and nonmarine sources during the last six years.
... As a food ingredient, TPS possess a variety of health functions such as immunomodulatory (Shi et al., 2014), anti-tumour (Chen, 2010), anti-oxidation (X. M. Wang et al., 2015), antiaging (Shen et al., 2017), hypoglycemic effect (Reshetnikov et al., 2000) and so on. ...
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Four Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides (TPS) fractions named as TPS20, TPS40, TPS60, and TPS80 were obtained by stepwise ethanol precipitation. Their physicochemical and rheological properties were investigated. Results showed TPS60 had the highest contents of polysaccharide (81.12%), protein (0.29%), uronic acid (14.36%), and sulfate (5.92%). Their molecular weights were in a descending order of TPS20, TPS40, TPS60, and TPS80. In a certain range of shear rate, they all presented pseudoplastic fluid and viscosity characteristic at low frequency. Increasing temperature or concentration of salts decreased the viscosity of their solutions. Sucrose concentration less than 6% led to an increasing viscosity of TPS20, TPS40, and TPS60. Both strong acidity and alkalinity could reduce the viscosity of all TPS solutions. TPS80 solution showed the best stability and its viscosity was minimally affected by pH, temperature, salts, and sucrose. These results can provide theoretical references for utilizations of TPS fractions in foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics.
... Chemical modification of polysaccharides, such as sulfation, carboxymethylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, and acid hydrolysis, to alter the chemical structure or introduce functional groups is also reported as a common method to improve the bioactivities of polysaccharides [29][30][31]. Li et al. prepared carboxymethylated and sulfated MEP, and FB-MEP N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, glucose mannose → ...
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Morchella esculenta (M. esculenta) is a delicious edible mushroom prized for its special flavor and strong health promoting abilities. Several bioactive ingredients including polysaccharides, polyphenolic compounds, proteins, and protein hydrolysates all contribute to the biological activities of M. esculenta. Different polysaccharides could be extracted and purified depending on the extraction methods and M. esculenta studied. Monosaccharide composition of M. esculenta polysaccharides (MEP) generally includes mannose, galactose, and glucose, etc. MEP possess multiple bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, hypoglycemic activity, atherosclerosis prevention and antitumor ability. Other components like polyphenols, protein hydrolysates, and several crude extracts are also reported with strong bioactivities. In terms of potential applications of M. esculenta and its metabolites as nutritional supplements and drug supplements, this review aims to comprehensively summarize the structural characteristics, biological activities, research progress, and research trends of the active ingredients produced by M. esculenta. Among the various biological activities, the substances extracted from both natural collected and submerged fermented M. esculenta are promising for antioxidants, immunomodulation, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory applications. However, further researches on the extraction conditions and chemical structure of bioactive compounds produced by M. esculenta still need investigations.
... Recent studies have shown that the properties of fungal polysaccharides can improve with some structural changes (Malinowska et al., 2009). These modifications include carboxymethylation, sulfation, and the addition of other elements to polysaccharides in order to achieve a variety of physiological functions (Wang et al., 2015). Due to beneficial effects of Se and polysaccharides on human health, their composition can be much more effective . ...
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Selenium (Se) is one of the essential elements for human health, where Se-containing compounds can prevent cancer and reduce mortality by regulating of the cell cycle and apoptosis. Exopolysaccharides from Fomes fomentarius have been used in traditional medicine to treat cancer. It appears that the combination of Se and fungal polysaccharides may be more effective. The effect of adding Na2SeO3 to the culture medium of the Iranian medicinal fungus F. fomentarius is investigated in this study. Adding 20 mg/L Na2SeO3 to the culture medium changed the F. fomentarius morphology and improved the structure of exopolysaccharides. Several methods, including FTIR, EDS, and ICP-OES, confirmed the presence of Se in the exopolysaccharides of F. fomentarius. The results demonstrated that the addition of Na2SeO3 increased the antibacterial activity against S.aureus (60%) and antioxidant activity (17.4%) significantly (p<0.05). The cytotoxicity of these exopolysaccharides against 5637, A549, and KYSE30 cancer cells was also significantly increased (p<0.05), and the viability of EPS-Se treated 5637 cells reached less than 10% after 72 hours. Finally, F. fomentarius Se-polysaccharides can be used as a dietary supplement.
... However, during the carboxymethylation reaction, a slower side reaction may take place simultaneously, leading to the formation of sodium glycolate from sodium hydroxide and sodium monochloroacetate as shown in Scheme 2. This side reaction can be avoided by maintaining the reaction temperature below 70°C [22]. ...
Article
Polysaccharides are a structurally diverse class of biomolecules with a wide variety of bioactivities. Natural polysaccharides isolated from plants and fungi are used as raw materials in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their therapeutic properties, non-toxicity, and negligible side effects, but many natural polysaccharides possess low bioactivities when compared to synthetic medicines due to their structure and physicochemical properties. Literature studies revealed that carboxymethylation of polysaccharides enhances the bioactivities and water solubility of native polysaccharides significantly, and provide structural diversity and even the addition of new bioactivities. This review article mainly focuses on the recent research on carboxymethylation of polysaccharides including preparation, characterization, and bioactivities. This article also throws light on future directions and scope to develop new carboxymethylated polysaccharide derivatives for many industries such as food processing, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceutical industry.
... In addition, its polysaccharide extract, called "Yiner Capsule," is clinically applied as a traditional drug for the treatment of patients with tumors in China. According to the literature, Tremella polysaccharides (TP) have several pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulatory (Du et al., 2009;Jiang et al., 2012;Ruan, Li, Pu, Shen, & Jin, 2018;Zhao, Hu, Wang, Liu, & Guo, 2013), anti-tumor (Chen, 2010;Cho et al., 2007), hypoglycaemic activity (Bach et al., 2015;Wang, Zhang, & Zhao, 2015), antioxidant (Wen et al., 2016), anti-radiation (Xu et al., 2012), anti-aging (Shen et al., 2017), anti-inflammatory (Li, Lee, Kim, Moon, & Lee, 2014), neuroprotective effect (Jin, Hu, Zhang, & Liu, 2016), and so on. Due to the beneficial activities and safety of TP, some studies have focused on elucidating the relationship between the structure and activities of TP Slodki, 1966). ...
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The Tremella fuciformis Berk polysaccharides (TP) have significant cytokine‐stimulating activity and low oral bioavailability owing to their large molecular volume. Identifying and studying the smallest active structure of TP can potentially be beneficial for further utilization and research, therefore, TP was hydrolyzed and fractionated to obtain its (1→3)‐mannan backbone fragments. The fragments were further isolated by ion‐exchange resin, ultrafiltration, gel, and HPLC chromatography, and three oligosaccharide fractions, named TL4‐1, TL4‐2, TL4‐3, were obtained. According to the determination of their physicochemical properties, they were composed of Man, and after methylation analysis they were mainly characterized as (1→3)‐mannan oligosaccharides with a straight chain. TL4‐1 contained di‐, trisaccharides, TL4‐2 included tetra‐, penta‐saccharides, and TL4‐3 was made up of hex‐, hepta‐, octa‐saccharides, according to LC‐ESI/MS analysis. Cytokine stimulation experiments showed that the degree of polymerization (DP) should be more than six to maintain the activity of mannosan. Therefore, the smallest active unit of oligo‐mannose was determined. Practical applications This paper reports the physical and chemical parameters, structure and biological potential of oligosaccharides from T. fuciformis Berk, a common edible fungus. Tremella has been used as an improving immunity drug in China with good effect. Oligosaccharides are more easily digested and utilized by human body, and maintain good activity. These results can increase people's interest in the product, and thus have a positive impact on the oligosaccharides of Tremella as health food.
... The chloroacetic acid-sodium hydroxide reaction procedure was adapted from the method described by Wang et al. (25). An exact 240 mg of XY, CP, and WPEP was separately dissolved in 20 mL of 20% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and 50 mL isopropanol and stirred for 3 h in an ice-water bath to obtain a uniform suspension. ...
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This study aimed to determine the carboxymethylation effect of crude water-soluble polysaccharides of Passiflora edulis peel (WPEP), xylan (XY), and citrus pectin (CP). Their chemical and pre-biotic properties were also determined. The polysaccharides were carboxymethylated by reacting with chloroacetic acid and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylated and non-carboxymethylated polysaccharides were also used as pre-biotics to study the growth pattern of selected intestinal microflora. These polysaccharides substituted the glucose solution in culture media for culturing Lactobacillus brevis GIM1.773, Lactobacillus plantarum GIM1.19, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus GIM1.155, and Streptococcus thermophilus GIM1.540. The results showed that the carboxymethylated polysaccharides c-XY, c-CP, and c-WPEP, had substitution degrees of 0.682, 0.437, and 0.439, respectively. The polysaccharides demonstrated resistance to digestion in the simulated human digestive models. The resistance to digestion was enhanced by carboxymethylation, especially the carboxymethylated CP and WPEP. The results also showed that the pre-biotic activities of the polysaccharides increased after carboxymethylation. The c-XY had a better pre-biotic effect than XY and the other carbohydrate samples. The findings suggested that carboxymethylated polysaccharides may be developed into novel pre-biotics and nutraceuticals that could promote growth of the probiotic strains.
... The strong stretching vibration at 1661 cm −1 contributed to the carboxylic acid groups. [30] The stretching vibrations at 1080 cm −1 corresponded to absorption of C-OH side groups, indicating a hexatomic ring unit. Compared with SWP-I, SWP-II lacked an absorptive peak at 3069 cm −1 , 1544 cm −1 , and 1456 cm −1 which indicated the stretching vibrations of = C-H bonds, N-O bonds, and C-H bonds. ...
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Two bioactive peptide fractions (SWP-I and SWP-II) of swim bladder peptides from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis and isolated by gel filtration chromatography. The properties of two fractions were characterized by FT-IR, UV scanning spectroscopy, amino acid composition analysis and molecular weight determination. The results showed that the content of aromatic amino acids in SWP-II was higher than that in SWP-I, and the molecular of SWP-I and SWP-II were 4976 Da and 1960 Da, respectively. The radical scavenging activities showed that SWP-I and SWP-II were effective scavengers of DPPH•, HO•, and O2-•, and demonstrated high Fe²⁺-chelating activity. The scavenging capacities of SWP-II were stronger than those of SWP-I at the same concentration. Cytoprotective experiment suggested that SWP-I and SWP-II possessed ROS-scavenging activity. Pretreatment with these two peptides increased viability rates, suppressed SA-β-gal activities and inhibited apoptosis rates in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced premature senescent 2BS cells. In conclusion, the enzymatic peptides from swim bladders of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) possessed antioxidant activities and could effectively protect premature cell senescence induced by H2O2.
... With the increasing interest, the entire focus is shifted to functional groups alterations in order to obtain the improved structure of polysaccharides. Till now, several chemical methods of polysaccharides modification have been reported such as carboxymethylation, phosphorylation, sulfation, acetylation, and acid hydrolysis [6][7][8]. ...
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... PS processed by different methods have different biological functions, and a structural analysis of SPSP is vital to understand the structure-function relationship (34,35). Several previous studies showed that processed PS could enhance the effects on benefiting qi, nourishing blood as well as invigorating the spleen and kidney after processing (20,21). ...
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... The carboxymethyl group is an electron-withdrawing group that can influence the antioxidant capacity of heterocyclic compounds, by increasing or decreasing [12,13]. The opposite effect of carboxymethylation on natural polysaccharides has been proven by many reports [11,12,[14][15][16][17][18]. This work exhibited a negative effect of carboxymethylation on the SIP antioxidant property. ...
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... Hydration effect by cosmetics containing T. fuciformis polysaccharide (0.05% added) is moreover higher than by cosmetics containing ialuronic acid (0.02%) (Liu and He 2012). CATP is a carboxymethylated polysaccharide derivative from a T. fuciformis raw insoluble polysaccharide; it has been reported to retain 65.7% of initial water (after 96 h) versus 70.3% by chitosan (Wang et al. 2015). This is remarkable because chitosan is regarded as a major hydrated substance in biomedicals (Muzzarelli and Muzzarelli 2005). ...
Chapter
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... In addition, the T. fuciformis polysaccharide, when coated on the skin, can form a transparent film that is able to improve its water retention rate. This results in an anti-wrinkle and natural moisturizing material, which is suitable for the development of skin moisturizing or skin-care products that can also be used to protect the skin from the ultraviolet light that causes aging due to sunlight [17,18]. The fresh fruit body of T. fuciformis is difficult to store because browning, odor change, and deterioration can occur, even in a refrigerated environment. ...
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We compared the proportions and differences in the polysaccharides of Tremella fuciformis (Berkeley) after drying them by various processes, such as 18 °C cold air, 50 °C hot air, and freeze-drying. We also focused on the moisture capacity kinetic parameters of Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides using various thermal analyses, including differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric techniques. Erofeev’s kinetic and proto-kinetic equations, utilized for kinetic model simulation, can predict the moisture capacity due to the thermal effect. Among the various drying processes, cold air-drying had the highest molecular weight of 2.41 × 107 Da and a moisture content of 13.05% for Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides. Overall, the freeze-dried products had the best thermal decomposition properties under the conditions of a closed system, with an air or nitrogen atmosphere, and had an excellent moisture capacity of around 35 kJ/kg under a closed system for all samples.
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Polysaccharides from fungi are good free radical scavengers. However, there are no enzymes digesting these polysaccharides in the human body, which limits the use of fungal polysaccharides. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the preparation methods of fungal polysaccharides to improve the utilization rate of fungal polysaccharides. In this paper, the acidic polysaccharide of Tremella fuciformis was extracted by boiling and precipitated by ethanol. The total sugar content obtained by freeze-drying after ion exchange chromatography purification was 93.6%. It is mainly composed of mannose, glucuronic acid, xylose and fucose. According to the peak area, the mass ratio of the substance is about 6.8:1:1.5:0.6, which indicates that TFP is a polysaccharide with mannose as its main chain and glucuronic acid, fucose and xylose as well as a small amount of glucose as the branch chain. Molecular weight is 1.86 × 106 Da. The existence of glucuronic acid endows polysaccharides with negative charge in aqueous solution and can be assembled into nanostructures with chitosan. By measuring the swelling property in aqueous, it shows the TFP separated from Tremella fuciformis fruits is suitable for drug controlled release.
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Tremella polysaccharide, a novel polysaccharide, not only has good ability of film forming, but also has excellent physiological functions, which was suitable to be used to prepare eco-friendly hydrogels. In this study, a novel pH/temperature responsive micelle-laden hydrogel based on tremella polysaccharide (WSK), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and nonionic surfactant-decyl polyglucoside (C10APG) was fabricated through radical polymerization by crosslinking N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), for the purpose to achieve controlled release of hydrophobic drugs indomethacin (IND). Firstly, WSK/CMC/PNIPAM hydrogels were prepared and their characteristics were investigated by FTIR, TGA, SEM, rheological and compressive tests as well as swelling experiments. Then the hydrophobic drug IND molecules were solubilized in C10APG micelles which were uniformly dispersed in the WSK/CMC/PNIPAM/C10APG networks. Lastly, the IND release behavior of WSK/CMC/PNIPAM/C10APG hydrogels was studied, which exhibited both pH and temperature sensitivity. The obtained WSK/C10APG-based pH/temperature sensitive hydrogel may have potential in biomedical applications such as drug vehicles and tissue engineering.
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Polysaccharides are a major class of biomacromolecules. Their bioactivities depend on chemical structure, which includes monosaccharide composition, linkages below sugar residues, and solution conformation. Many researchers report that chemical modifications of polysaccharides lead to a significantly increase in the structural diversity, promoting bioactivity and even add new bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-tumor properties as well as anticoagulant and immunoregulatory activities. This paper reviews the recent progress of chemical modification of polysaccharides, including i) the common synthetic methods of chemical modification; ii) their structural characterization; iii) their bioactivities; and iv) the structure activity relationships of these modified polysaccharides. This review also suggests future directions for researchers and new applications for chemically modified polysaccharide derivatives in the pharmaceutical and food industries.
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A polysaccharide named Senegrain Water-Soluble Polysaccharide (SWSP) was extracted and purified from Senegrain seeds. The physicochemical properties of SWSP were evaluated by Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Differential Scanning Colorimeter (DSC). TLC results showed that SWSP is a gluconic acid polymer. It had a network with a large number of cavities. This polysaccharide with a semi-crystalline structure has an average molecular weight of 47.42 kDa. On other trend, obtained data exhibited potent antidiabetic and antibacterial activities of SWSP. Additionally, the antioxidant activities of SWSP were studied in vitro, and demonstrated that this polymer displayed an interesting ABTS radical scavenging activity as well as a protective effect on the hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. The effects of SWSP on oxidative processes in minced raw beef during refrigerated (4 °C) storage were investigated. The results proved that SWSP decreased the TBARS value and inhibited the MetMb accumulation during the period of refrigeration storage. Overall, the finding demonstrated the potential applications of SWSP in food industries.
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Feruloylated arabinoxylans (FAX) are gelling polysaccharides presenting antioxidant activity (AC) and potential application as delivery systems. The influence of carboxymethylation on the gelling capacity, rheological properties, and AC of FAX from wheat flour (FAX1) and maize distillers grains (FAX2) was analyzed. The degree of substitution of carboxymethyl groups was 0.27 and 1.77 for carboxymethylated FAX1 (CFAX1) and FAX2 (CFAX2), which presented a change in M n from 446 to 362 kDa and from 120 to 180 kDa, and a loss in FA content from 1.05 to traces and from 10.13 to 0.12, respectively, after carboxymethylation. G′ value at the end of rheological tests for FAX1 (71 Pa) and FAX2 (726 Pa) was higher than the corresponding G″ value. In contrast, G″ value for CFAX1 (0.35 Pa) and CFAX2 (0.03 Pa) was higher than the respective G′ value, indicating that they do no form gels. The AC increased in CFAX1 in relation to FAX1 from 4.49 to 8.30 mmol Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) kg−1, respectively, while it decreased in CFAX2 with regard to FAX2 from 11.31 to 9.43 mmol TEAC kg−1, respectively. Carboxymethylation could be a path to design FAX derivatives offering alternative potential applications. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 48325. Carboxymerthylation effect on the FAX gelation
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Based on its potential bioactivities and sustainable source, polysaccharide (glucuronoxylomannan) from fruit bodies of Tremella fuciformis (TFP) aroused attention in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. The present study aimed at revealing its chain conformational and physicochemical properties. By using HPSEC-MALLS-Visc-RI measurement, worm-like cylinder model calculation and AFM observation, we manifested that TFP existed as flexible chains in 0.15 M NaCl (pH 7.4) solution, with the persistence length of 9.20 nm and chain diameter of 0.97 nm. Meanwhile, TFP solution exhibited shear-thinning behavior with C* at 5.3 mg mL⁻¹, owning the feature of entangled polysaccharide. TFP solution changed from liquid-like to solid-like behavior as frequency increases, and the crossover points shifted to lower frequencies with concentration increasing. The strong moisture retention ability of TFP was evaluated. These characteristics indicated that TFP could be utilized to design microstructure system and applied as stabilizer or moisture holding ingredient in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic system.
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Carboxymethylation modification is commonly used for improving physicochemical and biological properties of nature polysaccharides, effect of carboxymethylation on property of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica (FL) is still unknown even though the polysaccharide has been isolated for several decades. To explore the derivatization-related effect, this study prepared carboxymethyl FL (CMFL) using chloroacetic acid. CMFL was characterized by degree of substitution (DS) determination and infrared spectroscopic analysis. Antioxidant activity of CMFL in vitro was assessed by scavenging capacity of DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Strawberry were used to investigate the effects of CMFL on harvested fruit. DS was determined to be 0.6733, and two characteristic absorption peaks of carboxymethylation were detected at 1602 and 1420 cm⁻¹, suggesting that FL was carboxymethylated. IC50 values of hydroxyl, superoxide and DPPH radicals decreased by 17.8%, 17.5% and 15.7%, respectively, indicating higher in vitro antioxidant activity of CMFL than FL. CMFL reduced water loss and decay more effectively than FL. CMFL and to a lesser extent, FL treated fruit had higher ascorbic acid content and stronger scavenging capacities of DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals than control fruit during storage. Overall, carboxymethylation can enhance the properties of FL, including its effects on antioxidant activity, which suggests that CMFL can be used as a natural preservative for harvested fruit.
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In the present study, the native polysaccharide (RNP) extracted from blackcurrant fruits was carboxymethylated. Physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities in vitro of RNP and three carboxymethylated polysaccharides (CRNPs) were determined. GC analysis proved that RNP and CRNPs were composed of the same six monosaccharides (galacturonic acid, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose), but the molar ratios of monosaccharides were different. HPLC demonstrated that the molecular weights of CRNPs were improved. The assays of the antioxidant properties indicated that CRNPs possessed stronger scavenging activities on radicals (hydroxyl and superoxide radicals) and better anti-lipid peroxidation activities, as well as better protection effects on erythrocyte hemolyses in vitro compared with RNP. The activities of CRNPs were significantly enhanced with the increase of the degree of substitution (DS). These results proved that the carboxymethylation could effectively increase the antioxidant activities of the polysaccharide.
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Polysaccharides have attracted much attention due to their significant bio-activities. This review aims to summarize the main polysaccharides sources of related polysaccharides from algae, plants, fungus, and bacteria, and give insights into the structure-activity relationship between the moisture retention and structural characteristics of polysaccharides. The molecular weight, functional groups, polysaccharide modifications and apparent structure of polysaccharides are closely related to the moisturizing properties of polysaccharides in terms of moisturizing conformation. Based on recent moisturizing pieces of evidence, we propose a new framework focusing on the moisturizing intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Polysaccharides molecular weight has different effects on moisturizing property. The extrinsic moisturization is mainly via the formation of hydrogen bonds between polysaccharides, the intrinsic moisturizing is mainly by regulating the production of some tight junction proteins. Accordingly, this review could further open the door for the production and application of polysaccharides as novel moisturizing agents in the cosmetic field.
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The crude polysaccharides obtained by different extraction methods have different uses in food and cosmetics, mainly due to the significant differences in physicochemical and rheological properties. Crude Tremella fuciformis polysaccharides (TPs) were extracted by five different methods: hot-water extraction (TP1), high-pressure water extraction (TP2), alkali extraction (TP3), acid extraction (TP4) and enzyme-assisted extraction (TP5). Their extraction yield, chemical composition, molecular weight, micromorphological structure and rheological properties were investigated and compared. They all were acid heteropolysaccharides with mannose as the main chain. Five TPs had similar dynamic viscoelasticity, exhibited viscous characteristics at low vibration frequencies and elastic characteristics at higher vibration frequencies. TP3, TP4 and TP5 solutions are not easily deformed and are suitable for applying in the products that require shape retention. This paper provides some theoretical data support for the scientific research of crude Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide and its application in food, medicine and cosmetics.
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The purpose of this study was to study polysaccharides isolated from Polygonatum sibiricum to establish the structure-activity relationships of the active substances and to discover the optimal fraction for further development and application. Four polysaccharides fractions (PSP1, PSP2, PSP3 and PSP4) from P. sibiricum were obtained by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography. Acid hydrolysis and FT-IR spectral and NMR spectral analyses were employed for structural analysis. Our results illustrated that PSP with different chemical structure and monosaccharide composition showed different abilities to activate phagocytic activity in vitro. According to the preliminary screening results in vitro, the newly identified water-soluble polysaccharides of PSP3 were selected for further evaluation in vivo. The results demonstrated that PSP3 possessed an immunomodulatory function and could be regarded as a promising candidate as an immunomodulator.
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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Considering the nutritional value of fungi in traditional medicine and the history of their use in the treatment of various cancers, modern methods of treating cancer were studied using fungal products, especially polysaccharides. The antitumor activity of fungal polysaccharides is directly related to the stimulation of the immune system. These polysaccharides damage the free radicals and inhibit the growth of cancer cells by altering the function of macrophages, stimulating the production of anti-cancer antibodies and increasing nitric oxide and cytokines production. Despite extensive research on the therapeutic effects of fungal polysaccharides, further research is needed to identify their chemical structure, especially in purification methods. Fungal polysaccharides, in features such as linkage type, the degree of branching, molecular weight and solubility are different. The growth conditions of the fungal species, including the compositions of the culture medium, temperature, pH and type of bioreactor, affect the yield of polysaccharide and its monosaccharide composition. Polysaccharide extraction methods, drying, purification, and chemical modification can change the structural properties of polysaccharide, including linkage type, the degree of branching, uronic acid content, protein content, and solubility. Structural differences in fungal polysaccharides have been shown to lead to differences in antioxidant activity, anti-proliferation, and immune stimulation. Therefore, by investigating the chemical structure of fungal polysaccharides, it can be targeted to the production of polysaccharides for the treatment of cancer.
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Tremella fuciformis from Gutian in Fujian Province (TF‐GT) and Tongjiang in Sichuan Province (TF‐TJ) in China are two geographical indication (GI) products that are mainly differentiated and characterized by their cultivation methods. To better understand the qualities of the GI products of T. fuciformis, a comparative study was conducted on the physio‐chemical properties, antioxidant and immuno‐stimulating activities of TF‐GT and TF‐TJ. The results showed that TF‐GT has a higher content of ash, polysaccharides, and protein, but lower essential amino acid/total amino acid compared with TF‐TJ. The rehydration ratio and the desirable viscous characteristics varied in a species‐dependent manner. The water extract (component, 70.79% polysaccharides) from TF‐GT showed higher immuno‐stimulating activity. TF‐GT and TF‐TJ can be separated via cluster analysis, suggesting that the above‐mentioned parameters are essential to characterize the qualities of GI products of T. fuciformis. Understanding these different properties are vital to product processing and dietary guideline formulation.
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Euglena gracilis paramylon (EGP) is a polymeric polysaccharide composed of linear β-1,3 glucan. The water insolubility of EGP severely limits its application. This work aimed to improve the functional characteristics of EGP by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degradation and carboxymethylated modification. The results showed that the crystallinity of EGP degraded by H2O2 and carboxymethylated modification decreased by 14% and 46%, and the thermal degradation temperature was significantly descending in a crystallinity-dependent manner. In addition, the results showed that H2O2 degradation and carboxymethylation significantly improved the adsorption capacity of EGP for oil, dyes, and metal ions, and their water solubility increased by 9% and 85%. This result will provide a valuable theoretical basis for the development and utilization of EGP.
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Tremella Fuciformis is an edible fungus with high water content and nutritional values. However, fresh T. Fuciformis can quickly lose its quality by physical damage, water loss and microbial degradation during storage. Herein, we evaluated the effects of curcumin-mediated photodynamic technology (PDT) using light-emitting diode (LED) light to preserve fresh T. Fuciformis. Changes in bacterial counts and community, physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of curcumin-mediated PDT-treated fresh T. Fuciformis were assessed. The results indicated that treatment with 30 μmol/L curcumin and 30 min of LED light exposure could reduce bacterial counts by ∼1.99 ± 0.06 log (CFU/g) in fresh T. Fuciformis upon 5 days storage. The bacterial microbiota in T. Fuciformis during storage was also altered upon PDT treatment. PDT treatment also retained the color, water content, hardness, tactility, and appearance of fresh T. Fuciformis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that curcumin-mediated PDT could be a viable and promising non-thermal technology for preserving the quality of fresh T. Fuciformis.
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Polygonatum sibiricum is traditionally used as Chinese medicine for immunity enhancement. Exploration of polysaccharides from Polygonatum species would provide a wider insight into the studies on their chemical structures and function activities. In this study, the alkali-extracted polysaccharide from P. sibiricum (PSP) was isolated and examined. The polysaccharide was firstly isolated by ion-exchange chromatography equipped with DE52 column, followed by isolated through Superdex-200 column. The obtained PSPJWA fraction was a homogenous one with average molecular weight of 141 kDa. The monosaccharide composition was galactose, arabinose and rhamnose in a ratio of 14:4:1. The glycosidic linkages of PSPJWA fraction were indicated to be Araf-(1→, →5)-Araf-(1→, →3,5)-Araf-(1→, Galp-(1→, →4)-Galp-(1→, →4,6)-Galp-(1→ and →2,4)-Rhap-(1→ residue by methylation analysis. NMR and enzymatic studies showed that PSPJWA was a novel arabinogalactan-type structure. PSPJW polysaccharides with different molecular weight and similar chemical structure had different antioxidant activities. Together, P. sibiricum polysaccharide has the potential to be a natural antioxidant.
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Composite films were prepared using corn starch and Tremella fuciformis polysaccharide (TFP) at different ratios (4:0, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3, 0:4 corn starch:TFP). The morphology, thermal properties, water resistance properties, opacity, and mechanical properties were investigated to evaluate the performance of composite films. The film surface became smooth with the increase in TFP proportion. The retrogradation enthalpy of corn starch was decreased from 2.60 to 1.10 J/g starch by the presence of TFP. The moisture content of films did not change with TFP ratio. The water vapor transmission and solubility increased significantly with the increasing TFP ratio. Moreover, the solubility of the pure TFP film was 100%. The transparency and surface hydrophobicity of films were improved with the increase in TFP ratio. The increase in TFP ratio decreased the tensile strength and glass transition temperature of films, while the elongation at break increased from 33.12% to 141.96%. In conclusion, composite films obtained from corn starch and TFP have the potential to be used as food packaging films. However, the ratio of corn starch and TFP should be more than 2:2 in case of thermal stability of composite film. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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White jellyfungus is one of the most popular nutritional supplements. The polysaccharide (WJP) is an important active component of white jellyfungus, it not only has a variety of biological activities but also is non‐toxic to humans. So, many scholars have carried out different researches on WJP. However, the lack of a detailed summary of WJP limits the scale of industrial development of WJP. Herein, the research progress of WJP in extraction, isolation, structure, derivatization and structure‐activity relationship was reviewed. Different extraction methods were compared, the activity and application of WJP were summarized, and the structure‐activity relationship of WJP was emphasized in order to provide effective theoretical support for improving the utilization of WJP and promoting the application of related industries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Guava processing industries generate peel and seeds as primary waste fractions. Guava seeds obtained after fruit processing possess untapped potential in the field of food science due to the presence of a diversity of nutritional and bioactive compounds. Along with offering a detailed understanding of the nutritional attributes of guava seeds, the present review comprehensively elaborates on the therapeutic activities of their bioactive compounds, their techno-functional properties, and their other edible and nonedible applications. The limited molecular and biochemical mechanistic studies outlining the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, neuroprotective and antidiabetic activities of guava seeds available in the literature are also extensively discussed in this review. The use of guava seed constituents as food additives and food functional and structural modulators, primarily as fat reducers, emulsifiers, water and oil holding agents, is also conceptually explained. Additional human intervention and molecular mechanistic studies deciphering the effects of guava seeds on various diseases and human health are warranted.
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Taking the degree of substitution (DS) as the index, the carboxymethylation conditions of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide (SFP) were studied. According to the single factor experiment results, the optimum experimental conditions were obtained: sodium hydroxide concentration, 15% (20 mL); alkalization temperature, 50 °C; dosage of chloroacetic acid 1.5 g; etherification time, 2 h, and the Carboxymethyl Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharide (CSFP) with the highest DS (0.635) was obtained. And then, the physicochemical properties, structural information and bioactivity of SFP and CSFP were characterized. The SFP and CSFP were composed of four monosaccharides, with a small amount of protein, and their molecular weights to 780.2 kDa and 386.3 kDa respectively. The results of FTIR and NMR showed that the carboxymethyl was successfully grafted onto the C-4 and C-6 of sugar chain. The results of anti UVC experiment showed that SFP and CSFP had a certain negative effect on cell activity, and the degree of damage caused by UVC radiation was weakened, and the anti UVC performance of CSFP was better than that of SFP.
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The structure of the viscous extracellular polysaccharide (glycan) of desiccation-tolerant Nostoc commune DRH-1 was determined through chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The polysaccharide is novel in that it possesses a 1-4-linked xylogalactoglucan backbone with d-ribofuranose and 3-O-[(R)-1-carboxyethyl]-d-glucuronic acid (nosturonic acid) pendant groups. The presence ofd-ribose and nosturonic acid as peripheral groups is unusual, and their potential roles in modulating the rheological properties of the glycan are discussed. Nosturonic acid was present in the glycans of N. commune from diverse geographic locations, suggesting that this uronic acid is an integral component of this cosmopolitan anhydrophile.
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The speed of water uptake by desiccated Nostoc commune was found to depend upon the duration of desiccation. The rehydration of desiccated colonies led to marked, time-dependent changes in structure and ultrastructure and fluctuations in the composition of the transcriptome. Physical evaporative water loss is an active process that was influenced by inhibitors of transcription and translation.
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Twenty carboxymethyl starch derivatives of cocoyam starch were synthesized under different reaction conditions. The influences of sodium hydroxide concentration, sodium monochloroacetate concentration, water, type of organic solvent, reaction time and temperature were evaluated for degree of substitution (DS) and reaction efficiency (RE). The optimal ratio of moles of NaOH per mole anhydroglucose unit (AGU), nNaOH/nAGU was 1.62. Increases in ratio of moles of monochloroacetate (nSMCA) to mole of AGU (nAGU) increased the DS progressively. The ratio of water to solvent (isopropanol, IPA) in the reaction media was optimal at H2O/IPA 0.16. Both RE and the DS increased with increase in reaction time within the studied time range (1-4 h). Increases in temperature enhanced both reaction efficiency and DS. Among the solvents studied, an isopropanol – water medium produced the optimal result. The starch paste clarity improved remarkably after carboxymethylation. Wide angle X-ray diffractometry revealed that starch crystallinity was reduced after carboxymethylation. 13C-NMR showed peaks at δ = 180.42 ppm, 80.35 ppm, 77.77 ppm, and 71.96 ppm, which were assigned to C-O, substituted C-2, C-3 and C-6, respectively. In addition, three signals appeared at δ = 74.16 ppm, 73.42 ppm and 72.59 ppm and they were assigned to the CH2 in the carboxylate substituents.
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The influence of molecular weight and substitution degree of sulfated polysaccharides on their biological activity is considered in majority of works involving the anticoagulant or antiviral properties of these substances. Therefore, the present paper describes the effect of preparation conditions of sulfated chitosans on their molecular weight and sulfur content, such as different reaction time, acid solvent and temperature. Foregoing literature expounded the action of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) as acid solvent in homogeneous reaction. However, DCAA is expensive and noxious, therefore, in the present paper cheap and non-noxious formic acid (88%) was in place of DCAA. Furthermore, during reaction formic acid was not dehydrated. Under formic acid we obtained the satisfying results that was higher yield and equivalent sulfur contents compared to DCAA. IR and 13C NMR spectrums proved the structure of the resultant obtained under formic acid or DCAA to be same. Now, it has not been reported for formic acid as acid solvent in homogeneous reaction of chitosan sulfatation. In this present paper, we also determined antioxidant activity of high-molecular weight and high-sulfate-content chitosans (HCTS). The results showed that HCTS could scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radical. Its IC50 is 0.012 and 3.269 mg/mL, respectively. It had obviously reducing power and slight chelating activity. The data obtained in in vitro models clearly establish the antioxidant potency of HCTS. It is a potential antioxidant in vitro.
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The chemical carboxylmethylated polysaccharide (C-GLP), which derived from water-insoluble crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), was prepared. Water solubility, chemical characterization, and antioxidant activities in vitro of C-GLP were determined. The solubility of C-GLP in distilled water reached 100 mg/ml, which was much higher than the solubility of GLP. Chemical analysis indicated that C-GLP was composed of Glc:Man:Gal = 33.0:1.0:3.4 with a molecular weight of 1.8 × 106 Da and a carboxymethyl content of 11.07%. The signals of carboxymethyl were found in IR and 13C NMR spectra. Moreover, a high antioxidant activity of C-GLP was observed, especially in scavenging of hydroxyl radical (83.7% at 5 mg/ml) and hydrogen peroxide (51.6% at 10 mg/ml). This study indicates the effects of carboxymethylation on water-insoluble polysaccharide and explores a potential antioxidant in food industry and pharmaceuticals.
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Tamarind kernel powder is a rich source of xyloglucan gum. The gum can be utilized in a number of industries. With a view to utilize the gum for broader applications, carboxymethylation of tamarind kernel powder was carried out. The reaction conditions were optimized with respect to concentration of sodium hydroxide, monochloroacetic acid, solvent ratio, reaction time, and reaction temperature. Carboxymethylation of tamarind kernel powder increased its solubility in cold water and the stability of its paste to microorganisms.
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Simple sugars, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and their derivatives, including the methyl ethers with free or potentially free reducing groups, give an orange-yellow color when treated with phenol and concentrated sulfuric acid. The reaction is sensitive and the color is stable. By use of this phenol-sulfuric acid reaction, a method has been developed to determine submicro amounts of sugars and related substances. In conjunction with paper partition chromatography the method is useful for the determination of the composition of polysaccharides and their methyl derivatives.
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The reaction between granular arrowroot starch and sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) in isopropanol-water mixtures has been studied in a systematic way using experimental design strategies. The effect of six factors, i.e. the theoretical degree of substitution (DSt), reaction time, weight fraction of water in the mixture, NaOH/SMCA ratio, temperature and weight fraction of starch on three responses, i.e. the degree of substitution (DS), the conversion of SMCA and the selectivity of SMCA towards carboxymethyl starch, has been determined in a systematic manner. Granular carboxymethyl arrowroot starch with a maximum DS of 1.4 could be prepared in a single-step procedure. The results are compared with data obtained for potato starch. Similar trends for all responses were observed, suggesting close similarities between the chemical composition and the topochemistry of granular arrowroot- and potato-starch.
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Tremella polysaccharide (TP) is an important component isolated from Tremella fuciformis Berk. In this study, the in vitro effect of TP on IL-2 production was examined in activated mouse splenocytes. TP (1, 5, 10 and 50 micrograms/ml) significantly increased mouse splenocyte IIL-2 production. In aged mice, the level of IL-2 production is much lower than that in young controls. TP (0.05, 0.5 and 5 micrograms/ml) restored the IL-2 production to normal level as the young control. Furthermore, TP (0.05, 0.5 and 5 micrograms/ml) was found to partly antagonize the suppressive effect of hydrocortisone on IL-2 production. The antagonistic effect of TP (5 micrograms/ml) on the inhibitory activity of cyclosporin A was also observed.
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It was found in vitro that Tremella polysaccharides (TP) (50, 100, 150 and 200 micrograms/ml) augmented lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A and did not antagonize the suppressive effect of hydrocortisone on lymphocyte proliferation. In vivo TP promoted the plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to SRBC in mice. TP 50 and 100 mg/kg ip for 5 d produced 77.6% and 81.8% increases in PFC response respectively. At the doses of 150 and 200 micrograms/ml, TP decreased the interleukin 2 (IL-2) activities in the supernatant of culture media of mouse spleen cells. TP (50 micrograms/ml) enhanced the lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A and increased the PFC response to SRBC by 47.1% in 14-month-old mice.
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The reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (NitroBT) with NADH mediated by phenazine methosulfate (PMS) under aerobic conditions was inhibited upon addition of superoxide dismutase. This observation indicated the involvement of superoxide aninon radical (O2−) in the reduction of NitroBT, the radical being generated in the reoxidation of reduced PMS. Similarly, the reduction of NitroBT coupled to D-amino acid oxidase-PMS system under aerobic conditions was also inhibited by superoxide dismutase. A simple method for detecting superoxide dismutase is described.
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WE have reported that the polysaccharides lentinan1,2 and pachymaran3 strongly inhibit the growth of sarcoma 180 transplanted in mice, and that they could be considered as excellent immune-accelerators of cell-mediated responses4,5. It is difficult, however, to dissolve them in water and to label them with isotopes, and their use in biological investigations can therefore be troublesome. We have now prepared a water soluble polysaccharide with marked antitumour activity, known as carboxymethylpachymaran ([alpha]20D = -2.8° c = 1 in H2O; solubility, 6.7 g/100 ml. H2O at 30° C) which can be labelled at the carboxymethyl residue with 14C so that its distribution at the cellular and subcellular level can be investigated.
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Glucuronoxylomannan (AC) from the fruiting bodies of Tremella fuciformis exhibited a significant dose-dependent hypoglycemic activity in normal mice and also showed a significant activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. The activities of AC-derivatives such as a product of AC which side chains had been removed were lower than that of native AC. AC raised the plasma insulin level in normal mice. Administration of AC to normal mice significantly increased the activities of hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase, but it decreased that of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. Furthermore, AC reduced the glycogen content in the liver, increased the total lipid in epididymal adipose tissue, and lowered the plasma cholesterol level. The foregoing results indicated that the hypoglycemic activity of AC in normal mice was at least responsible for the increase of insulin secretion and for the acceleration of glucose metabolism. Single oral administration at a dose of 50-300 mg/kg of AC did not affect the plasma glucose level in normal mice, but continuous oral administrations of the AC solution (0.75 g/l) instead of water for a long time was found to be effective on the plasma glucose level in both experiments of the mice injected once i.p. with streptozotocin (170 mg/kg) at 0 d of AC administration and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
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The reactivities of various antioxidative compounds including catechol derivatives and endogenous radical scavengers toward hydroxyl radical (.OH) were investigated by an electron spin resonance-spin trapping method, thiobarbituric acid method, and DNA strand scission assay. Hydroxyl radical was generated by both the reaction of Cu(II) complex with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet (uv) photolysis of H2O2. At physiological pH, catechol derivatives such as protocatechuic acid and catechin greatly suppressed the DNA strand scission by .OH produced from the reaction of Cu(en)2 with H2O2, whereas ascorbic acid and acetylcysteine accelerated DNA strand scission. The former case is due to the chelation of catechol derivatives to Cu(II) ion, forming of Cu(II) complexes being unable to react with H2O2, and the latter case is due to the acceleration of the reduction rate of Cu(II) to Cu(I). On the other hand, all compounds used here suppressed the DNA strand scission by .OH produced from uv photolysis of H2O2. The differences of the reactivities between the reaction system of Cu(en)2-H2O2 and the uv photolysis of H2O2 have been discussed.
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Four acidic heteroglycans, T2a-T2d, were isolated from the body of Tremella fuciformis Berk. They contained 1.9%-2.9% of acetyl groups and were composed of mannose (Man), glucuronic acid (GlcA), and small amounts of xylose (Xyl), glucose (Glc), and fucose (Fuc). According to methylation analysis they had a mannan backbone consisting of 3-linked Man, and side chains containing glucosyl, mannosyl, fucosyl, xylosyl, and glucuronic acid residues. The side chains were attached through O-2, O-4, or O-6 in about 40 percent of backbone mannosyl residues. Molecular masses of the four polysaccharides were 410, 250, 34, and 20 kDa, respectively. T2a-T2d induced human monocytes to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vitro. The products of Smith degradation (T2a-S) and lithium degradation (T2a-L) of T2a and the product of deacetylation (T2b-D) of T2b also induced monocytes to secret IL-1 as efficiently as the original polysaccharides, indicating that xylosyl and glucuronic acid residues as well as acetyl groups were not important to promote the cytokine-stimulating activity.
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Typical heterocyclic compounds substituted with various functional groups found in Maillard reaction products were examined for antioxidant activity. Pyrroles exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity among all heterocyclic compounds tested. All pyrroles inhibited hexanal oxidation by almost 100% at a concentration of 50 microg/mL over 40 days. Addition of formyl and acetyl groups to a pyrrole ring enhanced antioxidative activity remarkably. Pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 2-acetylpyrrole, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolecarboxaldehyde, and 2-acetyl-1-methylpyrrole inhibited hexanal oxidation by >80% at 10 microg/mL. Unsubstituted furan exhibited the greatest antioxidant activity among furans tested. Addition of all functional groups used in this study to furan decreased antioxidative activity. The antioxidant activity of thiophene increased with the addition of methyl and ethyl groups, but the addition of formyl or acetyl groups to thiophene decreased antioxidant activity. Thiazoles and pyrazines were ineffective antioxidants at all concentrations tested. Reaction of all heterocyclic compounds with hydrogen peroxide resulted in the formation of various oxidized products.
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A modification of Dische's carbazole reaction for uronic acid in the presence of borate is described. The advantages of the procedure are: 1.(1) There is an approximately twofold increase of sensitivity. The OD is a linear function of concentration between 4 and 40 μg/ml.2.(2) Maximum color develops immediately.3.(3) The color is stable for at least 16 hr.4.(4) There is greater reproducibility and reduction of interference by chloride ion and oxidants.It has been found possible to distinguish between heparin, heparin derivatives, and other polyuronides of connective tissue by comparing the effect of chlorides on the color yield in both procedures.
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The potential antiproliferative and antiradical activities of an enzymatic extract of Ecklonia cava together with its crude polysaccharide (CpoF) and crude polyphenolic fractions (CphF) were evaluated in vitro. Tested extracts showed strong selective cell proliferation inhibition on all cancer cell lines tested, especially CphF extract, containing high polyphenol amount, showed 5.1 microg/ml of IC(50) value on murine colon cancer (CT-26) cell line. According to the nuclear staining experiment, antiproliferative effect of CphF was associated with apoptotic cell demise in CT-26. In addition, The CphF at 5 microg/ml scavenged 70% of DPPH radical, which is much higher than those of BHA and BHT at same concentration. Further more CphF exhibited interesting antiradical properties, expressed by its capacity to scavenge superoxide anion (O(2)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and hydroxyl radical (OH()). In reducing power assay, CphF extract at 5 microg/ml was found to be as high as that of BHT at same concentration. Also, in total antioxidant assay the effect of CphF at 50 microg/ml was equivalent or slightly higher than those of commercial counterparts at 5 microg/ml concentration. Taken together, the CphF may be a promising alternative to synthetic substances as natural compound with high antiproliferative and antiradical activity.
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Unexpectedly high reactivity of nitrogenated aromatics protected as amides or carbamates, when compared to sulfonamides, can be explained by a decrease of the aromaticity due to a greater ability of the carbon-centered groups to achieve delocalisation of the nitrogen lone pair, resulting in stronger global withdrawing effects.